Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Women’s Bone Health

Version 1 : Received: 15 March 2018 / Approved: 16 March 2018 / Online: 16 March 2018 (07:12:31 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Troy, K.L.; Mancuso, M.E.; Butler, T.A.; Johnson, J.E. Exercise Early and Often: Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Women’s Bone Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 878. Troy, K.L.; Mancuso, M.E.; Butler, T.A.; Johnson, J.E. Exercise Early and Often: Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Women’s Bone Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 878.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 878
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15050878

Abstract

In 2011 over 1.7 million people were hospitalized because of a fragility fracture, and direct costs associated with osteoporosis treatment exceeded 70 billion dollars in the United States. Failure to reach and maintain optimal peak bone mass during adulthood is a critical factor in determining fragility fracture risk later in life. Physical activity is a widely accessible, low cost, and highly modifiable contributor to bone health. Here, we will review the evidence linking exercise and physical activity to bone health in women. Bone structure and quality will be discussed, especially in the context of clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. We will review the mechanisms governing bone metabolism in the context of physical activity and exercise. Questions such as, when during life is exercise most effective, and what specific types of exercises improve bone health, will be addressed. Finally, we will discuss some emerging areas of research on this topic, and will summarize areas of need and opportunity.

Subject Areas

BMD; aBMD; vBMD; QCT; HRpQCT; structure; mechanical loading; bone adaptation

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