This version is not peer-reviewed
Application of Self-Similar Symmetry Model to Dark Energy
: Received: 26 April 2018 / Approved: 27 April 2018 / Online: 27 April 2018 (06:01:12 CEST)
: Received: 13 June 2019 / Approved: 14 June 2019 / Online: 14 June 2019 (09:53:08 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics 2019, 16, 1950088
Recent observations of the dark energy density demonstrates the fine-tuning problem and challenges in theoretical modelling. In this study, we apply the self-similar symmetry (SSS) model, describing the hierarchical structure of the universe based on the Dirac large numbers hypothesis, to Einstein's cosmological term. We introduce a new similarity dimension, DB, in the SSS model. Using the DB SSS model, the cosmological constant, vacuum energy density, and Hubble parameter can be simply expressed as a function of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. We show that the initial value of the vacuum energy density at the creation of the universe is ρ0 = 1/8παf6, where αf is the fine structure constant. The results indicate that the CMB is the primary factor for the evolution of the universe, providing a unified understanding of the problems of naturalness.
dark energy; dark matter; cosmic microwave background; large numbers hypothesis; varying fundamental constants; symmetry
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