Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Low-Carbon Transport Policy in ASEAN Countries: A Comparative Analysis

Version 1 : Received: 24 May 2017 / Approved: 25 May 2017 / Online: 25 May 2017 (08:30:52 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Bakker, S.; Dematera Contreras, K.; Kappiantari, M.; Tuan, N.A.; Guillen, M.D.; Gunthawong, G.; Zuidgeest, M.; Liefferink, D.; van Maarseveen, M. Low-Carbon Transport Policy in Four ASEAN Countries: Developments in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1217. Bakker, S.; Dematera Contreras, K.; Kappiantari, M.; Tuan, N.A.; Guillen, M.D.; Gunthawong, G.; Zuidgeest, M.; Liefferink, D.; van Maarseveen, M. Low-Carbon Transport Policy in Four ASEAN Countries: Developments in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1217.

Journal reference: Sustainability 2017, 9, 1217
DOI: 10.3390/su9071217

Abstract

Emerging countries in Southeast Asia are facing considerable challenges in addressing rising motorisation and its negative impact on air quality, traffic, energy security, liveability, and greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed, even as initial policies to address these issues are being agreed and implemented, current trends are incompatible with sustainable development and long-term climate change targets. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the approach and status of sustainable, low-carbon transport policy in ASEAN countries and identifies differences and similarities, with the aim of helping assessment of feasibility of future policies and informing future studies on policy innovations and cross-country learning. The methodology is based on the taxonomy of policy components developed by Howlett and Cashore, and our data on comprehensive country studies for Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and interviews. We find that each country has a specific set of goals, objectives and targets that support sustainable transport, and, directly or indirectly, climate change mitigation. In terms of specific instruments and calibrations, which we analyse based on the Avoid-Shift-Improve approach, there are notable differences between the countries, for example in fuel economy policy.

Subject Areas

transport policy; ASEAN countries; low-carbon transport; comparative analysis; climate change mitigation

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