ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1618.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Museum; Cultural Heritage; Digital Storytelling; GPT4; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:13:45 CEST)
This paper introduces a groundbreaking approach to enriching the museum experience using GPT4, a state-of-the-art language model by OpenAI. By developing a museum guide powered by GPT4, we aim to address the challenges visitors face in navigating vast collections of artifacts and interpreting their significance. Leveraging the model’s natural language understanding and generation capabilities, our guide offers personalized, informative, and engaging experiences. However, caution must be exercised as the generated information may lack scientific integrity and accuracy. To mitigate this, we propose incorporating human oversight and validation mechanisms. The subsequent sections present our own case study, detailing the design, architecture, and experimental evaluation of the museum guide system, highlighting its practical implementation and insights into the benefits and limitations of employing GPT4 in the cultural heritage context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1412.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: decoding mythological veil; illuminating shadows; Mindanao's cultural tapestry
Online: 20 June 2023 (08:48:10 CEST)
This research article aims to uncover the mysteries surrounding Mindanao’s cultural heritage by examining its myths, symbols, and philosophies. Through a multidisciplinary approach, this paper reveals the deeper meanings behind Mindanao’s mythology and encourages critical thinking and a deeper understanding of the connections between myth, culture, and identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Hispanic; Familism; Vision Impairment; Hearing Impairment; Social Isolation; Cognitive Functioning
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:28:27 CEST)
Objectives: Understanding the intersection of age, ethnicity, and disability will become increasingly important as the global population ages and becomes more diverse. By 2060, Hispanics will comprise 28% of the U.S. population. This study examines critical associations between sensory impairment, social isolation, and cognitive functioning among Hispanic older adults. Methods: Our sample consisted of 557 Hispanic older adults that participated in Rounds 1-3 or Rounds 5-7 of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Longitudinal mediation models across a three-year span were estimated using Mplus with vision, hearing, and dual sensory impairment predicting cognitive functioning directly and indirectly through social isolation. Results: Findings indicated that cognitive functioning was concurrently and, in certain cases, longitudinally predicted by vision and dual sensory impairment, and by social isolation. Contrary to expectations, vision and hearing impairment were not predictive of social isolation. Dual sensory impairment was associated with social isolation, yet no significant indirect associations were found for sensory impairments predicting cognitive functioning through social isolation. Discussion: The finding that social isolation did not mediate the relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive decline among Hispanic older adults in the U.S. is contrary to findings from other studies that were not specifically focused on this population. This finding may be evidence that culturally motivated family support and intergenerational living buffer the impact of sensory impairments in later life. Findings suggest that Hispanic older adults experiencing dual sensory impairments may benefit from interventions that foster social support and include family members.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning; LiDAR; Mobile Laser Scanning; SLAM; Forest inventory; Garden documentation; Garden digital surveying
Online: 16 November 2022 (10:33:52 CET)
Gardens play a key role in the definition of the cultural landscape since they reflect the culture, identity and history of a people. They also contribute to the ecological balance of the city. Despite gardens have an historic and social value, they are not protected as much as the rest of the existing heritage, like architecture and archaeological sites. While methods of built-heritage mapping and monitoring are increasing and constantly improving to reduce built-heritage loss and the severe impact of natural disasters, the documentation and survey techniques for gardens are often antiquated, inventories are typically made by non-updated/updatable reports, and rarely they are on digital format and in 3D. This paper presents the preliminary results of a study on latest technology for gardens laser scanning. We compared static Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Mobile Laser Scanning point clouds, to evaluate their quality for documentation and the estimation of the tree attributes. The evaluation is based on visual observation and graphic comparison of the two point clouds acquired in different instances. Both methods produced useful outcomes for the research scope within their limitations. Terrestrial Laser Scanning is still the method that offers more accurate point clouds with a higher point density and less noise level. However, the more recent Mobile Laser Scanning is able to survey in less time, significantly reducing the costs for site activities, data post-production and registration. Both methods have their own restrictions that are amplified by site features, mainly the lack of plans for the geometric alignment of scans and for the Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) process. We also offer the results of a comparison of the functional range of the two machines, as well as for a comparison of their terrain information extraction capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: ethics of technology; emerging technologies; disruptive technology; systemic disruption; ethics of disruption
Online: 13 August 2021 (22:53:28 CEST)
Disruptive technologies can be conceptualized in different ways. Depending on how they are conceptualized, different ethical issues come into play. This article contributes to a general framework to navigate the ethics of disruptive technologies. It proposes three basic distinctions to be included in such a framework. First, emerging technologies may instigate localized “first-order” disruptions, or systemic “second-order” disruptions. The ethical significance of these disruptions differs: first-order disruptions tend to be of modest ethical significance, whereas second-order disruptions are highly significant. Secondly, technologies may be classified as disruptive based on their technological features or based on their societal impact. Depending on which of these classifications one adopts and takes as the starting point of ethical inquiry, different ethical questions are foregrounded. Thirdly, the ethics of disruptive technology raises concerns at four different levels of technology assessment: the technology level, the artifact level, the application level, and the society level. The respective suitability of approaches in technology ethics to address concerns about disruptive technologies co-varies with the respective level of analysis. The article clarifies these distinctions, thereby laying some of the groundwork for an ethical framework tailored for assessing disruptive technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Culture; Globalization; East Java; Westernization; Hallyu
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:56:45 CEST)
In modern times like today, technology and science are developing very fast. This has resulted in a condition known as globalization. This era has had a significant impact on every country globally, including in Indonesia, such as the spread of culture is solid. This flow has many benefits and advantages. However, this globalization can also have a negative impact. One of them is the erosion of native Indonesian culture compared to foreign cultures. Therefore, this research to find the origin, causes, and impacts of the influx of cultural globalization on the current culture of East Java because it is the province of origin of the researchers. Here the researchers asks about the impact of this modern culture and how influential culture is to the people of East Java. The method used by the researchers in making this paper is Literature Review using qualitative descriptive writing with quantitative data. The researchers findings as material in this paper amounted to 24 materials with the provisions of 20 journal article materials, 2 article materials online provided that they were published in the last three years, and 2 E-books for methods on this paper. This study's boundaries are a modern culture that the researchers takes about western culture (western) and South Korean culture (Hallyu). In addition, this study only discusses cultures originating in East Java, such as Javanese.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: research ethics; longitudinal methodology; youth; phone survey; COVID-19; low- and middle-income countries
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:17:06 CEST)
In this paper, we draw on recent experiences from the Young Lives study to discuss some of the ethical and practical challenges facing longitudinal cohort studies in low- and middle-income countries in the time of coronavirus. We argue that COVID-19 has instigated an ‘ethics of disruption’ for social researchers across the world, and for longitudinal cohort studies like Young Lives, this requires navigating three core considerations: first, managing research relationships and reciprocity within an observational study design; second, maintaining methodological continuity and consistency across time; and third, balancing an immediate short-term response to COVID-19 against the longer-term perspective. We refer to the study’s plan to implement a new COVID-19 phone survey to illustrate how the team are navigating this altered ethical terrain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0081.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: age at first marriage; age at first birth; completed family size; fertility
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:52:14 CEST)
The link between age at marriage and first birth in explaining completed family size is not always direct, due to heterogeneity in circumstances, that compel individual women to marry or initiate childbearing at a particular age. We analyzed data for 1020 women aged 45-49 in 2014 of the 1965-1969 birth cohort from the 2013-14 ZDHS. We fitted a bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression to establish the effect of mother’s age at first marriage and at first birth on completed family size (CFS). Chi-square test of proportions measuring differences in proportions and relative risk ratios (RRR) with confident intervals at 95% are reported. Our results show that the average CFS was 6.7 (95% CI: 6.5 – 6.9) among women completing their reproductive span in 2014 with mean age at first marriage and birth being 18.3 years (95% CI: 18.0 – 18.5) and 18.9 years (95% CI: 18.7 – 19.1) respectively. Women marrying at younger ages and having their first birth at younger ages were more likely (RRR: 0.262; 95% CI:0.126-0.547 and RRR: 0.176; 95% CI:0.068-0.497 respectively) to have higher CFS than their compatriots that initiated both marriage and childbearing at or after age 22. Having no education, being a rural resident and having a medium household wealth all increased the risk of having higher CFS. Women that marry before age 19 have a higher likelihood of having 6 or more children by the end of their reproductive period. The study concludes that apart from a woman’s age at first marriage and first birth, a complex network of factors interact to determined CFS.
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: indigenous peoples; local communities; resilience; cultural heritage; socio-ecological systems; networks
Online: 31 May 2020 (15:57:36 CEST)
Global environmental and societal changes threaten the cultures of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC). Despite the importance of IPLC worldviews and knowledge systems to human well-being and biodiversity, risks to these cultural resources are commonly simplified or neglected in environmental impact assessments, in part because cultural impacts are often indirect and therefore difficult to demonstrate. Here, we show that dependency of a culture on the environment can be mapped through human connections with biophysical elements in their environment. We illustrate a rich variety of cultural values that connect an indigenous Māori tribe in New Zealand with their local environment, then evaluate the resilience of this socio-environmental value system to environmental changes. Our results detail how loss of access to key environmental elements can have extensive direct and cascading impacts on multiple facets of indigenous cultural heritage. Consequently, considering only direct effects of environmental change on cultural heritage, or treating the richness of IPLC environmental relations simplistically, can severely underestimate the seriousness of environmental impacts on IPLC culture. Thus, protecting Earth’s cultural and biological diversity requires inclusion of human-environment relationships in environmental impact assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Artemia franciscana; non-native population; mtDNA-COI; genetic variation; biodiversity; UAE
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:38:16 CEST)
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized non-indigenous populations in Eurasia, Mediterranean regions and Australia. In present we sought to evaluate the potential effects of colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in the new environments in UAE. We used the COI marker to determine population genetic structure and identify the origins of exotic populations in UAE. Our findings have confirmed the colonization of both localities by A. franciscana. Genetic variation of invasive A. franciscana were exclusively lower than native population in Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results have showed the studied population could not possibly have colonized directly from natural American localities, perhaps resulting from secondary introduction events from other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis have yielded different demographic patterns for invasive studied populations. Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) population have represented demographic expansion. In contrast, Godolphin Lakes (GL) population was at demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests have documented the excess of both recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia throughout establishment in the new environment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: scientific meeting; interdisciplinary; meeting report; young researchers
Online: 11 January 2020 (10:10:49 CET)
This paper report presents the interdisciplinary science showcased at the Young Scientists Retreat 2019. The retreat was jointly organized by young researchers from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (Portugal) and Institut Curie (France) and took place in Pedrógão Pequeno, a small village in the central region of Portugal in September 2019. Three keynote speakers were invited to present their work, Alfonso Martinez-Arias, Biola Javierre Martínez, and Sara Magalhães. In addition, accepted talks and posters from young researchers were presented at the retreat. Talks were organized in sessions, which included: epigenetics and evolution, immunology, cell biology and metabolism, biostatistics and public health, biophysics, proliferation and morphogenesis, and cell polarity. A post-retreat survey, complied both by IGC attendees as well as a sample of non-attendees, discovered the existence of barriers that prevented the full participation of some junior scientists, especially female postdocs and postdocs with families. We discuss ways in which future retreats could help address this and additional issues common to young researchers in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0073.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: coffee culture, domestication, creolization, encapsulation, and middle class
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:48:50 CET)
This article is an anthropology study on how western-style coffee culture influences Indonesian coffee culture and eventually develops a new localized coffee culture. Immense development of such worldwide coffee franchise as Starbucks affects local community's coffee culture, particularly the middle class. This new wave is considered as an alternative lifestyle for those who are consumptive and seeking for leisure, dynamics, and identity. Broader than just the process of domestication or creolization, Indonesian new coffee culture has an element of “soft countering to” western coffee culture even though it still embraces some parts of the western styles. This phenomenon is referred to by the writer as the cultural encapsulation process or the process of substantial cultural resistance by drawing a line between the two coffee cultures with the intention of taking merely compatible elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0735.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: urban commerce; cultural landscape; historic city; cultural heritage; management
Online: 17 December 2018 (04:58:43 CET)
By analyzing the urban landscape, this investigation focuses on commercial typologies in historical urban areas and its relationship with the urban landscape and its heritage values. Trade plays an essential role in historical urban areas, both in the past and in the present, since it is part of the urban landscape—creating it and modifying it, but also preserving it. Historical protected urban areas contain diverse elements reflecting the impacts of commercial activities that have existed in cities throughout history. At present, the urban landscape of commercial activity is made up of a multiplicity of typologies and formats which interact with the historical landscape and its values, using them to strengthen its strategies of attraction, differentiation, and sales. Shop owners contribute to the preservation of historic urban areas by maintaining the commercial functions within them. Therefore, we affirm that the role of commercial activity in the preservation of urban protected areas is essential. However, further research is needed because this aspect has not been addressed in depth by the scientific community specializing in the management of cultural heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Finland; Nordic; cultural objects; manuscripts; research ethics; import regulation; export regulation; cultural heritage
Online: 23 March 2018 (15:32:08 CET)
In this article we shed light on the position of Finland in conversations on the movement of unprovenanced cultural objects, within the national, the Nordic and the global contexts. Finland’s geopolitical position, as a ‘hard border’ of the European Union neighbouring the Russian Federation, and its current legislative provisions which do not include import regulation, mean that nonetheless has the potential to be significant in understanding the movement of cultural property at transnational levels. In particular, we outline a recent initiative started at the University of Helsinki to kick-start a national debate on ethical working with cultural object and manuscripts. We analyse exploratory research on current awareness and opinion within Finland, and summarize our current work to produce robust research ethics to guide scholars working in Finland. Although Finland has a small population and is usually absent from international discussions on the illicit movement of cultural property (save a few exceptions), we argue that it is still possible — and important — to affect policy and attitudes concerning art crime, provenance, and the role of stakeholders such as decision-makers, traders and the academy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0100.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Nietzsche; ethics; herd morality; mediocrity; public life
Online: 14 March 2018 (07:50:44 CET)
Nietzsche is almost always regarded as one of the thinkers who advocate extreme individualism, totally indifferent to or exclusively polemical towards the public human dimension. While this is very difficult to contradict, if we read his texts carefully we can see how his constant celebration of the individual runs parallel to an acute awareness of living in a new era, which he defined as ‘the century of the multitude and the masses’. The herd, conformism, mediocrity, public opinion: a civilisation in which community attempts suffocate all individual inspiration, and which therefore seems to row in the opposite direction. Although Nietzsche often uses collective life merely as a negative pole for more effectively emphasising the individual, his provocative words—pushed to the limits of the inexorable victory of the herd and of the paradoxical impossibility of all that is ‘public’—offer us a direct testimony of the tragic way of life of the man of his time. This provides us with an extremely clear and interesting phenomenological cross-section of the social sphere, as well as a very finely tuned and valuable seismograph for the continual monitoring of our everyday coexistence with and perception of the constantly incumbent dangers of its degeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: amendment; corrigendum; erratum; errors; open science; peer review; preprint; replacement; retractions
Online: 8 August 2017 (08:27:48 CEST)
Academic publishing is undergoing a highly transformative process, and many rules and value systems that were in place for years are being challenged in unprecedented forms leading to the evolution of novel ways of dealing with new pressures. One of the most important aspects of an integrated and valid academic literature is the ability to screen publications for errors during peer review to weed out mistakes, fraud and inconsistencies, such that the final published product represents a product that has value, intellectually, and otherwise. It is difficult to claim the existence of perfect manuscripts. The level of errors that exist in a manuscript will depend on the rigor of the research group, as well as the peer review that screened that paper. When errors slip through into a final published paper, either through honest error or misconduct, and are not detected during peer review and editorial screening, but are spotted during post-publication peer review, an opportunity is created to set the record straight, and correct it. To date, the most common forms of correcting the literature have been errata, corrigenda, expressions of concern, and retractions. Despite this range of corrective measures, which represent artificially created corrals around pockets of imperfect literature, certain cases do not quite fit this mold, and new suggested measures for correcting the literature have been proposed, including manuscript versioning, amendments, partial retractions and retract and replace. A discussion of the evolving correction of the literature is provided, as are perspectives of the risks and benefits of such new measures to improve the literature.