Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Investigations of the Copper Peptide Hepcidin-25 by LC-MS/MS and NMR

Version 1 : Received: 12 June 2018 / Approved: 14 June 2018 / Online: 14 June 2018 (11:33:21 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Abbas, I.M.; Vranic, M.; Hoffmann, H.; El-Khatib, A.H.; Montes-Bayón, M.; Möller, H.M.; Weller, M.G. Investigations of the Copper Peptide Hepcidin-25 by LC-MS/MS and NMR. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2271. Abbas, I.M.; Vranic, M.; Hoffmann, H.; El-Khatib, A.H.; Montes-Bayón, M.; Möller, H.M.; Weller, M.G. Investigations of the Copper Peptide Hepcidin-25 by LC-MS/MS and NMR. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2271.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2271
DOI: 10.3390/ijms19082271

Abstract

Hepcidin-25 was identified as the main iron regulator in the human body by binding to the sole iron-exporter ferroportin. Studies showed that the N-terminus of hepcidin is responsible for this interaction, the same N-terminus that encompasses a small copper(II)-binding site known as ATCUN (amino terminal Cu(II)- and Ni(II)- binding) motif. Interestingly, this copper-binding property is largely ignored in most papers dealing with hepcidin-25. In this context, detailed investigations of the formed complex of hepcidin-25 with copper could reveal insights into its biological role. The present work is mainly focused on the study of the metal-bound form of hepcidin-25, which could be considered the biologically active form. The first part is devoted to the reversed-phase chromatographic separation of copper-bound and copper-free hepcidin-25, which was achieved by applying basic mobile phases containing 0.1% ammonia. Further, mass spectrometry (tandem mass spectrometry MS/MS, high resolution mass spectrometry HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the copper-peptide. Lastly, a 3D model of hepcidin-25 with bound copper(II) is presented. The identification of metal complexes and potential isoforms and isomers, from which the latter usually are left undetected by mass spectrometry, led to the conclusion that complementary analytical methods are needed to characterize a peptide calibrant or reference material comprehensively. Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR), inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) and chiral amino acid analysis (AAA) should be considered among others.

Subject Areas

hepcidin-25; copper; nickel; ATCUN motif; metal complex; MS; NMR structure; metal peptide, metalloprotein; metallopeptide, isomerization, racemization, purity, reference material

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