ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; SNP; genetic diversity; population differentiation (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Online: 31 May 2023 (13:23:36 CEST)
Hubei, Hunan and Henan Provinces are located in Central China, a region with extensive transport networks and trade. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease, is spreads mainly through human activities. In order to further understand the genetic structure of PWN in Central China, we studied the genetic information of PWN populations in this region and compared the genetic relationship with strains from Guangdong and Jiangsu provinces. We found that the HB (Hubei) 15, HEN (Henan) 20, HN (Hunan) 07, HN08 and HN10 had significantly more SNPs and homozygotes than other strains from Central China, and their most frequent mutant genotypes also differed from other strains. The clustering results indicated that HB15, HEN 20, HN07, HN08 and HN10 were genetically distinct from other strains and closely related to Guangdong strains. We also observed significant genetic variation among strains in Henan province, suggesting that some of them might have different transmission sources than those from Hubei and Hunan provinces. The results provide a basis for tracing the origin and spread of PWD in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: land use changes; zoning; community forest; resilience; Togo
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:57:57 CEST)
Affem Boussou community forest (AFC) abounds in important biological resources. This study, which contributes to its better management, examines the spatiotemporal dynamics of the vegetation and its ecological and structural characteristics to propose a zoning plan for the said forest. The analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use in the AFC from Google Earth images of 2015, 2018, and 2021 revealed a regressive trend of formations: crops and fallows (-33.98%), dense dry forests (-7.92%), gallery forests (-3.46%), plantations (-100%), grassy savannahs and meadows (-18.84%) except for tree/shrub savannahs (484.23%). The floristic inventory identified 163 species divided into 129 genera and 55 families. Fabaceae (14.02%), and Combretaceae (10.55%) are the most represented families. Anogeissus leiocarpa (5.19%) and Vitellaria paradoxa (4.72%) are the most frequent species. We note the dominance of individuals of small diameters. The regeneration potential of the AFC is 64 feet/ha due to 21 feet/ha of suckers, 29 feet/ha of seedlings, and 14 feet/ha of shoots. As a zoning plan, the AFC was subdivided into four series: the agroforestry zone (18.80%), the sustainable production forest zone (42.22%), the buffer zone (11%), and the biological conservation zone (28%). These results constitute a scientific basis for testing ecological indicators of sustainable management of community forests in Togo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1624.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: anthropogenic; land cover change; mitigation; protected forest
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:32:20 CEST)
Mount Hamiding Protected Forest is located in North Halmahera Regency, North Maluku Province, the Wallace zone has an important role in providing protection functions, life support systems and regulating water management, preventing floods, preventing seawater intrusion, and controlling soil fertility. The protected forest area in the Wallace Zone is globally renowned for its endemic characteristics of flora and fauna. The condition of the protected forest of Mount Hamiding HMPF is currently experiencing anthropogenic damage as a result of forest encroachment, illegal logging, shifting cultivation, grazing and poaching to meet social needs. Anthropogenic damage has been in the spotlight for decades and has become a global issue. This study aims to determine damage to protected forests, changes in land cover, and mitigation of protected forest areas. This research uses quantitative and descriptive qualitative methods. Determination of research locations by purposive sampling. Parameters measured in this study were damage to protected forests, changes in land cover and area mitigation strategies. To identify forest damage, snowball sampling was carried out, and land cover changes through land cover data processing were obtained from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia. Then using Imagery 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI to calculate changes in forested land to non-forested from 2006 -2021, analysis of land cover change using supervised classification, developing a strategy based on identity verification of forest damage and analysis of land cover change. The results showed that damage to protected forests was caused by anthropogenic disturbances in the form of forest encroachment, shifting cultivation, illegal logging, grazing and hunting of wild animals. Changes in land cover experienced the greatest damage in 2006-2021 amounting to 1,796.54 ha (16.17%). Strategic efforts are carried out using forest engineering, namely the agroforestry system and social engineering through community empowerment, namely training and outreach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1450.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Carbon stock; Standing-tree carbon equation; Mae Huad Sector; Ngao Demonstration Forest
Online: 19 May 2023 (16:40:19 CEST)
Through this study, we established equations for estimating the standing tree carbon stock, based on 24 tree species in multiple size classes in a case study at the Ngao Demonstration Forest (NDF) in northern Thailand. Four hundred thirty-nine wood samples from trees in mixed deciduous forest (MDF), dry dipterocarp forest (DDF), and dry evergreen forest (DEF), were collected using non-destructive methods to estimate above-ground carbon equations through statistical regression. The equations were established based on four criteria: 1) the coefficient of determination (R2), 2) Standard error of estimate (SE), 3) F-value, and 4) Significant value (p-value, α ≤ 0.05). The above-ground carbon stock (C) equations for standing trees in the MDF was C = 0.0199DBH2.1887H0.5825, for DDF was C = 0.0145DBH2.1435 H0.748, for DEF was C = 0.0167DBH2.1423H0.7070, and the general equation for all species/wood density groups was C = 0.017543DBH2.1625H0.6614, where DBH is tree diameter at breast height and H is tree total height. The above-ground carbon stock in the DDF, MDF, and DEF was 142, 53.02, and, 12 tons/ha, respectively, and the estimated above-ground carbon stock in the Mae Huad sector at the NDF was 61 tons/ha.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: adaptive strategies; competitiveness; stress tolerance; ruderalism; natural selection; forest dynamics; Lithuania
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:24:46 CEST)
Forest vegetation dynamics (succession and dominance) is an ecological phenomenon that is still difficult to characterize and integrate into management practices. In this study, the understanding of forest dynamics is explored based on Grime’s theoretical triangular model of plant adaptive strategies using the example of Lithuania’s forest ecosystems. The idea behind this is the hypothesis that forest dynamics is linked to natural selection as an evolutionary process that exhibits differential species responses to competition, stress, and disturbance. The aim of this study is to explore the adaptive relationships in hemi-boreal forests. Grime’s and Pierce’s secondary CSR strategies, which describe various equilibria between competitiveness (C), stress tolerance (S), and ruderalism (R), were considered to reflect four establishment and development adaptive specialization characteristics of forest tree species. As a result of the study, four types of tree functional groups were identified: stress-resistant ruderals, competitive stress-sensitive ruderals, ruderal stress-sensitive competitors, and stress-resistant competitors. Based on this, we propose that reforestation move away from single species regeneration by implementing the maintenance of these four types of functional groups. In conclusion, forest management must consider the existence of the established equilibria between plant competitiveness, stress tolerance, and ruderalism. The formal concepts presented in this article can serve as a guide for future relevant research and development of appropriate methods for studying real forests. This study is unique in that no previous work has linked forest dynamics and natural selection in the context of Lithuania’s forest ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1324.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Biodiversity; Tree richness; Shannon index; Simpson index; Ecological mechanism; Climate; Topography; Forest structure
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:15:38 CEST)
Species diversity has been shown to be influenced by environmental factors, but the mechanism underlying their relationship remains unclear across spatial scales. Based on field investigation data collected from 3,077 sample plots in temperate forest ecosystems, we compared tree species richness, evenness and dominance at 10 km × 10 km, 30 km × 30 km and 90 km × 90 km spatial scales. Then, we detected the scale dependence of changes in tree species composition on climate, topography and forest structure using variation partitioning and quantified their contribution to tree diversity with gradient boosted models (GBMs) and fitted their relationships. The magnitude of tree richness, evenness and dominance significantly increased with spatial scale. Ecological factors jointly accounted for 24.3%, 26.5% and 38.5% of the variation in tree species composition at the three spatial scales, respectively. Annual mean temperature had a strong impact on tree richness, evenness and dominance and peaked at an intermediate scale. Tree evenness and dominance increased with the variation of temperature but had upper and lower limits. Tree richness obviously increased with annual precipitation on multiple scales and decreased with annual sunshine duration at large spatial scale. Tree richness, evenness and dominance obviously increased with the variation elevation and diameter at breast height at large scales and small scales, respectively. Tree dominance decreased with tree height in a hump at small scale. The dependence of tree diversity on ecological factors increased with spatial scales. Furthermore, different factors exert various controls on tree diversity at different spatial scales, representing a comprehensive mechanism regulating tree diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: windthrow; organic Carbon; dehydrogenase activity; number of fungi; natural regeneration
Online: 30 April 2023 (03:45:06 CEST)
Windthrows in the forestry fund, which have become more frequent due to the increase in extreme weather events, have had and continue to have negative economic and ecological effects, making them a pressing issue in forestry research. Their urgency has been amplified in light of the need to develop sustainable forest management systems. The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of windthrows on some microbiological properties of forest soils and to monitor the evolution of the degraded tree regeneration, 4 years after the event, for three tree species: Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The experimental plot used is arranged in dispersed blocks and subdivided plots, with three repetitions, bifactorial, factor A representing the tree species, and factor B the windthrows: in two situations: affected (AW) and not affected by felling (WW). Three representative soil profiles were studied for each tree species, including dehydrogenase activity (DA) and the number of fungi (NF) in the organic horizon at the soil surface. Dehydrogenase activity was determined by the extraction of triphenylformazan, and NF was evaluated using the Plate Count Method (Petri plates) and the Sabouraud Agar culture medium. The values of Current Dehydrogenase Activity (CDA) and Potential Dehydrogenase Activity (PDA) did not show significant statistical differences in relation to the windthrow factor, but were distinctly significant (p < 0.01) for the tree species factor. On the other hand, NF showed statistical significance for both tree species and windthrows factors, at a level of p < 0.01. Correlations were highlighted between the differences in AW and WW of CDA, PDA, and NF with the number of naturally regenerated seedlings (NRS), and the type of soil. The regressions established between NRS and the differences in CDA and PDA, the dependence of the differences in PDA on the differences in NF, and the regression between the differences in NF and the type of soil demonstrate the importance of soil characteristics in the natural regeneration process of the main tree species - Norway spruce, sessile oak, and European beech. Stimulating NRS in AW forests and increasing the volume of terrestrial organic carbon (TOC) biomass is directly dependent on soil fertility, primarily determined by soil organic carbon (SOC), which accumulates in the soil as a result of organic matter, deposited on the surface. Sustainable forest management of AW plots should stimulate the accumulation of SOC, including the partial or total preservation of dead trees, provided that the attack of specific diseases and pests is avoided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Optimum calcium concentration; growth; photosynthesis; water use efficiency; stress resistance
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:44:57 CEST)
Ca2+ is a crucial second messenger in plant cells, playing a vital role in various physiological and biochemical processes, including plant growth and development, photosynthesis, and enzyme regulation. Exogenous calcium concentration can have different effects on plant growth. This study aimed to investigate the optimal calcium concentration for the growth of four tree species, namely Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Populus, and Morus alba seedlings, and whether the optimal calcium concentration varies among different tree species. The study utilized five calcium concentration gradients (0, 100, 200, 400, 800 mg·kg-1) for each species with three repeated treatments. Various growth indexes, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed to determine each species' calcium concentration requirements. The results showed that exogenous calcium significantly affected the growth and development of each seedling. The growth, biomass, photosynthetic parameters, photosynthetic products, photosynthetic pigments, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzyme activity all increased initially and then decreased with increasing calcium concentration. Leaf calcium concentration also increased with the exogenous calcium content. Thus, there is an optimal calcium concentration for plant growth, and high or low calcium concentration is not conducive to plant growth. Furthermore, the study found that different tree species have varying optimal calcium concentrations. The optimal calcium concentration for Pinus tabuliformis, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Populus, and Morus alba seedlings was 100, 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg-1, respectively. Finally, the study revealed that broadleaf species require higher calcium concentrations than coniferous species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0970.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: tree risk assessment; decay; resistance drilling; tomography; tree risk assessment qualification; tree stem
Online: 26 April 2023 (07:41:38 CEST)
Arborists commonly investigate the extent of stem decay to assess the likelihood of stem failure when conducting tree risk assessments. Studies have shown that (i) arborists can sometimes judge the extent of internal decay based on external signs; (ii) sophisticated tools can reliably illustrate the extent of internal decay; and (iii) assessing components of tree risk can be highly subjective. We recruited 18 experienced tree risk assessors who held the International Society of Arboriculture’s Tree Risk Assessment Qualification (TRAQ) to assess the likelihood of stem failure due to decay after each of 5 consecutive assessments on 30 individuals of 2 genera. Five assessment techniques, in stepwise order, were 1) visual, 2) sounding the trunk with a mallet, 3) viewing a scaled diagram of the cross-section that revealed sound and decayed wood ascertained from resistance drilling, 4) viewing sonic and electrical resistance tomograms, and 5) consulting with a peer. For each technique, assessors assigned two or more likelihood of failure ratings (LoFRs) for at least 83% of trees, which were proportionally greatest after assessors viewed tomograms; the proportions did not differ among the other four assessment techniques. Covariates that influenced the distribution of LoFRs included percent of the cross-section that was decayed, and assessors’ experience using resistance drilling devices and tomography in regular practice. Practitioners should be aware that disagreement on the likelihood of tree failure exists even among experienced arborists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Oak lace bug; invasive alien species; Corythucha arcuata; Sibiu County; Romania
Online: 19 April 2023 (09:53:38 CEST)
This scientific paper examines the impact of climate change on the spread and survival of the invasive species Corythucha arcuata (Oak Lace Bug, or OLB) in Romania. The OLB is native to the Eastern USA and Canada, and in its native habitat, it coexists with minimal impact to the preferred host plant species Quercus. However, in Europe, the OLB in high-density causes early defoliation, slowing tree growth and it leads to the death of trees. As Quercus is a keystone species, the impact of the OLB on European forests is significant. This paper aims to address several gaps in knowledge about the OLB by presenting findings from a study conducted by the Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu (ULBS) in Romania. The study identified the species ‘chronology of spread, ecology, ethology, and biology of the species, in addition to foliage classification to determine the extent of attack. The study found a direct link between temperature and speed of the generational lifecycle. The findings support the thesis that climate change is enabling the healthy, rapid density growth of OLB, which is a danger to the Quercus sp. Further research is needed in the area of the thermal tolerance of the OLB, and the research conducted by the ULBS represents the first documented research into the thermal constant of the insect. The paper concludes that further research must be in the direction to understand how and where these insects survive during winter to find future management measures and identify chemical or biological methods as solutions to eradicate and stop the expansion of the invasion of the OLB, and the potential consequences for the Quercus sp.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0549.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest plants; genetic breeding; omics technologies; multi-omics integration; gene regulatory networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (05:31:46 CEST)
In recent years, the ecological and economic values of forest plants have been gradually recognized worldwide. However, the growing global demand for new forest plant varieties with higher wood production capacity and better stress tolerance cannot be satisfied by conventional phenotype-based breeding, marker-assisted selection, and genomic selection. In the recent past, diverse omics technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been developed rapidly, providing powerful tools for the precision genetic breeding of forest plants. Genomics lays a solid foundation for understanding complex biological regulatory networks, while other omics technologies provide different perspectives at different levels. Multi-omics integration has combined the different omics technologies, becoming a powerful tool for genome-wide functional element identification in forest plant breeding. This review summarizes the recent progress of omics technologies and their applications in the genetic studies of forest plants. It will provide forest plant breeders with an elementary knowledge of multi-omics techniques for future breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: wooden buildings; national treasures; termite damage; bacterial entomopathogenic; cuticle disintegration; termiticidal effect
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:17:20 CEST)
Biocontrol strategies are gaining tremendous attention with the growing awareness of the irreparable harm caused by the continuous use of synthetic pesticides. This study examines the proteolytic and chitinolytic activities of Bacillus velezensis CE 100 and its termiticidal effect through cuticle degradation. The proteolytic and chitinolytic activities of B. velezensis CE 100 systematically increased with cell growth to the respective peak of 68.3, and 128.3 units/mL after seventh days of inoculation, corresponding with the highest cell growth of 16 x 107 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. The in vitro termiticidal assay showed that B. velezensis CE 100 caused a rapid and high rate of termite mortality with the median lethal time (LT50) of > 1h, and the highest mortality rate of 91.1% and 92.2% recorded at 11h and 12h in the bacterial broth culture and crude enzyme fraction, respectively. In addition to broken setae and deformed sockets, termites treated with the bacterial broth culture exhibited degraded epicuticles, while the crude enzyme fraction caused severe disintegration of both the epicuticle and endocuticle. These results indicate a tremendously higher prospect of B. velezensis CE 100 in the biological control of subterranean termites compared to the previously used entomopathogenic bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Acidobacterium; Acacia mangium; Eucalyptus robusta; mixed-species forest; soil biological property; soil nutrients
Online: 12 April 2023 (09:33:04 CEST)
Establishment of mixed-forests has gained increasing attention as a way to optimize forest production, to improve ecological benefits and as a safety net for impacts of future climate uncertainties. However, practical knowledge about which species and what proportion of them should be mixed is still lacking. Thus, this study was conducted with the aim of identify suitable species for mixture with Acacia cincinnata. The mixture tested in the present study was A. cincinnata + Eucalyptus robusta (6:4), A. cincinnata + Acacia mangium (3:1) and monospecifc plantation of A. cincinnata established in 2014. After 7 years of growth, we analyzed the effects of species mixture on growth of tree species, understory vegetation and soil physico-chemical properties as well as bacterial community structure and diversity. The results showed that species mixture had no significant effect on growth characteristics, such as diameter and singletree volume of A. cincinnata. However, mixed-species planting increased the total stocking volume compered to monospecific plantation of A. cincinnata. Furthermore, stand mixture significantly increased species diversity, biomass and nutrient stocks in the understory vegetation. The soil of mixed stand of A. cincinnata and A. mangium had the highest C and N contents, whereas the soil of pure A. cincinnata stand had the highest P content. The diversity of soil bacterial community were the highest in the mixed stand of A. cincinnata and E- robusta, followed by pure A. cincinnata stand and A. cincinnata + A. mangium stand. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria was higher in soils of mixed stands. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was high in the soil of A. cincinnata + A. mangium while the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia was high in A. cincinnata + E. robusta stand. As a whole, the study demonstrated that establishing mixed-species plantation enhance the diversity and composition of understory vegetation, soil physico-chemical and soils bacterial community; thereby increasing biodiversity, nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration in the biomass and soil. From the viewpoints of forest productivity and ecological benefits, it is advisable to establish a mixed plantation of A. cincinnata and A- mangium in southern China. As a whole, our work revealed that the sustainability of mixed-species plantation relies on the interactions between soil attributes, vegetation, and bacterial community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Pinus elliottii Engelm; phosphorus addition; plant-litter-soil system; ecological stoichiometry; stoichiometric homeostasis
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:21:44 CEST)
Plants do need a fixed proportion of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) elements to maintain normal metabolic activities. The P fertilizers are widely used to supplement nutrients in subtropical plantations. Stoichiometric homeostasis reflects the strategy of plants to cope with various environments (including P fertilizer supply rate). It is thus of great significance to understand C:N:P stoichiometry in the plant-litter-soil system under P addition and stoichiometric homeostasis of plant tissues for fertilization management of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm) plantations. We measured the C, N and P contents in root, branch, needle, litter and soil in slash pine plantations fertilized with four treatments - P1 (25 kg P ha−1 yr−1), P2 (50 kg P ha−1 yr−1), P3 (100 kg P ha−1 yr−1), and a control (CK) in subtropical China and calculated stoichiometric homeostasis of plant tissues. Results showed that P addition increased the capacity of needle to obtain C, N and P elements and altered the C:N:P stoichiometry of plant tissues, as well promoted the accumulation of C and P elements in soil, but had no significant effect on soil stoichiometry. The nutrient contents of needle and branch were higher than those of root and litter, indicating that slash pine was more inclined to allocate nutrient to the aboveground tissues. The stoichiometric homeostasis of C, N and P among plant tissues was ranked as follows: root > branch > needle, and homeostasis of nutrient elements in the needle was C > N > P. This indicated that the C, N and P stoichiometric homeostasis was various among plant tissues and elements types under P addition. These findings suggest P addition would alleviate the P limitation of slash pine growth in subtropical regions. In the future, long-term observation experiments should be conducted and the trade-off between P addition rates and economic and ecological benefits should be considered.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: green infrastructure; tree by-laws; tree ordinances; urban forest governance
Online: 6 April 2023 (08:38:44 CEST)
Tree ordinances can be an effective means of preserving urban forests in the face of development pressures. Despite this, they also have the potential to be divisive among the public - especially when applied to privately-owned land. In this study we surveyed 1,716 Florida urban residents to understand how they value regulation and management of the urban forest. Specifically, we asked about: tree protection ordinances, incentive programs to manage or plant trees, justification for tree removal, and development. Most respondents supported tree protections, even when applied to trees on their own property or when they had the potential to limit development activities. Additionally, there was limited support for removing healthy trees for development. Respondents supported the use of funds for urban forestry efforts – particularly at the local or state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Fagus sylvatica; Quercus petraea; flushing; leaf senescence; nutrition; phosphorus effect; phenology shift
Online: 4 April 2023 (02:36:38 CEST)
The few studies dealing with leaf phenological responses to elevated nutrients in forest trees have given ambiguous results, i.e., while some reported delayed leaf-out and autumn leaf senescence, others reported advanced leaf phenology caused by increased nutrition. This study aimed to determine the effects of experimentally increased phosphorus (+P) on the leaf phenologies of two juvenile provenances of common beech and sessile oak. Other objectives were to determine whether there are interspecies differences as well as intraspecies variations. Saplings were excavated in two mixed beech-oak stands and transplanted into four wooden boxes filled with a commercial soil substrate. Phosphorus fertilizer was added to two of the boxes, while the remaining boxes served as controls. Both species responded to +P treatment with advanced autumn leaf senescence in the first year of the experiment. Leaf senescence in common beech began significantly earlier, while in both species, the process was accelerated compared to that in the control. In the second year, the leaf senescence response to +P treatment was even more pronounced in both species. The +P effect on leafing phenology was absent in both common beech provenances and in an oak provenance. However, the other oak provenance showed advanced leafing, indicating the existence of intraspecies differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0354.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Nd : YVO4 laser; Second Harmonic Generation; Q-switched Lasers; Frequency doubled
Online: 20 March 2023 (08:51:44 CET)
In this paper, the stabilization and high efficiency of an unstable Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of a Nd : YVO4 laser with a KTP intracavity is carried out by using a passive Q-switching crystal and a parametric modulation method (harmonic modulation) is shown. The harmonic modulation was defined as um(t) = Amsin(2π fmt), with modulation amplitude as Am(Vpp), and modulation frequency as fm(Hz), applied to the pumping of the Nd : YVO4 -KTP laser to control the amplitude and frequency of the emission, thus stabilizing the dynamic states of this laser. The promising application of this green light source is materialized when such light is necessary for high-density optics, such as in the treatment materials industry or in some aesthetic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Kakamega Rain Forest; Conservation; Biodiversity; Complementarity; Agroforestry
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:14:00 CET)
A primary challenge facing conservationists is reconciling the human needs of forest adjacent communities with the needs of conserving forest biodiversity, especially in tropical regions with growing populations of rural poor. Agroforestry has the potential to simultaneously provide for human needs and enhance forest biodiversity, but the complex interactions and feedbacks between the social and natural dimensions are relatively undescribed and thus systematic implementation is rare. The attributes of trees on farms required for human needs and conservation value may conflict. For example, exotic species in monoculture may provide the most economic value for farmers, while relic or planted indigenous tree mixtures may be more valuable for biological conservation. The objective of this study was to explore whether agroforestry practices in a moist tropical forest ecosystem in Kenya can simultaneously provide timber and fuelwood value to small-holder farmers while extending forest tree biodiversity. We described the agroforestry attributes on farms around a tropical forest, assessed the relationship between number and biomass of timber/fuelwood trees and tree biodiversity, and explored the relationships between forest tree diversity attributes and farm tree diversity attributes on a landscape scale using spatial analysis. We found that the diversity and number of trees on farms in this area are extensive yet variable, but that no significant relationship exists between the number of timber/fuelwood trees and tree diversity. This suggests that the two values of agroforestry may not be in conflict, due mainly to the high diversity of trees used for fuelwood. We also found that trees on farms in the larger landscape add to the conservation value of forest tree biodiversity and could be important components in conservation management. If agroforestry is to play an increasingly active role in conserving biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes, particularly in areas of dense subsistence farmer populations, increase recognition needs to be given to farmer’s perception of the value of trees and their selection of what trees to plant or maintain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Forest ecosystem services; Tourism; Recreational activities; Health; Methodological framework; Nature park; Protected area
Online: 3 March 2023 (13:31:15 CET)
Payments for Ecosystem Services are a voluntary market-based instrument to remunerate provider(s) of ecosystem services by those who benefit from them. Our research aimed to create an ex-post evaluation framework to identify bottlenecks and elements hindering the success of a solution-driven PES scheme. The framework was applied to a case study to test its feasibility and concerns the provision of health and recreational services in the Medvednica Nature Park (Zagreb, Croatia). The framework was set up through three main sources: the study of PES implementation project documentation, semi-structured interviews with visitors and key stakeholders and web-scraping of TripAdvisor reviews of the park. The main findings confirmed society's interest in the park, but the lack of mapping, quantification, economic valuation and accounting of the services analysed, society's little or no demand to pay for their provision and confused knowledge of the property rights of some ecosystem service providers in the area limit the success of the PES scheme. The framework was useful to describe the chosen PES scheme and to identify bottlenecks and fragilities of the system in place, allowing to correct its application flaws and, on the other hand, to demonstrate its replicability in other contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: SWOT; AHP; A’WOT; decision-making; complex decisions; forest; chestnut valorisation
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:07:13 CET)
Efficient natural resource management prevents and reduces negative impacts, such as environmental damage, misappropriation of resources, and conflicts; several strategies can be leveraged to conserve, protect, and enhance natural resources. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is useful in providing solutions to addressing decision-choice problems. In this study, the natural resource under evaluation is the chestnut forest, with the objective of valorising its supply chains. The methodology applied is A'WOT, which allows previously identified factors through a qualitative SWOT matrix, to be ordered through an objective quantification using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), which is a multicriteria decision-support method. The survey was conducted with a group of chestnut resource (n=20) experts. The SWOT matrix identified a total of 20 factors: 6 strengths and 6 weaknesses and 4 factors each for opportunities and threats. The results express a clear stakeholder interest, which identifies the significant role of civil society in directing management choices for the provision and enhancement of ecosystem and vocational services. This study evaluated the adaptability of decision-support tools applied to a real case of forest resource management to identify and order factors useful to enhance the resource and stimulate the supply chains to achieve greater added value. In a general sense, the methodological potential emerged to replicate or improve the research in other geographical regions, whether regional or extra-regional, or even on a larger scale, such as on a national level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0134.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: planting depth; drought; freeze injury; herbivory; mortality; survival; insects
Online: 7 February 2023 (14:01:52 CET)
Artificial regeneration is successful when high performing seedlings are transported with care to the planting site, stored for a short period in an environment without desiccation or fungal growth, and are planted in a deep hole so roots are in contact with moist soil. One of the requirements for success is the ability to avoid common planting mistakes. Due, in part, to use of container stock plus an increase in rainfall, average 1st year survival of pine seedlings (89%) in the southern United States is about 15% greater now than 45 years ago. However, when survival is less than 50% six months after planting, some landowners seek reimbursement for their loss. Some assume poor seedling quality was the cause without realizing that anaerobic soils or sudden freeze events or shallow planting holes or pruning roots, a lack of rain, or underground insects can kill pines. With a focus on pines planted in the southern United States, we list non-nursery factors that have killed seedlings in North America, Africa and Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Land use; landscape; climate change; Carbon; sub-humid tropic; Himalayas
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:35:57 CET)
Land resources have been under tremendous anthropogenic pressure with the consequence of their degradation. It is therefore necessary that the land resources must be managed effectively for sustainable development. Different from the developed countries, carbon inventories and data bank to monitor carbon sequestration potential of different ecosystems are unavailable in India. Micro-level studies are essential for sustainable land use management for a land scarce nation like India. To achieve the desirable goal of the present study, a total of 33 tree-based land uses were identified from forested and agricultural landscapes. Of these total land uses, five were in forest landscapes and rest in agricultural landscapes categorized into forest tree plantations (8 land uses), agroforestry (nine land uses), commercial crop plantations (six land uses) and fruit orchards (five land uses). A stratified random nested quadrate sampling method was adopted for vegetation analysis of the different land uses. The SOC, biomass and carbon accumulation in the tree-based land uses were significantly different from each other. Mixed forest soil had the highest amount of SOC, primary nutrients, standing biomass carbon, and ecosystem carbon. Positive correlations were observed between SOC, total standing biomass, litter production, and ecosystem carbon. The sequence of best tree based land uses in terms of total SOC (up to 60 cm depth), total plant biomass, total plant biomass carbon and ecosystem carbon was mixed species forest (126.67, 781.21, 390.61 and 517.27) > sole tree species stands in forest landscape (109.71, 192.56, 96.28 and 205.98) > tea plantations (103.19, 77.07, 38.54 and 141.74) > homegardens (90.34, 97.38, 48.69 and 139.02) > mixed plantation of Anthocephalus cadamba + Swietenia macrophylla (60.07, 111.86, 55.93 and 116.02) > Swietenia macrophylla based agroforestry (62.49, 83.82, 41.91 and 104.40) > mixed plantation of Tectona grandis + Milvus migrans (60.0, 85.97, 42.99 and 102.90). Similarly, the order of the major land uses was forest > commercial crop plantation > forest tree plantations > agroforestry > fruit orchards. The overall average ecosystem carbon accumulation in forests was 3.24 times more than the land uses in agricultural landscapes. The ecosystem carbon accumulation in the tree-based land uses in both forest and agricultural landscape was highly variable and was significantly different from each other. Land use conversion from forest to agriculture can reduce more than half of the carbon stock, but converting into homegardens, tree plantations or agroforestry enhanced carbon storage of the land use systems. The present findings can be used as baseline information for developing prediction models for probable effects of different land use, future intervention and sustainable management of land use systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0548.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Non-Timber Forest Product; Sustainable Development Goals; Sustainable Forest Management; forest policy; forest degradation; endangered species
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:19:49 CET)
Globally, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) continue to contribute vastly to addressing the food, poverty reduction, income, and livelihood requirements of people in rural areas. However, as at now, there is no specific existing data highlighting periodic contributions of NTFPs to the economy of the Eastern region and the country. The study analyses the contribution of NTFPs towards economic development in the Eastern region and the achievement of SDGs in Ghana. Through Focus Group Discussions and qualitative analysis, it was concluded that NTFPs contribute immensely towards the economic development of the Eastern region and the country through employment and direct taxes. Ultimately, it is evident from the study that the destruction of the Atiwa forest reserve for the purpose of bauxite mining will widely hinder the country’s achievement of the SDGs. Also, the study found out that residents will continue to exploit forest resources if the core concerns of institutional deficiencies and rural poverty are not addressed. To curb this situation, there should be sustainable, regulated, and authorized harvesting of NTFPs/NWFPs, community/user empowerment, sectoral education and training programmes, etc. Even though these are common solutions, the study found them extremely rare in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0464.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Adsorption water movement; adsorption hypothesis; plant long-distance water transport; thermodynamic water movement; not-hydraulic movement
Online: 26 January 2023 (03:02:38 CET)
Ad- and desorption forces move water in living xylem/wood from the root to the leaf thermodynamically. The doctrine of plant water transport, the so-called cohesion- or cohesion-tension theory, postulates however that the process is physically based on a hydraulic fluid flow with negative pressure in water conducting tubes originating from the leaves. Lower pressure (suction) driven volume flow is physically a branch of mechanics. Moisture absorbed from the soil via the root is thought to be pulled up the stem by the leaves in continuous and tensioned threads of water. It is assumed that the hydraulic Hagen/Poiseuille flow law, derived for tubes, applies in the xylem. In a textbook of botany you can find the opinion: "Just as the pipes of a water pipe supply necessary water to each household, leaf nerves supply water and nutrient salts to each individual cell.” (Translated from German). Many plant physiologists consider this hydraulic principle to be correct, but it does not remain unchallenged. Doubts are repeatedly expressed. The question arises: How does water transport actually take place? It is shown how the diffusive/adsorption transport principle works. The partial dehydration (desorption) of the plant, driven by the diffusive process of transpiration, forms a combined concentration and adsorption-site gradient for water in the xylem matrix. Especially with open stomata the lowest moisture concentration and the highest number of adsorption-sites for water (sites with free van der Waals forces), can be found in the mesophyll cell walls at the liquid/vapor boundary in the leaf. The water taken up by the root moves spontaneously in the direction of this boundary and can thus partially or completely compensate for the existing concentration- and adsorption-site- differences for water. Thus, a thermodynamic overlapping diffusive/adsorptive movement of moisture along the stationary xylem/wood takes place. After the introduction and a review of some controversies with cohesion theory, the physiology of the processes associated with long-distance water displacement is mentioned below. A thermodynamic adsorption hypothesis of the natural water transport in plants, based on known facts, is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0331.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: business plan; artificial intelligence; forester management; young entrepreneurs
Online: 18 January 2023 (09:33:59 CET)
This paper is introducing KABADA (Knowledge Alliance of Business Idea Assessment: Digital Approach) unique tool, together with opinions of young people about entrepreneurship, their skills and experience with this tool. The focus is on non-business students who study natural sciences, engineering and other areas at the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology at Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic. KABADA tool has been developed and tested by a team of international experts. It can be used to improve forester management. This structured, Web-based, platform which is based on theoretical research, relevant statistics, and artificial intelligence insights, guides entrepreneurs through every step of the way including what challenges and opportunities lie ahead. The research included survey answers from 60 university students before and after using KABADA tool. The results show that students are interested in entrepreneurship but do not have the knowledge, experience and support from curriculum. Majority of students had no or very low experience with entrepreneurship nor any entrepreneurship training or study course before. After using the tool, students declared to have higher knowledge of entrepreneurship and the number of students who intended to become an entrepreneur increased. The tool is available on-line, free of charge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0199.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Prunus cerasus; ammonium nitrate; chlorophyll; TCSA; mineral content; carotenoids
Online: 11 January 2023 (10:40:29 CET)
Nitrogen fertilization ensures the proper growth of trees. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of differentiated nitrogen fertilization on selected parameters. It was assumed that such analysis is an indirect picture of the needs of cherries grown in herbicide fallow. The content of minerals in two layers of the soil, in leaves, and its influence of tree growth, and the content of chlorophyll in leaves were assessed. The experiments were carried out in three different cherry orchards. Three levels of fertilization were applied in each orchard: 0 kg, 60 kg and with 120 kg N ha- 1. As expected the fertilization resulted in an increase in the content of nitrate and ammonium forms of nitrogen in the soil, however, their content was also dependent on precipitation and temperature. Additionally a high nitrogen fertilization increased the content of phosphorus and potassium and decreased the magnesium in the topsoil layer. High nitrogen fertilization caused the decrease of content of phosphorus and potassium in the leaves. The level of calcium and magnesium in leaves increased with fertilization of 60 kg N ha–1 but decreased with the dose to 120 kg N ha–1. The use of nitrogen fertilization increased the vegetative growth of trees measured by leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. However, the chlorophyll content was not dependent on the amount of nitrogen fertilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0584.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: miRNA156; micropropagation; tree breeding; recalcitrant; woody plants; perennial plants
Online: 30 December 2022 (10:18:33 CET)
In plants, phase change from the juvenile stage to maturity is a tightly controlled process at the physiological and genetic level, which is controlled by evolutionary highly conserved microRNAs. These phase changes are more pronounced in woody plant species, but the majority of molecular genetic studies on the regulation of this transition has been done in annual model or crop species. This process is of particular significance for the in vitro propagation of woody plant species, as individuals or tissues that have undergone the transition to vegetative maturity are recalcitrant to propagation. Development of effective methodologies for silver birch vegetative propagation are required to increase the efficiency of breeding programs. Conserved miRNAs that were differentially expressed between juvenile and mature silver birch tissues were identified using high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. These differentially expressed miRNAs could potentially be utilized to develop markers indicating the juvenility or maturity of silver birch explants and in vitro cultures. In addition, the obtained results will provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating vegetative phase change in silver birch and other perennial woody plant species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0575.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: NTFP; sustainable exploitation; use of NTFP
Online: 30 December 2022 (08:34:09 CET)
Forests are a large reservoir of biodiversity on which riparian populations frequently rely. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are an important source of income for millions of people living in forest-adjacent communities. This study aims at characterizing the types and uses of NTFPs in order to determine whether their exploitation in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo is sustainable. Interviews and direct observation were carried out with NTFP stakeholders (harvesters, sellers, and consumers) in Kalonge, near the Kahuzi-Biega National Park. The results showed that 40 NTFPs of plant origin and 10 NTFPs of animal origin are commonly exploited and used in food and traditional medicine. The most common NTFP harvesting techniques are debarking, picking, digging up, felling, and wine extraction, which are all tailored to the plant part. A significant relationship (p-value< 0.001) has been established between the types of NTFPs used and harvesting methods as well as between the types of NTFPs used and organs retrieved. NTFP products are mainly obtained from the natural forest KBNP but also in the woodland, trees grown outside of forest or through domestication. Their abundance, however, is hampered by the extraction of wood for charcoal, energy, and timber, as well as agricultural expansion. The supply of NTFPs is determined by the market demand for the products, the nature of the product, and the ease of disposal. The NTFPs value chain in Kalonge is important to the local economy, however exploitation of NTFP products remains uncontrolled and should be well managed to ensure sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Cedrus altlantica; carbon sequestration; DE-MC (Differential Evolution - Markov chains); parameter optimization
Online: 20 December 2022 (07:35:53 CET)
To assess the degree to which it has met its commitments under the Paris Agreement, Morocco is called upon to carry out carbon assessments and transparent evaluations. Within the forestry sector, little is known about the role of Morocco’s forests in contributing to carbon uptake. With this aim, we applied for the first time in literature the 3-PG model to Cedrus atlantica ((Endl.) Manetti ex Carrière, 1855), which represents about 131.800 ha of Morocco’s forest area (i.e. Azrou forest). Through the Differential Evolution - Markov Chains (DE-MC) we tested and assessed the sensitivity and calibrated the 3-PG model. This process-based model provided significant results regarding the carbon sequestration capacity. The results showed the following: i- Parameters related to stand properties, canopy structure, and processes, as well as biomass partitioning, are the most important or sensitive for the performance of the model; ii- The DE-MC method optimized the values of the 3-PG parameters which was confirmed by the means of Gelman-Rubin convergence test; iii- According to the predictions of the calibrated 3-PG, the Net Primary Production in the pure Azrou forest varies between 0.32 and 7.88 tC.ha−1.yr−1, it is equal in average to 4.9 tC.ha−1.yr−1, which given the total area corresponds to 7078 tC.yr−1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Pine nuts; Neja nuts; NTFPs; Non-timber forest products; Socio-economic importance; Public awareness
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:22:17 CEST)
Non-woody forest products play a vital role in the economic uplifts of the local communities living in forest areas. This study was conducted in the Shishikoh Valley, district Chital to identify the economic importance of the Chilghoza nuts. The study was based on interviews and questionnaires, and a total of 50 questionnaires were collected from the whole valley. The results showed that before 2003, the people were unaware of the high economic value of the Chilghoza nuts, they used to sell the Chilghoza nuts at a very low price (US$ 1.7 to 2.4 per bag: approximately 5 Kg) and harvest it for fuelwood purposes. After the IPRP interventions, training and awareness, the local people started conservation of Chilghoza trees and sustainable cone harvesting. The total collection and sell out of Chilghoza nuts in the Shishikoh valley jumped to 87.9 tons and US$ 7.64/kg in 2005 from 32.7 tons and US$ 0.34-0.48/kg, respectively. This study concludes that IPRP interventions improved the economic values of Chilghoza nuts as well as the living standards of the local people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Arboriculture; Canker and Cracking; Emerald Ash Borer; Tree Biology; Urban Forestry
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:13:32 CEST)
Field observations of external wounds associated with two common tree injection methods compared open (plug-less) and sealed (plug) systems in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) trees . A wound from any cause within 1.37 meters above the ground was common with 28.8% of all trees. The open system had statistically fewer (p<0.001) trees with at least one wound (11.6% of trees) than the sealed system (47.4% of trees). The open system had fewer (P<0.001) wounds (0.17, 0.04 SE) per tree and a smaller (P<0.001) total wound area (25.5 cm2, 8.7 SE) per tree, compared to the sealed system wounds (1.14, 0.13 SE) per tree and the total wound area (99.7 cm2, 16.2 SE) per tree. The incidence of a tree with a wound(s) within 1.37 m above the ground was 7.2 times more likely with trees treated though the sealed system. Wounds in the sealed system were observed to appear to have a high rate of improper application of plugs, which was associated in 77% of the cases to explain the wounds. Implications of study results are further provided to best protect ash trees, while at the same time reducing the incidence external wounding on ash trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Bruhinae; seed beetles; biocontrol; legumes; parasitoids; Serbia
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:26:44 CEST)
In order to reduce negative effects of application of chemical agents, biological control is becoming increasingly important. This paper therefore focused on research of effects of certain types of seed beetles on control of invasive plant species in Serbia. Numerous sources suggest that for legumes and seed beetles Bruhinae: Chrysomelidae the rule of coexistence in pairs applies in all ecozones. The species rely on one another, primarily in terms of geographical origin or association, thus one plant species is frequently attacked by only one type of seed beetle. Being confirmed to be expressly monophagous, bruchins have proven to be excellent potential agents of control of invasive and harmful host plants (to date, false indigo-bush in Serbia), as is the case of the seed beetle of Persian silk tree, which has been registered as monophagous in Serbia for the first time, making it the number one potential agent in control of the host plant – Persian silk tree in Greece. Standard entomological methods were used, from sample collections, to experiments in photo-eclectors, during dissection counting and placing the seed for development inside by the method 1 flacon – 1 seed, to maintain precise records of the origin of the emerged insects and their numbers, within standard laboratory conditions. The conditions favoring the expansion of the plant have already developed due to climatic circumstances (changes in terms of heat extremes – global warming and precipitation), and it is now gradually becoming invasive. Parasitoid accumulation of roughly one-third (30%) of the total number of false indigo-bush pods makes the false indigo-tree seed beetle a viable candidate for the status of a bioagent. The species has the extreme potential for the application of biological measures which is now quickly gaining importance, all for the purposes of developing the integral control of the plants. Species Acanthoscelides pallidipennis and Bruchidius terrenus have been recorded in this research for the first time in Serbia, while calendars of development have been made for the researched bruchin species, which represents a significant scientific contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0459.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: growth and yield; Tetrapluera tetraptera; organic fertilizers; seedlings
Online: 26 August 2022 (10:18:12 CEST)
The study was carried out to investigate the growth response of Tetrapluera tetraptera to selected organic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers: poultry manure and cow dung of different concentration and mixture were used to raise seedlings from Germination experiment for a period of 12 weeks. Six treatments were used for this research: T1 (control experiment), T2 (10g of poultry manure), T3 (10g of cow dung), T4 (20g of poultry manure), T5 (20g of cow dung), T6 (15g of poultry manure + 15g of cow dung). Growth parameters such as diameter, plant height and number of leaves were measured weekly over a period of twelve (12) weeks. Data obtained were subjected to Anova and mean separated using Duncan multiple range tests. on the height parameter assessed on Tetrapluera tetraptera, the highest plant height mean of 12.20cm was recorded in treatment 6 (15g of poultry manure + 15g of cow dung) while the lowest mean plant height 7.19cm was recorded in treatment 3 (10g of cow dung) . the highest mean stem diameter was recorded in treatment 4 with a value of 0.43mm from while the least was recorded in Treatment 1 with mean value of 0.21 m. also, highest mean number of leaves was recorded treatment 4 (12.81) while the least was observed in T3 (11.01) . The results showed that organic manure has considerable effect on the growth of Tetrapluera tetraptera seedlings and it use should be encouraged. T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung) was hereby recommended to be the best of all in the growth of Tetrapluera tetraptera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0285.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Uneven-aged forest management; Forest growth modelling; Machine learning; Diameter distribution; Silvicultural decision support
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:03:36 CEST)
Growth models of uneven-aged forests on the diameter class level can support silvicultural decision making. Machine learning brings added value to the modeling of dynamics at the stand or individual tree level based on data from permanent plots. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of machine learning for modeling growth dynamics in uneven-aged forests at the diameter class level based on inventory data from practice. Two main modeling approaches are conducted and compared: i) fine-tuned linear models differentiated per diameter class, ii) an artificial neural network (multilayer perceptron) trained on all diameter classes. The models are trained on the inventory data of the Canton of Neuchâtel (Switzerland), which are area-wide data without individual tree-level growth monitoring. Both approaches produce convincing results for predicting future diameter distributions. The linear models perform better at the individual diameter class level with test R2 typically between 50 and 70% for predicting increments in the numbers of stems at the diameter class level. From a methodological perspective, the multilayer perceptron implementation is much simpler than the fine-tuning of linear models. The linear models developed in this study achieve sufficient performance for practical decision support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: growth and yield; Khaya senegalensis; organic fertilizers; seedlings
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:26:44 CEST)
The study investigated the comparative effect organic fertilizers on the growth of Khaya senegalensis (Desr). Four treatments were used for this research: T1 20g of poultry manure, T2 (20g of cow dung), T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung), T4 (Control experiment). Growth parameters such as diameter, plant height and number of leaves were measured weekly over a period of twelve (12) weeks. Data obtained were subjected to ANOVA and mean separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. on the height parameter assessed on Khaya Senegalensis, the highest plant height mean of 8.40cm was recorded in treatment 1(20g of poultry Manure) while the lowest mean plant height 7.19cm was recorded in treatment 4 (Control experiment). Also, the highest mean stem diameter was recorded in Treatment 1 with a value of 0.309mm from while the least was recorded in Treatment 4 with mean value of 2.1175mm. However, highest mean number of leaves was recorded treatment 1 (20g of poultry manure) while the least was observed in T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung). The results showed that organic manure has considerable effect on the growth of Khaya senegalensis seedlings and it use should be encouraged. T3 (10g of poultry Manure + 10g of cow dung) is hereby recommended to be the best of all in the growth of Khaya senegalensis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Fusarium fujikuroi species complex; Fusarium circinatum; Fusarium temperatum; pitch canker; comparative genomics; host-specificity; horizontal gene transfer; subtelomeres
Online: 1 July 2022 (08:04:13 CEST)
The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) includes socioeconomically important pathogens that cause disease and/or mycotoxin contamination on numerous crops. Here, we used comparative genomics to elucidate processes underlying the ability of pine-associated and grass-associated FFSC species to colonize tissues of their respective plant hosts. We characterized the identity, possible functions, evolutionary origins, and chromosomal positions of the host-range-associated genes encoded by the two groups of fungi. The 72 and 47 genes identified as unique to the respective genome groups were potentially involved in diverse processes, ranging from transcription, regulation, and substrate transport, through to virulence/pathogenicity. Most emerged early during the evolution of Fusarium/FFSC and were subsequently retained only in some lineages, while some had origins outside Fusarium. Although differences in the densities of these genes were especially noticeable on the conditionally dispensable chromosome of F. temperatum (representing the grass-associates) and F. circinatum (representing the pine-associates), the host-range-associated genes tended to be located towards the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multiple mechanisms drive the emergence of genes in grass- and pine-associated FFSC taxa examined and highlighted the diversity of molecular processes potentially underlying niche-specificity in these and other Fusarium species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0330.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: capital return rate; expected value; carbon storage; carbon rent
Online: 26 April 2022 (09:45:34 CEST)
The effect of capitalization premium in forest estate markets on forest management and climate change mitigation economics is investigated. It is shown that proportional goodwill in capitalization induces linear scaling of the financial return, without any contribution to sound management practices. However, there is a financial discontinuity as harvesting deteriorates goodwill. On the contrary, capitalization premium set on bare land as a tangible asset would increase timber storage and carbon sequestration. Observations indicate that the proportional goodwill is closer to reality within the Nordic Region, resulting in continuity problems but a reduced capital expense for carbon storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Horqin sandy land; Picea mongolica forest; NH4+-N; NO3-—N; Seasonal dynamics
Online: 18 March 2022 (15:17:41 CET)
The seasonal and vertical spatial variation characteristics of total N, NH4+—N and NO3-—N in the soil in Picea mongolica forest at different stand ages were studied. The results showed that: (1) NH4+ —N in the soil in Picea mongolica forest was positively correlated with sample date, soil NO3-—N and forest age (P <0.05), and negatively correlated with soil depth (P < 0.01). NO3-—N in the soil in Picea mongolica forest was negatively correlated with sample date and forest age (P < 0.05), and significantly negatively correlated with soil depth (P < 0.01); (2) the content of NH4+—N is greater than that of NO3-—N in each soil layer of Picea mongolica forest at three forest ages. The correlation analysis showed which had an impact on the content of NH4+—N and NO3-—N in the soil in Picea mongolica forest. The content was lower in February and November, and higher in May and August；(3) The contents of total N, NH4+—N and NO3-—N in the soil of Picea mongolica forest in the three forest ages increased with the depth of soil layer (0-50cm), and showed an overall downward trend. The contents of NH4+—N in the soil layer of young forest (0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cm, 30-40cm and 40-50cm) were significantly different (P＜0.05), and the contents of NO3-—N were also significantly different (P＜0.05), while their contents of middle-aged forest and near mature forest increased with the depth of soil layer, There was no significant difference in the content of NH4+—N; (4) The content of NH4+—N in the soil in Picea mongolica forest generally showed the following change trend near mature forest > middle-aged forest > young forest. The change trend of soil NO3-—N content is consistent with that of the content of NH4+—N in the soil in Picea mongolica forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: mountain forests; regional succession; palynology; paleoclimate; response lags; human impact; last centuries
Online: 15 March 2022 (15:34:19 CET)
Anticipating future successional forest trends in the face of ongoing global change is an essential conservation target. Mountain forests are especially sensitive to environmental shifts, and their past responses to climatic and anthropogenic (external) drivers may provide a basis for improving predictions of future developments. This paper uses independent high-resolution palynological and paleoclimatic reconstructions to statistically analyze the long-term effects of external drivers on regional forest succession in the central Iberian Pyrenees during the last 500 years. The dominant taxa of these forests (Quercus, Betula, Pinus) showed significant relationships with summer temperature, summer drought and autumn precipitation. Immediate and delayed (by two or more decades) responses of these trees to climatic drivers were identified. Regional succession showed a closed path, starting at the end points around the attraction domain of pine-dominated forests. This trajectory was determined by a trend toward anthropogenic forest clearing (16th to 18th centuries) and a reverse trend of natural forest recovery (18th to 20th centuries). Forest clearing was due to burning, facilitated by drought, and was followed by the expansion of cropping and grazing lands. Forest recovery was fostered by reduced human pressure and rising temperatures. The statistical approach used in this work has unraveled ecological relationships that remained unnoticed in previous works and would be important for predicting future successional trends under changing climates. The reported response lags of individual taxa to climatic drivers may complicate the establishment of reliable ecological relationships and should be addressed in future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0351.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Ash; ash dieback; disease management; Fraxinus excelsior; fungal plant pathogen; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; mycology; plant pathology; plant pathogen; plant science; tree disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:50:43 CET)
Ash trees have considerable economic, cultural and environmental value on the island of Ireland. However, European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is currently under threat from the invasive ascomycete pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This pathogen is the causal agent of ash dieback disease, which was initially reported in Poland in 1992. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has since spread across Europe and the first recorded case of the disease on the island of Ireland was in 2012 at a forestry plantation in Co. Leitrim. The pathogen is now present in all 26 counties in Ireland and 6 counties in Northern Ireland, and it is considered unfeasible to eradicate. The spread of ash dieback disease is reflected in recent policy changes, which focus on management rather than eradication strategies. Since the first formal description of H. fraxineus in 2006, considerable research efforts have been made by the international scientific community to understand the biology of the pathogen and to develop management strategies against it. This review provides an update of current knowledge of H. fraxineus biology and infection. We then explore examples of mitigation techniques that have been trialled in Europe, in order to identify strategies that are feasible for disease management at a local level on the island of Ireland. Finally, we outline five key avenues of research that have the potential to provide breakthroughs in methods to protect valuable F. excelsior resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0007.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: allelopathy; biochar; invasive species; island ecosystems; Psidium cattleianum
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:37:04 CET)
Many tropical invasive species have allelopathic effects that contribute to their success in native plant communities. Pyrolyzed biomass (“biochar”) can sorb toxic compounds, including allelochemicals produced by invasive plants, potentially reducing their inhibitory effects on native species. Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum) is among the most important allelopathic invasive species in tropical islands and recognized as the most serious invasive species threat in the global biodiversity hotspot of Mauritius. We investigated the effects of additions of locally produced biochar on native tree species in a field experiment conducted in areas invaded by strawberry guava within Mauritius’ largest national park. Growth and survivorship of native tree species were monitored over 2 ½ years in plots subjected to four treatments: non-weeded, weeded, weeded + 25 t/ha biochar and weeded + 50 t/ha biochar. Native tree growth and survivorship were strongly suppressed by strawberry guava. Biochar treatments dramatically increased native tree performance, with more than a doubling in growth, and substantially increased native tree survivorship and species diversity, while suppressing strawberry guava regeneration, consistent with growth-promoting properties and sorption of allelochemicals. We conclude that biochars, including “sustainable biochars” produced from locally accessible biomass using low-tech pyrolysis systems, have considerable potential to counteract effects of allelopathic invaders and increase the capacity for native species regeneration in tropical island ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0149.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Betula pendula; cell cycle; Cyclin; RNA-seq
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:34:00 CET)
Research Highlights: This study identified the cell cycle genes in birch that likely play important roles during plant growth and development. This analysis provides a basis for understanding the regulatory mechanism of various cell cycles in Betula pendula. Background and Objectives: The cell cycle factors not only influence cell cycle progression together, but also regulate accretion, division and differentiation of cells, and then regulate growth and development of plant. In this study, we identified the putative cell cycle genes in B. pendula genome, based on the annotated cell cycle genes in A. thaliana. It could serve as a foundation for further functional studies. Materials and Methods: The transcript abundance was determined for all the cell cycle genes in xylem, root, leaf and flower tissues using RNA-seq technology. Results: We identified 59 cell cycle gene models in the genome of B. pendula, 17 highly expression genes among them. These genes were BpCDKA.1, BpCDKB1.1, BpCDKB2.1, BpCKS1.2, BpCYCB1.1, BpCYCB1.2, BpCYCB2.1, BpCYCD3.1, BpCYCD3.5, BpDEL1, BpDpa2, BpE2Fa, BpE2Fb, BpKRP1, BpKRP2, BpRb1 and BpWEE1. Conclusions: We identified 17 core cell cycle genes in the genome of birch by combining phylogenetic analysis and tissue specific expression data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0355.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: dark treatment; hybrid poplar; plant hormone; rooting; shoot culture
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:46:18 CET)
Phenotypic plasticity in response to adverse conditions determines plant productivity and survival. The aim of this study was to test if two highly productive Populus genotypes, characterized by different in vitro etiolation patterns, differ also in their responses to hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and to a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiments on shoot cultures of ‘Hybrida 275’ (abbr. H275; Populus maximowiczii × P. trichocarpa) and IBL 91/78 (Populus tremula × P. alba) were conducted either by modulating the physical in vitro environment or by adding specific chemicals to the nutrient medium. Our results show that there are significant differences between the studied genotypes in environmental and hormonal regulation of growth responses. The genotype H275, which responded to darkness with PBZ-inhibitable shoot elongation, was unable to recover its growth after treatment with ABA. In contrast, the genotype IBL 91/78, whose shoot elongation was not affected either by darkness or PBZ treatment, recovered so well after the ABA treatment that, when rooted subsequently, it developed longer shoots and roots than without ABA treatment. Our results indicate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling provide an important pathway to control growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or impending adverse conditions. These observations can help breeders define robust criteria for identifying genotypes with high resistance and productivity and highlight where genotypes exhibit susceptibility to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Genotype and environment interaction; Muti-environment test; Genotype selection; BLUP-GGE; Populus euramericana
Online: 26 November 2021 (12:01:42 CET)
Poplar is a globalized commercial tree species that supports humanity's economy, energy, and ecology. To evaluate the twelve hybrid Populus euramericana genotypes developed in China, a total of six locations were selected for the test, comprising four climatic types and three soil kinds. The objective of this study is to characterize the early stages of Populus euramericana growth and test locations; to identify good genotypes for stable and high yield that may be encouraged; and to offer practical experience and technical assistance for further breeding of Populus euramericana. Main research methods include the statistical description of tree heights and diameter at breast heights[DBH], the establishment of a mixed effect model to analyze the genotype and environmental interaction effect [G×E], the use of best linear unbiased prediction[BLUP] values as GGE biplots to achieve visual screening, and the calculation of genetic parameters. Results show that the genotype effect [G], the environmental effect [E], and the G×E is significant; the BLUP value has a strong correspondence with the observed value; the goodness of fit of all biplots can explain more than 85% of the variation; broad-sense heritability of tree height and DBH is 0.13 and 0.3, type-B correlation is 0.36 and 0.65; G5, G7, G4 and G9 are excellent genotypes with high yield and stability; using these four genotypes tree height and DBH can get 3.35% and 0.81% genetic gains.The study concludes as follows: Rank-change interaction and scale-effect interaction were distinctly occurred. The G, E, and G×E all had a significant effect on the growth of poplar trees during their early stage. G4, G5, G7, and G9 genotypes have favorable development characteristics. N146 is a great source of paternal genetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0311.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: biodiversity education; knowledge; perspective; biodiversity conservation; biodiversity protection
Online: 18 November 2021 (17:20:15 CET)
Rich biodiversity is one of the Philippines’ greatest assets. Unfortunately, there is a continuous decline in the diversity of flora and fauna across the world. This calls for the need to educate people, especially younger generations, to value and protect biodiversity and natural resources. The study aimed to assess the students’ extent of knowledge and identify their perspectives towards biodiversity and its protection and conservation. A total of 268 randomly selected students at Aurora State College of Technology Zabali Campus were involved in the study. Survey questionnaires were used to obtain data and information which were subjected to statistical tests. The students had a moderate knowledge level on biodiversity with a mean score of 6.65 out of 10 items (SD = 1.50). Their perspective on biodiversity was leaning toward its protection and conservation, with a mean score of 7.2 out of 10 items (SD = 1.29). Factors affecting the students’ knowledge were gender (p = .003) and academic department (p = 0.003). Females and those associated with the Department of Forestry and Environmental Sciences and Department of Industrial technology were found to have more knowledge than the others. Males, on the other hand, were found to have a more positive perspective towards biodiversity. Knowledge and perspective had a weak correlation with r = 0.39. Students were not well-aware, but were in support of the Philippines’ biodiversity-related laws, which could help shape their mindset and actions towards biodiversity conservation and protection. As an implication, the college administration must revisit the curricula of all degree programs and ensure that students from each degree program are environmentally educated, emphasizing biodiversity conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Cinnamomum camphora; chemotype; soil nutrient; soil bacterial community diversity and structure
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:20:35 CET)
Abstract: Plant types and soil bacterial communities had a close relationship, understanding the profound association between them contributes to better learn bacterial ecological function for plant growth. In this study, rhizosphere soil of six different chemotype Cinnamomum camphora trees were collected, including C. bodinieri var. citralifera, [C. camphora (Linn.) Presl], camphora-type, cineole-type, linalool-type and isoborneol-type. Soil properties content and bacterial communities were analyzed. Two chemotype C. camphora, including [C. camphora (Linn.) Presl] and linalool-type, shaped similar bacterial community structure, decreased Firmcutes relative abundance. richness estimators (Chao1 index and Ace index) of [C. camphora (Linn.) Presl] were decreased compared with the others. Furthermore, soil bacterial community structure was also similar among bodinieri var. citralifera, camphora-type, cineole-type and isoborneol-type. Hence, different chemotype C. camphora altered soil nutrient and shaped rhizosphere bacterial communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Quercus; acute oak decline; phyllosphere; Brenneria goodwinii; Gibbsiella quercinecans; Lonsdalea britannica; Rahnella victoriana
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:50:45 CEST)
Acute Oak Decline (AOD) is complex syndrome affecting Britain’s keystone native oak species, (Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea L. (Matt.) Liebl.), in some cases causing mortality within five years of symptom development. The most distinguishable symptom is weeping stem lesions, from which four species of bacteria have been isolated: Brenneria goodwinii, Gibbsiella quercinecans, Lonsdalea britannica and Rahnella victoriana. We do not yet know where else these bacteria exist, and little is known about the relationship of the wider oak leaf microbiome (phyllosphere) to acute oak decline. Here we investigate whether incidental evidence from a large oak genome re-sequencing dataset could be used to detect these bacteria in oak foliage, and whether bacterial incidence co-varied with AOD status or location. Oak leaves and buds were sampled from 421 trees at five sites in England. Whole genomic DNA from these samples was shot-gun sequenced with short reads. Non-oak reads were extracted from these data and queried to microbial databases. Reads uniquely matching AOD-associated bacterial genomes were found to be present on trees from all five sites and included trees with active lesions, trees with historic lesions and trees without AOD symptoms. The abundance of the AOD-associated bacteria did not differ between tree health categories but did differ among sites. We conclude that the AOD-associated bacteria may be members of the normal oak microbiome, whose presence on a tree is not sufficient to cause AOD symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Sever oligospermia; Medication and cancer treatment influence on oligozoospermia; ICSI for men with sever oligozoospermia
Online: 7 October 2021 (14:13:32 CEST)
Assisted reproductive technology has been developed significantly throughout the past few years, particularly diagnosing and treating male infertility. Many studies have been performed showing that Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a successful method to attain clinical pregnancy and live birth through impaired spermatozoa characteristics or low sperm count, such as severe oligospermia. Severe oligospermia indicates low sperm count, which in some cases leads to azoospermia. Severe oligospermia can be caused by several factors such as genetics or medication. In search of efficient treatment for couples with Severe oligospermia, numerous retrospective and prospective researches have reported high pregnancy and live birth rates through testicular sperm for men with severe oligospermia and cryptozoospermia with or without high sperm DNA damage. The research showed that the use of testicular sperm in combination with ICSI yielded a high pregnancy rate and live births over another source of sperm, such as ejaculated sperms. Moreover, the use of ICSI in severe oligospermia has shown successful fertilization and pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Eucalyptus; EROI; carbon footprint; soil erosion; bioethanol
Online: 6 October 2021 (15:20:34 CEST)
The current Global Climate Change, the 2030 Agenda and the Planetary boundaries have driven new development strategies, such as the circular economy, bioeconomy and biorefineries. In this framework, this study analyzes the potential availability and sustainability of the wood supply chain for a small-scale biorefinery aiming at producing 280–300 L of bioethanol per ton dry biomass, consuming 30,000 t of dry biomass per year harvested in a 50 km radius. This wood production goal was assessed from Eucalyptus grandis stands planted for solid wood in northeastern Uruguay. Moreover, to understand the environmental performance of this biomass supply chain, the energy return on investment (EROI), carbon footprint (CF) and potential soil erosion were also assessed. The results showed that the potential wood production would supply an average of 81,800 t of dry mass per year, maintaining the soil erosion below the upper threshold recommended, an EROI of 2.3 and annual CF of 1.22 kg CO2-eq m–3 (2.6 g CO2-eq MJ–1). Combined with the environmental performance of the bioethanol biorefinery facility, these results would show acceptable values of sustainability according to EU Directive 2009/28/ec because the bioethanol CF becomes 1.7% of this petrol’s CF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Drought; Norway spruce; Heterobasidion; RNA-seq; qRT-PCR
Online: 14 September 2021 (08:19:04 CEST)
The major threats to the sustainable supply of forest tree products are adverse climate, pests and diseases. Climate change, exemplified by increased drought, poses a unique threat to global forest health. This is attributed to the unpredictable behavior of forest pathosystems, which can favor fungal pathogens over the host under persistent drought stress conditions in the future. Currently, the effects of drought on tree resistance against pathogens are hypothetical, thus research is needed to identify these correlations. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the most economically important tree species in Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Dedicated experiments to investigate how disturbances will affect the Norway spruce - Heterobasidion sp. pathosystem are important, in order to develop different strategies to limit the spread of H. annosum s.l. under the predicted climate change. Here, we report a transcriptional study to compare Norway spruce gene expressions to evaluate the effects of water availability and the infection of Heterobasidion parviporum. We performed inoculation studies of three-year-old saplings in a greenhouse (purchased from a nursery). Norway spruce saplings were treated in either high (+) or low (-) water groups: high water group received double the water amount than the low water group. RNA was extracted and sequenced. Similarly, we quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in biotic stress and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways using qRT-PCR, through which we discovered a unique preferential defense response of H. parviporum-infected Norway spruce under drought stress at the molecular level. Disturbances related to water availability, especially low water conditions can have negative effects on the tree host and benefit the infection ability of the pathogens in the host. From our RNA-seq analysis, 114 differentially expressed gene regions were identified between high (+) and low (-) water groups under pathogen attack. None of these gene pathways were identified to be differentially expressed from both non-treated and mock-control treatments between high (+) and low (-) water groups. Finally, only four genes were found to be associated with drought in all treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Sacred groves; biodiversity conservation; Community-based conservation; Indigenous People; Nigeria.
Online: 1 September 2021 (08:42:18 CEST)
Globally, sacred groves represent a traditional form of community-based conservation system, recognized for their capacity to preserve areas that are of cultural and religious importance to local people. In most cases, the entire community takes on a watchdog role to guard against encroachment and unauthorized access either by its members or outsiders who might desecrate such sites. Our paper investigates the effects of different governance arrangements on three sacred groves in southwest Nigeria⎯Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove (UNESCO World Heritage Site); Idanre Hills (Nigerian National Monument) and Igbo-Olodumare (local cultural site)⎯on their socio-economic and religio-cultural benefits and contribution to biodiversity conservation. Using a mixed-methods design of a semi-structured questionnaire (n=167), key informant interviews (n=2), and focus groups (n=7), we collected data from local community members, traditional priests, sacred grove devotees and tourism officials. We found that customary institutions have guided reverence for sacralized spaces and wise utilization of their unique resources. The growing recognition of sacred groves has paved the way for socioeconomic rewards for individuals and government as cultural tourism increases. We found that the involvement of formal institutions alongside customary institutions in sacred grove management reinforces compliance with conservation laws within the sacred groves, especially where traditional norms are weak or may be disregarded. We discuss the implications of these observations and offer suggestions to improve community engagement, uphold traditional ecological knowledge, and develop ecotourism within the groves. We conclude that the co-existence of community-based conservation through a system of established traditional norms and prohibitions as well as formal government legislation and management, offers assurance for the long-term preservation of sacred groves and their biodiversity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: ecosystem disservices; green infrastructure; site design; tree selection; urban forestry
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:42:48 CEST)
As urban development increases in density, the space to grow urban trees becomes more constrained. In heavily developed areas, small stature trees can be planted to reduce both above- and below-ground conflicts with infrastructure elements. However, even these species have their limits when placed in extremely confining conditions. In this study, we build on past work to determine the minimum planting widths of small stature urban trees. We found that species, stem diameter, and the height at which stem diameter measurements occurred were all strong predictors of trunk flare diameter (adjusted R2 of 0.843). Additionally, we modelled the relationship between planting space and the presence or absence of hardscape conflicts – using the predictions derived from this effort to project the potential cost savings in two United States cities. Study results provide a guideline to create sufficient space for urban trees and minimize infrastructure damage and associated cost savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0439.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: capital return rate deficiency; expected value; carbon storage; carbon rent; albedo effect
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:28:23 CEST)
Two sets of initial conditions are used in the investigation of capital return rate and carbon storage in boreal forests. Firstly, a growth model is applied in young stands as early as the inventory-based model is applicable. Secondly, the growth model is applied to observed wooded stands. Four sets of thinning schedules are investigated in either case. First, the capital return rate is aspired without any restriction. Second, the number of thinnings is restricted to at most one. Third, thinnings are restricted to the removal of only trees thicker than 237 mm. Fourth, commercial thinnings are omitted. The two sets of initial conditions yield similar results. The capital return rate is a weak function of rotation age, which results in variability in the optimal number of thinnings. Reducing the number of thinnings to one increases timber stock but induces a capital return rate deficiency. The deficiency per excess volume unit is smaller if the severity of any thinning is restricted by the removal of large trees only. Omission of thinnings best applies to spruce-dominated stands with stem count less than 2000/ha. Restricted thinning intensity applies to deciduous stands and dense pine stands. The albedo effect increases the benefits of restricted thinnings and increased clearcuttings instead of contradicting the carbon storage.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: aboveground biomass, Belowground biomass, Biteyu forest, Carbon stocks, disturbance
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:07:11 CEST)
The carbon stocks in the forests originated from the atmosphere and are accumulated in the organic matter of trees and soils. Forests play major roles in providing ecosystem services like climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration and nutrient flow dynamics. Therefore, the major objective of this study was to estimate carbon stocks of Biteyu forest by quantifying the aboveground biomass of trees, belowground carbon, soil carbon, and carbon stocks of litter pool. Systematic sampling technique was employed for vegetation and carbon data collection. The total of 10 line transects were laid along elevational gradients. The transects were 500 m apart and sampling plots were 300 m apart from each other. Each transect has comprised of a minimum of 4 plots to a maximum of six totaling 50 plots representing the forest for the investigation. A square sample plot of 900 m2 was used to collect vegetation data with a DBH ≥ 2.5 cm and a height of 2 m and above. To sample herbaceous vegetation in the forest floor, five smaller subplots of 1 m x 1 m = 1 m2 (four at the corner and one at the centre of the main plot) were established. The disturbance level was also determined using the cattle interference and selective cutting of trees. The appropriate allometric models were applied for both aboveground and belowground biomass estimations. The findings showed that cattle interference affects the forest understory from growing and recruitment. The mean of cattle interference was 4.77±2.12 per ha and the mean of wood stump was 26.67±9.37 per ha. The size class analysis showed that the smallest diameter class (2.5-10 cm) in the forests represented 37.05% of the total stem density. The diameter classes between 10 and 30 cm comprised a stem density of 41.08%. It was estimated that the total carbon stock of Biteyu forest was about 166.67 ± 16.4 ha-1. The carbon stock in AGB and BGB was estimated to be 87.13 ± 11.80 t ha-1 and 22.94 ± 2.84 t ha-1, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of soil and litter carbon pools to the total carbon in the forest ecosystem were 56.37 ± 1.73 and 0.26 ± 0.01 t ha-1 , respectively. From the present study it can be concluded that estimated mean carbon stock of the forest is smaller than that of other similar forests in the dry evergreen montane forest, which was attributed to the higher anthropogenic disturbances. Therefore, the interventions, which reduce the climate change effect, would be very important in the maintenance of forest ecosystem functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: The Gulf of Mottama Wetland, Morphometric measurement, catch weight, size group
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:15:52 CEST)
The present study was conducted the status of sea bass from Kokko and Kyuntone of The Gulf of Motttama Wetland (GoMW) area in Thanatpin Township in Bago Region Myanmar from September 2019 to August 2020. Fifty specimens were monthly collected, measured and weighed. Invoices of sea bass were collected for the depot and fish sellers by monthly. In Kokko, mean value of standard length and body weight were highest in March (32.70±1.58, 660.7±112.23). The mean value of standard length was peak in January (31.39±7.16) but peak of body weight was in March (963.24±280.86) in Kyuntone villages. The lowest mean value of standard length and body weight were found in June at both study areas. According to the invoice data revealed that monthly catch weight of sea bass is most abundance in October (829.92) kg in Kokko, (339.12) kg in Kyuntone. Based on price of relations to size group, small size C < 300g (41%) was mostly abundance in Kokko and in Kyuntone small size C < 300g (35%) was second abundance. Specimens were not landed in April and May. In June, young specimens were very rarely seen in both study sites. The important roles of wetland fishes, the economic valuation of GOMW in Myanmar and samples of fishing gear and value chain of sea bass in Myanmar was expressed in this study.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Pinus tabulaeformis; Space instead of time; stand area; compatibility; combination prediction method
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:26:41 CEST)
The study of the area model of Pinus tabulaeformis forest provides an important reference for improving the management of Pinus tabulaeformis and revealing the growth law of Pinus tabulaeformis. According to the classification method proposed by Munro, stand growth and harvest prediction models are divided into three categories: full stand model, single wood model and diameter distribution model. Based on the fixed sample data of Shangluo Pinus tabulaeformis, the spatial instead of time method is used to process the data, and the weight coefficient of each model in the combined prediction model is calculated by using the optimal weighting method. The single wood model, the whole forest model and the diameter distribution model are combined by the combined prediction method to integrate the fault area prediction of Pinus tabulaeformis forest. The results show that the combined prediction method is more accurate than the single model (single wood model, whole forest model and diameter distribution model). At the same time, the method can improve the compatibility of the forest break area prediction model, ensure the consistency of the forest break area prediction, and provide a new direction for the research of forest resource monitoring and investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0673.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Pinus silvestris; Picea Abies; Betula pendula; Betula pubescens
Online: 26 March 2021 (15:28:00 CET)
Growth and yield of boreal tree species are discussed. A growth model is applied, along with verified yield models of sawlogs and veneer logs. Using the normal forest-principle, thinning schedules and rotation ages maximizing the estate-level capital return rate are clarified. Regeneration expenses are amortized at the end of any rotation. Consequently, capitalizations are greater and rotations longer than in recent studies. The capital return rate is a weak function of initial stem count but differs by tree species. The initial stem count strongly contributes to biomass stored in trees. The most promising way of increasing the capital return rate is the reduction of regeneration expenses. Thinnings are triggered by stand volumes of at least 200 m3/ha. The average commercial trunk volume of trees removed in thinnings always exceeds 200 liters. Risk aversion theory proposes short rotations and low stem count in seedling planting unless carbon storage compensation exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0047.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Sustainable agriculture; allelopathy; biocidal potential; phytotoxic effects; weed management.
Online: 9 March 2021 (13:18:01 CET)
Along with climate change, the native forest replacement by exotic species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, is contributing to a highly fire-prone environment. Since E. globulus detains several post-fire regeneration strategies, sustainable practices are needed to manage eucalyptus stands. Thus, eucalyptus allelopathic potential can be used for weed control. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the herbicidal potential of post-fire regenerated E. globulus leaves in Portulaca oleracea, and unraveling the main physiological processes disturbed by biocide application. For this, an aqueous extract prepared with fresh leaves (FLE; 617 gfresh weightL-1) and other with oven-dried leaves (DLE; 250 gdry weightL-1) were prepared and foliar-sprayed twice-a-week at different dilutions in 7-days-old purslane plants. As positive control, glyphosate was used. After five weeks, results revealed that DLE at the highest dose detained the greatest herbicidal activity against P. oleracea. To understand how DLE impacted weed physiology, several biochemical and redox-related parameters were evaluated in purslane plants treated with DLE highest dose. Results suggested an overproduction of hydrogen peroxide, causing severe oxidative damage in roots. Overall, this study showed that young E. globulus dried leaves had powerful herbicidal properties against P. oleracea and can represent a feasible approach for weed management, while reducing fire hazard.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Tannin, forest regions; bioeconomy; polyphenols; chestnut; organic electrodes
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:18:39 CET)
Produced in many world’s countries at over 1 million tonne/year rate by extraction of certain woods and barks with boiling water, tannin is a class of high molecular weight biophenols increasingly used in a number of industries. This study offers a new bioeconomy insight into an old natural product that, we argument in this study, will play a crucial role in the development of the bioeconomy of forest regions. After providing an updated picture of key economic and production aspects, we show how flourishing research on tannin’s biological activity and technological applications has revealed many new properties which are likely to drive significant growth in demand in the near and mid-term future. The study concludes with selected recommendations for bioeconomy scholars and for policy-makers based in forest areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0567.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: post-extraction residues; fir wood greenery; bioconversion; protein feed additive; Pleurotus pulmonarius; chemical composition
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:05:16 CET)
The effectiveness of forest resources depends on the comprehensiveness and rationality of their consumption and processing into finished products. This article discusses a problem of utilising solid fir wood greenery residues generated during the industrial production of essential oils. Bioconversion is considered to be the most promising utilization method. The objective of this research was to study the chemical composition of bioconversion products of fir wood greenery-based substrates. The РР-3.2 strain of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél was used as a biodestructor. In the process of bioconversion, the contents of polysaccharides and lignin substances is reduced to 38 and 28 % respectively. Up to 20 % of protein accumulates in bioconversion products of fir wood greenery. The amount of nucleic acids is not more than 1.5 g per 1 kg, the contents of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, arsenic, lead, do not exceed maximum permissible concentration standards. The substrate weight loss reaches 15 %. When fallen leaves and post-extraction poplar bud residues are added to the substrate, the substrate-destroying activity of fungi rises, as well as the protein content increases by 3 %. The digestibility of products as a result of bioconversion increases 1.6–2.8 times depending on the substrate composition. The obtained data enable to recommend post-fermented substrates based on fir wood greenery and balsam poplar biomass for use as a protein feed additive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0477.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Above ground biomass; Anthropogenic; Below ground biomass; Carbon sequestration; Forest
Online: 18 December 2020 (15:18:24 CET)
Carbon sequestration is associated with plant biomass and soils. The amount of carbon sequestration in the Atewa Range Forest Reserve (ARFR) is affected by varied anthropogenic activities like logging, mining and farming. This study estimate the above and below ground carbon stock and assess human-induced stress impacts on the Highly Stressed Vegetation (HSV), Moderately Stressed Vegetation (MSV), and Non-Stressed Vegetation (NSV) in the ARFR. The above ground biomass of trees was determined using the allometric model of (Henry, et al., 2010) whereas plants root biomass was calculated using Cairns et al. (1997). Soil organic carbon was determined using the Walkley–Black method. We observed that carbon stock was higher in the above-ground than the below-ground component. The MSV, recorded the highest stock of carbon followed by the NSV and the HSV whilst sequestrated carbon stocks was generally high and varied across the three stress levels. Within the forest, the intensity of anthropogenic activities has negatively impacted the amounts of carbon sequestrated at various levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0533.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: firebrands; embers; bark; photogrammetry; fuel moisture
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:54:52 CEST)
Firebrands are an important agent of wildfire spread and structure fire ignitions at the wildland urban interface. Bark flake morphology has been highlighted as an important, yet poorly characterized factor in firebrand generation, transport, deposition, and ignition of unburned material. Using pine species where bark flakes are the documented source of embers, we conducted experiments to investigate how bark structure changes in response to diurnal drying. Over a 3-day period in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stand in Florida, we recorded changes in temperature, moisture content and structure of bark across different facing aspects of mature pine trees to examine the effects of varying solar exposure on bark moisture. We further compared results to bark drying in a pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) plantation in New Jersey. Under all conditions, bark peeled and lifted away from the tree trunk over the study periods. Tree bole aspect and the time of day interacted to significantly affect bark peeling. General temperature increases and moisture content decreases were significantly different between east and west aspects in pitch pine, and with time of day and aspect in longleaf pine. These results illustrate that bark moisture and flakiness is highly dynamic on short time scales, driven largely by solar exposure. These diurnal changes likely influence the probability of firebrand production during fire events via controls on moisture (ignition) and peeling (lofting).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0432.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Flora; Vascular plants; Reserve forest; Threatened plants; Kaptai
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:22:12 CEST)
A botnical survey was conducted in Kaptai reserve forests under Rangamati district in Bangladesh to study the flora of Karnaphuli range from May 2015 to October 2018. The survey was accompanied by a collection of voucher specimens enumerates 464 plant species belonging to 334 genera under 117 families from the forest range. The survey has confirmed 31 threatened forest species from this area along with many near threatened plant species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: flora; vascular plants; reserve forest; threatened plants; Kaptai
Online: 18 September 2020 (03:58:13 CEST)
A botnical survey was conducted in Kaptai reserve forests under Rangamati district in Bangladesh to study the flora of Karnaphuli range from May 2015 to October 2018. The survey was accompanied by a collection of voucher specimens enumerates 464 plant species belonging to 334 genera under 117 families from the forest range. The survey has confirmed 31 threatened forest species from this area along with many near threatened plant species.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Afforestation; Climate change mitigation; Ecological Restoration; Forest landscape restoration; Large-scale tree planting; Natural regeneration; Nature-based solutions; Stakeholders participation
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:01:43 CEST)
Global climate change requires urgent solutions. Ambitious tree-planting initiatives, many already underway, aim to sequester enormous quantities of carbon, partly compensating for the anthropogenic CO2 emissions that are a major cause of rising global temperatures. However, poorly planned and executed tree-planting could actually increase CO2 emissions and have long-term, deleterious impacts on biodiversity, landscapes and livelihoods. Here, we highlight the main environmental risks of large-scale tree planting and propose ten golden rules, based on some of the most recent ecological research, to implement forest ecosystem restoration that maximizes rates of both carbon sequestration and biodiversity recovery, while simultaneously improving livelihoods. These are: i) Protect existing forest first; ii) Work together (involving all stakeholders); iii) Maximize biodiversity recovery to meet multiple goals; iv) Select appropriate areas; v) Use natural regeneration wherever possible; vi) Select species to maximise biodiversity; vii) Use resilient plant material (with appropriate genetic variability and provenance); viii) Plan ahead for infrastructure, capacity and seed supply; ix) Learn by doing (using an adaptive management approach); and x) Make it pay (ensuring the economic sustainability of the project). We focus on the design of long-term strategies to tackle the climate and biodiversity crises and support livelihood needs. We emphasize the role of local communities and their dependence on benefits from successful reforestation programmes that restore ecosystem functioning and deliver a diverse range of forest products and services. While there is no simple and universal recipe for forest restoration, it is now crucial to build on the public and private interest in this topic to ensure interventions provide effective, long-term carbon sinks and maximise benefits for biodiversity and people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: age; coring sample; forest productivity; Nepal; P. roxburghii; stand structure
Online: 4 September 2020 (08:08:30 CEST)
Distinguishable annual growth rings produce in Pinus roxburghii are an asset to find out the age of individual tree. This paper aimed to determine the age of P. roxburghii through coring samples and test the relationship with forest production. The biomass estimated, girths measured at two different sections and heights measured which allowed to determine the rate of tapering of the stand. The regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between various variables. The mean age of the P. roxburghii stand was found to be 23.97 (~24 years). The result showed the significant (p<0.05) positive correlation coefficient has been seen between age with girth at breast height, biomass, volume and carbon stock. However, no significant (p>0.05) correlation (r = 0.08) was found between age and height of the stand. In contrast, a correlation between diameter at breast height (DBH) was significant (p<0.05) and positive with volume, biomass, but no significant (p>0.05) correlation (r = 0.14) found between DBH and height of the stand. However, height has a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation with biomass. The mean biomass was 375 kg and mean annual increment (MAI) was 15 kg per tree. Rate of tapering of the studied stand predicted to be 3 cm diameter decreased with trunk height running at 100 cm from base to upward of P. roxburghii stand and vice versa. Result suggests that height-age relation is very weak whereas age, DBH, biomass and carbon has a significant correlation signifies that time-based forests' production and potential production estimation can be obtained in a relatively accurate way by utilizing the age of stand. The time-based forest production analysis is pioneer work in Nepal. The study affirms the tree ring count in P. roxburghii would be a credible and accurate method to determine the age of standing trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0724.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Shisham mortality; Fusarium solani f. sp. dalbergiae; in vitro screening; genetic variation; Fusarium wilt; plant-microbe interaction; gnotobiota
Online: 31 August 2020 (16:21:02 CEST)
Dalbergia sissoo (shisham), an important timber yielding multipurpose tree species of the Indian subcontinent, has been afflicted with large scale mortality due to wilt in natural forests and plantations, causing huge economic losses. Fusarium solani f. sp. dalbergiae (Fsd) has been identified as one of the causal organisms for wilt disease in D. sissoo. Present study comprises in vitro screening of ten selected genotypes of D. sissoo against two strains of Fsd in a dual culture set up under axenic condition. Callus and plantlets of ten genotypes of host plant were multiplied in vitro and were inoculated with conidial suspension of two strains of Fsd at three concentrations; 1× 101, 1× 103, and 1× 105 conidia/ml. Gnotobiotic evaluation of dual culture set up shows variations among D. sissoo genotypes in their response towards in vitro Fsd infection; and two genotypes (14 and 66) exhibited resistance against the pathogen strains. Callus of genotypes 14 and 66 significantly restricted the fungal mycelium growth whereas callus of remaining eight genotypes were completely infested by Fsd mycelium within 9 days. Similarly, plantlets of genotype 14 and 66, had lesser disease severity and remained green, and had fewer necrotic lesions in the roots whereas plantlets of remaining eight genotypes died within 15 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest certification; willingness to accept; compensation; landowners; timber price increase
Online: 17 August 2020 (04:22:23 CEST)
Achieving sustainable management of forests in China is becoming increasingly important with more awareness and realization of the importance of forests in environmental protection. Forest certification, a market-based instrument to promote sustainable forest management, has been recognized by many countries including China. While landowners’ perception and perspective regarding this voluntary program have been well-documented in literature, how to motivate and incentivize landowners to participate in forest certification remained under-studied questions. With the face-to-face survey of landowners in Shandong, China, this study analyzed landowners’ willingness to accept compensation for participating in forest certification. Results indicated that landowners average accepted compensation, in terms of increased timber price, was about RMB120 (~$17.2)/m3 to have their forests certified. Results from multiple regression showed that the level of such compensation required for certification adoption was influenced by ownership size, owners’ demographics, certification program requirements, as well as importance placed on timber sale. These findings would inform policy-makers in designing compensation-related polices and establish incentive-based mechanisms to motivate landowners participate in forest certification programs in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: species composition; fagaceae; keystone; restoration potential; anthropogenic disturbance; fragmented forests; coppicing
Online: 6 August 2020 (05:09:00 CEST)
The montane subtropical broadleaved humid forests of Meghalaya (Northeast India) are highly diverse and situated at the transition zone between the Eastern Himalayas and Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspots. Fagaceae family are the keystone species forms an important component of these forests. These forests in Meghalaya are highly degraded and fragmented due to anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., mining, unsustainable forest utilization, shifting cultivation, browsing, etc.). In this study, we assessed for the first time, the restoration potential (i.e. capacity to naturally regenerate and sustain desired forest structure) of Fagaceae species (2 Lithocarpus, 4 Castanopsis, and 4 Quercus species) in Meghalaya and how the biotic and abiotic factors, as well as anthropogenic disturbances, influence the restoration potential of these species. We selected fragmented forest patches in six locations on an elevational gradient on south-facing slopes in the Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. Fagaceae was the most dominant family in all sites except one site (Laitkynsew) where Fagaceae was co-dominant with Lauraceae. The family also had high natural regeneration (i.e., a high number of seedlings and saplings) but low recruitment to adult trees (DBH ≥ 10cm) at all sites. This study provides a means for assessing regeneration and a basis for forest management strategies in degraded and fragmented forests of Meghalaya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: birch; chlorophyll; leaves’ damage; plants’ pathogens; roots; secondary metabolites
Online: 2 August 2020 (08:47:32 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to better understand the interactive impact of two soil-borne pathogens, Phytophthora cactorum (as the primary pathogen) and Armillaria gallica (as secondary), on two-year-old seedlings of silver birch (Betula pendula) subjected to stress caused by mechanical defoliation simulating primary insect feeding. One year after treatments, the chlorophyll fluorescence measurement and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the photosynthetic activity in leaves, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by birch leaves and chemical compounds from roots. Only the infection of roots by P. cactorum increased photosynthetic rates in the leaves, which may suggest its cryptic development in contrast to fungi. The birch leaves in seedlings exposed to 50% defoliation, inoculation with P. cactorum and A. gallica emitted more aromatic carbonyls and alcohols, as well as half as much aliphatic esters, compared to untreated controls. In infected birch roots, the production of phenols, triterpenes and fatty alcohols increased, but fatty acids decreased. This was the first experimental confirmation of the pathogenicity of P. cactorum on silver birch seedlings in Poland. The most severe damage to roots took place only in the case of two-way or three-way interactions. Higher levels of aromatic carbonyls and alcohols in leaves, as well as phenolic compounds in roots of stressed birches (compared to control) suggest an activation of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: boreal forest; forest fire; ENSO; Altai Mountain
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:18:27 CEST)
Warming-induced drought stress and El Nino associated summer precipitation failure are responsible for increased forest fire intensities of tropical and temperate forests in Asia and Australia. However, both effects are unclear for boreal forests, the largest biome and carbon stock over land. Here we combined fire frequency, burned area and climate data in the Altai boreal forests, the southmost extension of Siberia boreal forest into China, and explored their link with ENSO (El Nino and South Oscillation). Surprisingly, both summer drought severity and fire occurrence have shown significant (P<0.05) teleconnections with La Nina events of the previous year, and therefore provide an important reference for forest fire prediction and prevention in Altai. Despite a significant warming trend, the increased moisture over Altai has largely offset the effect of warming-induced drought stress, and lead to an insignificant fire frequency trend in the last decades, and largely reduced burned area since the 1980s. The reduced burned area could also benefit from the fire suppression efforts and greatly increased investment in fire prevention since 1987.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: spatiotemporal; time series; bi-temporal; ground-based LiDAR; tree growth
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:56:08 CEST)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been adopted as a feasible technique to digitize trees and forest stands, providing accurate information on tree and forest structural attributes. However, there is limited understanding on how a variety of forest structural changes can be quantified using TLS in boreal forest conditions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy and feasibility of TLS in quantifying changes in the structure of boreal forests. We collected TLS data and field reference from 37 sample plots in 2014 (T1) and 2019 (T2). Tree stems typically have planar, vertical, and cylindrical characteristics in a point cloud, and thus we applied surface normal filtering, point cloud clustering, and RANSAC-cylinder filtering to identify these geometries and to characterize trees and forest stands at both time points. The results strengthened the existing knowledge that TLS has the capacity to characterize trees and forest stands in space and showed that TLS could characterize structural changes in time in boreal forest conditions. Root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) in the estimates for changes in the tree attributes were 0.99-1.22 cm for diameter at breast height (Δdbh), 44.14-55.49 cm2 for basal area (Δg), and 1.91-4.85 m for tree height (Δh). In general, tree attributes were estimated more accurately for Scots pine trees, followed by Norway spruce and broadleaved trees. At the forest stand level, an RMSE of 0.60-1.13 cm was recorded for changes in basal area-weighted mean diameter (ΔDg), 0.81-2.26 m for changes in basal area-weighted mean height (ΔHg), 1.40-2.34 m2/ha for changes in mean basal area (ΔG), and 74-193 n/ha for changes in the number of trees per hectare (ΔTPH). The plot-level accuracy was higher in Scots pine-dominated sample plots than in Norway spruce-dominated and mixed-species sample plots. TLS-derived tree and forest structural attributes at time points T1 and T2 differed significantly from each other (p < 0.05). If there was an increase or decrease in dbh, g, h, height of the crown base, crown ratio, Dg, Hg, or G recorded in the field, a similar outcome was achieved by using TLS. Our results provided new information on the feasibility of TLS for the purposes of forest ecosystem growth monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0375.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Firewood; Forest dependence; Gender; Household income; Livelihoods; Wealth status
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:56:38 CEST)
Rural households across developing countries rely on diversified sources of income and forest resource play important role in this regard. This study is designed with the objectives of assessing the contribution of forests to annual income of rural households and identifying its determinants with the case of Essera woreda forest in western Ethiopia. It also examined the gender dimensions of forest income and how this income varies with the wealth status of households key informants interview focus group discussion and household based questionnaire survey were used to collect data. On average income from crop production accounted for (40.7%) of the total annual household income. Forest income is second in importance contributing (32.6%), income from livestock off and non-farm activities and woodlots accounted for (13.6%), (11.4%) and (1.7%) of the total household income respectively. Firewood is the most used forest product and constituted the largest proportion (79%) of the total forest income. Forest income is more important for poor households (47.3%) than for medium (30.5%) or rich (20.2%) households. It is also more important for female headed households (58.2%) than for male headed households (29%). The gender dimension of forest income is also important within the household. Female members generated about four times more forest income (77% of the household forest income) than male members (23%). Policy to promote new forest management arrangement such as participatory forest management (PFM) needs to take in to account the major forest users and the types of products they depend on and be accompanied with other poverty reduction measures so that improved forest conservation outcome will not have negative consequences on local livelihoods particularly on poor and women who depend most on the forest.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: hurricane; tree risk assessment; urban forest strike team; species failure profile; likelihood of failure
Online: 24 April 2020 (04:37:51 CEST)
Trees in residential landscapes provide many benefits, but can injure persons and damage property when they fail. In hurricane-prone regions like Florida, USA, the regular occurrence of hurricanes has provided an opportunity to assess factors that influence the likelihood of wind-induced tree failure and develop species failure profiles. We assessed open-grown trees in Naples, Florida, following the passage of Hurricane Irma in September 2017 to determine the effect of relevant factors on the degree of damage sustained by individual trees. Of 4,034 assessed individuals (n = 15 species), 74% sustained no damage, 4% sustained only minor damage (i.e., minimal corrective pruning needed), 6% sustained significant damage (i.e., major corrective pruning needed), and 15% were whole tree failures (i.e., overturned trees or trees requiring removal). The proportion of individuals in each damage category varied among species, stem diameter at 1.4 m above ground, and the presence of utility lines, which was a proxy for maintenance. We compared our results with the findings of seven previous hurricanes in the region to explore species’ resilience in hurricanes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Capitalization; capital return rate deficiency; expected value; carbon storage; timber stock; carbon rent
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:33:21 CEST)
The expense of carbon sequestration in terms of capital return deficiency is investigated at estate level, in the case of a fertile boreal estate dominated by spruce forest. Thinnings from below result as a high expense of increased rotation age, thinnings from above as a small expense. The expense of increased timber stock is greater than any proportional carbon rent based on present carbon prices. Application of non-proportional carbon rent is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forestry seeds; fabaceae; seedling production; seed bank
Online: 31 March 2020 (04:21:07 CEST)
Hymenaea courbaril is an endangered species, promising to reforestation programs and mainly explored as a wood source. The available information concerning long-term storage methods, seed recalcitrance, parental, and substrate influence is scarce. This study focused on the seed behavior according to population origin and during one-year storage, also testing the efficiency of the low-temperature conservation. Variations between the uncertainty indexes were found to the studied populations after long-term storage. There was no significant loss of the germination potential in consequence of the prolonged storage period. Although, older seeds promoted gradually greater delayed germination. Germination speed, synchrony, and uncertainty indexes were substantially different between the -20° conservation and control. H. courbaril seeds are capable of long-term storage without losing their germination potential, indicating an orthodox behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0399.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; unmanned aerial vehicle; image matching; remote sensing; forest inventory
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:30:55 CET)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides detailed three-dimensional representation of the surrounding forest structure. However, due to close-range hemispherical scanning geometry, the ability of TLS technique to comprehensively characterize all trees and especially the upper parts of forest canopy is often limited. In this study, we investigated how much forest characterization capacity can be improved in managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands if TLS point cloud is complemented with a photogrammetric point cloud acquired from above the canopy using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In this multisensorial (TLS+UAV) close-range sensing approach, the used UAV point cloud data was considered feasible especially in characterizing the vertical forest structure and improvements were obtained in estimation accuracy of tree height as well as plot-level basal-area weighted mean height (Hg) and mean stem volume (Vmean). Most notably the root mean square error (RMSE) in Hg improved from 0.88 m to 0.58 m and the bias improved from -0.75 m to -0.45 m with the multisensorial close-range sensing approach. However, in managed Scots pine stands the mere TLS captured also the upper parts of the forest canopy rather well. Both approaches were capable of deriving stem number, basal area, Vmean, Hg and basal area-weighted mean diameter with a relative RMSE less than 5.5% for all of the sample plots. Although the multisensorial close-range sensing approach mainly enhanced characterization of forest vertical structure in single-species, single-layer forest conditions, representation of more complex forest structures may benefit more from point clouds collected with sensors of different measurement geometries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0187.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Normalized difference vegetation index; San Juan Lachao; Satelital image
Online: 11 March 2020 (15:57:48 CET)
Nutrient estimation in forest ecosystems through satellite images allows us to obtain accurate data, starting with data transformation from forest stands and the existing relationship with the spectral information of the image through modeling. The objective of the study was to quantify and validate the content of C, N, H in aboveground tree biomass in managed stands using spatial modeling and satellite images. This study was conducted during 2017-2018 in managed forest stands in San Juan Lachao, Oaxaca, Mexico. Fifteen 400 m2 experimental sites were selectively established, using a completely randomized experimental design of five silvicultural treatments with three replications. As part of data preprocessing, normality and homogeneity of variances assumptions were checked using the Shapiro-Wilk and Bartlett tests, respectively. From the pixels, data of the average of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that surrounded the sampling sites were contrasted against the data obtained from forest inventory and the regression models to estimate C, N, H and biomass were generated. Models were validated by NDVI. With the models we estimated 0.95 t ha-1 biomass, which contains between 0.61 and 0.63 of C, 0.44-0.46 of N and 0.24 of H. The models generated had coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.85 to 0.87, which are significant parameters (p ≤ 0.0001). These results confirm that the use of Sentinel satellite images in the estimation of these elements in forest ecosystems based on the relationship between data inventory and the NDVI is highly reliable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0446.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Kafta-sheraro national park; woody species structure; regeneration status
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:24:09 CET)
The natural vegetation study was conducted in Kafta-sheraro national park (KSNP) North, Ethiopia to explore floristic composition, structure and regeneration of woody species in the home of African elephant. In the park, the above information is not well documented which is necessary for conservation. Data were collected From August to December 2018. The vegetation data were collected from 161 quadrats of size 20m×20m, 5mx5m for shrub ̸ tree, sapling and seedling respectively. Individual trees and shrubs DBH >=2.5cm and height >=2m were measured using Tape meter and Clinometer respectively. DBH, frequency, density, basal area, and IVI were used for vegetation structure. A total of 70 woody species 46 (65.7%) trees, 18 (25.7%) shrubs and 6 (8.6%) tree ̸ shrub) were identified. The total basal area and density of 79.3 m2 ha-1, and 466 ±12.8 (S.E.) individuals ha-1 were calculated for 64 woody species. Fabaceae was the most dominant family occupied 16 species (23.0%) followed by Combretaceae 8 species (11.4%). Acacia mellifera and Combretum hartmannianum were the most dominant and frequent species. Abnormal patterns of selected woody species were dominantly identified. Regenerating status all the woody plant species was categorized as “Fair” (18.75%), “Poor” (7.81 %) and “None” (73.44%). However, there is good initiation for conservation of the park; still the vegetation of the park was threatened by firewood collection, charcoal production, fire, intensive farming, mining and over grazing. Therefore, the study area as the habitat for the population of the African elephant; the KSNP should be recommended the highest conservation priority and studied the soil seed bank of species having poor regeneration condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0300.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest change; remote sensing; natural phenomena; growth; tree health; forest operations
Online: 21 February 2020 (02:53:34 CET)
In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art in the utilization of close-range sensing in forest monitoring. We include technologies, such as terrestrial and mobile laser scanning as well as unmanned aerial vehicles, which are mainly used for collecting detailed information from single trees, forest patches or small forested landscapes. Based on the current published scientific literature, the capacity to characterize changes in forest ecosystems using close-range sensing has clearly been recognized. Forest growth has been the most investigated cause for changes and terrestrial laser scanner the most applied sensor for capturing forest structural changes. Unmanned aerial vehicles, on the other hand, have been used to acquire aerial imagery for detecting tree height growth and monitoring forest health. Mobile laser scanning has not yet been used in forest change monitoring except for a few early investigations. Considering the length of the forest growth process, investigated time spans have been rather short, less than 10 years. In addition, data from only two time points have been used in many of the studies, which has further been limiting the capability of understanding dynamics related to forest growth. In general, method development and quantification of changes have been the main interests so far regardless of the driver of change. This shows that the close-range remote sensing community has just started to explore the time dimension and its possibilities for forest characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: E. urophylla × E. grandis; plantation; forest yield
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:21:39 CET)
Background and Objectives: The site types of Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis clonal plantations in southern Yunnan were compared, aiming to provide basis for site selection and scientific plantations management. Materials and Methods: In this study, 80 standard plots were set up in the 6−9-year-old Eucalypts plantations in Pu'er City and Lincang City. Furthermore, the quantitative theory I model and canonical correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between dominant tree growth traits and site factors, and evaluate the growth potential of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation. Results: The multiple correlation coefficient between 8 site factors (altitude, slope, slope level, soil thickness, slope direction, texture, soil bulk density, and litter thickness) and the quantitative growth of the dominant wood was 0.825 (P < 0.05). According to the correlation coefficient of the quantitative regression model, slope, altitude, and soil thickness were the main factors for the classification of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantations in southern Yunnan. In addition, E. urophylla × E. grandis plantations grew best downhill and mid uphill at relatively low altitude, where the soil layer was thick and composed of weathered red soil. Contrastingly, E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation growth was extremely poor in uphill sites at higher altitude, where the soil layer was thin and composed of semi-weathered purple soil. Furthermore, total N, and available B, Cu, and Zn content, as well as soil organic matter content in the soil had a great influence on the growth of E. urophylla × E. grandis. Conclusions: Nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer as well as trace elements such as B, Zn, and Cu can be properly applied in middle- and low-yield forests to promote the growth and development of E. urophylla × E. grandis plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Bemisia tabaci; genetic diversity; distribution; haplotype
Online: 28 November 2019 (03:24:39 CET)
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, highly destructive pest capable of vectoring viruses in most agricultural crops. Currently, information on the distribution and genetic diversity of B. tabaci in South Sudan is not available. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variability of B. tabaci infesting sweet potato and cassava in South Sudan. Field surveys were conducted between August 2017 and July and August 2018 in 10 locations in Juba County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Sequences of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) were used to determine the phylogenetic relationships between sampled B. tabaci. Six distinct genetic groups of B. tabaci were identified including three non-cassava haplotypes (Mediterranean (MED), Indian Ocean (IO) and Uganda) and three cassava haplotypes (Sub-Saharan Africa 1 sub-group 1 (SSA1-SG1), SSA1-SG3 and SSA2). MED predominated on sweet potato and SSA2 on cassava in all the sampled locations. The Uganda haplotype was also widespread, occurring in five of the sampled locations. This study provides important information on the diversity of B. tabaci species in South Sudan. A comprehensive assessment of the genetic diversity, geographical distribution, population dynamics and host range of B. tabaci species in South Sudan is vital for its effective management.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: poplars; molecular markers; non-transcribed spacers (ntss); 5s rdna; interspecies hybridization; species identification
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:50:27 CET)
The Populus L. genus unites tree species, which are botanically grouped into several sections. The species successfully hybridize both in the same section and between some sections. The poplar hybridization widely occurs in nature and in variety breeding. Therefore, the development of poplar species specific molecular markers is very actual. The effective markers for trees of the Aigeiros Daby section have been recently developed using the polymorphism of the 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacers (NTSs). In this article, the 5S rDNA NTS based markers were designed for several species of the Leuce Daby section. The alb9 marker amplifies one fragment with DNA matrix of P. alba and P. × canescens (natural hybrid P. alba × P. tremula). The alb2 marker works the same way except the case with P. bolleana. In this case, the amplification of three fragments was observed. The tremu1 marker amplification is detected with DNA matrix of P. tremula and P. × canescens. Thus, the developed markers may be applied as useful tool for the P. alba, P. tremula, P. × canescens and P. bolleana identification in such areas of plant science as botany, dendrology, genetics of populations, variety breeding etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: clumping index; crown architecture; crown projection area; lidar-based crown metrics; discrete-return lidar; fire severity; leaf area density; post-fire effects
Online: 13 October 2019 (15:34:43 CEST)
Fire-tolerant eucalypt forests of south eastern Australia are assumed to fully recover from even the most intense fires but surprisingly very few studies have quantitatively assessed that recovery. Accurate assessment of horizontal and vertical attributes of tree crowns after fire is essential to understand the fire’s legacy effects on tree growth and on forest structure. In this study, we quantitatively assessed individual tree crowns 8.5 years after a 2009 wildfire that burnt extensive areas of eucalypt forest in temperate Australia. We used airborne lidar data validated with field measurements to estimate multiple metrics that quantified the cover, density, and vertical distribution of individual-tree crowns in 51 plots of 0.05 ha in fire-tolerant eucalypt forest across four wildfire severity types (unburnt, low, moderate, high). Significant differences in the field-assessed mean height of fire scarring as a proportion of tree height, and in the proportions of trees with epicormic (stem) resprouts were consistent with the gradation in fire severity. Linear mixed-effects models indicated persistent effects of both moderate- and high-severity wildfire on tree crown architecture. Trees at high-severity sites had significantly less crown projection area and live crown width as a proportion of total crown width than those at unburnt and low-severity sites. Significant differences in lidar-based metrics (crown cover, evenness, leaf area density profiles) indicated that tree crowns at moderate- and high-severity sites were comparatively narrow and more evenly distributed down the tree stem. These conical-shaped crowns contrasted sharply with the rounded crowns of trees at unburnt and low-severity sites, and likely influenced both tree productivity and the accuracy of biomass allometric equations for nearly a decade after the fire. Our data provide a clear example of the utility of airborne lidar data for quantifying the impacts of disturbances at the scale of individual trees. Quantified effects of contrasting fire severities on the structure of resprouter tree crowns provide a strong basis for interpreting post-fire patterns in forest canopies and vegetation profiles in lidar and other remotely-sensed data at larger scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0303.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Mediterranean wetland; NaCl salinity; Fraxinus angustifolia; seed germination
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:11:12 CEST)
The effect of salinity on seed germination/emergence in narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) was studied both under field and laboratory conditions, in order to detect critical values to NaCl exposure. Research Highlights: Novel statistical methods in germination ecology has been applied (i) to determine the effects of chilling length and salinity (up to 150 mM NaCl) on Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa seed emergence, and (ii) to estimate threshold limits treating germination response to salinity as a biomarker. Background and Objectives: Salinity cut values at germination stage had relevant interest for conservation and restoration aims of Mediterranean floodplain forests in coastal areas subjected to salt spray exposure and/or saline water introgression. Results: Salinity linearly decreased germination/emergence both in the field and laboratory tests. Absence of germination was observed at 70 mM NaCl in the field and at 150 mM NaCl for 4-week (but not for 24-week) chilling. At 50 mM NaCl germination percentage was 50% (or 80%) of control for 4-week (or 24- week) chilling. Critical values for salinity were estimated between freshwater and 50 (75) mM NaCl for 4-week (24-week) chilling by Bayesian analysis. After 7-week freshwater recovery, critical cut-off values included all tested salinity levels up to 150 mM NaCl, indicating a marked resumption of seedling emergence. Conclusions: Fraxinus angustifolia is able to germinate at low salinity and to tolerate temporarily moderate salinity conditions for about two months. Prolonged chilling widened salinity tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: blue-green infrastracture; nature-based solutions; urban green spaces; invasive trees; trampling
Online: 11 August 2019 (11:24:47 CEST)
Public access to high quality green environments has become a key issue for city managers and a matter of environmental justice. Remnants of natural ecosystems allow citizens a direct contact with nature, but conversely the presence of people contributes further to the existing disturbances. Urban pressures on ecosystem remnants may act to favour the expansion of some invasive species in cities. Whilst the negative impacts of invasive species on ecosystem function is well documented little is known how invasive species influence the use of green spaces by people. Here, we examined one of the few remnants of urban riparian forests in Europe, the Vistula river valley in Warsaw which has recently become an attractive recreation site. Despite their high ecological value, the poplar and willow forests have been increasingly taken over by the invasive tree species Acer negundo. We examined the status of the invasion process and the relationship between recreational ecosystem services and the characteristics of the tree stands – tree species, tree density and age and NDVI values. We found the willow forest to be more susceptible to invasion by A. negundo than the poplar forest, which was revealed in significantly higher share of the maple individuals and their greater volume per unit area. Presence of A. negundo affected biodiversity resulting in decreased undergrowth density and number of species. The use intensity by the public, assessed on the basis of trampling intensity and the density of existing informal tracks, were negatively correlated to the presence of A. negundo. This study highlights the need to integrate invasive species management into green infrastructure planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: deciduous forest; female; forest bathing; forest therapy; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Profile of Mood States; Restorative Outcome Scale; restoration; Shinrin-Yoku; snow covered forest; Subjective Vitality Scale; winter
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:56:32 CEST)
Forest recreation can be successfully conducted for the purpose of psychological relaxation, as has been proven in previous scientific studies. During the winter in many countries, when snow cover occurs frequently, forest recreation (walking, relaxation, photography, etc.) is common. Nevertheless, whether forest therapy conducted in a forest environment with a snow cover will also have a positive effect on psychological indicators remains unknown. Furthermore, male subjects frequently participate in forest therapy experiments, whereas females are rarely involved. Thus, in this study, the effectuality of forest recreation during winter and with snow cover was tested on 32 young females. For these reasons, the experiment involved 15-minute periods of relaxation in a forest environment or in an urban environment, in addition to a pre-test under indoor conditions. Four psychological questionnaires (POMS, PANAS, ROS, SVS) were administered to participants before and after interventions. Results showed that participants’ levels of negative mood, as measured by different aspects of the POMS questionnaire (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, confusion, fatigue), decreased after exposure to the forest environment. In contrast, both tension-anxiety and anger-hostility increased in the urban environment. The indicator of negative affect from the PANAS questionnaire also increased after exposure to the urban environment, whereas the indicator of positive affect based on PANAS was higher in the forest environment than in the urban environment. Restorativeness and subjective vitality exhibited higher values after exposure to the forest environment in comparison to those from the control and pre-test. The changes in these indicators demonstrates that forest recreation in the snow during winter can significantly increase psychological relaxation in young females, as well as showing that recreation can be successfully conducted under these winter conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: resource potential; point center quarter methods; Acacia seyal structure; species composition; diversity
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:27:50 CEST)
The study was conducted in north wollo, south wollo and orimiya zone, in Eastern Amhara with an aim to assess the resource potential of Acacia seyal in the selected sites. The data from the selected sites were collected using point center quarter method. A total of 90 quadrates from nine study areas with plot size 50m*50m, (22.5ha) were systematically located along each transect, 100 m apart, and was spatially captured with the aid of GPS. At every sampling point, four quadrants (90 degrees) were created, using the transect line and a line perpendicular to it. Species composition Acacia seyal structure and its regeneration status, at points along transects were taken to analyze diversity and target species structure of the sites. The highest and least density of Acacia seyal ha-1 were attained by Mehale mecharie (148) and Alene sefer (52). The highest shannon weiner diversity and species richness was observed in Alene sefer(Kemessie). Acacia seyal structure in all study sites showed an inverted J shape except lastie gerdao (Gubalafeto). Therefore, Acacia seyal deserves immediate conservation and appropriate management measures in order to get sustainable product and services from the species. Based on the results, awareness creation on the values and management of Acacia seyal, study on the management options of Acacia seyal for firewood, fuel wood, charcoal production and also investigation of gum production techniques of Acacia seyal for the sustainable use of the resource are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: tree seed pathogens, alien invasive species, emerging forest disease, global trade, plant biosecurity, commercial seed, Pinus, Diplodia sapinea, Sydowia polyspora, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, mycobiome, FUNGuild
Online: 17 May 2019 (11:08:40 CEST)
The import and export of tree seed carries with it risks of inadvertent introduction of pests and pathogens to hitherto unaffected regions. Although trade in seed of specified trees is regulated, phytosanitary requirements for most tree species are minimal, even those related to the most important forest tree species in a given region. A better understanding of the microbiome associated with seed intended for commercial production or ornamental use, and their potential risk with the transport from the source origin of distributors, will help regulatory agencies implement measures to prevent new and emerging risks. In this study we used high throughput sequencing to show that highly diverse fungal communities were associated with seed of 14 different Pinus species obtained from seed banks (seed orchards) and retail sources (online distributors) in North America and Europe. Fungal diversity differed among the 23 seedlots tested. Community composition did not relate to the species of Pinus nor the country of origin. Assigned potential functions based on sequence identity using FUNGuild provided an overall understanding of the likely life strategies associated fungal OTUs. Of those sequences classified to a trophic level, 453 were plant pathogens, with the Dothideomycetes having the highest prevalence. The most common plant pathogens detected included Sydowia polyspora, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Diplodia intermedia and Diplodia sapinea. The evidence presented here illustrates an urgent need for plant protection authorities, practitioners and the general public to recognize the potential risk of introducing harmful pathogens through innocent transport of seed.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: diversity; ecosystem functioning; stand growth; resistance; recovery; climate change; forests; Alps
Online: 15 April 2019 (10:57:38 CEST)
As climate change should lead to an increase in the vulnerability and the sensitivity of forests to extreme climatic events, quantifying and predicting their response to more severe droughts remains a key task for foresters. Furthermore, recent works have suggested that tree diversity may affect forest ecosystem functioning, including their response to extreme events. In this study we aimed at testing whether the growth response of forest stands to stressful climatic events varied between mixed and monospecific stands, under various environmental conditions. We focused on beech-fir forests (Fagus sylvatica [L.] and Abies alba [L.]) and beech-oak forests (Fagus sylvatica [L.] and Quercus pubescent [L.]) in the French Alps. We used a dendrochronological dataset sampled in forest plots organized by triplets (one mixture and two monospecific stands) distributed in six sites along a latitudinal gradient. We tested (1) whether stand diversity (two-species stands vs monospecific stands) modulates the stands’ response to drought events in terms of productivity, (2) whether species identity may drive the diversity effect on resistance and recovery, and (3) whether this can be explained by interspecific interactions. We found that (1) interspecific differences in response to extreme drought events (possibly due to interspecific differences in hydraulic characteristics) can induce a mixture effect on stand growth, although it appeared (2) to be strongly depending on species identity (positive effect only found for beech-fir mixed stands), while (3) there were no significant non-additive effects of diversity on stand resistance and recovery, except for some specific cases. Overall, our study shows that promoting selected mixed stands management may buffer extrem drought effect on stand productivity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Polish primitive horse, forest site type, herb layer, undergrowth layer, understory layer, biodiversity
Online: 21 March 2019 (10:04:14 CET)
The study was conducted in coniferous and deciduous old growth forests in two forest complexes located in: i) the fenced area of the Popielno Research Station of the Polish Academy of Sciences, with free-living Polish pony [Polish primitive horse (Equus ferus caballus)], and ii) open Maskulińskie Forest District managed (harvested) forest, without horses. The impact of forest animals on ground cover layer as well as on understory shrub layer and undergrowth, in i) area (horses and other forest animals) was compared with the results in ii) area (forest animals without horses). Very significant differences in the understory and undergrowth (above 0,5 m) layer vegetation communities structure between both areas and type of stands were found. The results suggest that the presence of the Polish horse substantially changed the species composition and increased the species diversity of the ground layer and shrub layer both on coniferous forest and in the deciduous forest habitats. The height of the shrub layer trees was lower by 30% in the area with the Polish horse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Capital return; pulpwood-sawlog transition; diameter-limit cutting
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:30:55 CET)
We investigate financial feasibility of a few thinning schedules for spruce stands. Some example stands have previously experienced commercial low thinning, whereas others young stand cleaning only. High thinning is combined with quality thinning, and further growth of trees is estimated using a Norwegian growth model. High capital return rates are gained by diameter-limit cutting to the transition diameter between pulpwood and sawlogs. Repeated thinnings lead to reduction in the capitalization during several decades, the system approaching a stationary state. The transient forest stands investigated shown a significant excess capital return, in relation to the stationary state, and this excess return is due to transient tree size distribution. Correspondingly, capital return rate gained in rotation forestry is somewhat higher than that of stationary continuous-cover forestry, and the volumetric yield is much higher. The productive capacity of stands previously thinned from below apparently has been ruined by that treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: capital return; real estate; capitalization
Online: 21 January 2019 (07:28:01 CET)
We investigate wealth accumulation in forestry, assuming that revenues are re-invested. Three different optimization criteria are compared, two of which are based on cash flows, the third financially grounded. Direct optimization of wealth appreciation rate always yields best results. Procedures gained by maximizing internal rate of return are only slightly inferior. With external discounting interest rate, the maximization of net present value yields arbitrary results, with at worst devastating financial consequences.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Abies; separation traits; correlation; sorting; fractions
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:13:57 CET)
Research Highlights: The correlations between the analyzed physical properties of seeds and seed mass were determined. The results were analyzed to determine most effective seed separation devices for the evaluated fir species. Background and Objectives: Information about the variations and correlations between the physical properties of seeds is essential for designing and modeling seed processing operations such as seed separation. The aim of this study was to determine the range of variations in the basic physical properties of seeds of selected fir species, and to identify the correlations between these attributes for the needs of the seed sorting processes. Materials and Methods: Terminal velocity, thickness, width, length, the angle of external friction and mass were determined in the seeds of 11 fir species. The measured parameters were used to calculate the geometric mean diameter, three aspect ratios, sphericity index and the specific mass of each seed. Results: The average values of the basic physical properties of the analyzed seeds were determined in the following range: terminal velocity – from 4.8 to 7.1 m s-1, thickness – from 1.76 to 3.22 mm, width – from 3.29 to 5.57 mm, length – from 5.44 to 11.06 mm, angle of external friction – from 26 to 33°, and mass – from 7.9 to 48.3 mg. The seeds of Sierra white fir where most similar, whereas the seeds of balsam fir differed most considerably from the seeds of the remaining fir species. Conclusions: Fir seeds should be sorted primarily with the use of mesh sieves with longitudinal openings to obtain fractions with similar seed mass and to eliminate the need for dewinging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0048.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: land-cover change; deforestation; neural network; GIS
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:42:03 CET)
Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can provide a great environment for using machine learning algorithm for spatial data such as satellite images. Integrating this functionality with artificial intelligence algorithms for analyzing spatial data enables us to predict challenging disasters such as deforestation. Deforestation as an environmental problems has been recorded the most serious threat to environmental diversity and one of the main components of land-use change. In this paper, we investigate spatial distribution of deforestation using artificial neural networks and satellite imagery. We modeled deforestation process using various factors in determining the relationship between deforestation and environmental and socioeconomic factors. Hence, for this purpose, the proximity to roads and habitats, fragmentation of the forest, height from sea level, slope, and soil type are considered in the model. In this research, we modeled land cover changes (forests) to predict deforestation using an artificial neural network due to its significant potential for the development of nonlinear complex models. The procedure involves image registration and error correction, image classification, preparing deforestation maps, determining layers, and designing a multi-layer neural network to predict deforestation. The satellite images for this study are of a region in Hong Kong which are captured from 2012 to 2016. The results of the study demonstrate that neural networks approach for predicting deforestation can be utilized and its outcomes show the areas that destroyed during the research period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: black timber bark beetle; biological invasion; Xyleborini; ambrosia beetle; spread; occurrence; ethanol; forest management
Online: 4 December 2018 (09:57:21 CET)
The black timber bark beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) is an invasive ambrosia beetle originating from Southeastern Asia that has become successfully established within Europe and North America. Herein, we provide a review of the spread and distribution of this pest of trees and timber across Europe before and after 2000, along with a review of its habitat preferences. Since the spread of X. germanus across Europe has accelerated rapidly post-2000, emphasis is placed on this period. X. germanus was first recorded in Germany in 1951 and since then in 21 European countries along with Russia. Ethanol-baited traps were deployed in oak, beech, and spruce forest ecosystems in the Western Carpathians, Central Europe, Slovakia, to characterize the distribution and habitat preference of this non-native ambrosia beetle. Captures of X. germanus within Slovakia have been rising rapidly since its first record in 2010, and now this species dominates captures of native ambrosia beetles. X. germanus has spread throughout the whole Slovakia from the south-southwest to the north-northeast over the period of 5–10 years and has also spread vertically into higher altitudes within this country. While living but weakened trees in Europe and North America are attacked by X. germanus, the greatest negative impact within Slovakia is attacks on recently felled logs of oak, beech and spruce trees providing high quality timber/lumber. We suggest that the recent rapid spread of X. germanus in Central Europe is being facilitated by environmental changes, specifically global warming, and the increasing frequency of timber trade. Recommendations for management of X. germanus in forest ecosystems are proposed and discussed, including early detection, monitoring, sanitary measures, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: adaptive forestry; dendroecology; diffuse–porous wood; drought years; vessel traits; wood anatomy
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:31:23 CET)
The distribution of Mexican Magnolia species´ occur under restricted climatic conditions. As many other tree species from the tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF), Magnolia species appear to be sensitive to drought. Through the use of dendrochronological techniques, this study aims to determine the climate influence on the vessel traits of M. vovidesii and M. schiedeana which are endangered tree species that are endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental in eastern Mexico. Because most of the tree species in TMCFs are sensitive to climate fluctuations, it is necessary to investigate the differences in the climatic adaptability of the vessel architecture of these trees. This could allow us to further understand the potential peril of climate change on TMCFs. We compared vessel frequency, length and diameter in drought and non–drought years in two Mexican Magnolia species. We used tree–rings width and vessel traits to assess the drought effects on Magnolias’ diffuse–porous wood back to the year 1929. We obtained independent chronologies for M. vovidesii with a span of 75 years (1941–2016), while for M. schiedeana we obtained a span of 319 years (1697–2016). We found that temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with differences in tree–ring width (TRW) between drought and non–drought years. Our results showed anatomical differences in vessel trait response between these two Magnolia species to climatic variation. We suggest that our approach of combining dendroclimatic and anatomical techniques is a powerful tool to analyse anatomic wood plasticity to climatic variation in Magnolia species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Highway Beautification; Transplant Shock; Transportation; Tree Health; Tree Establishment; Urban Forestry
Online: 6 November 2018 (14:22:48 CET)
Urban tree planting initiatives can experience high levels of mortality during establishment years. Mortality tied to the stresses of transplanting can be partially negated or exacerbated depending on the species selected, nursery materials used, site conditions present, and management practices employed. Past research has quantified post-planting survival, health, and growth. However, varying climates, species, land use types, and management practices warrant additional region-specific research. The purpose of this study is to assess the success of plantings along Florida highways and identify species, site, and management factors related to tree and palm health and establishment. Results show high annual establishment survival (98.5%) across 21 planting projects ranging from 9 to 58 months after installation, (n = 2711). For transplanted palms, the presence of on-site irrigation significantly improved establishment from 96.2% to 99.4%. No establishment differences were detected with regard to irrigation treatment for small-stature trees, shade trees, and conifers. Additionally, there were significant differences in tree health response among tree groups given species, management, and site factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0620.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: tropical mountain forest; Podocarpus; Cedrela; Tabebuia; selective thinning; diametric growth
Online: 26 October 2018 (06:32:36 CEST)
Research Highlights: The study determined that selective thinning causes different responses, the initial size of the tree released is an influential factor in the growth of species. The temporality of climate and physiological conditions of each species are influential in the growth. It is evident that the defoliation of certain species is an important factor that limits the growth of the species causing thinning to have a negative response. Background and Objectives: The objective is to analyze the behavior of nine timber species, respective to diametric growth after their liberation. This research aims to answer the following questions: (i) How do the selected tree species react to the liberation? (ii) Can the productivity of the trees (diametric growth) be enhanced by liberation? (iii) Are there other factors that influence the diametric growth of the released trees? Materials and Methods: The study was executed in the “Reserva Biológica San Francisco” were 488 trees were monitored, including nine timber species. Therefore, 197 trees were released (removal of competitors) and 251 trees served as reference. To check whether the initial DBH or other factors, like the selective thinning or climate conditions, determine the diameter growth a linear mixed model GLMM was applied. To adjust the linear mixed model a one-way Anova test was executed. Results: Timber species responded differently to the thinning in comparing to reference trees. Therefore, the species analyzed were separated into three groups (positive, negative, and no response to liberation). Conclusions: Liberation potentiates the growth of certain timber species that do not defoliate and considered semi-tolerant to shade. Precipitation and temperature affect all species, but in the defoliate species, it would not be convenient to release them or at least the evidence of these first three years does not show clear differences with control trees. Increase in trees released are higher in trees of the first two diametric classes in all species, this means that larger trees (i.e., older) release does not affect them in a positive way so release should occur in the youngest trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0568.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: ecological chemometrics; carbon cycle; nitrogen cycle; carbon and nitrogen distribution; plant leaf-litter-soil continuum
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:12:48 CEST)
We analyzed the plant-litter-soil continuum to investigate the carbon and nitrogen distribution and ecological stoichiometry of an evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dagangshan Mountain, Jiangxi. The results showed that the average C and N contents and C:N ratios in the leaves and fine roots among 6 different tree species were 401.87g/kg, 21.41g/kg, 19.27 and 348.64g/kg, 15.73g/kg, 23.97, respectively; the average C and N contents and C:N ratios were 323.06 g/kg, 12.76 g/kg, 25.58 respectively in leaf litter, and 16.40 g/kg, 1.09 g/kg, 16.27 respectively for soil. In contrast with the C content, the total N content of the fine roots and litter had a high coefficient of variation and a high spatial heterogeneity. We ranked the six different representative tree species according to total C and N content in leaves and fine roots. The results for each species were generally consistent with each other, showing a positive correlation relationship between total C and N content in the leaves and roots. Among them, S. discolor (Champ. ex Benth.) Muell. plants displayed high carbon and nitrogen storage capacities, and on the other hand, C. fargesii Franch., C. myrsinifolia (Blume) Oersted, A. fortunei (Hemsl.) Makino, and V. fordii (Hemsl.) Airy Shaw showed a high nitrogen transfer rate. Total soil N and C decreased with depth. Soil organic carbon (SOC), soil resistant organic carbon (ROC), total N, alkali nitrogen, NH4+-N and NO3--N contents were all also negative correlated with soil depth, but the contents of the NH4+-N and NO3--N did not change significantly; The spatial distribution of soil NO3--N was significantly heterogeneous. At 0-10 cm soil depth, SOC was positively correlated with alkaline nitrogen, and at 10-20 cm soil depth, SOC was significantly positively correlated with total N. In general, when soil carbon was abundant, nitrogen supply capacity was also high.