Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones for Agronomical Efficient Innovative Fertiliser Applications in the Organic and Low Input Farming Sectors

Version 1 : Received: 5 April 2018 / Approved: 10 April 2018 / Online: 10 April 2018 (16:28:11 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Someus, E.; Pugliese, M. Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2349. Someus, E.; Pugliese, M. Concentrated Phosphorus Recovery from Food Grade Animal Bones. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2349.


Disrupted nutrient recycling is a significant problem for Europe, while phosphorus and nitrogen are wasted instead of being used for plant nutrition. Mineral phosphate is critical raw material, which contains environmentally hazardous elements such as cadmium and uranium. Therefore, phosphorus recovery from agricultural by-product streams is critically important key priority. Phosphorus recovery from food grade animal bone by-products have been applied researched since 2002 with objective driven evolution progress towards specialized pyrolysis processing technology and animal bone char product (ABC) developments in economical industrial scale. Different animal bone by-products tested under different conditions at 400 kg/h throughput capacity in the continuously operated 3R zero emission autothermal carbonization system. The different material core treatment temperatures (between >300°C and <850°C) were combined with different residence times under industrial productive processing conditions. It has been industrial demonstrated that material core treatment temperature <850°C with 20 minutes residence time is necessary to achieve high quality ABC with useful agronomic value. The output ABC product having concentrated >30% phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and specific quality innovative fertilizer for agronomical efficient organic and low input farming applications as functional organic fertilizer, soil improver, growing medium and/or fertilizing product blend with high mineral phosphate fertiliser replacement value.


bio-phosphate; ABC Animal-Bone-Char; 3R pyrolysis; phosphorus recovery; animal by-products; apatite


Engineering, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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