Yerramothu, P. New Therapies of Neovascular AMD—Beyond Anti-VEGFs. Vision2018, 2, 31.
Yerramothu, P. New Therapies of Neovascular AMD—Beyond Anti-VEGFs. Vision 2018, 2, 31.
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) accounts for one of the leading causes of blindness among the aging population. The current treatment options for nAMD include intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF). However, standardised frequent administration of anti-VEGF injections only improves the vision in approximately 30%-40% of nAMD patients. Current therapies targeting nAMD pose a significant risk of retinal fibrosis and geographic atrophy (GA) development in nAMD patients. A need exists to develop new therapies to treat nAMD with effective and long-term anti-angiogenic effects. Recent research on nAMD has discovered novel therapeutic targets and angiogenic signalling mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. For example, tissue factor, human intravenous immune globulin, interferon-β signalling, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase lipid metabolites have been identified as key players in the development of angiogenesis in AMD disease models. Furthermore, novel therapies such as NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition, targeted intraceptor nanoparticle therapy, inhibitors of integrins and tissue factor are currently being tested at the level of clinical trials to treat nAMD. The aim of this review is to discuss the scope for alternative therapies proposed to anti-VEGFs for the treatment of nAMD.
neovascular AMD; new therapies; anti-VEGFs; AMD signalling
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