Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis

Version 1 : Received: 24 February 2017 / Approved: 27 February 2017 / Online: 27 February 2017 (08:56:51 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Frungieri, M.B.; Calandra, R.S.; Rossi, S.P. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1170. Frungieri, M.B.; Calandra, R.S.; Rossi, S.P. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1170.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1170
DOI: 10.3390/ijms18061170

Abstract

Environmental darkness signal is transferred from the retina to the pineal gland triggering melatonin secretion. Melatonin influences the synthesis and release of the hypothalamic GnRH and the adenohypophyseal gonadotropin hormones and therefore, regulates testicular function in photoperiodic species. Besides the brain, direct actions of melatonin at the testicular level have also been described. Melatonin released from the pineal gland to the circulation is taken up by peripheral tissues including testes. Testicular synthesis of melatonin has also been reported. The two key somatic cell types in the testis, Leydig and Sertoli cells, express melatonergic receptors. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences the oxidation state and the energy metabolism, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. Melatonergic receptors were also described in testicular macrophages and mast cells of infertile patients. Whereas melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, it provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. These data pinpoints melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e. steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis) mostly in seasonal breeders. More importantly, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of testicular inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in patients with idiopathic infertility.

Subject Areas

melatonin; testis; androgen production; oxidative stress; inflammation; infertility; Leydig cells; Sertoli cells; mast cells; macrophages

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