ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0156.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Olea europaea L.; genetic variability; climate warming; chilling requirements
Online: 2 June 2023 (08:26:02 CEST)
The olive wide genetic variability can be used to overcome some of the challenges faced by olive growing, including climate warming. One effect of climate warming in olive is the difficulty to fulfill the chilling requirements for flowering due to high winter temperatures. In the present work, we evaluate seven olive cultivars for their adaptation to high winter temperatures by comparing their flowering phenology in the standard Mediterranean climate of Cordoba, Southern Iberian Peninsula, with the Subtropical climate of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Flowering phenology in Tenerife was significantly earlier and longer than in Cordoba. However, genotype seems to have little influence on the effects of lack of winter chilling temperatures as in Tenerife. This even though the cultivars studied have a high genetic distance between them. In fact, all the cultivars tested in Tenerife flowered the three years under study but showing asynchronous flowering bud burst. Only ‘Arbequina’ showed an earlier day of full flowering than the rest of cultivars. The results observed here could be of interest to refine the phenological simulation models and including of the length of the flowering period. More genetic variability should be evaluated in warm winter conditions to look for adaptation to climate warming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: quality assessment; plant disease; rapid sampling; analysis; metal-organic frameworks; thermal desorption; GC-MS; VOCs
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:38:00 CEST)
Fungal infection of grape berries (Vitis vinifera) by Botrytis cinerea frequently coincides with harvest, impacting both the yield and quality of grape and wine products. A rapid and non-destructive method for identifying B. cinerea infection in grapes at an early stage prior to harvest is critical to manage loss. In this study, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystal was applied as an absorbent material for volatile extraction from B. cinerea-infected and healthy grapes in a vineyard followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The performance of ZIF-8 to absorb and trap targeted volatiles was evaluated with a standard solution of compounds and with a whole bunch of grapes enclosed in a glass container to maintain standard sampling conditions. Results from sampling methods were then correlated to B. cinerea infection in grapes as measured and determined by Genus specific antigen quantification. Trace levels of targeted compounds reported as markers of grape B. cinerea infection were successfully detected with in-field sampling. Peak area counts for volatiles 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol, and 1-octen-3-ol extracted using ZIF-8 were significantly higher than values achieved using Tenax®-TA from field testing and demonstrated good correlation with B. cinerea infection severities determined by B. cinerea antigen detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0008.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Tulipa; tulip; species; identification; DNA; PCR; ISSR analysis; morphological features
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:06:34 CEST)
Morphological features and composition of ISSR DNA fragments were studied in species of the genus Tulipa L. A comparative analysis of the data obtained was carried out and an attempt was made to clarify the species belonging of plants. Plants obtained from various sources were studied. It was found that representatives of the genus Tulipa L. from the two subgenera Tulipa and Eriostemones are well separated not only morphologically, but also by the composition of ISSR fragments. At the intra- and interspecific level, the results for morphological traits and molecular data differed. Interspecific and intraspecific differences were more clearly traced in the complex analysis of morphological features and ISSR PCR data. All samples obtained in the form of bulbs and renewed vegetatively had an identical set of ISSR fragments. Plants grown from seeds were characterized by a significant variety of molecular markers and had both species-specific and in-dividual genetic variability. It was found that the samples obtained and registered as the Tulipa urumiensis Stapf are the yellow-flowered form of the Tulipa tarda Stapf, and a sample received as the Tulipa turkestanika Regel is the Tulipa bifloriformis Vved. Thus, a comprehensive study of both the data of fragmentary DNA analysis and morphological features, provided a sufficient number of DNA samples, makes it possible to clarify the species of tulip plants, and also allows us to assess the genetic diversity of the genus Tulipa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Guangxi kumquat; Germplasm resources; Diversity; SRAP markers; Genetic analysis
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:06:39 CEST)
In order to understand the genetic diversity of germplasm resources of kumquat in Guangxi, 14 kumquat germplasm resources in Guangxi and 12 accessions from other provinces were analyzed by using SRAP markers. In total, 19 primer pairs with high stability, good reproducibility, and high polymorphism were chosen for analysis of all the 26 kumquat genotypes. Among the 101 amplified bands, 87 (86.14%) were polymorphic. SRAP markers were analyzed by employing Principal Coordinate Analysis, Population Structure Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (UPGMA). The classification results showed that 26 kumquat germplasm could be divided into 5 groups, including cultivated kumquat, intergeneric hybrid, wild kumquat from other provinces, wild kumquat from Guangxi and hybrid kumquat from Guangxi. Guangxi kumquat germplasm occurred high genetic diversity, which were clearly divided into 3 groups like cultivated kumquat, wild kumquat and kumquat hybrid. And the 8 cultivated kumquat varieties in Guangxi were further divided into two subgroups. Wild kumquat in Guangxi and wild kumquat in other provinces belong to different groups, meanwhile the hybrids of Guangxi kumquat form independent groups, thus indicated that Guangxi wild kumquat and kumquat hybrid possessed certain specificity, or they maybe belonged to different species. Among the tested 26 kumquat accessions, 23 unique genotype-specific SRAP markers were detected for 14 kumquat genotypes, which made it possible to surely identify them. For the remaining 12 accessions without genotype-specific markers, they were distinguished by various combinations of markers. These results may have certain importance for kumquat genetic research and cultivar selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: peach; fruit ripening and softening; auxin; TIR1-Aux/IAA co-receptor
Online: 18 May 2023 (03:29:20 CEST)
Fruit softening is an important characteristic of peach fruit ripening. The auxin receptor TIR1 (Transport Inhibitor Response 1) plays an important role in plant growth and fruit maturation, but little research has been conducted on the relation of TIR1 to the softening of peach fruits. In this study, the hardness of isolated peach fruits was reduced under exogenous NAA treatment of low concentration, at the same time, the low concentration of NAA treatment reduced the transcription level of PpPG and Ppβ-GAL genes related to cell wall softening, and PpACS1 genes related to ethylene synthesis. The transient over-expression of the PpTIR1 gene in peach fruit blocks caused significant down-regulation of the expression of early auxin-responsive genes, ethylene synthesis and cell wall metabolic genes related to fruit firmness. Through yeast two-hybrid technology, bimolecular fluorescence complementary technology, and firefly luciferase complementation imaging assay, an interaction between PpTIR1 and PpIAA1/3/5/9/27 proteins was revealed, and the interaction depended on auxin and its type and concentration. These results show that PpTIR1-Aux/IAA module has a possible regulatory effect on fruit ripening and softening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: HD-zip gene; Prunus. nana; Gene family
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:46:25 CEST)
Transcription factors (TFs) in the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) family serve as essential regulators of plant development and control responses to environmental stimuli. To date, however, the HD-ZIP gene family in Prunus nana remains to be fully characterized. Accordingly, a genome-wide analysis of P. nana HD-ZIP family genes was performed using the most recent genomic data available, leading to the classification of 30 HD-ZIP TFs. These genes were annotated and subjected to systematic analyses of phylogenetic relationships, protein physicochemical properties, sequence-based structural characteristics, chromosomal distributions, and associated cis-acting regulatory elements. High levels of diversity were observed with respect to the gene structures for these PnaHD-Zip genes and the cis-regulatory elements found in the promoter regions upstream of these genes, suggesting that they play diverse roles in a range of biological contexts. These 30 PnaHD-Zip genes were further classified into four subgroups based on the results of phylogenetic, gene structure, and conserved motif analyses. Subsequent qPCR analyses indicated that PnaHD-Zip1 and PnaHD-Zip7 expression levels tended to increase was continuously inhibited in response to cold stress, suggesting that proteins in this HD-ZIP gene family may exhibit distinct responses to low-temperature stress exposure. Overall, these results offer a robust foundation for future studies seeking to explore the functional roles that HD-ZIP TFs play as regulators of cold stress tolerance in P. nana, in addition to offering more general insight regarding the regulatory functions and characteristics of these different HD-ZIP genes in P. nana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Prunus tenella; genome; assembly; almond; population genetic structure
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:13:20 CEST)
Prunus tenella is a rare and precious relict plant in China. It is an important genetic resource for almond improvement and an indispensable material in ecological protection and landscaping. However, the research of molecular breeding and genetic evolution has been severely restricted, due to the lack of genome information. In this investigation, we created a chromosome-level genomic pattern of P. tenella, 231Mb in length with a contig N50 of 18.1 Mb by Hi-C techniques and high-accuracy PacBio HiFi sequencing. The present assembly predicted 32088 protein-coding genes, and an examination of the genome assembly indicated that 94.7% among all assembled transcripts were alignable to the genome assembly; most (97.24%) were functionally annotated. By phylogenomic genome comparison, we found that P. tenella is an ancient group that diverged approximately 13.4 million years ago (Mya) from 13 additional closely related species and about 6.5 Mya from the cultivated almond. Collinearity analysis revealed that P. tenella is highly syntenic and has high sequence conservation with almond and peach. However, this species also exhibit many presence/absence variants. Moreover, a large inversion at the 7,588 kb position of chromosome 5 was observed, which may have a significant association with phenotypic traits. Lastly, population genetic structure analysis in eight different populations indicated a high genetic differentiation among the natural distribution of P. tenella. This high-quality genome assembly provides critical clues and comprehensive information for the systematic evolution, genetic characteristics, and functional gene research of P. tenella. Moreover, it provides a valuable genomic resource for in-depth study in protecting, developing, and utilizing P. tenella germplasm resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: hypocotyl length; petiole length; cotyledon size; photomorphogenesis; skotomorphogenesis
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:11:57 CEST)
Our previous studies showed pure blue (B) spectra from LEDs can promote shade avoidance responses (SARs). However, it is unknown whether SARs vary among different peak wavelengths (λpeak) of B or how they compare with other photomorphologically-important wavebands, such as ultraviolet-A and far-red. To answer these questions, mustard (Brassica juncea, ‘Ruby Streaks’) and arugula (Brassica eruca, ‘Rocket’) seedlings, grown to the cotyledon unfolding stage under the following narrowband spectrum treatments: UVA (λpeak = 385 nm), B1 (λpeak = 404 nm), B2 (λpeak = 440 nm), B3 (λpeak = 455 nm), and FR (λpeak = 730 nm). Both red (R, λpeak = 660 nm) and dark (D) were used as control treatments. The spectrum treatments were provided at 50 μmol m−2 s−1 on a continuous basis. There were no differences among the B treatments except for reduced mustard fresh weight (FWt) in B3. Compared with R, the B treatments promoted hypocotyl elongation, reduced cotyledon size, and increased petiole length in arugula and B1 increased petiole length in mustard. Compared with the B treatments, UVA inhibited hypocotyl and petiole elongation, similar to or greater than R in both species. Compared with the other LED treatments, seedlings grown under FR generally had the lowest hypocotyl and petiole elongation and the smallest cotyledons. Compared to the LED treatments, D substantially promoted hypocotyl elongation and reduced cotyledon size, except compared to FR in arugula. Among the spectrum treatments, the three B treatments had the greatest SAR promotion effects in both species. Despite having the lowest phytochrome activity, FR inhibited SARs normally associated with high FR environments. Legacy parameters used to estimate SAR-promoting effects of spectrum treatments may not be appropriate for characterizing narrowband spectra from LEDs – new approaches must be developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0916.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Prunus mume; regulation of flowering period; heat requirements; dormancy release; flower bud germination
Online: 12 May 2023 (09:49:55 CEST)
Heat requirements play an important role in plant flowering, and control the flowering period of woody ornamental plants to a certain extent. In this study, the perennial potted seedlings of four typical Prunus mume cultivars 'Xiaolve', 'Baixuzhusha', 'Fenghou' and 'Danfenghou' were used as materials. The way of regulating the cultivation temperature is adopted to achieve the purpose of relieving the natural dormancy and forcing the blooming of P. mume. Its content includes the research on the heat requirements of P. mume cultivars widely planted in Beijing, and the analysis of the influence of different facility cultivation temperatures on the flowering characteristics of P. mume, providing a theoretical basis for further exploring the cultivation techniques of P. mume bonsai flowering regulation. The results showed that, according to the Growing degree-hour model, the HR of 'Xiaolve', 'Baixuzhusha', 'Fenghou' and 'Danfenghou' flower buds were 3583.70 GDH℃, 3217.30 GDH ℃, 3996.50 GDH ℃, 4732.20 GDH ℃, respectively. According to the effective accumulated temperature model, the HRs of above cultivars were 350.65 ℃, 319.30 ℃, 510.30 ℃, 558.50 ℃, respectively. In addition, the temperature of different cultivation facilities did not significantly change the flowering quality such as flower diameter and fragrance. Temperature also affects the growth and development speed, affecting the flowering time. Under the facility environment with higher temperatures, the flowering process is faster and the flowering period is shorter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0880.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Prunus mume; chilling requirement; physiological mechanism of dormancy
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:29:22 CEST)
Low-temperature plays a vital role in the growth and development of woody plants. In this research, based on the way of artificial low temperature to break dormancy, the Utah model was used to determine the chilling requirements of four early-flowering Prunus mume cultivars, which were widely planted in Henan area of China. At the same time, changes in the carbohydrates, antioxidant enzyme activities, and endogenous hormone contents of the flower buds (FBs) of the above P.mume cultivars were measured during the low-temperature storage process, and the physiological changes of the four cultivars during the low-temperature induction period were explored. The main research conclusions are as follows: (1) The chilling requirements of ‘Gulihong’, ‘Nanjing gongfen’, ‘Zaoyudie’ and ‘Zaohualve’ were 408CU, 396CU, 372CU and 348CU respectively. All the P.mume cultivars belonged to low chilling demand cultivars. The P.mume also bloomed 4 months earlier (2) During the process of releasing dormancy at low temperature, the contents of soluble sugar (SS) in the osmoregulation system of the four Prunus mume cultivars showed an upward trend, while the contents of starch (ST) basically showed an opposite trend with the increase of chilling. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the FBs of each cultivar gradually decreased with the accumulation of cold and maintained at a low level, the peroxidase (POD) activity showed the opposite trend, and the dynamic changes of the catalase (CAT) activity generally showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. The content of abscisic acid (ABA) showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing as a whole. The changing trend of gibberellin (GA3) content was similar to that of ABA. In addition, it was found that before dormancy was released, the SS and Pro contents of cultivars with lower chilling requirements and early FB germination were significantly higher than those of other cultivars with higher chilling requirements, and the contents of ST and SP were lower. The cultivars with higher chilling requirement and late flower bud germination had higher ABA content, lower GA3 contents, and their enzyme activities were significantly higher than those of the cultivars with lower chilling requirement. Therefore, the changes in the content of various substances in FBs are related to the amount of cooling required by the cultivar and the sooner or later the FBs germinate, and the changes in their contents can be used as one of the indicators for judging the dormancy process of FBs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0859.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: chitosan; foliar application; lignin; potato; suberin polyphenolics; wound-induced suberization
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:35:44 CEST)
Potato tubers are susceptible to wounding during post-harvest processes, leading to quality decline, perishability and large economic losses. In this study, the potato cultivar, ‘Longshu No.7’, was foliar-sprayed with 3% chitosan (w/v) three times during the pre-harvest period after flowering to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying with chitosan on suberization processing at wounds of harvested potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that foliar-sprayed with chitosan significantly reduced wound-induced fresh weight loss and dry rot disease index by 37.34% and 41.60% on the 28 day after wounding, respectively. Foliar-sprayed with chitosan accelerated the deposition of suberin polyphenolics and lignin at the wound sites of potato tubers with the formation of thicker cell layers. This occurred with increased localized activities of key enzymes in the suberin polyphenolics and lignin pathways, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumaryl-coenzyme A ligase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and peroxidase (33.90–64.32%), as well as the contents of cinnamic acid, sinapic acid, flavonoids, lignins and total phenolics (19.70–23.46%) at wound sites of potato tubers on the 7 day after wounding. Our results indicated that foliar application of chitosan accelerated wound-induced suberization of potato tubers and could mitigate post-harvest product damages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0851.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Prunus mume, low-temperature, flower period regulation, dormancy release, flowering characteristics
Online: 11 May 2023 (12:19:19 CEST)
Low-temperature accumulation is one of the essential stages in the growth process of woody ornamental plants. In this study, two different low-temperature treatments, 6℃ and 10℃, were used to analyze the effects of different low-temperature treatments on dormancy release and flowering of the 'Gulihong' plant using artificial low temperatures. Based on the experimental results, four typical early-blooming Prunus mume cultivars widely planted in Yangling area of Henan Province, China, including 'Zaoyudie', 'Zaohualve', 'Nanjing gongfen', and 'Gulihong', were selected as the experimental materials. The effects of low-temperature accumulation on the flowering characteristics of different cultivars were analyzed using a 6℃ artificial low-temperature treatment. The suitable cultivation temperature for early-blooming P. mume cultivars was screened to provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of P. mume bonsai cultivation techniques. The results showed that the flowering rate, flower diameter, flowering quantity, flowering uniformity, and bud development in the 6℃ treatment were significantly better than those in the 10℃ treatment. The flowering rate and quality of different cultivars gradually increased with the accumulation of low-temperature. Therefore, chill accumulation plays a significant role in promoting flowering quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: plant hormones; Citrus reticulata; shelf life; antioxidants; phenols content
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:37:55 CEST)
‘Arrayana’ mandarin fruits have a short postharvest life and are sensitive to chilling injury (CI) during cold storage. Brassinosteroids (BR) have been used as a sustainable technology to alleviate CI in fruits and improve postharvest quality. This study evaluated the effect of applying the 24-epibrasinolide analogue (EBR), at doses of 5 mg L-1; DI-31 analogue, at 5 and 10 mg L-1; and control, on the main physical and biochemical characteristics of 'Arrayana' mandarin stored at 4°C for 40 days and, subsequently, 7 days at room temperature (shelf life). The application of EBR and DI-31 analogues reduced the appearance of CI in the exocarp of 'Arrayana' mandarin fruits by reducing electrolyte leakage, maintaining membrane integrity, and increasing antioxidant activity and phenol content at the end of cold storage and shelf life. This was especially pronounced with 5 mg L-1 of EBR. Similarly, the BR maintained the postharvest quality of mandarins by reducing weight loss, respiratory intensity and chlorophyll degradation; increasing β-carotene; and maintaining titratable acidity, and soluble solids. Our research reports for the first time CI tolerance in Arrayana mandarin using natural (EBR) and spirostanic (DI-31), analogues and illustrates the tolerance functionality of the DI-31 analog on CI in fruit postharvest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Azerbaijan; hazelnuts; local varieties; biometric characteristics; physical properties; chemical composition
Online: 29 April 2023 (08:05:41 CEST)
Фундук является одним из самых ценных орехов в мире благодаря своим уникальным органолептическим свойствам и питательным характеристикам. Данная работа была направлена на анализ некоторых физико-химических свойств различных сортов фундука, выращиваемых в Закаталы (Азербайджан), а именно Ата-баба, Эльбари, Топкара, Фирован, Насими, Галиб, Мирзебейли, Тала, Даш финтик, Барли, Азери и Сачагли. В целом результаты показали статистически значимые различия между изучаемыми сортами. Плотность ядер в зависимости от сортов фундука варьировала от 0,71 г/см 3 (азери) до 1,03 г/см 3 .(Сачакли). Очищенные плоды Дашфиндыг в среднем были тяжелее (1,64±0,34 г), а очищенные плоды Насими, Калиб, Мирзебейли и Сачакли в среднем легче (0,8±0,23 г, 0,8±0,31 г, 0,8±0,20 г и 0,80 г). ±0,09 г соответственно.В неочищенном виде самыми тяжелыми были орехи Дашфиндык (3,70±0,34 г), а самыми легкими из всех сортов были орехи Насими и Калиб (2,0±0,48 г и 2,0±0,36 г соответственно). - орехи баба составляют 49 масс./ядро, %, у остальных изученных сортов - 33,3-45,3 мас.%. Орехи насими имеют округлую форму (в экваториальной зоне); талы, ата-баба, фирован и азери - округло-продолговатые; топкара , Барли и Даш финдык – продолговатые; Эльбари, Калиб, Мирзебейли и Сачакли – удлиненные. Фирован, Тала и Топкара имеют более толстую скорлупу. Ата-баба значительно опережает другие сорта по выходу ядер (490 кг/1 т орехов) , На втором месте по этому показателю находится Тала (453 кг/1 тонна орехов), на третьем – Топкара (433 кг/1 тонна орехов). По максимальной жирности выделены сорта Мирзебейли (77,00±2,20 г/100 г ядер) и Фирован (75,0±3,08 г/100 ядер), по белку - Сачакли (16,02±0,50 г/100 ядер) и Ата-баба ( выделено 15,92±0,48 г/100 г ядер). Результаты этого исследования помогают лучше понять различия между некоторыми сортами фундука, выращиваемого в Азербайджане, что дает важную информацию для всех участников этого сектора. 50 ед/100 ядер) и Ата-баба (15,92±0,48 г/100 г ядер). Результаты этого исследования помогают лучше понять различия между некоторыми сортами фундука, выращиваемого в Азербайджане, что дает важную информацию для всех участников этого сектора. 50 ед/100 ядер) и Ата-баба (15,92±0,48 г/100 г ядер). Результаты этого исследования помогают лучше понять различия между некоторыми сортами фундука, выращиваемого в Азербайджане, что дает важную информацию для всех участников этого сектора.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: sensory profile; chemical profile; gas chromatography; odor identification; Dr. Westerlund; Pelargonium graveolens
Online: 29 April 2023 (05:03:07 CEST)
The positive impact of nature on human health has been explored by researchers. Although studies have indicated that olfaction and odors have an impact on both memory and health, re-search on the odor perception in relation to perceived health is scarce. A recent study found that the naturenatural scent from stem cuttings and potted plants of a specific rose-scented geranium Pelargonium graveolens, ‘Dr. Westerlund,’Westerlund’ had positive effects on stress-related mental disorders. reduction. Essential oils from many Pelargonium species, in particular ‘Dr. Westerlund’, are known to have phytochemical properties and pharmacological activities. No study has, so far, explored and identified the chemical com-pounds and the sensory perception of these compounds in stem cuttings and the potted ´Dr. Westerlund´ plantplants. Such knowledge would be an important contribution forto an increased understanding of the effects of plants’ chemical odor properties on human well-being and link this to the expressed perceived scents. Resulting sensory profiles of P.This study aimed to identify the sensory profile and suggest responsible chemical compounds of Pelargonium graveolens ´Dr. Westerlund´ as a potted plant and as stem cuttings were reported, as well as´. The sensory and chemical analysis results revealed sensory profiles of Pelargonium graveolens ´Dr. Westerlund´s, and suggestions for the chemical compounds that are attributed to the sensory profiles. Further studies are recommended to investigate the odor experience of scented pelargonium species in relation to various levels ofcorrelation between volatile com-pounds and possible stress hormones. reduction in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0632.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Grapevine; Abiotic stress; Non coding RNA; CircRNA; Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins; Back-splicing
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:33:56 CEST)
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) served as covalently closed single-stranded RNAs have been proposed to influence plant development and stress resistance. Grapevine is the most economically valuable fruit crops cultivated worldwide and threaten by various abiotic stresses. Herein, we reported that a circRNA (Vv-circPTCD1) processed from the second exon of a pentatricopeptide repeat family gene PTCD1 was preferentially expressed in leaves and responded to salt and drought but not heat stress in grapevine. Additionally, the second exon sequence of PTCD1 was highly conserved but the biogenesis of Vv-circPTCD1 is species-dependent in plants. It was further found that the overexpressed Vv-circPTCD1 can slightly decreased abundance of the cognate host gene and the neighboring genes were barely affected in grapevine callus. Furthermore, we also successfully overexpressed the Vv-circPTCD1, and found that the Vv-circPTCD1 deteriorated the growth during heat, salt, and drought stresses in Arabidopsis. However, the biological effects on grapevine callus were not always consistent with that of Arabidopsis. Interestingly, we found that the transgenic plants of linear counterpart sequence also conferred the same phenotypes as that of circRNA during the three stress conditions, no matter what species. Those results imply that although the sequences are conserved, the biogenesis and functions of Vv-circPTCD1 are species-dependent. Our results indicate that the plant circRNA function investigation should be conducted in homologous species, which support valuable reference for further plant circRNA studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0594.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: cold stratification; gibberellic acid; seed dormancy; barberry; endemic species; germination
Online: 19 April 2023 (13:31:49 CEST)
Berberis koreana Palibin is an endemic plant native to Korea. In this study, we aimed to study seed germination in this species using a water imbibition experiment, gibberellic acid (GA3) treat-ment (0, 10, 100, or 1000 mg·L−1), cold stratification (0, 2, 4, 8, or 12 weeks at 4 °C), a move-along experiment, and phenology studies. In the water imbibition experiment, the weight of the seeds increased by more than 120% in 24 h. Analysis of the internal and external morphological char-acteristics of the seed revealed that the embryo was already fully grown from the fruit and did not grow thereafter. The final germination percentages for cold stratification at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks at 4 °C were 12, 32, 59, 59, and 71%, respectively. In the move-along experiment and phe-nology studies, a longer low-temperature treatment period resulted in a higher germination percentage. However, the GA3 treatment had little effect on seed germination. Our results indi-cate that B. koreana exhibits intermediate physiological seed dormancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum; flavonoid biosynthesis; anthocyanins; flower coloring; metabolomic; transcriptomic.
Online: 18 April 2023 (02:28:00 CEST)
The Loropetalum chinense and Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum are typical and traditional ornamental and Chinese herbal medicine in Asia. However, more information is needed on the mechanisms underlying its flower coloring. Here, we profiled the flavonoid metabolome, full-length sequencing, and transcriptome analysis to investigate the flavonoid biosynthesis and global transcriptome changes among different petal coloring cultivars of L. chinense and L. chinense var. rubrum. The total anthocyanins and phenotypic of the petal were highly consistent with the petal color. Moreover, a total of 207 flavonoid components were identified. Of these, 12 flavonoid components were considered significantly different expression compounds among the four samples. Meanwhile, the first reference full-length transcriptome of L. chinense var. rubrum was being built, which had 171,783 high-quality non-redundant transcripts with correcting with next-generation sequencing (NGS). Among them, 52,851 transcripts were annotated in the seven database of NR, KOG, GO, NT, Pfam, Swiss-Port and KEGG. Combined with NGS analysis, the DETs involved in flavonoids and anthocyanins contributed greatest to the flower-coloring. Additionally, the different expressed of eight LcDFRs and four LcANS genes were positively correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis, and the four LcBZ1 and one Lc3Mat1 were positively correlated with the content of seven anthocyanins revealed by coupling with metabolomics and transcriptomics analysis. Together these results were used to mine candidate genes by analyzing flower coloring changes in a comprehensive metabolic and transcriptomic level in L. chinense and L. chinense var. rubrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0425.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Enteric pathogens; hydroponic; nutrient solution; Salmonella; Listeria mono-cytogenes; Listeria innocua; lettuce; temperature
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:54:47 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the persistence of Salmonella Javiana, Listeria monocytogenes, and Listeria innocua in hydroponic nutrient solution (NS) at 15, 25, 30, and 37°C over a 21-day period to mimic time from seedling to mature lettuce. Bacteria were inoculated in modified Hoagland's NS at 106 CFU/ml and maintained at 15, 25, 30, and 37°C. Samples were collected at various time points and quantified. Data were analyzed using a mixed effect model to compare mean log CFU/ml obtained from each sampling point for all three bacteria at four different temperatures. Least mean squares were calculated to compare mean log CFU/ml. Tukey-Kramer honest significant difference test was used to compare mean values. At all temperatures, S. Javiana persisted in NS throughout the 21-day study period, compared to L. innocua and L. monocytogenes where persistence was limited to d 5 to d 14 and d 1 to d 14, respectively. Similarly, decimal reduction values (D-values) of S. Javiana indicated longer persistence in nutrient solution than L. innocua and L. monocytogenes at most temperatures. For instance, at 15°C and 25°C D-values for S. Javiana were estimated at 82 and 26 d, respectively, compared to D-values of 3.6 and ~3 d for L. monocytogenes. Data indicate that temperature has minimal effect on S. Javiana and thus may pose a greater risk during hydroponic production of leafy greens due to longer survival in NS when compared to Listeria spp. This study furthers the understanding of potential food safety risks associated with hydroponic systems and may aid in developing management strategies to reduce foodborne outbreaks, fresh produce recalls, and economic losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum L.; chemical, organic and biological fertilization; antioxidants; minerals
Online: 11 April 2023 (10:42:00 CEST)
Tomato is considered the most important vegetable crop worldwide. Improving the nutritional value of fruits must be based on sustainable production in terms of varieties and fertilization management. This study aimed to improve the nutritional value (total soluble solids, acidity, lycopene, β-carotene, polyphenols, macro and microelements) of two tomato varieties (‘Cristal’ and ‘Siriana’) under three fertilization types (NPK chemical fertilizer, chicken manure and biological fertilizer with microorganisms) for the greenhouse. Primary metabolism compounds do not vary significantly according to the type of fertilizer used. The results for the antioxidant compounds showed a better effect of biological fertilization compared to chemical fertilizer and control unfertilized. The tomato fruits from the local cultivar (‘Siriana’) are richer in nutritional compounds such as rutin, regardless of the type of fertilization, which denotes a good ability to adapt to crop conditions. Tomato cultivars reacted positively to microbiological fertilization compare to chemical, thus producing nutritious fruits under sustainable management. Tomato fruits were richer in the quality of microelement contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Winterberg model; Planck particles; positive and negative mass Planck particles; planckions; quantum vacuum; space as a superfluid/ supersolid; extended models for space; cosmological constant; Higgs field as a composite particle; Higgs boson; inherent length scale for the vacuum; dark energy; cosmological scaling behavior for the quantum vacuum; variable G models; extended gravity; Newton’s constant as an order parameter; high energy behavior for the vacuum
Online: 20 March 2023 (03:40:46 CET)
We work within a Winterberg framework where space, i.e., the vacuum, consists of a two component superfluid/super-solid made up of a vast assembly (sea) of positive and negative mass Planck particles, called planckions. These material particles interact indirectly, and have very strong restoring forces keeping them a finite distance apart from each other within their respective species. Because of their mass compensating effect, the vacuum appears massless, charge-less, without pressure, net energy density or entropy. In addition, we consider two variable models, where, , is Newton’s constant, and, , increases with an increase in cosmological time. We argue that there are at least two competing models for the quantum vacuum within such a framework. The first follows a strict extension of Winterberg’s model. This leads to nonsensible results, if increases, going back in cosmological time, as the length scale inherent in such a model will not scale properly. The second model introduces a different length scale, which does scale properly, but keeps the mass of the Planck particle as, the Planck mass. Moreover we establish a connection between ordinary matter, dark matter, and dark energy, where all three mass densities within the Friedman equation must be interpreted as residual vacuum energies, which only surface, once aggregate matter has formed, at relatively low temperatures. The symmetry of the vacuum will be shown to be broken, because of the different scaling laws, beginning with the formation of elementary particles. Much like waves on an ocean where positive and negative planckion mass densities effectively cancel each other out and form a zero vacuum energy density/ zero vacuum pressure surface, these positive mass densities are very small perturbations (anomalies) about the mean. This greatly alleviates, i.e., minimizes the cosmological constant problem, a long standing problem associated with the vacuum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0574.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Drought; Melatonin; Peroxidase; Photosynthesis; Stress
Online: 31 January 2023 (06:21:55 CET)
Melatonin (MT) controls various physiological functions and enhances plant drought tolerance in response to environmental stressors, including water deficit. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exogenous MT on the morphophysiological attributes of Ranunculus asiaticus under normal and drought conditions. R. asiaticus seedlings were divided into drought-stress and control groups and subjected to foliar application of MT at various concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) four times during the study. The drought-stress group exhibited considerably decreased shoot length, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry vegetative weights, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and relative water content; delayed emergence of flower stalks; and increased relative electrolyte leakage compared with well-watered plants. Conversely, foliar application of MT notably increased growth parameters compared with their no-treatment counterparts. Foliar treatment with 200 µM MT resulted in the most significant growth response in R. asiaticus under normal or drought-stress conditions. Moreover, compared with no treatment, exogenously applied MT induced the appearance of flower buds and increased relative water and proline contents as well as peroxidase activity while reducing electrolyte leakage. Regarding tolerance index percentages, higher peroxidase and proline contents indicated their suitability for use as markers for drought tolerance, supporting the effective role of exogenous MT in enhancing the adaptability of Ranunculus to drought stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: asexual reproduction; Ericaceae; growth regulator; rooting rate; stem cutting
Online: 6 January 2023 (01:27:14 CET)
Studies on the cutting propagation of plants belonging to the genus Rhododendron are limited to R. mucronulatum and R. yedoense, which are mainly used as ornamental flowering trees, and additional studies on a greater variety of species are required. This study examined the characterisitics of cutting propagation according to treatment with growth regulators indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to generate basic data on the methods of reproducing R. micarnthum Turcz.. The number of roots (r=0.740**), length of root (r=0.844**), and number of leaves (r=0.649**) affected the rooting rate of R. micarnthum Turcz., and the number of roots (r=0.646**), length of roots (r=0.673**), number of leaves (r=0.738**), and chlorophyll content (r=0.710**) affected the survival rate. Further, the rooting and survival rates were highly correlated (r=0.794**). The growth characteristics of underground sections after growth regulator treatment were as follows: the number of formed roots was 7.0 and 7.2, and the length of roots was 6.2 cm and 5.3 cm in 150 mg·L-1 and 250 mg·L-1 NAA treatment groups, respectively. The rooting rate was 60% or above in the growth regulator treatment groups compared to that in the control group. Particularly, the rooting rates of 150 mg·L-1 and 250 mg·L-1 NAA treatment groups were 90% or above, and the latent period before rooting was shorter than other treatment groups at approximately 14 days, which was considered to be effective for root growth. The aboveground growth characteristics after propagating the cuttings showed that groups treated with 150 mg·L-1 and 250 mg·L-1 NAA showed a significantly higher plant length (5.2-5.8 cm), number of leaves (6.2 and 6.9), and leaf-length and leaf-width as compared to other treatment groups. Moreover, the survival rates of 150 mg·L-1 and 250 mg·L-1 NAA treatment groups were 80% or above, and the sound root growth manifested in the tendency of good aboveground growth. Additionally, IBA and NAA were highly correlated to the rooting and survival rates during cutting propagation of R. micarnthum Turcz.. The rooting and survival rates increased with the increase in growth regulator concentration. Particularly, NAA had a higher correlation to the rooting and survival rates than IBA (r=0.7316**, 0.7013**). Thus, R. micarnthum Turcz. could be propagated through cutting. Growth regulator treatment with 150 mg·L-1 and 250 mg·L-1 of NAA was effective for rooting and root growth of cutting, and these treatments were considered appropriate because the effects of aboveground growth were positive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0031.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Commercial building environments; Electric lighting; Green walls; Plant growth and health
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:09:50 CET)
This study demonstrates the possibility of growing green walls in normal commercial building environments with lighting designed primarily for aesthetic reasons, rather than the promotion of plant growth. Lighting is a key resource required for the growth and maintenance of robust green walls within interior environments. The study evaluated the appearance and growth of green walls with electric lighting used primarily for aesthetic reasons. Three identical green walls with six different plants were illuminated using three different white LED light sources for a period of five months. Plant health was monitored and documented in terms of growth patterns. One hundred and six subjects appraised the appearance of the walls using questionnaires. Findings of this study indicate that it is indeed possible to grow and maintain green walls in normal commercial building environments with lighting designed for aesthetic reasons. Further, it was observed that the selection of the correct plant species for the green walls is important to ensure plant health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: peach (Prunus persica); postharvest preservation; antagonistic yeasts; Na-alginate film; Antifungal activity
Online: 1 December 2022 (09:50:12 CET)
Abstract: To reduce the indiscriminate use of pesticides and extend the postharvest shelf life of peach fruit (cv. Baihua) from southeast China, microbial antagonism of indigenous yeasts was mainly studied and applied in construction of composite film. After isolation, purification, cultivation and identification, a total of 14 yeast strains from 9 genera were screened out from the surface of peaches. By experimental analysis of in vitro inhibition zone and in vivo colonizing capacity, Candida oleophila sp-ELPY12B and Cryptococcus laurentii sp-ELPY15A, which have conservative structure of D1/D2 domain sequences and were considered as new species by phylogenetic analysis, were finally chosen as fungicides against the major pathogens. In combination of Na-alginate film (0.4 % glycerin as plasticizer and 0.1 % Tween-80 as emulsifier), the preservative effects of composite-treated groups (1 × 108 CFU mL−1 of Candida oleophila sp-ELPY12B and Cryptococcus laurentii sp-ELPY15A) showed best antifungal effects, which significantly delayed the postharvest preservation period about 6 - 7 d under ambient temperature of 25 ± 3°C and relative humidity of 50 - 70%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: ammonium transport; flowering Chinese cabbage; NH4+; NO3-; ion influx; overexpression
Online: 16 November 2022 (10:20:07 CET)
Nitrogen (N) is a major limiting factor for plant growth and vegetable production. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of N uptake, transport, and assimilation is key to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play an important role in plant N metabolism. In this study, we isolated an important AMT1 subfamily member (BcAMT1;5) with a highly conserved signatural AMT1 subfamily motif from flowering Chinese cabbage. Based on functional complementation in yeast mutant 31019b and overexpression of BcAMT1;5 in Arabidopsis, BcAMT1;5 is a functional ammonium transporter. Tissue expression analysis showed that BcAMT1;5 was mainly expressed in roots and showed multiple N regime transcript patterns to respond to varying nutritional conditions. This was up-regulated by N-deficiency and down-regulated by supplying NH4+. The glucuronidase (GUS) activities of BcAMT1;5pro::GUS showed a similar change in response to different N conditions. Overexpression of BcAMT1;5 accelerated the growth of transgenic seedlings, increased NH4+ net influxes, and enhanced the content and accumulation of NH4+ and NO3- at low N concentrations. Additionally, it increased the transcript levels of N assimilation-related genes in shoots. These results indicate that the transcriptional regulation of BcAMT1;5 in flowering Chinese cabbage may participate in N uptake and assimilation under various N conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0101.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum; mycorrhizae; Trichoderma; Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria; biostimulants; fruit quality
Online: 7 November 2022 (02:32:57 CET)
Microbial-based biostimulants containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Trichoderma fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been applied in an open-field tomato cultivation. A two-years field experiment (2020-2021) was performed in Southern Italy on “Heinz 1534” processing tomato hybrid, using three commercial formulations characterized by different microbial consortia (MIC: Glomus spp., Rhizophagus spp., Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp., Pichia spp., Trichoderma spp.; EKO: Glomus spp., Bacillus spp., Streptomyces spp., Pseudomonas spp., Arthrobotrys spp., Monacrosporium spp., Paecilomyces spp., Myrothecium spp., Trichoderma spp.; FID: Glomus spp., Bacillus spp., Trichoderma spp.) and comparing them to untreated control (CTRL). The effect of growing season and microorganism-based treatments on yield, technological traits and functional quality of tomato fruits was assessed. The year of cultivation (Y) affected yield (with lower fruit weight, higher marketable to total yield ratio and higher % of total defected fruits in 2020), and technological components (higher dry matter, total acidity, total soluble solids in 2020). During the first year of the trial, all evaluated treatments (MIC, EKO and FID) enhanced soluble solids content by 10%, on average, compared to CTRL. Sucrose and lycopene contents were influenced both by the microbial-based treatments and the growing season (greater values found in 2021 with respect to the first year). Y factor also significantly affected all evaluated metabolites contents, except for tyrosine, essential (EAA) and branched-chain (BCAAs) amino acids. Over two years of field trial, FID biostimulant enhanced the contents of proteins (+53.71%), alanine (+16.55%), aspartic acid (+31.13%), γ-aminobutyric acid (+76.51%), glutamine (+55.17%), glycine (+28.13%), monoethano-lamine (+19.57%), total amino acids (+33.55), essential amino acids (+32.56%) and branched-chain amino acids (+45.10%) compared to the untreated control. Our findings highlighted the valuable effect of FID microbial inoculant in boosting several primary metabolites (proteins and amino acids) in the fruits of processing tomato crop grown under Southern Italy environmental condi-tions, although no effect on yield and its components was appreciated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: GABA; hardy kiwifruit; respiration rate; ethylene; storage
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:26:48 CEST)
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an important role in plant development and postharvest properties of fruits. However, studies on regulation of kiwifruit ripening by GABA are scarce. Here, we evaluted physicochemical characters and the expression profile of genes related to ripening in hardy kiwifruit treated with exogenous GABA compared to control during postharvest storage period. The results showed that (1) exogenous GABA treatment not only improved the fruit quality but also inhibited respiration rate and ethylene production, as well as reduced the enzyme activities of ACC oxidase (ACO) and ACC synthase (ACS), via down-regulating the expression of AaACO1 and AaACO3, AaACS1 and AaACS2 during kiwifruit storage period; (2) on the one hand, overexpression of AaGAD1 or AaGAD4 gene which is involved in GABA biosynthesis inhibited ethylene production by reducing the enzyme activities of ACO and ACS, whereas silencing of AaGAD1 or AaGAD4 gene led to the reverse effect. On the other hand, overexpression of AaGAD1 or AaGAD4 decreased the expression levels of AaACO1 and AaACO3, AaACS1 and AaACS2, whereas silencing of AaGAD1 or AaGAD4 gene increased the expression levels of these four genes. Above all, our findings demonstrate that exogenous GABA treatment could improve the storage quality and extend the shelf life of kiwifruit, Additionally, the content of GABA was participated in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis at the molecular level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Walnut diversity; germplasm evaluation; late-leafing; pomological characteristics; superior geno-types
Online: 22 September 2022 (08:47:22 CEST)
Evaluating genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations is a rapid approach used by walnut breeding programs to distinguish superior genotypes. The present study identified the Hamedan province walnut population as one of the richest, most genetically diverse regions in Iran during 2019-2020. After initial screening, 47 genotypes were selected for further evaluation of pomological and phenological traits based on International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) descriptors. Nut and kernel weights among the selected genotypes ranged between 7.15-21.05 g and 3.0-10.8 g, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) categorized genotypes into three distinct groups while cluster analysis (CA) further categorized genotypes into one of four groups. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation (P <0.01) between nut weight (NWT), nut size, and kernel weight (KW) while a negative correlation (P <0.01) between shell thickness (STH) and packing tissue thickness (PTT) with kernel percentage (KP) was observed. Lastly, 10 of 47 genotypes (TAL8, TAL9, TAL10, TAL14, TAL19, TAL22, TB2, TB4, TB6, and RDGH5) were considered superior. Superior genotypes were late-leafing (25-40 days after the standard) and displayed a lateral bearing (LB) habit with heavy nuts (12.52–16.82 g) and kernels (6.53–8.15 g), thin-shells (1.06–1.25 mm), and lightly-colored kernels. Cuttings of superior genotypes were then grafted in the orchard. Detecting superior and late-leafing genotypes in this investigation suggests cultivars resistant to late-spring frost may soon be isolated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0537.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Pepino; Metabolome; Soil nutrients; Association analysis
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:18:32 CEST)
Different soil nutrients affect plant metabolites accumulation characteristics. The main soil nutrients and their correlation with Pepino metabolites were investigated in this study to evaluate differences between greenhouses on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. A total of 269 Pepino metabolites in the fruits were identified using a UPLC-QTOF-MS approach from plants grown in three major Pepino growing regions. Their differential distribution characteristics were analyzed. 99 metabolites differed among the Pepino fruits in the three regions. The main classes of the differentially accumulated metabolites were ranked as Amino acids and derivatives, Nucleotides and derivatives, Organic acids, Alkaloids, Vitamins, Saccharides and Alcohols, Phenolic acids, Lipids, and others. Environmental factor analysis indicated that soil nutrients were the primary differentiating factor. Five soil nutrient indicators: TN（total nitrogen）, TP（total phosphorus）, AP（available phosphorus）, AK（available potassium）, and OM（organic matter）, exhibited significant differences in three growing sites. Metabolite and soil nutrient association analysis using redundancy analysis (RDA) and Mantel test indicated that TNand OM contributed to the accumulation of amino acids and derivatives, nucleotides and derivatives, and alkaloids while inhibiting organic acids, vitamins coagulation biosynthesis. Moreover, AP and TP were associated with the highest accumulation of saccharides and, alcohols, phenolic acids. Consequently, differences in soil nutrients were reflected in Pepino metabolites variability. This study clarified the metabolite variability and the relationship between Pepino and soil nutrients in the main planting areas of northwest China. It provides a theoretical basis for the subsequent development of Pepino's nutritional value and cultivation management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: oriental melon; squash; graft; exogenous naphthylacetic acid; transcriptomic analysis; endogenous hormone; signal transduction; ROS scavenging; vascular bundle formation
Online: 19 May 2022 (03:22:20 CEST)
The plant graft healing process is an intricate development influenced by numerous endogenous and environmental factors. This process involves the histological changes, physiological and biochemical reactions, signal transduction, and hormone exchanges in the grafting junction. Studies have shown that applying exogenous plant growth regulators can effectively promote the graft healing process and improve the quality of grafted plantlets. However, the physiological and molecular mechanism of graft healing formation remains unclear. In our present study, transcriptome changes in the melon and cucurbita genomes were analyzed between control and NAA treatment, and we provided the first view of complex networks to regulate graft healing under exogenous NAA application. The results showed that the exogenous NAA application could accelerate the graft healing process of oriental melon scion grafted onto squash rootstock through histological observation, increase the SOD, POD, PAL, and PPO activities during graft union development and enhance the contents of IAA, GA3, and ZR except for the IL stage. The DEGs were identified in the plant hormone signal-transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and phenylalanine metabolism through transcriptome analysis of CK vs. NAA at the IL, CA, and VB stage by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Moreover, the exogenous NAA application significantly promoted the expression of genes involved in the hormone signal-transduction pathway, ROS scavenging system, and vascular bundle formation.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Reflectance; Ocimum basilicum; Colour sensor; Phenotyping
Online: 25 March 2022 (08:44:33 CET)
Modern agriculture demands for comprehensive information about the plant itself. Conventional chemistry-based analytical methods - due to their low throughput and high associated cost - are no longer capable of providing these data. In recent years, remote reflectance-based characterization has developed as one of the most promising solutions for rapid assessments for plant attributes. However, in many cases, expensive equipment is required because accurate quantifications need assessment of the full reflectance spectrum. We examined the versatility of visible colour sensors as reflectance measuring devices for biological / biochemical quantifications on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Our results indicate for the wide potential of spectral colour sensors for quantitative determination of leaf phenolic compounds, flavonoids in particular, and non-invasive plant phenotyping in agricultural applications by low-cost sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Quality; MDA; Bitter pit; superficial scald; chilling
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:56:33 CET)
The present research intents to study the evolution of the skin fatty acids and physiological disorders through cold storage in ‘Golden Delicious’ apples treated with 1-MCP and calcium. Harvested fruit were treated with calcium chloride (Ca), 1-MCP (MCP), Ca+MCP or no treatment (control) then subjected to cold storage at 0.5 ºC for 6 months. Fatty acids composition, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and the physiological disorders bitter pit (BP), superficial scald and diffuse skin browning (DSB) were measured at harvest and after storage plus 7 days shelf-life at room temperature ≈22 ºC. Palmitic acid decreased and linoleic acid increased through time, while oleic and stearic acids had few changes. Unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and MDA increased through time, despite Ca and Ca+MCP were related to lower MDA and lower BP and rotten fruit, after cold storage and shelf-life. In those treatments, the unsaturated/saturated fatty acids were higher, mainly due to higher linoleic acid and lower palmitic acids. Further research is needed to clarify the changes in membrane properties and the effect of some treatments in response to chilling injury through storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Central Europe; climate warming; flowering; frost damage; genetic variability; historical roses; climber roses; seasonality; spring phenology; winter hardiness
Online: 20 December 2021 (12:38:55 CET)
The genetic pool of valuable old ornamental cultivars and their in situ maintenance may be threated by climate change. Meanwhile, the ornamental plants like roses make up an important share of both gardens and urban green spaces, where they are particularly vulnerable to multistress growth conditions. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of changing climatic conditions on growth and flowering of 11 historic climber roses through long-term studies (2000-2017) conducted in Central Europe. The evaluation of plants consisted of assessment of frost damage and the timing of early phenological stages (starting of bud break, leaf unfolding) as well as gathering data on beginning, fullness and end of flowering and its abundance. Frost damage was not recorded in any year only in ‘Mme Plantier’, and did not occur for any cultivar after the winter in the years 2007, 2008, and 2014. Only a little damage to one-year shoots was recorded after the winter in the years 2015-2017. Frost damage to ‘Alberic Barbier’, ‘Albertine’, ‘Chaplin's Pink Climber’, ‘Orange Triumph clg’ and ‘Venusta Pendula’ led to pruning to ground level in every year excluding those listed above. Frost damage of once blooming roses limited their flowering; however, the many-year data-sets showed a trend for decreased frost damage and improved abundance of flowering, and these results can be interpreted as a response to the increase of average air temperature. The timing of bud breaking and leaf development in all climber roses was strictly correlated with average air temperature in the dormancy period. The reactions of climber roses to weather conditions confirmed the influence of climatic changes on ornamental crop plants in Central Europe, introducing the potential possibility for the wider application of climber roses, but without certainty of flowering every year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: replant disease; Malus; free-living nematodes; bacteria; fungi; rhizosphere; nematode-microbe association; disease complex; metabarcoding; nematode community
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:34:03 CET)
Apple replant disease is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries. Evidence for the involvement of a nematode-microbe disease complex was reported. To search for this complex, plots with a history of apple replanting, and control plots cultivated for the first time with apple were sampled in two fields in two years. Shoot weight drastically decreased with each replanting. Nematodes were extracted from soil samples by floatation-centrifugation, washed on a 20 µm-sieve, and used for DNA extraction. Nematode communities and co-extracted fungi and bacteria were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of amplified ribosomal fragments. The nematode community and co-extracted fungal and bacterial communities significantly differed between replanted and control plots. Free-living nematodes of the genera Aphelenchus, Cephalenchus, and an unidentified Dorylaimida were associated with replanted plots, as indicated by linear discriminant analysis effect size. Among the co-extracted fungi and bacteria, Mortierella was most indicative of replanting. Some genera, mostly Rhabditis, indicated healthy control plots. Isolating and investigating the putative disease complexes will help to understand and alleviate stress-induced root damage of apple in replanted soil.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: agroecology; participatory research; web application; traceability
Online: 17 December 2021 (15:07:16 CET)
Agroecology, defined as the ecological science of food production is also as practical approach to design food production systems based on local concerted solutions that aim to promote synergy among the diversity of human and non human food systems elements. These two facets makes agroecology a good candidate for participatory research. Information technology should help using this information for the production of structured scientific knowledge. In this respect, there is a need for information technology that is adaptive to encompass the diversity of within and between systems and that provide benefit to farmers that feed it with data. We present MiCampoApp, a webapp that aims to join participatory research and certification in agroecology, with two roles, the farmer and the administrator. The idea to join participatory research for decision support with certification for market differentiation in single system is that much of the certification data harbors information for scientific research, and this incentivize data collection for the interest of the farmer and the community. The administrator create a model for data collection in order to solve a research question of interest for a communities or to produce traceability information to feed participatory guarantee system in a community. The farmer collects information using simple icons and produces traceability pages for research or certification purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Lower bed single row; plant weight; fruit texture; crop growth
Online: 18 November 2021 (17:31:31 CET)
Abstract: A lower bed single row for pineapple cultivation could protect pineapple from soil erosion in rainy season and during drought, however, disease problem could arise due to water logging. Two experiments using a lower bed single row was done to understand the ability of gypsum providing soil calcium (Ca) available to pineapple plant, resistance to heart rot disease, and give better effect on crop growth and fruit quality of the pineapple in Ultisol soil. In the first trial, four level dosis of gypsum (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 Mg ha-1) and dolomite 2 Mg ha-1 were applied by spreading and incorporated into the soil which have saturated with inoculums of Phytophthora nicotianae. In the second trial, gypsum treatments (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 Mg ha-1) were applied in the row between the single row beds as a basic fertilizer. The result showed that P. nicotianae attacked the pineapple plants in all treatments at 6 weeks after planting (WAP), and at 10 WAP, the mortality of dolomite treatment reached 63.8%, significantly different than that for gypsum treatments (3.3-14.3%). In the second experiment, gypsum increased plant weight significantly at 3 until 9 months after planting especially when it was applied 1.5-2.5 Mg ha-1. Fruit texture, total soluble solid (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) were not significant different among the treatment but all meet the standards for grades of canned pineapple. Result showed that soil applied gypsum before planting provides soil calcium and met the plant Ca requirement during a period of early and fast growth step and safe for heart rot disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0221.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Mangifera indica; photosynthesis; stomatal limitation; enhanced UV-B radiation
Online: 12 November 2021 (12:56:40 CET)
To investigate the photosynthetic change characteristics of mango leaves under enhanced UV-B radiation, adult ‘Tainong No. 1’ mango (Mangifera indica) trees were treated (N=nine individuals) with simulated enhanced UV-B radiation [24 and 96 kJ/(m2·d)] in the field, and the photochemical reactions, activities of key enzymes in carbon assimilation, and the expression of genes were observed. The results showed that compared with the control, there was a decrease in tree yield and nutritional flavor quality of the fruits under the 96 kJ/(m2·d) treatment, while no significant changes were observed under 24 kJ/(m2·d). After 20 or 40 days, leaves’ net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Sc), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and chlorophyll a/b under exposure to 96 kJ/(m2·d) of UV-B were significantly lower than in the control, whereas chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, Hill reaction activity, photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), and Rubisco activities were significantly higher. By contrast, the Hill activity and Rubisco activity under 24 kJ/(m2·d) were significantly higher than the control, while Pn, Sc, Tr, Ci, and the content of photosynthetic pigments were similar to the control. The expression of gene coding the Rubisco big subunit (rbcL) was inhibited by the 96 kJ/(m2·d) treatment. We conclude that stomatal limitation was directly induced by 96 kJ/(m2·d), resulting in the inhibition of photosynthesis and the reduction in yield and deterioration of the quality of mango.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: UV-B radiation; Mango; Fruit maturity; Fruit quality,Photosynthesis; Photosynthetic enzymes; Gene expression
Online: 11 November 2021 (13:01:28 CET)
(1) Background: Investigating the characteristics of photosynthetic physiological changes of leaves in Mangifera indica L. cv. 'GuIfei' under enhanced UV-B radiation, natural light exposed trees were regarded as control, and 96 kJ·m-2·d-1enhanced UV-B radiation was artificially simulated in the field; (2) Methods: The changes of fruit maturity and fruit quality, leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), photosynthetic pigments contents, photochemical reaction, activities of photosynthetic enzymes and their genes expressions were determined; (3) Results: Compared with CK, the percentage of mature fruits of the treatment was significantly increased, and fruit quality was better. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), the contents of photosynthetic pigment, Hill reaction activity and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) of the treatment leaves showed a significantly higher trend than CK. The activities of Rubisco and RCA, and the expression of Rubisco genes rbcL and rbcS were significantly increased; (4) Conclusions: 96 kJ·m-2·d-1 enhanced UV-B radiation treatment improved Rubisco activity through increasing the expression of Rubisco genes rbcL and rbcS, thereby enhancing the CO2-fixing capacity and dark reaction capacity of leaves. Based on this, it raised the net photosynthetic rate of leaves, which promoted the early maturity of 'Guifei' mango by the fast accumulating photosynthetic products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Biodiversity; Fruits; Flowers; Metagenomics; Soil; Vegetables
Online: 5 November 2021 (09:55:23 CET)
Soil is a treasure trove of microbial variety, and bio-inoculants have the potential to improve the performance of horticultural crops under biotic and abiotic stress by boosting soil microbial diversity. Bio-inoculants are being developed to increase the diversity of soil microbes. The combined effects of bio-inoculants, on the other hand, result in the expansion of vegetation in the surrounding environment. Previous study on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus has shown the existence of agronomic and biochemical characteristics in horticultural crop species (AMF). Through the development of enhanced technologies for the analysis of RNA or DNA from soil, we may acquire a deeper knowledge of the microbiological diversity and functions of the planet, which are difficult to find using traditional societal approaches. It is not possible to uncover a full database of purposeful genetics, which includes both soil microorganisms and deliberate genetics. This is true for almost every soil type or circumstance. As a result of this review, this study offers suggestions for the use of bio-inoculants, the benefits of doing so, regular research strategies, and long-term research directions.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Tagetes; marigold; apple replant disease; nematodes; pest control; soil biome management; Malus
Online: 13 October 2021 (15:37:51 CEST)
Apple replant disease (ARD) is a severe problem in orchards and tree nurseries caused by yet unknown soil biota that accumulate over replanting cycles. This study tested the contribution of nematodes to ARD, and cultivation of Tagetes as a control option. In a pot experiment, Tagetes patula or Tagetes tenuifolia were grown in ARD soil, incorporated or removed. Nematodes extracted from untreated ARD soil and washed on 20 µm-sieves induced ARD symptoms when inoculated to apple saplings growing in a sterile substrate. In contrast, nematodes from Tagetes treated ARD soil did not reduce root growth compared to uninoculated plants, irrespective of Tagetes species and incorporation. In plots of five apple tree nurseries or orchards, either Tagetes or grass was grown on ARD soil. Nematodes extracted from the grass plots and inoculated to apple saplings significantly reduced plant growth compared to nematodes from Tagetes plots for all five farms. Apple rootstocks showed overall a significantly higher increase in shoot base diameter when grown on Tagetes-treated plots compared to grass plots, while this effect differed among farms. Plant-parasitic nematodes were too low in abundance to explain plant damage. In conclusion, the free-living nematodes involved in ARD can be controlled by Tagetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: stress tolerance; biological mechanisms; biotic/Abiotic stress; hybrid priming; high-quality seeds
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:02:07 CEST)
Farmers and seed companies constantly require high-quality seeds with excellent agronomic performance. However, faced with environmental adversity, limited natural resources and increasing food demand around the globe, more attention has turned to improving crop plant production by implementing efficient strategies. Seed priming technology has shown promising biological improvements leading to suitable agronomic performance in crop plants under adverse environmental conditions. Seeds are subjected to controlled conditions that are conducive to complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes, conferring specific stress tolerance to subsequent germination and growth conditions. In this review paper, we aimed to study the recent approaches in the efficiency of hydropriming, osmopriming, chemopriming, hormopriming, nanopriming, matrix priming, biopriming, physical priming and hybrid priming procedures in the production of crop plants under environmental adversity, as well as their biological mechanism changes. All priming methods demonstrated relevant changes in the biological mechanism related to crop plant production by mitigating salinity effects, heavy metals, and flooding stress and enhancing chilling, heat, drought and phytopathogen tolerance. We strongly recommend that researchers combine multiple priming methods, known as hybrid priming, in their investigations to provide novel technologies and additional biological approaches to enhance the knowledge of crop plant science. Thus, the findings shed light on the use of seed priming technology as a key strategy to increase crop plant production under environmental adversity by acquiring stress tolerance and enhancing agronomic traits to meet the global food demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: bud burst; Classification type; shoot bud; non-shoot bud; ‘Jonagold’; ‘Miyabi Fuji’; ‘Orin’.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:33:12 CEST)
Being able to ascertain the physiological condition of the buds on a young apple tree before bud burst could help farmers manage their orchards more efficiently, especially if they could do so without destroying the buds in the process. The experiments carried out in this study were conducted with the aim of distinguishing shoot from non-shoot buds before bud burst using a visible/near-infrared spectrometer, a device that does not destroy the buds being tested. Tests on spring-planted (April 30, 2021) trees were conducted to check shoot and non-shoot bud physiology and the winter dormancy of young ‘Jonagold’, ‘Miyabi Fuji’ and ‘Orin’ apple trees. The light absorbance of the shoot buds before bud burst was much lower than the light absorbance of the non-shoot buds as checked on the visible/near-infrared spectrometer. The highest first factor effect was determined by a PCA test conducted on shoot and non-shoot ‘Jonagold’ buds (99.9%) at a range of 640-652 nm, ‘Miyabi Fuji’ buds (99.7%) at 654-680 nm and ‘Orin’ buds (99.6%) at 704-766 nm seven days before bud burst. We also found that the highest level of accuracy, using the Classifier analysis, between shoot and non-shoot ‘Jonagold’ buds (76.6%) was one day before bud burst, for ‘Miyabi Fuji’ buds (82.1%) it was three days before and for ‘Orin’ buds (76.3%) it was two days before. These findings suggest that growers can more effectively manage the development of the young trees in their orchards with a visible/near-infrared spectrometer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0218.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: cut flower; holding solution; pretreatment; transport; sucrose
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:39:57 CEST)
Vase life is one of the most important factors that determine the marketability of cut flowers and is greatly affected by the water balance. In recent years, cut hydrangea flowers are increasingly consumed as decorations for various events. However, the vase life of cut hydrangea flowers varies greatly depending on the postharvest solution management. Therefore, this study investigated the vase life, solution uptake, water balance, and relative fresh weight of freshly harvested hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Verena’) according to the three types of holding solutions (tap water, 1% chrysal professional Ⅲ (CPⅢ), 2% sucrose + 250 mg/L 8-hydroxquinoline + 100 mg/L citric acid (SHQC)) and the combination solutions (pretreatment; tap water, 0.1% chrysal RVB (RVB), floralife quickdip (FQ), transport; tap water, CPⅢ, floralife clear (FC), preservatives; CPⅢ, FC) for each distribution stage (pretreatment-transport-consumer). In the preservative comparison experiment, compared with the control, CPⅢ treatment and SHQC treatment significantly increased the vase life in 2019 (0.7 days, 3.4 days) and 2020 (1.4 days, 3.1 days), respectively. In the comparative experiment by solution combination, the group (RVB, FQ) using the pretreatment significantly extended the vase life by 4.6 days and 5.9 days compared to the tap water treatment. It was also determined that the same treatment increased overall solution uptake, maintained water balance longer, and increased relative fresh weight. These results confirm the importance of holding solutions and pretreatments, suggesting that appropriate pretreatments and preservatives should be used to improve the marketability of cut hydrangea flowers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Cannabis; cannabinoids; nutrients; nitrogen (N); phosphorus (P); potassium (K); yield; response surface methodology
Online: 24 August 2021 (08:40:44 CEST)
Following legalization, cannabis has quickly become an important horticultural crop in Canada and increasingly so in other parts of the world. However, due to previous legal restrictions on cannabis research there are limited scientific data on the relationship between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supply (collectively: NPK) and the crop yield and quality. This study examined the response of a high delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Cannabis sativa cultivar grown in deep-water culture with different nutrient solution treatments varying in their concentrations (mg L-1) of N (70, 120, 180, 250, 290), P (20, 40, 60, 80, 100) and K (60, 120, 200, 280, 340) according to a central composite design. Results demonstrated that inflorescence yield responded quadratically to N and P, with the optimal concentrations predicted to be 194 and 59 mg L-1, respectively. Inflorescence yield did not respond to K in the tested range. These results can provide guidance to cultivators when formulating nutrient solutions for soilless cannabis production and demonstrates the utility of surface response design for efficient multi-nutrient optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0308.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: : carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase; strigolactones; wintersweet
Online: 14 August 2021 (14:36:42 CEST)
Strigolactones (SLs) regulate plant shoot development by inhibiting axillary bud growth and branching. However, the role of SLs in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) shoot branching remains unknown. Here, we identified and isolated two wintersweet genes, CCD7 and CCD8, in-volved in the SL biosynthetic pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 were down-regulated in wintersweet during branching. When new shoots were formed, expression levels of CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 were almost the same as the control (un-decapitation). CpCCD7 was expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in shoot tips and roots, while CpCCD8 showed the highest expression in roots. Both CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 localized to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis. CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 overexpression restored the phenotypes of branching mutant max3-9 and max4-1, respectively. CpCCD7 overexpression reduced the rosette branch number, whereas CpCCD8 overexpression lines showed no phenotypic differences compared with wild-type plants. Additionally, the expression of AtBRC1 was significantly up-regulated in transgenic lines, indicating that two CpCCD genes functioned similarly to the homologous genes of the Arabidopsis. Overall, our study demonstrates that CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 exhibit conserved functions in the CCD pathway, which controls shoot development in wintersweet. This research provides a molecular and theoretical basis for further understanding branch development in wintersweet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0620.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: COVID-19, Gardening Industry, COVID-19, gardening industry, horticulture, nursery and landscape, business survey
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:26:00 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced businesses to alter the way they operate. This includes, but may not be limited to, changing hours of operation, working with limited staff, and restricting customer access indoors. This could result in several challenges for businesses. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on the horticultural industry and identify the challenges for businesses). Based on our research findings, the major challenges faced by businesses were not having enough employees and inventory to keep up with consumer demand during COVID-19. We also evaluate the effect of the pandemic on the sales of different plants, gardening products/services, and the overall revenues of businesses. For different types of plants included in the survey, landscape herbaceous flowers, landscape shrubs, and landscape trees showed the most significant increase in sales. In addition, for different gardening products/services, container plants, small plants, and soil & compost showed the most significant increase in sales. 64% of the businesses indicated higher overall sales compared to same season previous year. Over 46% of the businesses reported increased sales in 2020 under COVID-19. These findings imply a greater demand potential for plants and gardening products/services from consumers, in light of this pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0627.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Raspberry Pi; undergraduate education; distance learning
Online: 25 June 2021 (15:57:46 CEST)
Online courses in horticulture increase the breadth of students who may be able to enroll. However, it is challenging to create hands-on learning experiences in online classes that are valuable for student learning. In an online introduction to horticulture class at the University of Maine, we created a hands-on project that is appropriate for students to work on independently at home. Students built an environmental monitoring system using a relatively inexpensive Raspberry Pi microcomputer and sensors for monitoring environmental factors that impact plant growth with a particular focus on monitoring temperature and humidity. They monitored the growing environment in their homes while growing house plants and used the information from their environmental monitoring system to determine whether their home environment was suitable for growing plants. Students were asked to use a pre-existing computer program in the Python language to monitor the environment. They also learned about how components of the code function and changed some simple parts of the code. A majority of students working on this project felt moderately confident, somewhat more confident, or very confident about their ability to use a Raspberry Pi microcomputer in the future. This project provides students with valuable hands-on experience in building environmental monitoring systems and provides them with a deeper understanding of the impact of the environment on plant growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0625.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.: Lythraceae); Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (Acanthococcus lager-stroemiae (Kuwana, 1907)); flowering tree; pest; producer survey; relative importance index
Online: 23 April 2021 (09:55:08 CEST)
Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.: Lythraceae) is the most popular summer flowering tree in the U.S. Its total value sold has almost doubled since 1998. Consumers prize crapemyrtles for their beauty and pest resistance. However, current crapemyrtle production and use is being threatened by crapemyrtle bark scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana, 1907)) (CMBS), which has been confirmed in 12 U.S. states after its first sighting in Texas in 2004. Our survey results indicate that producers anticipate a significant decrease in the value of crapemyrtle due to CMBS, in the magnitude of 29.93% and 33.79%, in our 2018 and 2019 surveys respectively. Our findings indicate industry demand for CMBS control. We used a non-parametric test to compare the producers’ responses to several questions regarding CMBS-control, among the different producer categories included in our sample. Incorporated businesses showed the most support, followed by part-nerships, and family/individual operations were the least supportive of science-based CMBS control research. Large businesses predicted a more serious decrease in crapemyrtles’ value as compared to smaller businesses. More businesses with high volume of crapemyrtle-related business considered the benefits of CMBS-control to be higher than its cost, as compared to other businesses. We also used a relative importance index to illustrate the ranking of different attrib-utes of crapemyrtles that producers consider while making decisions about growing/purchasing the plants. Flower color was found to be the most important attribute, followed by disease re-sistance. If the issue of CMBS gets out of control, the industry might need to find potential re-placements to crapemyrtle. The most popular landscape plants that can potentially replace crapemyrtle, in the opinion of producers we surveyed, are vitex (Texas lilac) and magnolia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0545.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: LCIA; plant protection; compost; sustainable greenhouse production
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:32:12 CET)
Italian floriculture is facing structural changes. Possible options to maintain competitiveness of the involved companies include promotion of added values, from local productions to environmental sustainability. To quantify value and benefits of cleaner production processes and choices, a holistic view is necessary, and could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Previous studies on ornamental products generally focused on data from one company or a small sample. The aim of this study was a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of two ornamental species (Cyclamen persicum Mill. and Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey) using data from a sample of 20 companies belonging to a floriculture district in Treviso, Veneto region. We also assessed the potential benefits for the environmental impact of the selected species of alternative management choices regarding plant protection and reuse of composted waste biomass. Life cycle impact assessment showed the higher impact scores for the zonal geranium, mainly as a consequence of greenhouse heating with fossil fuels. This factor, along with higher uniformity of production practices and technological level of equipment, translated in lower variability observed in comparison with cyclamen production, which shows a wider results range, in particular for eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity potentials. The application of integrated pest management had significant benefits in terms of impact reduction for acidification and human toxicity of cyclamen, while reduced use of mineral nutrients through compost amendment of growing media resulted in a reduced eutrophication potential. The achievable benefits for zonal geranium were not observable because of the dominant contribution of energy inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0426.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Rubus; cultural practice; leaf removal; flowers; fruit; floricane; trellis; cane training; pruning; management strategy
Online: 18 September 2020 (10:02:57 CEST)
Primocane-fruiting (PF) blackberries are adaptable to different production systems. To increase yields in PF blackberries, their primocanes are typically tipped or topped in summer to encourage branch formation from axillary buds below the cut. In this study, we determined in PF ‘Prime-Ark Traveler’ whether early emerging primocanes were more productive than those that emerged later in the season and the effect of primocane bending and defoliation on flowering. The primocanes that emerged in April produced 64% more flower shoots than those that emerged after May. Also, these findings indicate the alternative primocane management practices of selecting the early emerging primocanes and bending to orient primocanes horizontally and leaf removal increase budbreak and flower shoot emergence. The present work contributes toward a better understanding of primocane emergence time and orientation-flowering relations and how they mediate crop performance in PF blackberry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0243.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Daphne wolongensis; distribution; morphology; relationships; genetics; AFLP; related species; Rehdera section
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:12:31 CEST)
Daphne wolongensis described on the basis of a few known individuals was investigated in the wild, in Baoxing Valey, Sechuan. Its status of valid species was verified morphologically and genetically. Three newly found populations were compared to the closely related species Daphne retusa, D. tangutica, D. longilobata, D. acutiloba, D. sureil, to clones available in cultivation and selected cultivars. The high bootstrap values indicate a good level of genetic differentiation between each of the studied species. The hypothesis whether D. wolongensis is a hybridogenous species was rejected, it is a well-defined independent species. Based on morphological and genetic data, it seems likely that another species, D. limprichtii can be a mountain form of D. tangutica. Variability of populations in Wolong gives a good opportunity to select genotypes with a higher or better performance of combination of traits. From 51samples collected in Wolong it was possible to select the top ten different types as genetic resources for breeding. Daphne wolongensis, in the visited sites of Wolong area, occupies less than 1 km2. Together with isolated finds, the number of found individuals is less than 500 and the area is not larger than 10 km2, thus it falls to the IUCN category of “Critically Endangered” plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Browning; Modified atmosphere packaging; Moisture loss; Oriental melon; Relative humidity
Online: 3 September 2020 (11:51:34 CEST)
Oriental melons have a relatively short shelf life as they are harvested during the summer season and susceptible to cold-induced injuries. Typical chilling injury when stored at 4℃ is expressed as browning of the fruit suture. To prolong the shelf life and reduce browning of the fruit, the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), X-tend modified atmosphere (MA)/modified humidity (MH) bulk packaging (XF), and polyethylene (PE) packaging, on oriental melons were investigated during storage at 4℃ and 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. The O2 concentrations in PE packages stored at 4℃ and 10℃ ranged from 17.4–18.5%, whereas those in XF packages were reduced to 16.3–16.6%. The CO2 content of XF package (4.2–4.6%) was higher than that of PE package (1.4–1.9%) stored at 4℃ or 10℃. Relative humidity (RH) saturated in the PE packages but not in the XF packages after seven days of storage. Furthermore, PE packages performed better at maintaining melon weight and firmness than XF packages during storage at 10℃ for 14 days and under retail display conditions at 20℃. PE and XF packages effectively reduced the browning index of the peel and white linear sutures of oriental melons compared with the unpackaged control during cold storage at 4℃, and this observation was maintained at the retail display condition at 20℃. The enhanced CO2 levels, reduced O2 levels, and optimal RH values that were provided by the MAP, prevented the browning symptoms and improved the marketability and shelf life of oriental melons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids; high tunnel; greenhouse; plant factory; non-dormant; substrate; container; evergreen; high density
Online: 24 August 2020 (02:56:10 CEST)
Southern highbush blueberry plantations have been expanded into worldwide non-traditional growing areas with elite cultivars and improved horticultural practices. This article presents a comprehensive review of current production systems – alternatives to traditional open field production – such as production in protected environments, high-density plantings, evergreen production, and container-based production. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system and compare their differences to the open field production. In addition, potential solutions have been provided for some of the disadvantages. We also highlight some of the gaps existing between academic studies and production in industry, providing a guide for future academic research. All these alternative systems have shown the potential to produce high yields with high quality berries. Alternative systems, compared to the field production, require higher establishment investments and thus create an entry barrier for new producers. Nevertheless, with their advantages, alternative productions have potential to be profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0365.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: flower bud development; flower number; flower quality; Gerbera jamesonii; growth; DLI
Online: 17 August 2020 (12:01:34 CEST)
To investigate the influence of supplemental lighting intensity on the production of cut gerbera during Canada’s supplemental lighting season (November to March), trials were carried out at a research greenhouse. Five supplemental LED light intensity (LI) treatments provided canopy-level photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) ranging from 41 to 180 µmol·m-2·s-1. With a 12-h photoperiod, the treatments provided 1.76 to 7.72 mol·m-2·d-1 of supplemental light. Two cultivars of cut gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook.f) were used to evaluate vegetative growth and flower production. Plugs of ‘Ultima’ were assessed for vegetative growth and rate of flower development. There were minor LI treatment effects on number of leaves and chlorophyll content index and flowers from plants under the highest vs. lowest LI matured 10% faster. Reproductively mature ‘Panama’ plants were assessed for flower yield and quality. ‘Panama’ flowers from the highest LI treatment had shorter stems than the three lowest LI treatments, flowers from the middle LI treatment had larger diameter than the other treatments. Flowers from the lowest LI treatment had lower fresh mass than the three highest LI treatments. There were linear relationships between LI and numbers of flowers harvested, with the highest LI treatment producing 10.3 and 7.0 more total and marketable flowers per plant than the lowest LI treatment. In general, increasing levels of supplemental light had only minor effects on vegetative growth (young plants) and size and quality of harvested flowers (mature plants) but flowers from plants grown under higher LIs were more numerous and matured faster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0395.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Actinidia; waterlogging; RNA-sequencing; transcriptional adjustment
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:40:11 CEST)
Kiwifruit vines are generally sensitive to waterlogging stress. So far, molecular responses of different kiwifruit genotypes for waterlogging stress are less well-explored. In this study, using RNA-sequencing, we examined transcriptional regulation in the roots of a waterlogging-tolerant genotype KR5 (Actinidia valvata), and a sensitive genotype ‘Hayward’ (Actinidia deliciosa) subjected to 0, 12, 24, and 72 h of waterlogging. Compared with 0 h, transcriptional adjustments of these two genotypes occurred as early as 12 h and became notably pronounced 72 h after waterlogging. Waterlogging stress for 72 h promoted the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, sucrose and hexose transport, anaerobic fermentation, nitrate reduction, alanine accumulation, and reactive oxygen scavenging in both genotypes. The differential regulation of genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, phosphoglucomutase, alanine-glyoxylate transaminase, and other enzymes pointed to their diverse strategies upon waterlogging in these two genotypes. In addition, more sucrose and trehalose contents, as well as a higher activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and manganese superoxide dismutases were stimulated in KR5 roots after 72h of waterlogging than that in ‘Hayward’. Overall, our results provided more insights into the molecular basis of the waterlogging response in kiwifruit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: crop genetics; Solanum tuberosum; abiotic stress; phenylpropanoids; essential amino acid; transcriptome; small RNA; comparative genomics; nutrition
Online: 18 June 2020 (09:15:21 CEST)
Potato is among one of the most important food crops, yet maintaining plant productivity in this drought-sensitive crop has become a challenge. Competition for scarce water resources and the continued effects of global warming exacerbate current constraints on crop production. While plants’ response to drought in above-ground tissues has been well documented, the regulatory cascades in developing tubers have been largely unexplored. Using the commercial Canadian cultivar ‘Vigor’, plants were subjected to a drought treatment under high-tunnels causing a 4 ℃ increase in canopy temperature when compared to the well-watered control. Tubers were sampled for RNAseq and metabolite analysis. Approximately 2600 genes and 3898 transcripts were differentially expressed by at least four-fold in drought-stressed potato tubers, with 75 % and 69 % being down-regulated respectively. A further 229 small RNAs were implicated in gene regulation during drought. The comparison of protein homologues between Solanum tuberosum L. and Arabidopsis thaliana L. indicates that downregulated genes are associated with phenylpropanoid, carotenoid, and patatin biosynthesis. This suggests that there may be nutritive implications to drought stress occurring during the potato tuber bulking phase in sensitive cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0172.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Fertilization System; Horticulture; Machine Learning; Hydroponics; Smart Farm
Online: 14 June 2020 (13:00:27 CEST)
We present an automated system for nutrient solution management. Prior arts usually measure only pH and EC of the nutrient solutions for maintenance. When EC drops, they just simply add concentrated nutrient to the horticulture bed. Such approach can maintain the density of nutrient solution but cannot maintain the rates of individual ion particles. To prevent nutrition related disorders, fertilization methods with ion selective electrodes are widely introduced. This trend measures individual ion concentration of nutrient solution to maintain appropriate nutrient composition by supplying only insufficient ions. Many researchers have suggested ISE based automated fertilization systems. However, they failed to control a chemical artifact called ion interference effect, which becomes greater at higher density. Our system measures individual concentration of multiple ions and add only deficient nutrients, while handling the ion interference effect issue. To ensure the performance of ion selective electrodes, the system also performs fully automated 3-point calibration 24 times a day. A machine learning algorithm is applied on the sensory parts to remove ion interference effect which make measurement of complex solution with ISE almost impossible. With automated calibration and signal processing technology, the system robustly and continuously maintains nutrient condition for plants. We suggest applying this system on closed hydroponic systems such as smart farms or plant factory, to reduce water consumption and to provide more appropriate environment for the crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: blue light; calcium; iron; magnesium; potassium; red light
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:44:20 CET)
The current study investigated the impacts of light quality and different levels of fertility on mineral nutrient concentrations in shoot and root tissues of Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra). ‘Green Lance’ Chinese kale were grown under: 1) fluorescent/incandescent light; 2) 10% blue (447 ± 5 nm) / 90% red (627 ± 5 nm) LED light; 3) 20% blue / 80% red LED light; and 4) 40% blue / 60% red LED light as sole-source lighting at two different levels of fertility. All plants were harvested 30 d after seeding, and shoot and root tissues were analyzed for mineral nutrients. Lighting and fertility interacted to influence kale shoot and root mineral nutrient concentrations. Results indicate sole-source LED lighting used in production can impact mineral nutritional values of baby leafy greens now popular for the packaged market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: cis-regulatory element; data mining; NBS-LRR resistance genes; Zucchini
Online: 5 January 2020 (17:22:10 CET)
Although Cucurbita pepo is one of the most variable species of the plant kingdom, Zucchini morphotype has undergone intensive breeding that has led to a narrow genetic base making the crop vulnerable to pest and diseases. This vulnerability makes the knowledge of resistance genes of utmost importance. In this study, a data mining search of Zucchini summer squash genome database was conducted to identify and annotate members of the NBS-encoding gene family. In order to characterize the retrieved genes in detail, they have been studied in the bases of phylogenetic relationships, structural diversity, conserved protein motifs, gene duplications and promoter region analysis. Our study shows that the NBS-encoding gene family is relatively small in Zucchini (34 members, which are separated into non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR subfamilies) with a significantly lower number of R-genes than in other species. Duplications have not played a major role in the expansion of this type of genes in C. pepo. Among the cis-regulatory elements presented in these sequences, six motifs are over-represented. These elements were reported to be involved in pathogens or plant stress induced responses. These results will contribute to the identification, isolation and characterization of candidate R-genes, thereby providing insight into NBS gene family evolution in the species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Morus sp.; cellulose; cymbopogon citratus; Post harvest quality
Online: 11 October 2019 (06:10:14 CEST)
Blackberry is a fruit that has high nutritional value, a factor that has expanded its consumption worldwide. However, due to the fragility of the fruits and the high incidence of postharvest diseases, the fruits have a short shelf life. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether the application of coatings based on microfibrillated cellulose (NC) and lemongrass essential oil (EO) nanoparticles can prolong the shelf life of blackberry fruits after harvest. EO-coated blackberry fruits at nanocellulose concentrations were analyzed as follows: 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8%, in addition to the control treatment of which neither essential oil nor nanocellulose was used, for each treatment five repetitions were used. The fruits were analyzed soon after the application of the cover and at three and six days after storage. Fruit quality was assessed by soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), pH, fresh weight loss (FWL) and colorimetric parameters such as luminosity, hue angle and fruit peel chroma. Coating on EO (1000 ppm) blackberries combined with NC at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% is promising in preserving blackberry fruits and reducing the process color reversal, up to six days of storage. The 0.4% NC + 1000 ppm EO conjugated coating showed no SS changes in blackberry fruits during the six days of storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: agroinfiltration; eggplant; fruits; agrobacterium; SmHQT
Online: 11 August 2019 (10:57:58 CEST)
Eggplant is a fruit vegetable of family Solanaceae, and eggplant fruits are of different shape and sizes that render them as an ideal system for metabolic engineering. Here, we have developed an agroinfiltration protocol for the transient expression of a gene in the eggplant fruit using GUS bearing; pCAMBIA1304 vector. Thereafter, to prove the effectiveness of the developed protocol, we have used the eggplant hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-quinate transferase (SmHQT), which is the central enzyme studied to increase the chlorogenic acid content, in a gene construct with the specific promoter in a plant transformation vector (pBIN19). Also, in our cassette, we also co-expressed the P19 protein of Tomato bushy stunt virus (native promoter) to overexpress the protein. Overall, using the protocol, the chlorogenic content was increased by more than two folds in the transgenic tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0148.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: tomato; late blight; miRNA; overexpression; resistance
Online: 10 July 2019 (11:07:07 CEST)
Tomato is the highest-value fruit/vegetable crop worldwide. However, the quality and yield of tomatoes are severely affected by late blight. MicroRNA482s (miR482s) are involved in plant immune system. In this study, miR482c was transiently and stably overexpressed in tomatoes in transgenic plants to explore its mechanism in tomato resistance against late blight. Tomato in transgenic plants transiently overexpressed miR482c displayed larger lesion area than the control plants upon infection. Furthermore, compared with the WT tomato plants, the transgenic tomato plants stably overexpressing miR482c displayed decreased expression of target genes accompanied by lower POD, SOD, and PAL activity activities and higher MDA content, thereby leading to a decline in the ROS scavenging ability and aggravating the damage of lipid peroxidation product accumulation on the cell membrane, eventually enhancing plant susceptibility. This finding indicates that miR482c may act as a negative regulator in tomato resistance by regulating NBS-LRR expression levels and ROS levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: compost; compost quality; soil remediation; urban soil; nutrient leaching
Online: 4 July 2019 (11:36:40 CEST)
Poor soil health is a critical problem in many urban landscapes. Degraded soil restricts plant growth and microorganism activity, limiting the ability of urban landscapes to perform much needed ecosystem services. Incorporation of approximately 33% compost by volume into degraded soil has been proven to improve soil health and structure over time while avoiding the financial and environmental costs of importing soil mixes from elsewhere. However, additions of high volumes of compost could potentially increase the risk of nutrient loss through leaching and runoff. The objective of our study was to consider the effects of different compost amendments on soil health, plant health and susceptibility to nutrient leaching in order to identify ranges of acceptable compost characteristics that could be used for soil remediation in the urban landscape. We conducted a bioassay with Phaseolus vulgaris (Bush Bean) to measure the effect of nine composts from different feedstocks on various plant health parameters. We collected leachate prior to planting to measure nutrient loss from each treatment. We found that all compost amendments improved soil health. Nutrient-rich, manure-based composts produced the greatest plant growth, but also leached high concentrations of nitrate and phosphorus. Some treatments provided sufficient nutrients for plant growth without excess nutrient loss. We concluded, when incorporating as much as 33% compost by volume into a landscape bed, the optimal compost will generally have a C:N ratio of 10-20, P-content <1.0% and a soluble salt content between 1.0 and 3.5 mmhos/cm. These recommendations should ensure optimal plant and soil health and minimize nutrient leaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: amino acid metabolism; carvacrol; metabolomics data; oxidative stress; Penicillium digitatum
Online: 24 May 2019 (14:33:50 CEST)
Carvacrol has long been studied for its natural antifungal potential and food preservative. But the exact mode of its action remained highly complex as a general, but especially for Penicillium digitatum (P. digitatum) largely remained unexplored. Herein, a 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was used to investigate the antifungal mechanism of carvacrol. The metabolomic profiling data showed that alanine, aspartate, glutamate and glutathione metabolism were imbalanced in the fungal hyphae. A strong positive correlation was seen between aspartate, glutamate, alanine and glutamine, while negative correlation among glutathione and lactate. These metabolic changes revealed that carvacrol-induced oxidative stress had disturbed the energy production and amino acid metabolism of P. digitatum. Current study will improve the understanding of the metabolic changes posed by plant-based fungicides in order to control citrus fruit green mold caused by P. digitatum. Moreover, the study will provided certain experimental and theoretical basis for the development of novel citrus fruit preservatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: bacterial wilt; Ralstonia solanacearum; genotype-by-sequencing; disease resistance; quantitative trait loci; Solanum lycopersicum
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:35:18 CEST)
Bacterial wilt (BW), caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the major biotic factors limiting tomato production in the humid tropics. Pyramiding of resistance genes through marker-assisted selection is an efficient way to develop durable BW resistant cultivars. Tomato line ‘Hawaii 7996’ (H7996) is a stable and robust resistance source against various R. solanacearum strains. Major BW resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Bwr-12 and Bwr-6, and several minor or strain specific QTLs have been coarse-mapped in this line, but none has been fine-mapped and validated. The objective of the current study was to construct a high density genetic map using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from genotyping-by-sequencing, fine-map Bwr-12 and Bwr-6 and determine the effects of these QTLs using a near isogenic line (NIL) population. A high density genetic map using 1,604 SNP markers with an average distance of 0.82 cM was developed for 188 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross H7996 × WVa700. A total of seven QTLs associated with BW resistance to race 1-phylotype I or/and race 3-phylotype II strains were located on chromosomes 6 (Bwr-6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4) and 12 (Bwr-12.1, Bwr-12.2 and Bwr-12.3) with logarithm of odds (LOD) scores of 6.2-15.6 and 6.2-31.1, explaining 14.2-33.4% and 15.9-53.9% of the total phenotypic variation contributed from H7996, respectively. To validate the genetic effects of the two QTL regions, a set of 80 BC3F3 NILs containing different sections of Bwr-6 with or without Bwr-12 was phenotyped for disease severity after challenge with either race 1-phylotype I Pss4 or race 3-phylotype II Pss1632 BW strains over two seasons. Bwr-6.1 specific to Pss4 and Bwr-6.3 specific to Pss1632 were mapped to an interval of 5.0 cM (P < 0.05) between 6_33,444,000_SLM6-47 and 6_33,868,000_SLM6-124 SNP marker, and to 2.7 cM (P < 0.01) between positions 6_35,949,000 _SLM6-107 to 6_36,750,000_SLM6-82 marker, respectively. In addition, the specific effect of Bwr-12 for resistance to Pss4 (LOD score of 5.8-16.1, P < 0.01) was confirmed and markers for this QTL have already been made available previously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0169.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: black garlic; Drosophila melanogaster; physico-chemical profile; polyphenol content; HL-60 cell line
Online: 14 May 2019 (12:06:54 CEST)
White and three types of black garlic (13, 32 and 45 days of fermentation, named 0C1, 1C2 and 2C1 respectively) were selected in order to check possible differences in their nutraceutic potential. For this purpose, garlic were physico-chemically characterised, and both in vivo and in vitro assays were carried out. Black garlic showed higher polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity than white garlic. The biological studies have shown that only white garlic was not safe showing toxicity effect. Furthermore, none garlic exert protective effects against H2O2, except the 0C1 black garlic. Moreover, garlic was non-genotoxic with the exception of the highest concentration of white garlic. On the other hand, 0C1 was the most antigenotoxic substance. The in vivo longevity assays yielded significant extension of lifespan results in some concentrations of white and 0C1and 1C2 black garlic. The in vitro experiments showed that all studied garlic induced a decrease in leukaemia cells growth. However, none type of garlic was able to induce proapoptotic internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Taking into account the physicochemical and biological data, black garlic could be considered as a potential functional food and used in preventive treatment of age-related diseases. In addition, our findings could be relevant for the black garlic processing agrifood companies as the economical and timing costs are significantly reduced to 13 days aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: EST-PCR; Vaccinium angustifolium; geographic range; domestication
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:43:12 CEST)
Expressed sequenced tagged-polymerase chain reaction (EST-PCR) molecular markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of lowbush blueberry across its geographic range and to compare genetic diversity among four paired managed/non-managed populations. Seventeen lowbush blueberry populations were sampled in a general north south transect throughout eastern United States with distances between 27 km to 1600 km separating populations. Results show that the majority of genetic variation is found within populations (75%) versus among populations (25%), and that each population was genetically unique (P ≤ 0.0001) with the exception of the Jonesboro, ME and Lubec, ME populations that were found not to be significantly different (P = 0.228). The effects of management for commercial fruit harvesting on genetic diversity were investigated in four locations in Maine with paired managed and non-managed populations. Significant differences were found between the populations indicating that commercial management influences the genetic diversity of lowbush blueberries in the landscape, despite the fact that planting does not occur; forests are harvested and the existing understory blueberry plants are what become established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0227.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: oxidative stress; enzymatic antioxidants; malondialdehyde; membrane permeability; chlorophyll
Online: 28 March 2019 (11:15:50 CET)
Scarcity of water is one of the most serious concerns in plant biology with diverse implications at all the levels of molecular, biochemical, and physiological phenomena of plant growth, development, and consequently the productivity. Most of the strategies to induce or enhance drought tolerance in plants are unreasonably expensive and/or time-consuming. Some studies conducted in the recent past have shown that plant growth regulators (PGRs) may induce/improve physiological tolerance in plants to cope with adverse environmental conditions including drought. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of foliar spray of GABA (0, 1, 2, and 4 mM) applied 20 days following the germination of seeds, on vegetative growth, morphological characteristics, integrity of cell-membrane, and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic antioxidants in carrot cvs. Supertaj and Bharat, grown under 100% and 50% field capacity of soil moisture. The treated and untreated (control) carrot plants were harvested and analyzed 2 weeks following the GABA application. The results revealed that foliar application of GABA improved the vegetative growth and significantly increased the levels of free amino acids, plastid pigments, enzymatic antioxidants, and the relative water content in the root crop grown under 50% field capacity of soil moisture, compared to control. Additionally, the GABA application decreased the electrolyte leakage of ions and melondialdehyde (MDA) content in carrot leaves. The carrots harvested from GABA-treated or untreated (control) plants were not significantly different for their protein contents. In conclusion, the incorporation of GABA in the production management of carrots may help plants to mitigate the adverse effects of water deficit stress.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Flesh firmness; fruit ripening; ethylene production; ascorbic acid; fruit color
Online: 21 March 2019 (04:50:34 CET)
The peach industry faces serious economic losses because of the short “green” life of the fruit at postharvest. In the present study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (PUT) application on the quality characteristics, pattern of ripening, storage behavior, and shelf life of peach fruit during low-temperature storage. The aqueous solution of PUT (0, 1, 2, and 3 mM) was applied onto the peach trees at three distinctive stages of fruit growth and development. The fruit, harvested at the commercial stage of maturity, were stored at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2% relative humidity for 6 weeks. The data for fruit firmness, total soluble solids (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AsA) content, rate of ethylene production, chilling injury (CI) index, and color perception were collected at harvest and then on a weekly basis throughout the storage period. The results showed that spray application of PUT significantly reduced the incidence of CI and reduced the rates of fruit softening, loss in fruit weight, SSC, TA, AsA content, and fading of skin color during storage, regardless of the doses of PUT applied or time of application. However, the positive effects on the quality characteristics of peach fruit, including CI, were more pronounced with the higher doses of PUT, specifically when applied at 2 mM. In conclusion, CI in peach fruit may be substantially alleviated by the spray application of 1–3 mM PUT during fruit growth without compromising the quality of the fruit for up to 6 weeks of low-temperature storage.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: transcriptome; Solanum lycopersicum; RNA-seq; light intensity distributions; differentially expressed genes
Online: 19 March 2019 (10:42:26 CET)
Plants grown under fluctuating light impact plant developments compared with those grown under non-fluctuating light conditions. However, our knowledge on the underlying regulatory mechanisms is still quite limited, particularly from the transcriptional perspective. In order to investigate the influence of different light intensity distributions on tomato plant development, we designed three fluctuating light intensity distributions with the non-fluctuating light intensity as control and compared the transcriptional differences after five weeks of treatment. We found plant height and aerial/root weight were significantly reduced under all fluctuating light treatments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the number of up and down regulated genes had a distinct distribution pattern between different treatments and control. The largest difference between the numbers of down and up regulated genes was found between treatment 1 and 3, reaching to a total of 416 genes. The number and type of the top 20 enriched pathways differed between treatments and control. The largest number of genes enriched was involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. These results provide insights into the transcriptional regulations of tomato under different light intensity distributions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0737.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: allelopathy; bioherbicides; corn gluten meal; essential oils; mustard seed meal; pathogens; plant extracts
Online: 31 October 2018 (07:50:29 CET)
Over the last five decades, weed management systems have relied primarily on synthetic herbicides. Due to the concerns over the potential impact of chemicals on human health and the environment, efforts are being made to reduce the heavy reliance on synthetic herbicides. To reduce the use of synthetic herbicides, the use of natural products such as essential oils, plant extracts, allelochemicals, agricultural by-products, and some microbes are gaining attention because of their short environmental half-life and low toxicity. They are a good alternative to synthetic herbicides, especially in organic agriculture, since they focus on environmental protection, and ecological stability. Most of the commercially available natural herbicides are non-selective and require careful application in order to preserve the cash crops. Although many studies in this direction have been undertaken, the use of these natural products is still not common because of their cost the difficulties in their synthesis due to their complex structure, cost effectiveness, poor performance, and rapid degradation. When used singly, these natural herbicides do not perform as well as the chemical herbicides. An integrated approach may provide better results. Using a combination of natural herbicides may be more effective than using just one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: livestock care management; rotational/continuous grazing; technical advice; stocking rate; functional units
Online: 1 October 2018 (11:24:38 CEST)
The livestock sector can be a major contributor to the mitigation of greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Within the sector, beef production produces the largest proportion of the livestock sector’s direct emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the on-farm GHG emissions in semi-arid rangelands in Argentina and to identify the relationships between emissions and current farm management practices. A survey recorded detailed information on farm management and characteristics. Assessments of GHG emissions were based on the IPCC Tier 2 protocols . The relationships between farm management and GHG emissions were identified using General Linear Models. Cluster analysis was used to identify groups of farms that differed from others in emissions and farm characteristics. Emissions per product sold were low on farms that had improved livestock care management, rotational grazing, received technical advice, and had high animal and land productivities. Emissions per hectare of farmland were low on farms that had low stocking rates, low number of grazing paddocks, little or no land dedicated to improved pastures and forage crops, and low land productivity. Our results suggest that the implementation of realistic, relatively easy-to-adopt farming management practices has considerable potential for mitigating GHG emissions in semi-arid rangelands of central Argentina.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: inorganic fertilizer; vermicompost; Net; growth; yield; Indian spinach
Online: 18 September 2018 (06:32:53 CEST)
Best horticulture management has been practiced to reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer in connection with net (mosquito net) for higher production of Indian spinach. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture promoted negative effect on the environment and human health in Bangladesh. The experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period February to May 2016. Two factor experiments were conducted on nettings: control (N0), Netting (N1) and different fertilizers: control (F0), Vermicompost 10 t/ha (F1), Vermicompost 15 t/ha (F2), 2/3rdof F2+ 1/3rdof F4 (F3), Inorganic fertilizer (F4). Combination of mosquito net and combined of organic and inorganic fertilizers (N1F3) gave the significantly higher growth and yield of Indian spinach compared to other treatment combination. The maximum vine length (77.71 cm), after 45 days after sowing was found from N1F3 which was 72% higher compared to control. The highest yield of Indian spinach was 38.67 t/ha from N1F3 which was 80% higher compared to control. The treatment combination of N1F3 provided maximum leaf numbers per plant, leaf length.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: aeroponics; soilless culture; root growth; root/shoot ratio
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:20:00 CEST)
Aeroponics is a relatively new soilless culture technology, which may produce food in space limited cities or non-arable land with high water use efficiency. The shoot and root growth, root characteristics, mineral contents of two lettuce cultivars were measured in aeroponics, as compared with hydroponics and substrate culture. The results showed that aeroponics remarkably improved the root growth with a significant greater root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and several times higher total root length, root area and root volume. However, the greater root growth did not lead to a better shoot growth compared with hydroponics, due to the limited availability of nutrients and water. It can be concluded that aeroponics systems may be better for high value true root crops production. Further research is necessary to figure out the suitable pressure, droplet size, and misting interval in order to improve the continuously availability of nutrients and water in aeroponics, if it is used to grow crops like lettuce for harvesting above-ground parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: endophytes; tomato; biocontrol; PGPR; seed; microbiome
Online: 15 June 2018 (09:54:47 CEST)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is widely consumed around the world is mostly affected by stresses and diseases that reduce yield and production. Research on sustainable technologies like the use of beneficial microorganismsis crucial to development sustainable management strategies. Endophytic bacteria might increase production as well as plant health.. In this work we studied the endobiome of tomato seeds of different cultivars since the plant genotype might affect the microbial community structure in terms of plant growth promoters as well as organisms for biocontrol. The conditions prevailing within seeds along the maturation period might have affected bacterial survival. This is such that seed endophytes share features, which are different from those of bacteria from other plant tissues. The community associated with different cultivars reflects the different resources available in the seed and its potential to prevent the attack of pathogens and to promote plant growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: ex vitro; internode; light-emitting diodes; stomata; rosette
Online: 14 May 2018 (12:12:07 CEST)
Transferring in vitro-cultured Eustoma seedlings to an ex vitro condition (acclimation) is a big challenge that may expose the seedlings to biotic and abiotic stresses, and affect the internal and external structure of the plants. In addition, in vitro-cultured seedlings of Eustoma are difficult to handle and phenotype and physiological traits such as survival and rosette rate may have altered in the acclimation stage. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the effects of blue, red, and white LED light on the growth and development ex vitro of in vitro-cultured seedlings of Eustoma. The results showed that blue LEDs resulted in greater plant height, internode length, and leaf number, increased upper and lower fresh biomass, and higher chlorophyll content compared with treatment by the other LED lights. Higher stomatal density on the abaxial leaf surface was also observed in the blue LED-treated plants, which also showed a higher survival rate and lower rosette rate. In contrast, the white LED-treated plants had the highest leaf width and internode diameter. Acclimation of the Eustoma plants ex vitro suggests that a combination of blue and white LEDs may be advantageous for better growth and development for large-scale production in a controlled environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: DNA markers; edible mushroom; genome stability; protoplast regeneration
Online: 25 April 2018 (08:26:25 CEST)
A total of five protoclones were successfully cultured on PDA medium out of regenerated twenty two colonies of Termitomyces protoplast and further studied. Liquid MYG grown mycelial tissue is used for protoplast isolation by enzymatic digestionin a mixture containing Lysing enzyme 2% and Cellulase R10 2% in 0.6 M mannitol. The incubation conditions like temperature, shaking and time were standardized at 24ºC, 60 rpm and 10 hours, respectively for healthy protoplasts liberation. The purified protoplasts showed an average yield of 1.2 × 107 cells/gm tissue with 31.60 ± 9.31% regeneration efficiency on specific medium and 77.12 ± 2.72% viability by FDA test. Four ISSR primers were used in this study resulting a total of 27 reproducible bands with mean value of 6.75. They showed similar banding pattern in all the lines with zero percent polymorphism ranged from 280 bp–2700 bp. The amplified rRNA-ITS gene showed ~600 bp size in gel and found a single restriction site for enzyme HaeIII in all the protoclones and parent with similar fragment size in all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Grafting; Pecan; Transcriptome; Graft union; Hormone
Online: 7 December 2017 (17:21:15 CET)
Pecan (Carya illinoinensis), as a popular nut tree, is widely planted in China in recent years. Grafting is an important technique for its cultivation. For a successful grafting, graft union development generally involves the formation of callus and vascular bundles at the graft union. To explore the molecular mechanism of graft union development, we applied high through-put RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptomic profiles of graft union at four time points (0d, 8d, 15d, and 30d) during pecan grafting process. We identified a total of 12,180 differentially expressed genes. In addition, we found that the content of auxin, cytokinin and gibberellin were accumulated at the graft unions during the grafting process. Correspondingly, genes involved in those hormone signaling were found to be differentially expressed. Interestingly, we found that most genes associated with cell division were up-regulated at callus formative stages, while genes related to cell elongation, secondary cell wall deposition, and programmed cell death were generally up-regulated at vascular bundle formative stages. In the meantime, genes responsible for reactive oxygen species were highly up-regulated across the graft union developmental process. These results will aid in our understanding of successful grafting in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0161.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Mangifera indica L. fruit; phytochemicals; nutraceutical properties; mangiferin
Online: 25 April 2017 (16:33:54 CEST)
Historically, Mangifera indica L. cultivations have been widely rooted in tropical areas of India, Africa, Asia and Central America. However, at least 20 years ago its spreading allowed the development of some cultivars, also in Sicily, the South of Italy, where the favorable subtropical climate and adapted soils represent the perfect field to create new sources of production for Sicilian agricultural supply chain. Currently, cultivations of Kensington Pride, Keitt, Klenn, Maya and Tommy Atkins varieties are active in Sicilian island and their products meet the requirements of local and European markets. Mango plants produce fleshy stone fruits rich in phytochemicals with an undisputed nutritional value for its high content of flavonoids, vitamins, micro- and macro-elements, vital for maintaining health. This review provides an overview of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of Mango, a fruit that should be included in everyone’s diet for its multifaceted biochemical actions and nutraceutical potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Capsicum annuum L.; capsaicinoid synthesis; gene expression; fruit development; MeJA
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:11:50 CEST)
Background: Capsaicinoid are a group of compounds and widely used in the food, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. Capsaicinoid are unique synthesized and accumulated in the pepper fruits. MeJA can enhance the capsaicinoid production. Temporal and spatial expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes are helpful to understand the molecular mechnism of capsaicinoid biosynthesis in the fruits of pepper. Although some of the capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pepper have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of fruit has not been systemically investigated, and little is known about the molecular basis of MeJA inducing capsaicinoid biosynthesis. Results: HPLC study revealed that the capsaicinoid accumulation in the developing fruit of pepper initially appeared at 24 DAP (day after pollination), was actively development at 36 DAP and peaked at 48 DAP. 11 genes that encoded enzymes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis were isolated and characterized. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the CaCS was unique expressed in placenta and the other 10 genes were expressed in all selected tissues and 9 of 11 genes (except CaCa4H and CaCa3H) were strongly expressed in placenta tissue. Spatial expression analysis demostrated that the 11 gene could be collectively grouped into four categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during fruit development. Category I has 2 and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 24 DAP, Category II contains 5 genes and expression of the 5 genes was constantly increased from 0 to 36 DAP and peaked at 36 DAP. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes reached the peak at 48 DAP. Category IV consists of 2 genes and they showed a high expression at 36 and 48 DAF, but unexpressed from 0 to 12 DAP. The gene expressions of the 11 genes were up-regulated by MeJA. 3 genes showed a high expression at 24 h; 4 genes reached the peak at 12 h; the top expression were observed at 18 h; The last one, CaACYase, achieved the highest level at 8 h. Conclusion: The biosynthesis of capsaicinoid in pepper fruit is developmentally regulated. The expression of the majority of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes is highly consistent with the development accumulation of capsaicinoid in pepper fruit. These results not only provide the initial information on spatial and temporal expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes in pepper developing fruit, but are also valuable to identify the MeJA-induced genes for capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation during pepper fruit development.