Lammi, M.J.; Qu, C. Selenium-Related Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci.2018, 19, 2665.
Lammi, M.J.; Qu, C. Selenium-Related Transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2665.
Selenium is a trace metal essential to human health, and its deficiency has been related to, for instance, cardiovascular and myodegenerative diseases, infertility and osteochondropathy Kashin-Beck disease. It is incorporated as selenocysteine to selenoproteins, which protect against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. They also participate in the activation of thyroid hormone, and play a role in immune system functioning. The synthesis and incorporation of selenocysteine occurs via a special mechanism, which differs from the one used for standard amino acids. The codon for selenocysteine is the regular in-frame stop codon, which can be passed by specific complex machinery participating in translation elongation and termination. This includes the presence of selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) in the 3’-untranslated part of the selenoprotein mRNAs. Selenium deficiency is known to control both selenoprotein and non-selenoprotein transcriptomes. Nonsense-mediated decay is involved in the regulation of selenoprotein mRNA levels, both other mechanisms are also possible.
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