Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Classification of Raw Stingless Bee Honeys by Bee Species Origins using NMR-LCMS-based Metabolomics Approach

Version 1 : Received: 16 July 2018 / Approved: 16 July 2018 / Online: 16 July 2018 (14:05:59 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Razali, M.T.A.; Zainal, Z.A.; Maulidiani, M.; Shaari, K.; Zamri, Z.; Mohd Idrus, M.Z.; Khatib, A.; Abas, F.; Ling, Y.S.; Rui, L.L.; Ismail, I.S. Classification of Raw Stingless Bee Honeys by Bee Species Origins Using the NMR- and LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach. Molecules 2018, 23, 2160. Razali, M.T.A.; Zainal, Z.A.; Maulidiani, M.; Shaari, K.; Zamri, Z.; Mohd Idrus, M.Z.; Khatib, A.; Abas, F.; Ling, Y.S.; Rui, L.L.; Ismail, I.S. Classification of Raw Stingless Bee Honeys by Bee Species Origins Using the NMR- and LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach. Molecules 2018, 23, 2160.

Journal reference: Molecules 2018, 23, 2160
DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160

Abstract

Background: The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and do not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Methods: Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. Results: The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. D-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-D-Glucose, D-Xylose, α-D-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and L-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, L-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) identified via 1H NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. Conclusion: It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using classification technique by bee species origins via 1H NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.

Subject Areas

classification, stingless bee honey, bee species origins, metabolomics, NMR, LC-MS, chemometrics

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