Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic Bioaccessibility of 24 h Duplicate Diet Ingested by Preschool Children Attending Day Care Centers in Brazil

Version 1 : Received: 29 June 2018 / Approved: 29 June 2018 / Online: 29 June 2018 (13:19:29 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 6 October 2018 / Online: 6 October 2018 (11:02:24 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Leroux, I.N.; Ferreira, A.P.S.S.; Paniz, F.P.; Pedron, T.; Salles, F.J.; da Silva, F.F.; Maltez, H.F.; Batista, B.L.; Olympio, K.P.K. Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic Bioaccessibility of 24 h Duplicate Diet Ingested by Preschool Children Attending Day Care Centers in Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1778. Leroux, I.N.; Ferreira, A.P.S.S.; Paniz, F.P.; Pedron, T.; Salles, F.J.; da Silva, F.F.; Maltez, H.F.; Batista, B.L.; Olympio, K.P.K. Lead, Cadmium, and Arsenic Bioaccessibility of 24 h Duplicate Diet Ingested by Preschool Children Attending Day Care Centers in Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1778.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1778
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15081778

Abstract

Lead, known as a metal with high neurotoxicity to children, cadmium, which is a carcinogenic and bioaccumulative contaminant, and arsenic, a class 1 carcinogenic according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are toxic elements (TEs) whose relevant route of exposure may be diet. We determined the bio-accessible fraction of lead, cadmium, and arsenic from the diet of preschool children from two day care centers (DCC). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 64 one–four-year-old children from two DCCs where the 24-h duplicate diet samples were collected. The diet samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for lead, cadmium, and arsenic total concentrations (n = 64) and their bio-accessibility were analyzed for a subsample (n = 10). The dietary intake (DI) mean for lead, cadmium, and arsenic were 0.18 ± 0.11 µg kg−1 bw, 0.08 ± 0.04 µg kg−1 bw, and 0.61 ± 0.41 µg kg−1 bw, respectively. All DI calculated for TEs, considering total intake, were found lower than the tolerable limits (TL) (European Union, or World Health Organization, WHO, when applicable) except for one child’s Pb intake. Bio-accessibilities ranged between 0% to 93%, 0% to 103%, and 0% to 69%, for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Although DI for TEs has been found lower than TL, these reference values have been recently decreased or withdrawn since it was for lead and arsenic whose TL were withdrawn by WHO.

Subject Areas

bio-accessibility; 24-h diet; preschool children; arsenic intake; cadmium intake; lead intake

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