Preprint Article Version 2 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) Population due to Potential Toxic Elements Exposure from Soils

Version 1 : Received: 11 August 2017 / Approved: 12 August 2017 / Online: 12 August 2017 (21:10:19 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 13 August 2017 / Approved: 14 August 2017 / Online: 14 August 2017 (09:11:20 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Cabral Pinto, M.M.S.; Silva, M.M.V.; Ferreira da Silva, E.A.; Marinho-Reis, A.P. The Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) Population due to Potential Toxic Elements Exposure from Soils. Geosciences 2017, 7, 78. Cabral Pinto, M.M.S.; Silva, M.M.V.; Ferreira da Silva, E.A.; Marinho-Reis, A.P. The Cancer and Non-Cancer Risk of Santiago Island (Cape Verde) Population due to Potential Toxic Elements Exposure from Soils. Geosciences 2017, 7, 78.

Journal reference: Geosciences 2017, 7, 78
DOI: 10.3390/geosciences7030078

Abstract

The hazard and the carcinogenic risks due to the exposure to some potentially toxic elements by the Santiago Island (Cape Verde) population where calculated, considering soil ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact as exposure pathways. The topsoil of Santiago Island is enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Mn and Cd to upper crust values. Hazard indices (HI) were calculated for these metals and As exposures, of Santiago Island population and the calculations were performed for children and adults. For children HI are higher than 1 for Co, Cr and Mn. So there is indication of potential non-carcinogenic risk for children, due to the high Co (HI=2.995), Cr (HI=1.329) and Mn (HI=1.126), values in soils. For the other elements and for adults there is no potential non-carcinogenic risk. Cancer risk was calculated for As, Cd, Cr and Ni exposures, for adults and children and the results are always lower than the carcinogenic target risk of 1x10-6, for As, Cd, and Ni. However, cancer risk are higher than the carcinogenic target risk for Cr, for adults. Regarding As, for children the fraction due to Riskingestion represents 51.6%, while Riskinhalation represents 48.0% and Riskdermalcontact represents only 0.4% of total risk. For adults Riskinhalation represents 81.3%, Riskingestion represents 16.6% and Riskdermal contact represents 2.1%. These results reflect the higher daily ingestion dose for children and the higher inhalation rate and higher dermal contact surface for adults. For the other elements and for adults the cancer risk due to Cr, Ni and Cd inhalation is always higher than for children, reflecting the higher inhalation rate for adults.

Subject Areas

cancer risk; risk assessment; volcanic soils; Santiago Island

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