Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: heuristic model; system; complexity; method; intercultural communication studies; gregory bateson; anthropology; informational realism; Quebec
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:23:37 CEST)
This article focuses on methods for designing heuristic models within the paradigm of systems theory and in the disciplinary context of intercultural communication. The main question arises from the striking observation that the common language is insufficient to develop knowledge about human communication, especially when many factors of complexity (such as ambiguity, paradoxes, or uncertainty) are involved in the composition of an abstract research object. This epistemological, theoretical, and methodological problematic is one of the main challenges to the scientificity of anthropological theories and concepts on culture. Moreover, these questions lie at the heart of research in intercultural communication. Authors and theorists in the complexity sciences have already stressed the need, in such case, to think in terms of models or semiotic representations, since these tools of thought can mediate much more effectively than unformalized language between the heterogeneous set of perceptions arising from the field of experience, on the one hand, and the philosophical principles that organize speculative thought, on the other. This sets the scene for a reflection on the need to master the theory of heuristic models when it comes to developing scientific knowledge in the field of intercultural communication. In this essay, my first aim is to make explicit the conditions likely to ensure the heuristic value of a model, while my second aim is to clarify the operational function and required level of abstraction of certain terms such as concepts, categories, headings, models, systems, or theories that are among the most commonly used by academics in their descriptive accounts or explanatory hypotheses. To achieve this second objective, I propose to create cognitive meta-categories to identify the three (nominal, cardinal or ordinal) roles of words in the reference grids we use to classify our ideas, and to specify how to use these meta-categories in the construction of our heuristic models. Alongside the theoretical presentation, examples of application are provided, almost all of which are drawn from my own research into the increased cultural vigilance of the majority population in Quebec since the reasonable accommodation crisis in this French-speaking province of Canada. The typology I propose will perhaps help to avoid the confusions regularly committed by authors who attribute only cosmetic functions to words that nevertheless have a highly heuristic value, and who forget to consider the logical leaps of their theoretical thinking in the construction of heuristic models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0573.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: sustainability transitions; diets; agroecology; food system resilience; climate change
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:38:33 CEST)
The past years have shown the widespread vulnerability of agro-food systems and rural diets to external perturbations such as wars, climate events, and pandemics. Experiencing numerous obstacles, Cuba constitutes an example of success in the transition to agroecological sustainability models. This article characterizes how processes of agricultural change, local development, and industrial degrowth have impacted food availability and dietary diversity among rural livelihoods in the municipality of Yaguajay, Sancti Spíritus, for the past forty years (1980s-2020s). It integrates findings from focus groups, repeated nutritional surveys, and interviews carried out between 2016 and 2022 among residents of the towns of Yaguajay and La Picadora. The goal is to identify effects and response strategies within agro-food systems of rural populations. Distinguishing between periods of abundance and shortage, our findings show two counterpoints: intensive sugar monocrop cultivation which resulted in high dietary variety; and economic crises in 1990s and during the last period of the pandemic, which have led to significant dietary adjustments. The article concludes underscoring the importance of comprehensive assessments of dietary strategies to elicit what agroecological transitions mean for local realities and of the value of food consumption and small-holder production experiences to understand the limits to sustainable transformations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0168.v1
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:09:34 CEST)
Various authors have highlighted the importance of marriage as a social marker that alter the so-cial categorization of individuals and their relationships from youth to adulthood according to the cultural construction of the life course in Arab countries. This article aims to analyze the in-teraction between the socio-political framework (structure) and the capacity for individual action (agency) in the context of biographical experiences to achieve emancipation in Morocco. This per-spective responds to the demand of different authors to include the subjective approaches of young people in the process of analysis. This analysis will be guided by some questions: Which is the capacity of young Arabs to decide the orientation of their life trajectories? What factors (cultural, family, socioeconomic, educational, etc.) create and shape the expectations of young people re-garding their transition to adult life? Is there a specific model of emancipation in the Arab Medi-terranean countries?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: smallholder women farmers; Newcastle disease vaccines; informal institutional barriers
Online: 6 May 2022 (04:34:32 CEST)
Institutional barriers can hinder effective access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among smallholder chicken farmers. Many studies have focused on formal institutional barriers with minimal focus on informal institutions - unwritten rules and regulations that govern access and utilisation of Newcastle vaccines. However, informal institutions are more profound and encultured in individuals’ daily activities. This study sought to investigate informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among women smallholder chicken farmers in Makueni, Kenya. The cross-sectional qualitative study employed in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions as data collection methods. Study informants were conveniently and purposively sampled. Informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation included: fear of Newcastle disease vaccine as a new technology, use of herbal remedies, mistrust of community vaccinators, gender division of labour, ownership of household resources and beliefs that indigenous chickens do not need vaccines. The study concludes that women chicken farmers are constrained by unwritten rules, norms, regulations and gender roles that hinder their access to and utilisation of the Newcastle disease vaccines. The need to examine informal institutions to identify and eradicate barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines by farmers is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0648.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Dharma; Duties; Hinduism; Human Rights; India; Dharmaśāstras; Vedic literature
Online: 26 August 2021 (07:58:56 CEST)
This manuscript aims to provide a nuanced study of the idea of rights and duties prevalent in ancient Vedic society through Vedic literature and Dharmaśāstras . This manuscript delves into the exegesis of the Védas and Dharmaśāstras to accomplish this. The archaic Vedic literature and Dharmaśāstra texts are the origin and backbone of Sanskrit literature. They have a plethora of ideas that, if accepted, could be quite useful for the protection of any person's human rights. In Védas and Dharmaśāstras, rights and duties complement each other, and rights are integrated by duties. According to these texts, rights and duties are correlated and the relationship between rights and duties leads to the core concept of dharma (constitutional laws). Dharma is a systematic Sanskrit concept that includes traditions, obligation, morals, laws, order, and justice. It was a unique concept of dharma that kept checks and balances on sovereign officials and prevented them from becoming autocratic and anarchist. It also provided the common man with a protective shield against the dictatorship of sovereign officials. Ordinary citizens had more privileges and fewer responsibilities relative to the state's highest officials. The greater the authority, the less his privileges were, and the more extensive his responsibilities became. This research is an exegetical analysis of ancient Indian Vedic and later Vedic literature and is primarily aimed at deciphering some of the essential ideas of the rights found in these texts, which are akin to contemporary human rights. It endeavours to discern and explain the tenets of human rights obnubilated in the pristine mantras of Antediluvian Vedic and Smṛti texts of India. The essay further attempts to add a much needed non-western perspective to the historiography of human rights.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: spiritual intelligence; leadership; Bible; project management; supply chain; workplace spirituality; theology of work; construction; neuroscience; cognitive psychology; psychoanalysis; neurology
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:36:11 CEST)
Spiritual intelligence had an impact on different biblical leaders, and in this text, we see some cases to serve as a sample (Joseph, Bezalel, and Daniel). In the Bible, this impact is demonstrated in innovations introduced by Joseph in Egypt, Bezalel the manager of the macro project of building in crisis time, Daniel the politician. It is the supreme intelligence and leaders are invited to make a shift from rationality to spirituality. The more leaders of organizations will use spiritual intelligence, the more leaders and followers will experience satisfaction, joy, accomplishment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: city grid; urban landscape; landmarks; urban nodes; city image; blitz; reconstruction
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:06:59 CEST)
Modernist planners were given the opportunity to apply the idea of the Modern Movement in the implementation of cities transforming after World War II, which was not possible before in long-term evolving structures. Usually, however, it was impossible to change everything: some urban and even architectural elements were necessary to be preserved. As a result, the elements of the ancient landscapes of these cities - historical objects and spaces - necessary for the continuity of evidence of history and identity have been preserved, sometimes through reconstruction. Finally, in some of these cities, both old and new elements contribute to the contemporary urban landscape. The aim of the research is to examine two key categories of urban structure in this perspective: 1. landmarks 2. urban network nodes. For this purpose: 1. the changes in the number and rank of the space with which the landmarks exhibition was carried out were compared; 2. the changes in the rank of nodes in the urban structure functioning both in the pre-war and in the present structure, as well as changes in their distribution and concentration areas were analyzed. The numbers of individual elements were balanced and the changes in the structure of their arrangement were analyzed with the use of a polygon grid. The analyzes were based on the case of a medium-scale European city (Białystok). Research shows that as a result of post-war reconstruction, the number of elements of the urban grid decreased, especially those of lower rank, the rank of others decreased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: John Paul II; Pope's pilgrimages to Poland; the dignity of the person; truth; freedom
Online: 2 August 2021 (15:41:46 CEST)
The article concerns a relatively small but important fragment of John Paul II's pastoral activity, namely his pilgrimages to Poland: the nature of these pilgrimages, their historical background and teaching - especially to the extent that went beyond the immediate and Polish context. The text is the result not only of reading papal statements, but also of personal observation of the political and social atmosphere. The first two parts contain a concise description of the Pope's eight pilgrimages to Poland (before and after the political transformation). The third highlights out the main universal themes raised by the Pope: the dignity of the person, truth and freedom. During consecutive pilgrimages to Poland, he deepened and expanded the themes of his teaching. This collection of his sermons and speeches to Poles constitutes a comprehensive (devoid of redundant repetitions and omissions) treatment of important social, philosophical and theological issues. John Paul II, when speaking to Poles and about Poles, did not lose his universal perspective; he appealed both to Christians and to all people of good will. Papal pilgrimages to Poland are a significant part of modern Polish history, and their message is a valuable intellectual and spiritual gift.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0046.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:47:36 CEST)
This article explores the lack of unanimity regarding the nomenclature used to refer to the field of research that explores the intersection between art and science. A series of examples of nomenclatures and the context in which they are applied are listed and referenced. The diverse terminology reflects the heterogeneity, transdisciplinarity, and complexity of a research field in full expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0003.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: public art; Lisbon; Expo’98; urban regeneration; waterfront areas
Online: 2 August 2021 (08:47:44 CEST)
In 1998, the Lisbon Universal Exhibition – Expo'98 – led to an urban regeneration process on Lisbon’s waterfront. Following other cities, this event was a pretext to replace a depressed area and to re-connect it with the river, through the creation of a set of new spaces for common use along the water. For them, it was promoted a public art program, which can be considered quite innovative in the Portuguese context, and that resulted in a monumentalisation of Lisbon’s eastern riverfront, later extended to other areas. Behind this framework, this article aims to debate the relations between public art and the dynamics of urban regeneration at the end of the 20th century. For that, it will analyse: 1) the Expo'98’s public art program, comparing its initial assumptions with the final results; 2) the impact of this program, through the identification of public art’s placements before (1974-1998) and after (1999-2009) the event. As a result, it is possible to find that the placement of public art reveals the spaces that were "conquered" to the port system, and a dialectic between functional/economic and leisure/symbolic values. It is concluded that public art had a significant role in the urban processes of the late 20th century, which is quite evident in a discourse that considers it as a qualifying factor of urban space and a mean of economic and social development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0708.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: landscape design and planning; research-by-design; multifunctional agriculture
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:49:35 CEST)
Rural landscapes all over the world are subject to great transformations, first of all the continuous and slow depopulation of land and villages. It is a dramatic phenomenon that causes devastating consequences for environmental systems and for the tangible and intangible heritage of entire territories. The situation becomes more ambiguous when it comes to cultural landscapes, especially those internationally recognized as exceptional (i.e. inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List). In this case, the risk is to abandon agricultural production in favor of consumerist tourist economies, which can damage the territorial authenticity. In this paper we question the role of the landscape project in strengthening territorial resilience. In particular, a composite and interdependent action is proposed between landscape design and implementation of a multifunctional agriculture model, oriented towards teaching and tourism. To undertake this investigation, a master's thesis work on Landscape Architecture is examined, as an opportunity for a research-by-design method. The application case is the Italian UNESCO site of Vignale Monferrato, a depopulated rural village, characterized by abandoned land and buildings. The paper concludes by outlining replicability application scenarios for the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0392.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Music; Metaphisics; Theology; Philosophy; clasical music; religious music; mystic extasis; Archetype
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:34:14 CEST)
This article aims to analyze music from a philosophical and theological perspective, using the principles of multi- and transdisciplinary methodology. After a brief introduction, which presents the main moments in the history of the musical phenomenon, a first chapter addresses the metaphysical dimension of music in classical composers. The second chapter shows the position of philosophers towards music, starting with Pythagoras and ending with Schopenhauer. The third chapter focuses on music theology in general, but also on the theology and metaphysics of music to the French philosopher of Romanian origin, Emil Cioran, who, after Augustin and Schopenhauer, wrote probably the deepest pages on the ontology of music. The last chapter refers to to the archetypal character of music.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Ancient villages; historical locations; node space; convex space method, field of view analysis method, Baidu time machine; parameters
Online: 13 July 2021 (14:16:30 CEST)
This research takes Cuiwei Village in Qianshan District of Zhuhai City as an example. Through field research, the village is investigated and analyzed, and the street scale, spatial structure, functional characteristic streets, internal commercial distribution forms, and functions of Cuiwei Historic District are studied. analysis. On this basis, based on the convex space method and the line-of-sight analysis method in the space syntax theory, with the help of Depthmap software, the complex street node, that is, the space of the two nodes A and B, is established through the establishment of a visual field model. It includes the analysis of the integration degree of the horizon, the concentration of the horizon, the connection value of the horizon and the spatial characteristics of the historical area, as well as the traditional buildings that are the most representative of the village, namely the Three Kings Temple and the Webster's Mansion. When R=N and radius R=3, observe the changes in the two parameters of the visual integration and visual depth of the two historical buildings. And with the help of Baidu Time Machine photos in different periods to observe and record the changes in the store and the characteristics of people's behavior, and draw conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: narrative-digital approach; literary education; ICT; digital narrative; storytelling
Online: 12 July 2021 (14:19:26 CEST)
The article considers the peculiarities of practical implementation of the narrative-digital approach in the process of studying disciplines of literary cycle at philological faculties. The authors emphasize that the key to the effective transition to distance and combined forms of studying is creation of a productive national information and didactic space, with involvement of IT and appropriate level of training of all participants in the pedagogical process. Under these conditions, the application of the narrative-digital approach is promising, which in literary education of philologists is based on interdisciplinary interactive basis, which combines possibilities of narrative methods with computer technology. The integration of digital technologies into philological field causes a number of methodological difficulties, requires all subjects of educational activity to develop digital skills that are not related to professional humanities knowledge, but meet the requirements of trained competitive and highly qualified specialists. The authors conducted a sociological study on the readiness of students of philological specialties of pedagogical universities to implement the narrative-digital approach to educational practice. Research provides optimal software that allows you to implement this approach in practice, offers a selection of didactic tasks, substantiates feasibility of their use in classes of different types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Catholic education; Catholic schools; Religious Education; de-traditionalised culture
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:37:19 CEST)
Philip Phenix’s (1964) book Realms of meaning started the ever growing movement concerned with how school education might help young people in their search for meaning in times of rapid social change. Today, in globalised, digital, secularised, de-traditionalised culture, the importance and urgency of this role have never been greater. Cultural change has accelerated exponentially, and for many – including students in religious/Catholic schools – traditional religious sources of meaning are no longer prominent or plausible reference points. Catholic schools, whether independent or semi-state institutions because of government funding, can make a valuable contribution young people’s spiritual/moral education, no matter what their level of religious affiliation or practice. This article argues that such a contribution requires change to the discourse or narrative of Catholic school Religious Education, with corresponding adjustments to content and pedagogy. Its present trajectory, which is excessively concerned with promoting a Catholic identity in students, needs to be modified. Both the religious and non-religious students, especially in the senior classes, would derive greater spiritual and religious benefit from the inclusion of more life-relevant and issue-related content, together with a critical, research-oriented pedagogy. Such an approach proposes that the Catholic Church’s schools should offer unconditionally a meaningful spiritual/moral education that is relevant to all students, rather than a traditional one which seemed to presume that all students are, or should be practising Catholics. This does not minimise attention to the Catholic tradition, but it allows for a study of how people negotiate the task of constructing meaning and values in a complex culture. The article also looks at the ‘headwinds’ that hinder the implementation of this approach. The article is focused specifically on the Australian context where Catholic schools are semi-state institutions because they are funded by both state and federal governments. The issues are still likely to be pertinent to Catholic education in other countries, while taking into account significant contextual differences.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: critical pedagogy; experiential learning; co-production
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:35:42 CEST)
The sense of uncertainty and fragility due to the effects and magnitude of global challenges we are facing (from pandemic circumstances to climate change impacts) requires – much more than in the past – the capacity to generate a visionary and forefront design approach in the young gen-erations aiming at stimulating their reaction attitude rather than providing consolidated tools from past conditions that no longer exist or will rapidly evolve. Within this general framework, we have investigated the effectiveness and impacts of experienced-based methods of learning and innovative educational tools in architecture aimed at shaping expertise in which the environ-mental dimension and the climate-change challenge dialogues with the context's complexity in terms of socio-cultural dynamics, real potentialities and constrains, addressing their transdisci-plinary trajectories. The paper analyses 5 international pioneering teaching experiences that provide the opportunity to understand the outcomes of collaborative and experiential learning processes in which the educational activities leverage a dialogue between diverse communities (academia-citizens-policymakers-practitioners). The study outcomes show that shifting the pedagogical paradigm towards in-field-experience-based models can improve the awareness of future practitioners for climate implications of architectural design, implement their analysis and project skills while triggering processes of knowledge transfer and co-production at community level, and allow them to better address the societal and cultural issues involved within decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Beaufort West; drought; Gamka Dam; boreholes; water load-shedding; reclamation plant; municipality; bottled water
Online: 1 July 2021 (13:17:32 CEST)
Increasing and prolonged droughts have become a feature of the South African environmental landscape. This article investigates the sustainability of water procurement to the rural town of Beaufort West and the reasons for the town’s water provision crises during the droughts of 2009-2011 and 2017-2019. Innovative solutions were reached to alleviate the serious water-shortages during these droughts. Data to illustrate population increases and precipitation decreases, which impacted on the town’s water resources, was collected from census records of Statistics South Africa and from the Department of Water and Sanitation, respectively. A number of risk factors contributed to the town’s water crises, e.g. unsustainable water extraction at times of serious droughts, poor water monitoring, metering and attention to leakages, an expansion of informal settlements within the municipal boundaries of Beaufort West, as well as annual rainfall patterns that became increasingly unpredictable. The article concludes that water resource development had not kept pace with demand, therefore water infrastructure should be built with enough capacity to cope with regular dry periods. Equilibrium should be reached between the water expectations of the community and water availability to avoid future social instability in water-stressed towns such as Beaufort West.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0720.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Biochar; Cadmium; Pyrolysis temperature; Adsorption kinetics; Desorption
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:10:01 CEST)
Biochar has high potential usage in retaining various contaminants, wastewater treatment, and water purification. In this study, three rice husk derived biochars with pyrolysis temperature 300, 400 and 500 ºC, respectively, and pristine rice rusk were used to remove cadmium from aqueous solution. The results showed that about 70% or more of Cd2+ adsorption occurred in the first 960 mins of adsorption kinetics. The Cd2+ adsorption capacity under equilibrium increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, probably attributed to the increased specific surface area (SSA) under higher pyrolysis temperature noting that significant linear correlation occurred between Cd2+ adsorption capacity and SSA. The Cd2+ adsorption could be best fitted by pseudo-second order model relative to Elovich model and pseudo-first order model. The Cd2+ adsorption rates were higher in ﬁlm diffusion stage, indicating that ﬁlm diffusion stage was signiﬁcant and fast in the early stage of Cd2+ adsorption. In contrast, Cd2+ adsorption by intra-particle diffusion accounted for 47.0%, 47.9% and 43.9% on average of the total Cd2+ adsorption, respectively, indicating that intra-particle diffusion of Cd2+ played a more predominant role in limiting Cd2+ adsorption rate. When reaching Cd2+ desorption equilibrium, removal ratio (RR) values were averaged 0.96, 0.91, and 0.90 under three initial concentrations. More than 90 percentage on average of Cd2+ was removed from aqueous solution by biochars and rice rusk as well, thus biochars can be used to efficiently remove contaminants from aqueous environment. Cation exchange, electrostatic attraction, and the complexation with surface functional groups could be the main dominant mechanisms for Cd2+ adsorption-desorption on biochars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0712.v1
Online: 29 June 2021 (15:22:38 CEST)
A university campus is a place full of memorable experiences and a sense of place. It is an environment that potentially creates a social and intellectual exchange of ideas and brings together diverse people. Campus planning is one essential need for any higher institution and is an instrument used for directing, promoting, and securing orderly physical development of an institution Campus planning present unique opportunities for demonstrating and popularizing contemporary tendencies in urban planning. The purpose of this study is to explore the overall concepts of the campus planning and architecture of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (Knust) And University of Ghana (Legon). The Study was based mainly on two methods; Documentary research and qualitative Observation to have in depth knowledge about the campuses. Through field observation, the study was limited to the spatial organization and planning, site layout and master planning, land use, use of space, and architectural details. The study adopts A Comparative Analysis Approach and found out that Campus Planning Concept varies and unique to campuses and in developing a campus plan, it involves a time-consuming dynamic process and besides, there are neither shortcuts nor one approach or generic solution to that. The study also revealed that Iconic and unique buildings are usually found on university campuses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: development of foreign language professional skills; motivation; communicative competence; efficiency; CLIL technology
Online: 15 June 2021 (16:15:58 CEST)
Currently the integration of Kazakhstan into the world community requires the training of highly qualified specialists fluently speaking and having a good command of foreign language. The study is devoted to the problem of development of foreign language professional skills of students of non-linguistic specialty. The aim of the research is to identify the efficiency of integrated approach use for shaping foreign language communicative skills of non-linguistic specialty students. The methodological basis of the research was communicative approach to foreign language teaching. In the framework of the research scientific and theoretical literary sources on the problem of the development of foreign language professional skills of non-linguistic specialty students were studied and summarized; the analysis of the empirical material obtained in the questioning and testing of students. To determine the level of formation of foreign language professional competence of international relations specialty students we have developed the following components: linguistic, cognitive, pragmatic. In the course of the experimental study, the authors revealed that the use of problem-based methods such as discussion, project and case technologies, debates in the framework of integrated approach to professional foreign language teaching promote students’ motivation increase and contribute to the improvement of their foreign language professional skills. The results of the study can be used in application of CLIL technology for the formation of foreign language professional competence of non-linguistic specialty students at the university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0336.v1
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:53:46 CEST)
Background: In the current era of globalization, the Indonesian government's problem today is the weakening of nationalism and patriotism among the millennial generation. The large number of foreign cultures that have entered Indonesia has caused a sense of nationalism and patriotism. In addition, Indonesia is also facing the problem of spreading the Covid-19 virus. During the pandemic, various policies set by the government received protests from some circles because they felt their freedom was restricted. Therefore, the awareness of millennial generation nationalism is needed, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic like today. This research aims to make millennials aware of nationalism sense, which mainly to prevent the spread of Covid-19. This research is used to answer the questions of what the problems that arise due to the waning of the spirit of nationalism during the pandemic are? and what efforts should be made to maintain the spirit of nationalism? Methods: This research is a qualitative study using the literature review method. The articles used are research published in 2019 to 2021 in Google Scholar, with keywords that match the topic of millennial generation nationalism in the Covid-19 pandemic. Results and Discussion: The results of the study found that the spirit of Indonesian nationalism during the Covid-19 pandemic was decreasing. The decline in the sense of nationalism is due to several government policies that impact the psychology of society and the Indonesian economy. As a result, society, particularly the millennial generation, must play a role in breaking the chain of the Covid-19 virus's propagation by following the government's health standards. Conclusion: The government and society need to work together to understand nationalism in the millennial generation, especially in dealing with problems caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on this, various efforts need to be made to foster the spirit of nationalism and overcome the Covid-19 pandemic. So that later, it can produce a generation that upholds the value of nationalism in everyday life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: feminism; gender; public sphere; the existence of Indonesian women; Simone de Beauvoir
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:48:16 CEST)
The issue of being pro-gender is still a controversial topic to be debated in Indonesian society. However, in the 21st Century, many women have been able to break through barriers and participate in the public sphere. It is a form of self-existence as proposed by Simone de Beauvoir on existentialist feminism. Based on these problems, this study aims to find out and answer questions about how Indonesian women exist in the public sphere in the 21st Century and find out how Indonesian women exist in the public sphere through Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism paradigm. The research method used is descriptive-qualitative through a literature review of 23 journal articles, websites, and data reports with a range of 2019-2021. This study found that based on Simone de Beauvoir's feminist paradigm, Indonesian women in the 21st Century are no longer a figure other than complete. Furthermore, the data collected by the researcher shows that several gender indicators have shown that Indonesian women have been able to occupy public spaces in various aspects. Based on these results, it is hoped that it can provide information about Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism thought and its relevance to the existence of Indonesian women in the public sphere in the 21st Century. However, this research has limitations, those are only about women in Indonesia, and the paradigm of feminism is limited to Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: 21st century; Covid 19; education; the government system
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:46:38 CEST)
In this modern era, continuous change is the first step in forming a new structure between theory and practice. The idea of a juggernaut is very relevant to the theory of structuration with current conditions in the 21st century, where technology becomes a reference that can crush anyone who is not responsive to its power. This technology takes one path and takes many roles from various fields: economic, social, political, legal, and educational. This 21st century is marked by great momentum for changes in human behavior and civilization, namely the industrial revolution 4.0 and the arrival of Covid-19, which have changed many social structures and human activities. This makes history a means of connecting the problems in the 21st century with past events. By using a descriptive qualitative method, this paper will reveal how technological developments are very influential on educational and political developments and what are the challenges faced based on historical perspective?. In this case, the study aims to discuss the history and challenges of Indonesia's education system and government system in the 21st century and give a solution. The data used are from 2 books, 14 journal articles, and 4 websites with a span of 2019-2021. The research results are expected to be used as a further study in the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government. This study also has limitations, namely only on the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0331.v1
Online: 14 June 2021 (07:57:40 CEST)
Introduction: Industrial revolution 4.0 in the current era of globalization plays an active role in the modern era in Indonesia. The influence of increasingly advanced technology affects the millennial generation as the nation's next generation to make Pancasila the basis of the State or the foundation of a State. In addition, the millennial generation has begun to shift the guidelines of life from Pancasila so that the appreciation of Pancasila values is starting to disappear along with the development of the times and in line with the progress of Science and Technology (IPTEK). If this continues, then the values of Pancasila will be replaced by a new ideology that will cause behavioural changes in society. Purpose: this study aims to provide the proper application to millennial life using Pancasila values, knowing the behaviour of the millennial generation towards the implementation of Pancasila values, and making Pancasila a way of life. Methods: the method used in this research is Literature Review and takes sources from journals published in 2019 to 2021 related to the Pancasila theme and the millennial generation. Results: the study results show that with the existence of Pancasila as the ideology and principle of the State, it is expected to strengthen the attitude and nature of the community in accepting things outside the norms that exist in Indonesia. In addition, the younger generation is expected to be able to apply Pancasila values along with the development of science and technology in the modern era and current globalization. The research question is how to make the millennial generation implement Pancasila in life in the contemporary period and what solutions can continue to instil Pancasila values in the 4.0 industrial revolution. Recommendation: the conclusion drawn is that Pancasila can become a unifying tool for the nation if the current generation or millennial generation still desires to maintain its values , even though they are in a modern era and many influences from its outside cultures. Limitation: the limitation of this research is not getting all the data directly from the source. The researcher recommends using primary data for the following study to ensure its truth and accuracy better because the researcher directly obtains it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0329.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Colonial Era; Digital Era; Education; History; Transformation
Online: 14 June 2021 (07:49:14 CEST)
ABSTRACT Education is the most important instrument in human life because education can increase human dignity. In addition, education can also be a benchmark for human quality and an example of the progress of a nation. The history of education in Indonesia has evolved from the colonial era to the digital era. These developments have influenced government policies in every era. In the 21st century, the development of education in Indonesia is starting to show progress. This is because it is supported by the rapid growth of information and technology. This research article aims to analyze the educational policies carried out by the government from the colonial era to the digital era to be used as evaluation material at this time so that in the future education in Indonesia is even better. To achieve this goal, this research focuses on the question of how is the transformation of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era? and what is the paradigm of education in Indonesia when viewed from a historical perspective?. The research method used is the Literature Review method from 27 sources in journal articles, websites, and data reports for 2019-2021. The results of this study found that changes in the Indonesian education system from time to time have a positive influence on the progress of the Indonesian nation. The development of education in Indonesia also has an impact on increasing the Human Development Index (HDI). This shows that the quality of Indonesian society is increasing. Based on the results obtained, it is hoped that it can provide information about the transformation of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era from a historical perspective. This article is suitable as a reference source for education observers in Indonesia to know the history of education and its policies from the colonial era to the digital era and useful for academics to know the history of education in Indonesia. This research has limitations, namely this research is only limited to the development of education in Indonesia from the colonial era to the digital era and the paradigm of education development in Indonesia from a historical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0321.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:15:25 CEST)
Pancasila is the identity of the Indonesian nation, which means that Pancasila is a national characteristic that cannot be found in any country. Pancasila points are taken from the noble values of the Indonesian state. These principles contain culture, customs, and national character known as manners, cooperation, and high nationalism. As the successor to Indonesian culture, the young generation must be able to preserve and develop Pancasila. In this era of globalization, there are many challenges for the younger generation in preserving Pancasila. This study aims to provide an overview of the decline of Pancasila identity among the younger generation due to the impact of globalization. The research question that has been determined is how the practice behaviour of the younger generation towards the implementation of Pancasila, the solutions and efforts that all Indonesian people can make regarding the crisis of Pancasila identity in the era of globalization. This research method uses a literature review. The research sources were conducted from the latest journals and books published in 2019 until 2021 related to the theme of Pancasila and the millennial generation. The results showed that globalization has greatly facilitated foreign cultures to enter Indonesia. The younger generations use this foreign culture as a lifestyle without filtering it, whether it contains Pancasila values or not. This causes Pancasila has been forgotten and no longer applied in their everyday life. Young people can make various efforts to preserve the national identity, namely Pancasila. Apart from the role of the young generation itself, Indonesian society can also play an essential role in supporting the younger generation to continue implementing Pancasila in their lives. By conducting this research, it is hoped that Indonesia's young generation can understand, select, and stay away from the negative impacts of globalization that enter Indonesia freely. The solution that can be given from this research is that the younger generation must love their own culture more and practice every principle in Pancasila. Parents, educational institutions, and the government must also support the younger generation to maintain national identity, Pancasila values. The limitation of this research is that the researcher did not conduct any primary data, which means the data were not directly from the source. This causes the accuracy of this study to be less guaranteed. The recommendation that the researchers can give for further research is to obtain primary data to ensure accuracy and explore research topics regarding the fading of Pancasila identity in the younger generation in this era of globalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0287.v1
Online: 10 June 2021 (10:44:19 CEST)
Technological developments, as a result of globalization, indirectly affect human lifestyles, one of which is the Indonesian people. In a situation of change towards the Industrial Revolution 4.0, Pancasila has a role as a guide for the Indonesian people to be what by the noble values of the nation. However, the role of the millennial generation in maintaining these noble values is important considering that they are the spearhead of the country's development. From this statement, this study aims to identify and formulate steps to maintain the noble values of Pancasila among the millennial generation so that it does not eliminate national identity and understand the urgency of implementing the Pancasila lifestyle in the era of globalization. By using the literature review method, it can be seen that "grounding" and strengthening the essence of Pancasila values can be a solution so that the existence of Pancasila continues to shine. The Pancasila lifestyle deserves to be implemented because it regulates all behaviors of speech, thought, behavior, action, and good manners so that it must be expressed in the life of the nation and state as well as our everyday life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: critical thinking, historical thinking, historical learning, new media,
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:14:05 CEST)
History learning is often regarded as something that is considered unimportant and boring to be taught in the modern era like now. The existence of history learning itself is still important enough to be studied in the 21st century with all its benefits and uses. One of the uses of history is as a reasoning education. The research questions are how do we take advantage of history learning as reasoning and critical thinking education in the 21st century and how the usage of new media can make historical learning looks more interesting. The method used in this article is literature review with data obtained and analyzed from several journals and research results related to history learning and reasoning education, especially forms of critical thinking in the 21st century. From the results of the research, it was found that there was a link between learning history and its relation as a form of critical thinking in the 21st century, in several ways, such as teaching history based on historical thinking, and the usage of new media in history learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Pancasila; Millennial Generation; Industrial Revolution; human capital management
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:20:18 CEST)
Introduction: The imbalance between technological development and ideological strengthening has resulted in the fading of the Pancasila ideological values of millennials. Technology that accompanies everyday life seems to be the main character in human life. Yet if humans themselves do not use technology wisely, technology can be a threat to both individuals and the life of the nation and state. If technology is increasingly out of control, threats to the Pancasila ideology are very likely to occur, such as in the G 30S PKI incident. Therefore, it is necessary to take action both from the government and the community as individuals to safeguard the development of technology to be used wisely. That way, we can prevent the threat to the Pancasila ideology together. Writing this article aims to analyze how the role and influence of the Pancasila ideology on the millennial generation in the 4.0 industrial revolution and to find solutions so that the values of Pancasila remain attached to the next generation of the Indonesian nation. Method: Writing This article uses a qualitative method by using literature reviews from the results of related research journals that have been published online through websites and other online media. Results: Thirteen journals and one book have met the criteria for the inclusion of a predetermined review. Research is based on the stigma of society regarding technological developments in the Industrial revolution 4.0. Therefore, the government is expected to be more severe in implementing human capital management. Conclusion: By procuring human capital management, it will be possible that Human Resources (HR) in Indonesia will be able to carry out the ideals of a golden Indonesian generation with Pancasila values inherent in the hearts of the people and the nation's future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0258.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Black Nazarene; Popular Devotion; Filipino Catholics; Sacred Liturgy; New Evangelization
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:10:28 CEST)
Popular devotions are reflections and expressions of the people’s faith. They are expressions of how people recognize God in their lives, and as a shared experience, they foster expressions of devotion and thus become a manifestation of prayer. Popular devotions as forms of prayer and worship do not contradict the Sacred Liturgy but are acknowledged as legitimate by the Apostolic See. Moreover, popular devotions, in general, lead to the cultivation of some values. One of the most popular devotions among Filipino Catholics is the devotion to the Black Nazarene, a life-sized statue of Jesus Christ kneeling in one knee carrying the cross-dressed in a maroon robe. His face is marked with wounds and blood. His head is crowned with thorns with three gold-plated metal rays on the top of his head, with his eyes looking up to heaven. The Black Nazarene devotion balances Christology from below and above, i.e., Christ does not remain crucified. Instead, he brings the hope of resurrection to those who fervently approach him with faith, hope, and love. It suffices to say that the Black Nazarene serves as a means for the Filipino faithful to encounter Christ in their lives. Given this, this paper aims to appraise the Black Nazarene Devotion as a means that contributes to the New Evangelization among Filipino Catholics. More specifically, this paper seeks to answer how the devotion to the Black Nazarene aids Filipino Catholics in their desire to sustain and grow in their faith amidst the crises and problems they are facing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Pancasila, 21st Century Generation, 1945 Constitution
Online: 8 June 2021 (11:54:16 CEST)
Introduction: Pancasila was born as the ideology of the Indonesian nation, which reflects the values cultural values, ethics, morals, and the spirit of the nation. Pancasila was born as a form of national character, which reflects divinity, nationality, unity, togetherness, and justice. The purpose of this research is to know the practice of Pancasila values in the life of the nation and the state. Especially, the implementation of the life of the younger generation in the 21st century today. Methods: This study is literature research where data is collected using keywords in the database. Literature source search carried out with the help of Boolean operators and using the PICOS format. The results of selecting articles, using PRISMA Flow Diagrams. The search results found 125 articles that match the research theme. After checking for duplication, 82 articles were excluded because of the similarity in the results of the discussion. In the end, there were 43 articles used as a literature source. Results: Based on the analysis of research findings, which are supported by literature sources, it shows that the current values of Pancasila are worrying. This can be seen, where people's behavior has been contaminated by external cultures due to technological sophistication. At present, it can be said that the ethics and morals of society do not reflect the values of Pancasila. Conclusion: In order to re-install the values of Pancasila in people's lives, the participation of all parties is necessary. This is especially so, for today's younger generation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a model for teaching Pancasila to be carried out by schools and colleges. So that later, it can produce a generation of ethics and morals who love the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0781.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: white cube; exhibition space; space; work; architecture; site specific; interaction
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:53:59 CEST)
The aim of this article is to make a multi-criteria analysis of various exhibition spaces of an originally non-exhibition character and to determine how these spaces affect the selection of works and the exhibition concept. The analysis is based on the exhibitions of art objects at collective exhibitions in unconventional architectural spaces: commercial, i.e. the modern office building of PBG Gallery Skalar Office Centre in Poznań, post-industrial i.e. in the former Zakłady Przemysłu Ziemniaczanego Lubanta S.A. and in the historic interior of the "U Jezuitów" Gallery of the Cultural Integration Centre in Poznań. The multi-criteria comparative analysis shows a variety of features of the studied spaces as well as the relationship between architecture and art and their mutual interaction. The participatory role of the non-exhibition space in the process of creating an exhibition and selecting works has been proven. It has also been confirmed that the presentation of works of art in originally non-exhibition spaces creates a new quality of the artwork. Unconventional architectural space, when used for the exhibition of works of art, expands and strengthens the area of their influence through the interaction between the work and the architectural space. The specificity of the space adapted for exhibition needs, the presence and type of architectural details in the interior, the quantity and quality of light and its distribution in space, the volume and colour of the interior determine the exhibition space and influence the shape of the exhibitions organised and the reception of the artworks. The only condition for the change of the original function of an architectural space into that of an exhibition space is a coherent artistic vision of the creator. This should take into account the appropriate selection of the exhibited objects, where the process of searching for the relationship between architecture and art determines the features of the architectural space as integral components influencing the realisation of the exhibition .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Misconceptions; errors; learning; place value; mathematics; literature review
Online: 20 May 2021 (08:26:09 CEST)
Children’s learning of place value is critical to their future study of mathematics. However, its learning presents a huge challenge for many learners. As result they develop misconceptions and thencommit errors that become an encumbrance to their understanding of place value. It is therefore important to identify these misconceptions and their associated errors early and help children to overcome them. This article reports the findings from literature on what misconceptions learners display in the learning of place value and how they can best be supported to overcome them. The results show that despite the importance of this topic there are limited studies devoted to its research. The dearth of these studies creates a gap in the study of place value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: urban security; functio-spatial structure; polycentricity; covid security
Online: 13 May 2021 (10:38:01 CEST)
Abstract: Service polycentricism, in the face of the pandemic, took on a new significance because of sanitary requirements. Population concentrations in large service centres face a high risk of infection both at their destination and during the trip. Higher-tier services were largely closed during the threat’s peak. In this paper, the focus of the study has been placed on the urban scale of a large city’s polycentricism as seen through the prism of service concentrations, which, to a degree, are commuter destinations, but primarily act as attractors that are not associated with work—they satisfy higher-tier service needs. To formulate the investigative apparatus used to study the functio-spatial structure of Cracow. The current threat, as well as the high probability of similar situations happening in the future, will probably lead to changes in behaviour patterns of consumers and service providers in reference to siting. Local service centres that are accessible to pedestrians, due to safety-related considerations, can gain significant popularity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0554.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: philosophy of science; information; artificial life; scales; causality
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:59:04 CEST)
When we attempt to define life, we tend to refer to individuals, those that are alive. But these individuals might be cells, organisms, colonies... ecosystems? We can describe living systems at different scales. Which ones might be the best ones to describe different selves? I explore this question using concepts from information theory, ALife, and Buddhist philosophy. After brief introductions, I review the implications of changing the scale of observation, and how this affects our understanding of selves at different structural, temporal, and informational scales. The conclusion is that there is no single ``best'' scale for a self, as this will depend on the scale at which decisions must be made. Different decisions, different scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: design thinking; innovation; creativity; experience; empathy; thinking; consumer; health
Online: 12 May 2021 (11:14:19 CEST)
The general purpose of the Design Thinking approach (concept taken over in Romanian without its translation and which involves conception-oriented thinking) is to support the conception and design of products, services, processes, strategies, spaces, architecture and experiences ideal for use optimal. Applying the approach leads to the development of practical and innovative solutions to the problems identified in the product and / or technology design departments of companies. As described in the article Design Thinking is a process springing from the user-centered conception-design paradigm. The objective of the article is to highlight the need to combine urban study within Design Thinking, in the case of all areas of conception-design of solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: COVID-19; critical scrutiny; logic; pandemic; response; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 12 May 2021 (10:48:05 CEST)
Part of philosophy is to subject assertions to critical scrutiny, clarifying exactly what the assertion is saying, its implications, and thus its direct plausibility. The goal is to ensure clarity, logical consistency, and rational argumentation in order to arrive at reasoned conclusions. A common problem is that arguments have missing implied premises that, unless explicitly stated, are mistakenly assumed to be true. Here we subject conclusions made regarding the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to critical scrutiny, revealing their implied premises so that these premises can be explicitly examined and refuted. Specifically, we refute the conclusions that “no one is protected until everyone is protected” and “population lockdowns are required to protect those at high risk of adverse outcomes.” In the end, we argue for the conclusion that “an Emergency Management principles based response to the pandemic, compared to population-wide lockdowns, offers a way to prevent more adverse outcomes from COVID-19, better prevent overwhelmed healthcare, and prevent most of the collateral damage to the wellbeing of the population that has resulted from the lockdowns.”
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Responsible leadership; Psychological ownership; Employee environmental commitment; Organizational citizenship behavior for the environment; China.
Online: 12 May 2021 (09:47:21 CEST)
The world is looking towards organizations for social responsibility to contribute to a sustainable environment. Employees’ organizational citizenship behavior for the environment (OCBE) is a voluntary environmental-oriented behavior that is important for organizations’ environmental performance. Based on social learning theory, the study examined the effects of responsible leadership in connection with OCBE by using a sample of 520 employees of manufacturing and service sector including engine manufacturing, petroleum plants banking and insurance sector organizations of China. Further, the role of psychological ownership and employee environmental commitment were used as mediators and moderators simultaneously. The direct, mediation, and moderation model results exposed a positive relationship between responsible leadership and OCBE via employee psychological ownership and employee environmental commitment. The study also revealed that the indirect effect is stronger when employees hold higher employee environmental commitment. The theoretical and practical implications for environmental sustainability in respect of organizations as well as future research directions are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Urban planning Italy; Governance 3.0; New Digital Platforms; Sentiment Analysis
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:27:35 CEST)
Current acceleration in digital innovations, unexpected challenges in our social interactions, acceleration to virtualization, limitation in our physical spaces, and unpredictable changes in our Old lifestyles - as originated from the COVID-19 global pandemic 2020 - continue to provide us with a framework, rapidly updating under our eyes, of the modifications our world is undergoing by pursuing into a New “digital age”. Or, as many scholars say nowadays, into the New Normal! These are shared and deep changes that concretely stress their effects on how ideally a city should function. Forcing us to reflect on the capability to achieve shared choices and visions for the future by taking vantage from both the New digital platforms and New suddenly opened paths. In the pages of this article authors, through different but shared viewpoints, propose an answer to the topic of "Governance 3.0", addressing the attempt of a radical change of those paradigms, now consolidated, within which the spatial dimensions, in which we live and act, are shaped. Also analyzing the relationship between Technocracy and Democracy as defined by Khanna, it is argued that it is possible to realize new forecasts and acquire a more democratic and participatory (inclusive) dimension of Governance, also thanks to new digital technologies, by exploring the general unconscious "feeling" of people, through anonymous data collection and without any direct or indirect interference with it. The analysis of the "Sentiment", already developed in other fields but easily exportable within the urban discipline, can be considered as the beginning of hybrid practices where digital and analogic find a compromise to make the "Urbs" more attractive and inclusive, while the "Civitas", connected to the Internet, can contribute to the optimization of services, of the "Polis" and a new social/spatial reorganization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0784.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Robots, Compassion, Human Sciences, Positive Plasticity
Online: 30 April 2021 (10:36:45 CEST)
This paper describes a new generation of computational intelligence founded on the ancient idea of compassion called Artificial Compassion. The creation of Artificial Compassion is the result of two coinciding historical developments. The first is the increasing discoveries of human sciences in new fields like neuroendocrinology and psychoneuroimmunology. This provides the spark for Artificial Compassion. For example, we once thought with certainty that our brain is fixed for life but neuropsychology and a device called the fMRI have shown it is “plastic”. It changes constantly throughout our lives in response to our experiences. Remarkably, we also now know it is changed for the better through positive emotions like compassion, kindness and happiness. So, too, are the immune, endocrine, genetic, cardio and neural systems influenced and changed by our emotional experiences. This new perspective on emotions and plasticity validates much of ancient wisdom in medical systems outside the west. Long held assumptions about emotion are unsuitable for humanity. The second development is ‘machine rub off’. We are in symbiotic relation with our devices today and we are plastic. We are changed by our interactions but many people have computer rage. We need Artificial Compassion to replace computer rage with positive plasticity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0783.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Iceland; Norse Greenland; Monasticism; Benedictine Order; Augustine Order
Online: 30 April 2021 (10:14:03 CEST)
The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the monastic houses operated on the northernmost periphery of Roman Catholic Europe during the Middle Ages. The intention is to debunk the long-held theory of Iceland and Norse Greenland’s supposed isolation from the rest of the world, as it is clear that medieval monasticism reached both of these societies, just as it reached their counterparts elsewhere in the North Atlantic. During the Middle Ages, fourteen monastic houses were opened in Iceland and two in Norse Greenland, all following the Benedictine or Augustinian Order.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0735.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: China; sustainable urbanization; densification; Suzhou; resettlement communities
Online: 28 April 2021 (09:58:20 CEST)
China is gradually and steadily shifting towards more sustainable development and the local governments are increasingly promoting sustainable spatial planning practices. The article debates the potential contradiction between the goal of a growing urban population and the reduced consumption of land planned by the sustainable development strategy of the city of Suzhou in the Yangtse River Delta region. The article explores the opportunities of densification of the residential urban environment as a possible solution for this contradiction. The article presents some Chinese examples of densification for land use efficiency and identifies in the resettlement communities of Suzhou some of the sites that can be efficiently redeveloped for their obsolescent conditions that do not correspond to the increasingly middle-class status of the residents in the region. The article investigates the different options of densification possible in the resettlement communities in the frame of the policies of urban renewal promoted in China in recent years for improving the urban quality of cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0576.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: values; humanities; idea; urbanism; city; sustainable development
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:12:29 CEST)
The article discusses the role of humanistic values in the contemporary configuration of cities. Today's times put us in a privileged position as we can observe deep and clear changes happening very quickly. Visible changes are reflected not only in society and culture, but also in the space of developing cities, towns, and metropolises. While characterizing contemporary urban trends and ideas, the philosophical trends that contribute to them and the values on which they are based were discussed. Corrections are also shown, which usually start with slight dissonances and initially slight differences in the content of theses, and as a result lead to completely different views on the world. Contemporary determinants of postmodernism, deconstructivism, ecological ideas, sustainable development, social integration and participation, high-tech, digital, and smart city are discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0525.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Toulouse; Artistes Meridionaux; exhibitions; art market; networks; econometrics; quantitative analysis
Online: 20 April 2021 (09:54:35 CEST)
Created in 1905, the Société des Artistes Meridionaux organized annual exhibitions in Toulouse, in order to promote regional arts and (re)created a "Latin" - and modern - style. Based on a corpus of 11,486 artworks exhibited at the SAM between 1907 and 1939, this paper seeks to measure the contours and particularities of the Salons des Artistes Meridionaux, using a computational approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: language vitality; digital language vitality; Esperanto; coolification; intergenerational transmis-sion
Online: 19 April 2021 (15:52:52 CEST)
while enjoying a relative positive revival in the digital age, Esperanto and the assessment of its language vitality is often problematic and prone to gross errors, and therefore a theoretical re-flection is required. Unlike other lesser-used languages, Esperanto is intergenerationally trans-mitted mainly outside the family, and so Fishman’s GIDS and subsequent scales such as the EGIDS cannot be applied straightforwardly for language vitality diagnosis and estimation. In particular, it is the social movement with its language activists who guarantee its vitality and developing, for more than a century. A key aspect is the digital domain, where the relatively good positioning of Esperanto does not reflect in a parallel increase in the number of activists. This paper critically assesses the digital language vitality of Esperanto on the basis of its language ide-ology and other sociolinguistic data as a starting point for a discussion to overcome the limits of Blanke’s (2006) scale of language vitality of Esperanto and its rivals. This assessment eventually leads to a more general reflection on the role of ‘coolification’, i.e., the positive effects on language attitudes and development thanks to digital visibility, its limits and the issue of placing it in the context of language vitality in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: parametric design, paper in architecture, temporary architecture, pop-up structures, membrane structures, isogeometric analysis, fabrication
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:17:11 CEST)
Temporary pavilions play an important role as experimental fields for architects, designers and engineers, apart from providing exhibition spaces. Novel structural and formal solutions applied in pavilions also can give them unusual appearance that attracts eyesight of spectators. In this article authors explore the possibility of combination of structural novelty, visual attractiveness and low-cost by a design and construction of a temporary pavilion. For that purpose, an innovative structural system and design approach was applied, i.e. membrane structure designed in Rhino and Grasshopper environments with the use of Kiwi!3D IsoGeometric analysis tool. The designed pavilion, named Obverse/Reverse, was built in Opole, Poland, for the occasion of World Architecture Day in July 2019. Design and construction was performed by the authors in cooperation with students’ organisation Humanisation of Urban Environment from the Faculty of Architecture Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. The Rresultant pavilion proved the possibility of obtaining a low-budgets but visually attractive architectural solution with the adaption of parametrical design tools and some scientific background with innovative structural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Requirements Engineering; Authoring Tools; 3D content; IEEE 830 standard; Social Media
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:16:52 CEST)
This paper presents a requirements specification analysis for driving the design of new systems that will allow 3D media creators to further promote and monetize from their work. The provided requirements analysis is based on the IEEE 830 standard for requirements specification. It allows us to elucidate system requirements through existing (AS-IS) and envisioned (TO-BE) scenarios affected by the latest trends on design methodologies and content promotion in social media. A total of 30 tools for content creation, promotion and monetization are reviewed. The target groups, i.e. creator groups, are divided in 10 types according to their role in 3D media production. Based on this division 10 candidate TO-BE scenarios have been identified and out of these 10 scenarios, we have selected 6 scenarios for validation by media creators. The validation was performed through a survey of 24 statements on a 5 Likert scale by 47 individuals from the domains of Media, Fine arts, Architecture, and Informatics. Useful evaluation results and comments have been collected that can be useful for future systems design.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Declarative Phonology; Suppletion; Morphology; Phonology; Portuguese
Online: 7 April 2021 (15:22:14 CEST)
This draft aims at opening a discussion about the adequacy of non-stratal, non-derivational models of phonology, such as Declarative Phonology, to give appropriate accounts of any kind of phonological variation of morphemes. Refuting the assumption that all variants of one single morpheme correspond to a unique underlying form consecutively respecified through ordered adjustments of phonological shape, Declarative Phonology seems able to integrate explanations of both suppletive and non-suppletive alternation. A rough application of this model to suppletive alternation in Portuguese will be sketched out.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Hong Kong; Housing; Kowloon Walled City; Chungking Mansions; Cage Homes; Squatter Settlements; Great Britain; Demographics
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:35:08 CEST)
75.6% of land comprising Hong Kong remains undeveloped according to the special administrative region’s planning department. In turn, Hong Kong’s constricted real estate, now estimated to be the world’s costliest, has created eye-popping living arrangements historically and contemporarily. Denizens’ colorful reputation and imagination for flouting city ordinances, zoning laws, and spatial management stand emblematic of tenacious self-sufficiency and a free-spirited brand of runaway capitalist initiative. Why is this conspicuous trademark of Hong Kong’s societal fabric very much alive in the 21st Century? Why does this matter in a rapidly urbanizing world witnessing the ascension of mega-urban centers alongside ever-widening socioeconomic chasms? This paper intends to illuminate the peculiar origins and longevity of the Kowloon Walled City, an urban monolith of notoriety and autonomy that blossomed in a semi-legal grey zone unencumbered under British protectorate rule for nearly a century. Parallels will connect the linear trajectory between Kowloon’s hardnosed living to today’s comparable Chungking Mansions and the hundreds of thousands of cage homes appearing in all corners of the city. This paper aims to answer why these residential paradoxes continue to function with efficiency and relevancy, posing solutions for indigent housing while exacerbating the stigma of social and economic ostracism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: endangered languages, low-resourced languages, NLP, criticism of science
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:15:25 CEST)
The term low-resourced has been tossed around in the field of natural language processing to a degree that almost any language that is not English can be called "low-resourced"; sometimes even just for the sake of making a mundane or mediocre paper appear more interesting and insightful. In a field where English is a synonym for language and low-resourced is a synonym for anything not English, calling endangered languages low-resourced is a bit of an overstatement. In this paper, I inspect the relation of the endangered with the low-resourced from my own experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Urban morphology; Transitional morphologies; Assemblage; Urban coding; Adaptive city; Permutation; Parametric Design
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:46:19 CEST)
Grounded on urban morphology studies, the research tries to overcome the analysis of the permanents elements of the city seeking for a transitional paradigm in urban morphology, aiming at grasping the dynamics in urban evolution and providing operative tools for urban regeneration design in an adaptive approach. A combination of four actions of urban analysis is here suggested to highlight urban dynamics: a. Sorting the transitional steps of urban morphologies (within rapid market processes), b. Underlining rules and Processes characterizing urban coding in transition, c. Mapping urban assemblages in the adaptive city and d. Reading and representing urban permutation phenomenon. The results of this multifaced and multidimensional set of analytical tools allow to outline a new design thinking paradigm moving towards a parametric approach to urban design of cities in transition broadening the extent of urban regeneration process and supporting urban policies in the framework community based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0727.v1
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:48:55 CEST)
The present study investigated the effect of art on promoting the meaning of the urban space. In this regard, after considering the semantic dimension of the urban space and the mechanism of transferring the meanings of art through the views of experts, a model is presented for examin-ing the art’s cooperation in promoting urban space meaning in Tehran. In this study, a mixed method was used. In the first stage, the categories of space meanings influenced by art were ex-tracted through using the qualitative method of interpretive phenomenology and by examining 61 in-depth interviews in six urban spaces eligible for urban art in Tehran. In the second stage, these categories were surveyed in these spaces through 600 questionnaires after converting to the questionnaire items. Based on the results, "the possibility of the experience and perception", "social participation", and "the relationship with the context" were the main themes of the se-mantic relationship of art and urban space. Further, the lower scores related to the theme of "so-cial participation" in the quantitative investigations indicated that this theme was weaker than the other themes in promoting the meaning of the urban space through the art in the selected urban spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0723.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: drylands; land use; aridity index; ethnography; ethnoarchaeology; pastoralism; agriculture; LandCover6K
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:04:29 CEST)
The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing of agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing effort of reconstructing past land use globally.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0698.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Small gatherings cancellation; Cognitive linguistics; Corpus analysis; Semantic frame; Covid-19.
Online: 29 March 2021 (14:41:29 CEST)
In an insightful article published in Nature human behavior on November 2020, the effectiveness of 46 “non-pharmaceutical interventions” (NPI) regarding Covid-19 pandemic have been compared1. One of these 46 categories, the one which is ranked as the most effective measure, is named “small gatherings cancelation”. In the discussion section of that article, the authors introduce a list of what they probably assume to be representative examples of this category, namely, “closures of shops”, “closure of restaurants,” “mandatory home–working”, “gathering of 50 people or less” and so on. The name that the authors have given to this category could give rise to confusions and misunderstandings. We used corpus analysis to show that “small gathering” is commonly used to denote a planned or spontaneous “event”, and consequently does not convey what the authors intend this term to cover as its most representative instances i.e., Simultaneous presence of people (crowd) in shops or offices. Furthermore, taking a top-down approach, we focused on the information which was provided in reference material like CDC and WHO documents. The analysis showed that “small gatherings” is encoded in those sources to denote “events” and “small gatherings cancelation” is used to denote cancelling preplanned events. In conclusion, neither unspecialized language nor official/institutional discourse uses “small gathering” the way that the authors of the aforementioned article use it i.e., to refer to simultaneous presence of people (crowd) in shops or offices. Therefore, when language users come across this phrase, if they do not read the entire article, the only semantic frame that is evoked in their mind would be that of a festive or social “event” rather than of crowded shops or offices; this misunderstanding is cognitively justified and consequently changing this terminology is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0685.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: death; grief; Internet; photograph; comparative study; social network sites
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:34:58 CEST)
Abstract: As innovative way to express grief, social media posts about the deceased have become fairly common. However, few studies examined grief photos commonly posted. The purpose of the present study was to examine such pictures, as well as the motivation and reactions of those who posted, among Italians and Americans. Surveys were sent to both Italian and U.S. participants. The U.S. group yielded 262 responses (Mean age = 22 years; 81% female), the Italian yielded 51 (Mean age = 32. Several key issues emerged, such as the need to receive empathic support from other users, the desire to maintain continuing bonds, the wish to remember the deceased, and the desire to share beauty and symbolic pictures. The images were analyzed using content analysis. Both samples posted photos to remember and to enhance their posts. A strong preference for pictures with a positive emotional connotation appeared, depicting the deceased in a conjoint appearance with the participant. Results suggest that imagery used for the expression of grief in social media sites, an “iconography of grief,” is a popular means of expression for grievers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0617.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Spondylus shells; archaeomalacology; archaeozoology; pre-Hispanic Ecuador; knowledge representation; formal concept analysis.
Online: 25 March 2021 (13:55:39 CET)
Shells, probably like no other product of nature, have played an important role in the history of mankind. The pre-Hispanic civilizations of Ibero-America also used certain type of shells profusely in their religious ceremonies, in particular, in Ecuador there were two species of main importance, the Spondylus princeps and the Spondylus calcifer broadly employed to manufacture ornaments that possess a strong symbolic, religious and social meaning and that were almost exclusively used by ruling classes. Among these ornaments, the faces carved on the Spondylus shells are little known. In the present study, we chose a total of fifteen (15) pieces from the Pastor Restrepo Lince´s archaeomalacology collection to understand the possible uses of these objects, through the interpretation of the gestures represented on the faces, their dimensions, and their geographical distribution in pre-Hispanic Ecuador. To achieve the proposed objective, we approach the present investigation from the perspective of the formal analysis of concepts, which is a mathematical theory of representation of knowledge, finding that these faces carved in Spondylus, were used daily or in special ceremonial occasions and that its use was common in all the regional cultures of ancient Ecuador, from the oldest such as Valdivia, and for more than 2000 years, indicating a long tradition of the use of Spondylus as an object of great symbolic and economic value until the arrival of the Spanish
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Possible World; Theories of Universe; Origins of Universe; Existential Possibility; Existential Necessity
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:46:50 CET)
The "best of all possible worlds" theory (hereinafter the "possible world theory") was presented by Leibniz many centuries ago, and provided an opportunity for metaphysics to understand the ontological meaning of the world in an in-depth way. Furthermore, the theory has multiple impacts on the multiverse theory of modern physics. However, considering the ontological questions of the world solely on linguistics logic leads to basing the possible world theory or the multiverse theory on relatively uncertain inferential reasons. In this study, symbolic logic was used to consider the possible world theory on a more solid foundation. The entire world was made into oneness, and tracking the existential process at the beginning of the world, realized the existential necessity of the world, even though the initial causal point of the world was assumed to be completely void (null set). The existential system in this study, was generalized without specific elements, apart from existence and non-existence. It was discovered that existential possibility and existential necessity are logically equivalent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0507.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: autonomous weapons; meaningful human control; hors de combat status; killer robots; military ethics
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:17:19 CET)
Autonomous weapons systems (AWS), sometimes referred to as “killer robots”, are receiving evermore attention, both in public discourse as well as by scholars and policymakers. Much of this interest is connected with emerging ethical and legal problems linked to increasing autonomy in weapons systems, but there is a general underappreciation for the ways in which existing law might impact on these new technologies. In this paper, we argue that as AWS become more sophisticated and increasingly more capable than flesh-and-blood soldiers, it will increasingly be the case that such soldiers are “in the power” of those AWS which fight against them. This implies that such soldiers ought to be considered hors de combat, and not targeted. In arguing for this point, we draw out a broader conclusion regarding hors de combat status, namely that it must be viewed contextually, with close reference to the capabilities of combatants on both sides of any discreet engagement. Given this point, and the fact that AWS may come in many shapes and sizes, and can be made for many different missions, we argue that each particular AWS will likely need its own standard for when enemy soldiers are deemed hors de combat. We conclude by examining how these nuanced views of hors de combat status might impact on meaningful human control of AWS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0348.v1
Online: 12 March 2021 (19:58:40 CET)
In the last few years, researchers have paid increasing attention to singing voice evaluations.In their studies, they observed changes in the vibrations of the vocal folds during the transi-tion of registers. Additionally, they also found that these changes are less visible and audiblein the case of skilled singers. In order to confirm this theory we defined a new parameter,the Passaggio Peak Coefficient (PPC), obtained from an EGG signal to analyse pitch andopen quotient jump characteristics during the transition of vocal registers among 21 femaleand male choir members with different singing skills. The Kruskal-Wallis test proved thatit is possible to distinguish vocal skills, based on the ability to smoothen transitions amongfemale singers at a 5% significance level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Re-enaction history learning; Game-based learning; historical thinking skills; historical game; historical education
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:01:01 CET)
Regardless of country and age, the importance of history education is always being emphasized. Although the importance of history education is being emphasized in Korea, there are many difficulties in getting students to understand history properly through school classes alone, and it is also difficult to attract students to participate in classes. The effectiveness of education using games has been proven 20 years ago, and the demand for game-based education is gradually increasing in the current education world, which is becoming more open. In this paper, based on the effects proven through research on the existing game-based education, the improvement of historical thinking ability, experiential history learning, and the problems of game-based education introduced in the ESN report and the discomfort of teachers who participated in the education were improved. A plan was suggested to select and use games suitable for basic education. In this thesis, we selected a history game with a clear historical and periodic background and without distortion of history, and experimented with teaching using games focusing on historical thinking and empirical history learning. The learning achievement of textbook-based education was compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Sustainability; Urban Planning; Climate Change; Technology; Urban Technology; Urban Development; Density; Congestion
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:12:05 CET)
We have an aversion to density in America. Density is a continual trope in this country, blamed for all of the ills of urban life, from crime and racial unrest in the middle of the 20th century to public health concerns today. In the early stages of the COVID pandemic density was the culprit, even though we’ve subsequently seen outbreaks in rural areas and sprawling cities across the United States. This paper will look into the root of America’s problems with density and argue that density is not the problem but the solution to the challenges of today’s and tomorrow’s cities. As we deplete the resources of the planet, density is our most direct pathway to recover some balance with nature. Dense living is more efficient, less carbon intensive and more environmentally sustainable. As geospatial differentiations matter less due to advances in communication technology, it's the density of people and ideas that will continue to fuel innovation. Finally, in a world that is increasingly dominated by pluralism, denser living promotes openness, tolerance and diversity.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Smart City; Urban planning Italy; Governance 3.0; New Digital Platforms; Sentiment Analysis; Pandemic Urban Effects
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:41:22 CET)
Current acceleration in digital innovations, the unexpected challenges in our social interactions, open access to virtualization, huge limitation in our physical spaces, and unpredictable changes in our old lifestyles - as originated from the COVID-19 global pandemic in 2020 - continue to provide us with a framework, rapidly updating under our eyes, of the modifications our world is undergoing by pursuing into the “new digital age”. Or, as many scholars say nowadays, into the new normal! These are shared and deep changes that, regardless of their permanence or temporariness in the time, concretely stress, ever more greatly, their “own” effects on how ideally a city should function. Forcing us to reflect on the real ability to achieve choices and visions for the future by taking vantage from the new digital platforms. In the pages of this article authors, through different eyes but sharing an early response to the matter of new Governance, explore the theme of a radical change of those already consolidated paradigms and, therefore, of the innovations that are transforming the way we understand our society and its technologic advancements, economics, and culture, as defined through dimensions of time and space. This article identiﬁes a methodologic vision for acquiring a more democratic and participatory (inclusive) dimension in the newest conﬁguration of contemporary cities, the new smart city, and in the possible innovations in reading the common sentiments and wishes through the new digitalized world. The analysis investigates how ICT is altering the meanings/ideas of “urban planning”, driving us toward a more effective “governance” through a citizen-centred digital approach. Indeed, city governance's success must be measured based on the “listening capacity” of the inhabitants and the facilities that we are capable to provide to citizens. “Sentiment Analysis” tool is tested as a useful tool to achieve these aims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0377.v2
Online: 25 February 2021 (07:46:06 CET)
The scientific community of the XX and XXI centuries is a very large companionship, very fragmented and spread all over the world. Moreover, the status of the scientist, which in most cases is a member of the States’ apparati, is significantly different with respect to the one of the scientists up to the First World War.The concepts of scientific revolution of Thomas Kuhn and scientific anarchy of Paul Feyerabend should be reconsidered in this contest. In particular, the anarchist modus operandi should be shifted from the scientific method, that has become significantly standardized with protocols, to the sociology of the scientific community. A pluralism of the scientific method is possible, but an anarchy in the relationships among scientists emerges as more important. The scientist is in many cases a parrhesiastes, a person that says the truth even when he is going to pay because of that, that defends the developed theory or model, by respecting the protocols established in the scientific community. On the other side, each scientist should be a patient beholder that accepts the more solid, and intersubjectively recognized, theories of other scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Theory of Education; Consciousness; Responsibility; Lesley Dewart; Perceptual Control Theory (PCT); William T. Powers; Semiotics of Education
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:40:32 CET)
Among the biggest challenges facing the contemporary human condition, and therefore also education, is responding to the climate crisis. The source of the crisis is assumed to be absent-mindedness, presented by Leslie Dewart as a distortion of the development of human consciousness. Dewart's poorly-known philosophical consciousness study is presented in this paper in broad outline. The problems in the study of consciousness, the most important of which are the qualitative representations – qualia – and the question of free will, are also briefly discussed. These problems are then examined transcendental analytically, with the question of what one must assume in order to allow the emergence of these phenomena. From the resulting conception of causal relationship, we proceed to the circular causality as a prerequisite for life, namely the homeostatic systems and negative feedback. An organization of action that is essential to animals and humans is presented, using William Powers’ perceptual control theory (PCT), and the role of consciousness in this organization is drafted according to the studies of Martin Taylor. Action is seen as continuous problem solving, in which negative feedback is used to bring perceptions into line with the goals. The fundamental function of consciousness is revealed as the direction and enhancement of learning. Based on PCT, it can be shown that the main practical problems in animal and, especially, human action, are related to adverse side effects of action and the resulting various conflicts. The climate crisis is a typical example of the problematic side effects of collective action. Dewart's concept of absent-mindedness can therefore be defined as an inability to responsibly account for the side effects of action. Thus, the main task of education is to forestall, through negative feedback and in cooperation with learner consciousness, absent-mindedness and the problems it causes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0511.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: greenery; housing estates; Lower Silesia; preservation and renewal of heritage
Online: 23 February 2021 (11:06:45 CET)
On the example of the Wałbrzych agglomeration housing estates once the most important mining and industrial region in Lower Silesia, this article illustrates the specific significance of the designing of green spaces, including urban layouts, and the issue of protecting unique trees and green spaces in the concepts of estates from the early modernism period after the First World War, in the years 1919-1927. The Wałbrzych housing settlements are crucial due to the fact that they were among the first of their kind, not only in Lower Silesia, but in the whole of the Weimar Republic. The concepts developed during the designing process soon spread beyond the borders of the country. On the basis of literature and source studies it was possible to reconstruct design ideas concerning the composition of green areas in most housing estates in the discussed area. The most interesting were presented, grouped according to the landscape and functional aspects of the use of greenery in housing estates. This made it possible to select specific solutions applied by designers, to indicate sources of inspiration and theoretically developed rules, which both then and now seem to be extremely adequate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0484.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:24:30 CET)
Various colors of clothing originating from synthetic dyes are presently causing serious environmental pollution problems, whereas natural dyes extracted from natural indigo plants help reduce the harm to the environment and extend the sustainable use of clothing. This study focuses on the relation between indigo dyeing colors and the environment on the basis of sustainable design. The results reveal that light colors are considered to conform to the sustainable spirit more than dark colors in different indigo colors. In fact, the recyclable light-colored indigo dyeing t-shirt is beneficial in its reuse. Indigo dyeing fabric can be decomposed by a variety of microorganisms; however, the light-colored indigo dyeing takes a short time. Light colored indigo dyeing is more resource-saving when considering dye, water and electricity costs. The results of colors and environmental protection provide scheme references to consumers or industry for clothing collocation of different indigo dyeing colors for a series of blue clothing and carry out the ideal of the sustainability and co-existence between clothing and natural resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0156.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: ANN; NN; Speech Recognition; interaction; hybrid method
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:58:40 CET)
Human and Computer interaction has been a part of our day-to-day life. Speech is one of the essential and comfortable ways of interacting through devices as well as a human being. The device, particularly smartphones have multiple sensors in camera and microphone, etc. speech recognition is the process of converting the acoustic signal to a smartphone as a set of words. The efficient performance of the speech recognition system highly enhances the interaction between humans and machines by making the latter more receptive to user needs. The recognized words can be applied for many applications such as Commands & Control, Data entry, and Document preparation. This research paper highlights speech recognition through ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Also, a hybrid model is proposed for audio-visual speech recognition of the Tamil and Malay language through SOM (Self-organizing map0 and MLP (Multilayer Perceptron). The Effectiveness of the different models of NN (Neural Network) utilized in speech recognition will be examined.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Saint Peter’s tomb; Catacombs of SS Marcellino and Pietro; Emperor Constantine; Tor Pignattara’s Basilica and Mausoleum
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:42:51 CET)
The purpose of our study is to research Peter’s memory ad catacumbas. According to the Depositio Martyrum ‒ a document of the late Emperor Constantine ‒, there was no memory of the first St Peter’s Basilica on the Vatican Hill. We start with a critical analysis on the Roman Basilicae attributed to Emperor Constantine in the Liber Pontificalis, then we deepen the search of Peter’s memory in the catacombs of the SS Marcellino and Pietro (ad Duos Lauros), also known as Tor Pignattara. Indeed, the Basilica and Mausoleum built in this cemeterial area are the only buildings attributable, with certainty, to Emperor Constantine, who wished to be buried in the Mausoleum, close to an apostle. Besides some striking archeological finds on Peter’s memory already discovered near a particular cubicle in these catacombs, a geometrical and mathematical study of the unusual architectonic characteristics of the Basilica and Mausoleum of Tor Pignattara shows that the buildings were part of a single architectonic plan, very likely designed for coding data useful to locate Peter’s burial site unambiguously, in the area of the cubicle mentioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0634.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Age; Artificial intelligence; Christianity; Religious Orientation; Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
Online: 29 January 2021 (15:55:49 CET)
Artificial Intelligence innovations, such as chatbots and specialized education suggestion tools, provide potential interactive and on-demand pedagogical engagement between non-Christians and Christians with Christianity. However, there is little empirical research on the readiness, acceptance, and adoption of A.I.'s involvement in religious education in a secular state, such as Vietnam. This research addresses the literature gap by providing an entrepreneurial analysis and customer perspectives on the ideas of A.I.'s involvement in religious education. Specifically, the study explores whether the Vietnamese across different ages and religious orientations accept and have enough skills to adopt A.I.'s religious education innovation. The interview sample is 32 participants, selected based on their religious orientation (Christians & Non-Christians) and age (Generation X, Generation Y & Generation Z). Most respondents are open to A.I. application in religious education except for the Church's personnel. However, only gen Z generations are fully prepared to adopt this innovation. Theoretically, the research customizes the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model into religious innovation context. Practically, this research acts as market research on the demand for A.I.'s religious innovation in Vietnam, an insight for future religious tech entrepreneurs.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: quality of care; Covid-19; relational caring; care ethics; practical wisdom; mismatch; humanness; solicitude; habitability
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:45:14 CET)
The Covid-19 pandemic is a tragedy for those who have been hard hit worldwide. At the same time, it is also a test of concepts and practices of what good care is and requires, and how quality of care can be accounted for. In this paper, we present our Care-Ethical Model of Quality (CEMQ) and apply it to the case of residential care for older people in the Netherlands during the Covid-19 pandemic. Instead of thinking about care in healthcare and social welfare as a set of separate care acts, we think about care as a complex practice of relational caring, crossed by other practices. Instead of thinking about professional caregivers as functionaries obeying external rules, we think about them as practically wise professionals. Instead of thinking about developing external quality criteria and systems, we think about cultivating (self-)reflective quality awareness. Instead of abstracting from societal forces that make care possible but also limit it, we acknowledge them and find ways to deal with them. Based on these critical insights, the CEMQ model can be helpful to describe, interrogate, evaluate, and improve existing care practices. It has four entries: (i) the care receiver considered from their humanness, (ii) the caregiver considered from their solicitude, (iii) the care facility considered from its habitability and (iv) the societal, institutional and scholarly context considered from the perspective of the good life, justice and decency. The crux is enabling all these different entries with all their different aspects to be taken into account. In Corona times this turns out to be more crucial than ever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: urban green spaces; cancer; risk factors; contributing factors; scoping review
Online: 11 January 2021 (17:47:23 CET)
This scoping study aims to explore the relationships between urban green spaces (UGSs) and cancer. We followed the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (protocol published in 2018). Eligibility criteria for papers were: 1) to be concerned with UGSs, 2) reporting effects of UGSs on cancer-related outcomes including direct or indirect measures, 3) reporting randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case studies, observational studies, non-comparative studies, 4) in English or French. The search covered primary studies in the published and unpublished (grey) literatures searching by hand and electronic databases (MEDLINE, Green File, CINAHL and ScienceDirect). Among 1703 records screened by two reviewers independently, 29 were included for qualitative synthesis. We classify the cancers concerned and the effects reported i.e. protective effect, risk or without association. The most investigated cancers are bladder, breast and lung cancer. Our study also identified contributing factors and their mediating effects between UGSs and cancer. Results highlight the wide variety of possible mediating factors between the use of green spaces and cancer occurrence, remission and/or prevention. Knowledge gaps and future research perspectives should be oriented to qualitative research on protective factors, the role of mental health in recovering from cancer and health inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0174.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Hindu Temples; Sacred landscape; Bhaishnavism; Conservation; Architectural Documentation
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:57:50 CET)
This article represents survey data of historical and architectural documentation of Sri Radha Binod Ashrama locally known as the Panishail temple. Temple architecture is a common feature of traditional religious architecture practice in Bangladesh. This article is a historical and architectural investigation of a less known and mixed type of Hindu temple style in the Bengal region. The Panishail temple complex has a collection of structures that include tomb, temples, and residences aged between fifty to two hundred years. Over the ages, these heritage buildings have displayed a unique architectural style of ancient Bengal and still serving as a living sacred landscape heritage. However, like most of the ancient monuments of Bangladesh, Panishail structures inside this complex stand against the threat of decay and anthropogenic destruction with no effort to conserve them. There is a need for immediate action of research, exploration and preservation to save this historic landmark. This research aims to investigate historic and physical features of the temple complex through a systematic survey and documentation effort. This research will lay a foundation for future conservation intervention on this site. Moreover, this work will significantly contribute to historic temple architecture study in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: ancient; astronomy; cave; constellation; zoomorphic
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:30:41 CET)
Currently it was theoritized that cave paintings have meaning more than human and animal interactions. Based on an example from Lascaux cave, a figure of a bull is believed representing Taurus constellation together with the Pleiades. In here this study aims to assess the connections of paleolithic art works in the forms of cave paintings and zoomorphic figures resemble to bovid with possible ancient astronomy and constellation depictions in South East Asia. The study caves were Jeriji Saleh in Kalimantan and Leang Leang and Sumpang Bita caves in Sulawesi where ancient cave paintings and zoomorphic figures date to 40000 years old have been found. The results show that cave paintings in Jeriji Saleh, Leang Leang and Sumpang Bita caves were comparable to the current findings. Those paintings were having bovid like figures with Leang Leang has figure identified as extant Bubalus depressicornis. In Sumpang Bita, this species was depicted in pregnant condition similar to pregnant horse figure in Lascaux cave. Depiction of pregnant figures in cave paintings indicates the use of ancient calendar to determine season based on the animal mating season. Bovid figure in Jeriji Saleh was illustrated in the same posture like auroch bovid in Lascaux cave and this indicates that cave paintings in Jeriji Saleh have been used to visualize Taurus constellation. The postures of bovid paintings in Leang Leang were different and it is interpreted to visualize Capricorn constellation. Another significant similarity between Lascaux and Leang Leang caves can be seen in paintings depicting a shaft scene with the presences of 3 similar figures include dying man, speared bovid and small zoomorphic figures. This concludes that the caves with their wall painting were not merely functioned as media for ancient art works, whereas it has functioned as paleolithic planetarium and this knowledge was globally widespread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0715.v1
Online: 29 December 2020 (08:26:12 CET)
This paper examines how housing prices are determined by macroeconomic factors in Saudi Arabia, namely, Gross Domestic Product Per capita (GDPP), Consumer Prices Index (CPI), and Unemployment Rate (UNEMP). Quarterly data for a period (2014q1 – 2019q4) were collected from publications of Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA). Vector Autoregression Analysis (VAR) is employed to capture the dynamic effect of the variables on housing prices. Granger Causality, Variance Decomposition and Impulse response function are also used. The results show that housing prices are insignificantly and positively related to GDPP, whereas it is negatively related to both (CPI & UNEMP). Only CPI has a significant relationship. The three variables, jointly, have Granger causality on HPI. Variance decompositions show that CPI is the variable with the highest explanatory power over the variation of housing prices, followed by GDPP and the UNEMP respectively indicating that CPI is the most influential determinants for housing prices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0634.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Assistive Technology; Assistive devices; Students with disabilities; Decolonial Approach; South African Higher Education; Disability Staff members; learning; Enable and Constrain
Online: 24 December 2020 (14:46:01 CET)
This paper used the decolonial theory to analyse provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices at an institution of higher education in South African. It was an empirical study, in which data were collected through interviews with students with disabilities and the Disability Rights Centre staff members. The paper sought to understand the invisible hidden implications of provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices. The finding was that it is students with disabilities who were provided with Assistive Technology and assistive devices at the institution. The institution provided them through the Centre, to support their learning. However, this way of provision was found to be stigmatising and segregative. Furthermore, while the provision on one hand enabled students with disabilities’ learning, on the other, it constrained it. The argument of the paper is that when provision of Assistive Technology and assistive devices is for a particular group of students it defeats the whole purpose for it is intended, and could hinder rather than promote learning. It is hoped that the paper will contribute to contemporary debate on provision of Assistive Technology and support services for people with disabilities in low resource settings, from a South African context specifically, and in higher education broadly.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: creativity; ideation; architectural design studio; education; systematic review
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:58:29 CET)
Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practice in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into 5 key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: time adverbs; degree quantifiers; scope particles; manner adverbs
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:52:24 CET)
The acquisition of adverbs in French as L2 (FSL) by learners with different L1s, at various levels of proficiency, has been extensively studied within various SLA projects (ESF, Interfra etc.). In the generativist tradition, it has been noted that “high category adverbs” such as those related to Mood-evaluative, Mood-epistemic and Tense are present early in FSL data. In the functionalist school, the early presence of time adverbs and scope particles in learner varieties has been analysed in relation with the informational and syntactic structures observed in these varieties and in terms of their contribution to temporal reference and other semantic domains in discourse.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: ancient; canal; irrigation; Majapahit; NDVI; reservoir
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:54:59 CET)
Majapahit is one of vast kingdoms and civilizations in Southeast Asia in 14th century. The kingdom and its capital city are centered in present Trowulan suburban, east Java and bordered by mountain range in the south and river in the east and north. Regarding the geological condition then Majapahit kingdom has a challenge especially to provide the water managements for its agricultural practices. In here, this study aims to assess the hydrology systems developed by Majapahit civilizations and how this system is effective in maintaining vegetation health. Based on the results, the gravity-fed hydrology systems consist of networks involving river, dam, underground and surface water canal and reservoir pond. The water from upstream was managed using dams and channeled into streams and collected inside the ponds. This network spans approximately 10 km from the first dam to the last 6.49 Ha reservoir built in the middle of city. The water channeled from dam to reservoir pond was using natural streams and 2.4 km underground canal. This 40 cm depth man made canal was a water source for agricultural soils since it was used to irrigate the nearby paddy field. During past El Nino in 2019 that has caused prolong drought, the Majapahit irrigation system has provided water for the adjacent paddy field. Based on the vegetation health analysis measured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), paddy field watered by man made canal shows higher NDVI values or at least has same values compared to the field watered by contemporary canals. Then, the 14th century irrigation system developed by Majapahit civilization is a valuable heritage that needs to be preserved considering its important functions even in this contemporary era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: framing; online discourse strategies; ethical behaviour; work-life blurred boundaries; effective teamwork; individual virtuousness; alignment
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:02:03 CET)
The present paper brings to the fore issues relating to the meaning and construction of ethics in online team communication by exploring the discursive strategies that contribute to the construction of a team’s sense of duty and individual virtuousness. The study relies on a complex toolkit which includes ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, discourse and conversation analysis. Data consist in a one-day interaction unit as part of a larger set of real communication exchanges (ca. 34,000) over a time period of six months, observation notes, as well as unstructured interviews. Our empirical analysis has revealed that individual virtuousness and sense of duty are actually interrelated. A virtuous team climate leads team members to share positive perceptions about the team, which in turn increases team commitment. Furthermore, we argue that the blurring of private and professional life not only allows for the enactment of ethic-driven discourse strategies that result in enhanced cooperation and improved team performance but also for high levels of interconnectivity and improved social interaction. The results of the analysis supplement organisational literature based on ethics-centred observations on the effectiveness of virtual work, and show how a discourse-driven approach can provide tools for further theorisations about the practices and the ecology of digital communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0654.v1
Online: 25 November 2020 (16:57:17 CET)
Paddy field is an old agriculture practice that very common especially in Asia. The earliest paddy field found dated back to 4330 BC. Most paddy fields in the world are having rectangular shapes. Whereas, in Flores island, indigenous people have developed a spider web or circular paddy field instead of regular rectangular shape and this driven by culture and local wisdom. In here, the objectives of this study are to assess the characteristic, ecology and fertility of circular paddy field compared to common rectangular shape. Fertility values were assessed using Landsat 8 remote sensing with RGB combination of NIR, SWIR 1 and blue. The study site was paddy field within Flores island. The result shows that spider web paddy field appeared in many sizes, number, altitude, ecosystem and terrain. Remote sensing result confirms that the fertility of circular paddy field is similar to the rectangular shape. Likewise, circular field has higher NDVI than rectangular field. Considering semiarid environment, limited labor and resources in Flores island, circular paddy field shape can allow the use of pivot irrigation that more efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: genetic music; genetic code; music composition; steam disciplines; notch1 gene
Online: 13 November 2020 (15:34:47 CET)
In the present work we present a methodology for teaching the basis of the genetic code through music composition, with the aim to combine science and arts learning. The project was carried out by 155 students, the so-called MARGA Consortium, with ages comprised between 10 and 17 years from different public schools located in the Principality of Asturias, Spain. The different groups generated 8 different music works using a short genetic sequence obtained from the human notch1 gene, receptor of mutations leading to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Gated Communities; Opening Scenarios; Accessibility Benefits; Evaluation; Shanghai
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:36:59 CET)
Opening gated-communities (GCs) has been widely discussed for urban inclusion and revitalization. With the policies of opening GCs being promoted in China, quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of the potential benefits is heavily needed. Taking Shanghai as an example, this study quantifies and analyzes the accessibility benefits and risks of opening GCs with factors including GC types, opening levels, travel modes, and travel destinations considered. We found that (1) opening GCs can bring 50m+ accessibility gains to 17% and 52% of the residents in Moderately Opening (MO) and Completely Opening (CO) scenarios, respectively. (2) Cycling benefits more than walking in all cases and scenarios. (3) For different GCs, conventional GCs have fewer benefits in MO but more in CO than the newly-established one. For different facilities, trips to bus stations demonstrate the largest accessibility gains. (4) The accessibility benefit of a residential building is highly determined by its closeness to the gates and relative location in the block. (5) Only 1% and 5-7% of external trips may penetrate the opened communities in MO and CO scenarios, respectively, which are far less than both expectation and the benefits. These findings precipitate at least two policy implications in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:18:17 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Air pollution; environmental justice; chronic homelessness; unsheltered homelessness; marginalized populations; hidden populations
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:22:22 CEST)
Experiences of homelessness, although widely varied, are characterized by extensive time in public spaces, often outdoors. However, there has been little empirical research about the ways in which environmental factors affect individuals experiencing homelessness (IEHs). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use an environmental justice approach to understand how cardiopulmonary health of IEHs is affected by episodic poor air quality in Salt Lake County. It was hypothesized that people who had experienced unsheltered homelessness and those who had been experiencing homelessness for longer periods of time would report greater health difficulties from poor air quality exposure. Through a combination of in-person semi-structured interviews with IEHs (n = 138) and access to corresponding state-based service provider databases, researchers examined both overall descriptives of and relationships between types (sheltered and unsheltered) and duration (chronic and non-chronic) of homelessness. More than 61% of IEHs reported physical reactions to air pollution, 37% reported air pollution-related emotional stress, and more than 89% had sought medical attention for a condition related to air pollution. Findings indicate that while IEHs report a number of health effects related to poor air quality, there were no significant differences between individuals based on either sheltered status or duration of their experiences of homelessness. This study provides an initial empirical inquiry to understand how environmental disamenities negatively influence IEHs, as well as noting that sheltered status and duration of homelessness are less impactful than originally hypothesized.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Flyback; LED; Flicker; Light-Emmitting-Diode; Taylor Series
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:39:24 CEST)
The present study analyzed light emitting diodes (LEDs) as an output load and used a Taylor series to describe the characteristic curve based on the exponential characteristic of voltage and current. A prototype circuit of a flyback LED driver system was established to verify whether the theory is consistent with actual results. This study focused on the exponential relationship of LED voltage and current. Conventional simulations usually used linear models to present LED loads. However, the linear model resulted in considerable error between simulation and actual characteristics. Therefore, this study employed a Taylor series to describe the nonlinear characteristic of an LED load. Through precise calculations with Mathcad computation software, the error was effectively reduced. Moreover, the process clarified the influence of temperature on LEDs, which benefited the characteristic analysis of the entire system. Finally, a realized circuit of 120-W flyback LED drivers was established for conducting theory verification, including theoretic analysis and evaluation of the system design process of the flyback converter. The circuit simulation software SIMPLIS was used to demonstrate the system model, which enabled quick understanding of the system framework established in this study. Regarding LEDs, a commercially available aluminum luminaire was used as the output load. The measured results of the actual circuit and the simulation results were remarkably consistent. For the same system at the same temperature, the error between the simulation and actual results was less than 3%, which proved the reliability of the Taylor series simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: urban sanitation; sewerage network; sewerage connection; low-income community; slum; DSIP; affordability; feasibility; Dhaka; Bangladesh
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:36:01 CEST)
Globally, 2.2 billion urban residents are living without safely-managed sanitation, the majority of whom are slum residents. To improve the situation, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is implementing the Dhaka Sanitation Improvement Project (DSIP), mostly funded by the World Bank. This study assessed the feasibility of connecting low-income communities (LICs) within the proposed sewerage network by 2025. We conducted nine key-informant interviews from DWASA and City Corporation, and 23 focus-group discussions with landlords, tenants and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) from 16 LICs near the proposed catchment area. To achieve connections, LICs would require improved toilet infrastructures and have to be connected to main roads. Construction of large communal septic tanks is also required where individual toilet connections are difficult. To encourage connection in LICs, income-based or area-based subsidies were recommended. For financing maintenance, respondents suggested monthly fee collection for management of the infrastructure by dividing bill equally among sharing households, or by users per household. Participants also suggested the government's cooperation with development-partners/NGOs to ensure sewerage connection construction, operation and maintenance and prerequisite policy changes such as assuring land tenure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Marx; Theses on Feuerbach; Indigenous Paradigm; decolonising methodology; Hegel; Linda Smith
Online: 13 May 2020 (05:27:33 CEST)
This article aims to reflect upon the relevance of Decolonization methodologies with the Theses on Feuerbach. Somehow, all the Indigenous scholars started from new Marxist like Paulo Freire, Frantz Fanon, but not from classic Marx. To us, the German Ideology of young Marx only resembles the pioneering sources of Indigenous methodology. This discussion is thus a reflection of our studies and a philosophic endeavor to talk about the marginal people of the world, and the scholars who engaged in and with the oppressed. However, we are not prepared to turn our attention away from all the vastness of Marx to a collection of potentially equally relevant to Indigenous methodology. This article concludes that the Theses on Feuerbach is the core of Marxist archaeology of knowledge or philosophy as a whole and has been wading in the Indigenous paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: conservation; biodiversity; human rights; livelihood; forest-dependent community; impact
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
Background and Research Highlights: Despite all the concerns and initiatives, natural resources like forests, as well as biodiversity are decreasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Conservation is considered as one of the major tools to prevent such loss and rapid degradation. Evidence around the world shows the adverse effects of conservation laws and policies on indigenous peoples and other local communities. Objectives: This study was conducted in one of the forest-dependent communities situated in Sundarban (world’s largest mangrove forest) to understand the impact of conservation laws and policies on their livelihood. Materials and Methods: A qualitative methodology was designed to collect data, using focus group discussions and case study with community people, and individual interviews with the personnel from NGOs and relevant government departments. Findings: Strict conservation policies and restrictions in accessing forest resources made lives and livelihoods of the local community insecure and unstable, thus putting the community in a vulnerable situation. The had to leave their traditional mode of income and look for alternative livelihood options. Almost no evidence was found in relation to upkeeping their rights in conservation activities. Prohibited movement, provision of punishment for entering into the forest without proper permission and struggles in everyday life were some of the highlighted issues. They had no participation in conservation activities, management of alternative livelihood options, and even they were not sensitized before putting restrictions. Although they had a history of emotional and physical attachment with the forest, existing activities did not consider these issues. In addition, corruption and abuse of power by law enforcement agencies towards the local community intensified the sufferings. Conclusion: This study argues that the realization of human rights in conservation activities and the sensitization of the implementing stakeholders are prerequisites for ensuring the sustainability of both biodiversity and the affected people.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: wildfire; governance; Anthropocene; elemental; geography; anthropology
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:00:36 CEST)
Views of fire in the contemporary physical sciences arguably accord with Heraclitus’ proposal that ‘all things are an exchange for fire, and fire for all things, as goods for gold and gold for goods.’ Fire is a media, as John Durham Peters has stated, a species of transformative biochemical reactions between the flammable gases found in air, such as oxygen, and those found in fuels, such as plants. Inspired by an ignition source, these materials react and transform themselves and their surrounds into light and heat energy, carbon dioxide, water vapour, char and much else besides. Fire is conjunctural, durational and transformative. Fire is a dialectician, at once consuming living and dead organic matter and providing both the space and ingredients for new and renewed organic life. In this article, we consider the diverse ways in which fire is today framed as a social problem, an ecological process, an ancient tool, a natural disaster, a source of economic wealth and much more. In this way, we seek to explore the value and limits of ‘elemental thinking’ in relation to the planetary predicaments described by ‘the Anthropocene’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: monster of troy; archaeology; Corinthian vase; fossil; Samotherium
Online: 13 December 2018 (06:47:37 CET)
It has been proposed that the Monster of Troy, depicted in a 6th Century BC Corinthian vase, is the earliest artistic record of a vertebrate fossil, possibly a Miocene giraffe (Samotherium sp.). I analyzed the giraffe hypothesis under four approaches: a double-blind random design in which 78 biologists compared the vase skull with Samotherium and several reptiles; an informed survey of 30 students who critically assessed the hypothesis; a computerized image comparison; and a morphological comparison. All of them rejected the giraffe hypothesis. Eye and teeth types unambiguously discard a fossil or living mammal as the model, which more probably was an extant carnivorous reptile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Funerary Art, Social Identities and Stratification, Torajan Communities, Indonesia.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:52:48 CEST)
Since very few empirical endeavors have looked into statue and funerary art that represents social identities, this study aims to fill this gap. The research article aims to portray social status from the funeral arts, traditions and rituals. This longitudinal case study used interviews and a series of observations. The finding reveals that each funerary art represents particular class of noble families. Every funerary art also depicts specific insightful meaning for their noble families. The process of ritual and funeral ceremony is performed according to each status of noble families. This paper also describes the implication of the funerary art in social and cultural interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: folklore, ethnographic study, Indian tribes, myths, social anthropology, Gujarat
Online: 24 May 2018 (14:25:07 CEST)
The focus of this ethnographic expedition is to study the folklore and traditions amongst the existing tribal populations of Barumal village in southern Gujarat, India. The fieldwork revolves around cultural and socio-economic aspects of their livelihood and this paper encompasses the knowledge from one such lens out of many. It tries to identify the importance of mythology and its roots. The data collected from three different population groups are Varlis, Kukanas, Dhodiya Patels that are set within the caste system based hierarchy inhabiting in the same region. The interview method was employed throughout with open-ended questions. The varied customs and traditions appearing in their lifestyle, occupation, and festivals are always associated with one god or another. The key informants felt the need to distinguish the history of their own tribe from the others by taking the help of myths passed down from their ancestors. Most of the key informants were mature adults including both males and females.