Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Two-Phase Time Synchronization-Free Localization Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks

Version 1 : Received: 13 March 2017 / Approved: 13 March 2017 / Online: 13 March 2017 (16:41:00 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Luo, J.; Fan, L. A Two-Phase Time Synchronization-Free Localization Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 726. Luo, J.; Fan, L. A Two-Phase Time Synchronization-Free Localization Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 726.

Journal reference: Sensors 2017, 17, 726
DOI: 10.3390/s17040726

Abstract

Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) can enable a broad range of applications such as resource monitoring, disaster prevention, and navigation-assisted. It is especially relevant for sensor nodes location in UWSNs. Global Positioning System (GPS) is not suitable for using in UWSNs because of the underwater propagation problems. Hence some localization algorithms based on the precise time synchronization between sensor nodes have been proposed which are not feasible for UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a localization algorithm called Two-Phase Time Synchronization-Free Localization Algorithm (TP-TSFLA). TP-TSFLA contains two phases, namely, range-based estimation phase and range-free evaluation phase. In the first phase, we address a time synchronization-free localization scheme base on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to decrease the localization error. In the second phase, we propose a Circle-based Range-Free Localization Algorithm (CRFLA) to locate the unlocalized sensor nodes which cannot obtain the location information through the first phase. In the second phase, sensor nodes which are localized in the first phase act as the new anchor nodes to help realize localization. Hence in this algorithm, we use a small number of mobile beacons to help achieve location without any other anchor nodes. Besides, to improve the precision of the range-free method, an extension of CRFLA by designing a coordinate adjustment scheme is updated. The simulation results show that TP-TSFLA can achieve a relative high localization ratio without time synchronization.

Subject Areas

Underwater sensor networks; synchronization-free; range-free; particle swarm optimization

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