ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1574.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Lactobacillus bulgaricus; growth media; nitrogen source; starter culture; bacterial enumeration
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:34:21 CEST)
The objective of the present study was to develop and optimize an efficient growth media for Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, an essential dairy starter culture, uses plant-based nitrogen sources. The composition of the de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) culture medium was modified, and the nitrogen content was replaced by alternative nitrogen sources X-Seed N7 and N5 in various blends of 3% and 1.5%. Results showed that bacterial growth was higher with the N7 and N5 nitrogen source blends at 3% and 1.5%. Similarly, the optical densities of the L. bulgaricus strains were higher in the N7 and N5 blends (1.5/3%) compared to the MRS medium. Although there was no significance in bacterial counts for both the MRS and the N7 and N5 media, a significant difference between the control medium and the optimized growth media was noted. Our results thus suggest that the alternative nitrogen sources X-Seed N7 and N5 can substantially support the growth of lactic acid bacteria as shown with L. bulgaricus. Moreover, the presence of complex nitrogen sources rich in free nucleotides, amino acids, and peptides enhanced L. bulgaricus growth. Our results support the development of cost-effective and plant-based growth media for LAB cultures and potential benefits to the food and dairy industries. Additional research is warranted to improve buffering capacity for higher cell counts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1672.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: lymph node; risk assessment; quantification
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:02:19 CEST)
Previous bio-mapping studies of pork processing facilities have indicated a need for mitigation strategies in trim and ground products due to Salmonella prevalence. Lymph nodes have been identified as a source of Salmonella in pork products. The objective of this study was to determine if the removal of glands and lymph nodes in pork would reduce Salmonella and indicator organisms in comminuted products. Samples from a commercial pork facility were divided into three treatment groups; 1) untreated control, 2) topical glands removed before final processing, and 3) topical, jowl, and internal lymph nodes and glands removed before final processing. Samples were evaluated for indicator organisms and quantity of Salmonella using the BioMérieux TEMPO® system and BAX® System Real-Time Salmonella SalQuant™ methodology, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the removal of the topical, internal, and jowl lymph nodes was effective at significantly (P > 0.05) reducing the prevalence of both Salmonella and indicator organisms. Salmonella was reduced from 2.5-Log CFU/Sample and 3.8-Log CFU/Sample of Salmonella in control group ground and trim samples, to less than 1-Log CFU/sample in both matrices from treatment 3. These data indicate that samples from treatment 3 had an average of a 3-Log reduction, and treatment 2 had a 2.5-Log reduction, of Salmonella when compared to the control samples. This indicates that the physical removal of glands and lymph nodes can influence Salmonella and indicator organism prevalence in the final product.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1538.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; polar lipids; cardiovascular risk; thrombosis; platelet-activating factor (PAF); eicosanoids; resolvins; fish oil
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:44:08 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death across the globe, hence, establishing strategies to counteract CVD are imperative to reduce mortality and the burden on health systems. Dietary modification is an effective primary prevention strategy against CVD. Research regarding dietary supplementation has become increasingly popular. This review focuses on the current in vivo, in vitro, and epidemiological studies associated with that of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and polar lipids (PLs) and how they play a role against CVD. Furthermore, this review focuses on the results of several major clinical trials examining n-3 PUFA regarding both primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Notably, we place a lens on the REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH trials. Finally, supplementation of PLs has recently been suggested as a potential alternative avenue for the reduction of CVD incidence versus neutral forms of n-3 PUFA. However, the clinical evidence for this argument is currently rather limited. Therefore, we draw on the current literature to suggest future clinical trials for PL supplementation. We conclude that despite conflicting evidence, future human trials must be completed to confirm whether PL supplementation may be more effective than n-3 PUFA supplementation to reduce cardiovascular risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vegetable analog; vegetable oil; storage stability; freeze storage
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:30:40 CEST)
Studies on the long-term stability of meat analogs stored under frozen conditions are lacking. Here, we aimed to assess the storage stability of vegetable oil-supplemented meat analogs and analyze the effects of temperature and storage period on their physiochemical characteristics. The meat analogs were prepared by adding 30 g castor oil, orange oil, palm oil, shortening, or margarine vegetable oil based on 100 g of textured vegetable protein. They were then stored at −18 or −60 °C for 6 months and analyzed at one-month intervals. The meat analog supplemented with orange oil had the highest water content, liquid-holding capacity, hardness, and antioxidant activity. During frozen storage, temperature barely affected the meat quality. The storage stability of all meat analog samples was maintained for 6 months, although the quality was slightly reduced with an increase in storage duration. Coliform group bacteria were not detected regardless of the storage condition. Orange oil improved the juiciness of meat analogs, and the quality of samples was maintained for at least 6 months under frozen storage. The findings of this study are relevant to the development and promotion of vegetable meat as an alternative to animal meat.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1385.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Lutein; post-COVID syndrome; mRNA vaccination injury syndrome; inflammatory response; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; arrhythmogenic heart phenotype; antioxidant defense; bioavailability; extra virgin olive oil
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:07:58 CEST)
Lutein, a plant-derived xanthophyl-carotenoid, is an exceptional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituent found in food. Elevated concentrations of lutein found in human blood and plasma, due to high dietary intake, are beneficial against eye disease and improve cardiometabolic health. Lutein plays an important protective role against the development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). It has also been shown to be beneficial for liver, kidney and respiratory health. Lutein, acting as a very strong antioxidant, can alleviate oxidative stress and downgrade reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is one of the key pathogenic mechanisms in post-COVID and mRNA vaccine injury syndromes. Recent in silico studies suggest that lutein and other naturally derived antioxidants, by docking at the site where the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) binds to the angiotensin enzyme type 2 (ACE2) receptor, may neutralize the SP-ACE2 interactions. Lutein can be added to a detoxification regimen to aid in clearing Spike protein and relieving symptoms. In agreement with Hippocrates’ dictum to “Let food be thy medicine,” this review establishes dietary lutein as a valuable therapy in the treatment of post-COVID syndrome, mRNA vaccine injury syndromes, and a wide range of other chronic illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aquatic weeds; Edible paper; Proximate composition; Biofunctional compounds; Minerals; Amino acids
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:03:39 CEST)
Three edible aquatic weeds, helencha (Enhydra fluctuans), malancha (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica), were used to produce edible paper sheets. The composition of the raw and paper sheet samples was analyzed, including proximate composition, amino acid content, minerals and heavy metal contents, and bioactive compounds. The dried raw and paper sheets showed similar proximate composition, with carbohydrates being the highest (50.38-64.63%), followed by crude protein (15.25-19.13%), ash (9.30-15.88%), and lipid (1.549-3.43%). The weeds and paper sheets were rich in essential minerals like Na, Ca, Zn, and Fe. Acceptable levels of heavy metals, including Ni, Pb, and Cu, were found. The paper sheets contained seven essential and eight non-essential amino acids. A. philoxeroides sheets showed the highest amino acid content (16146.81mg/100g), while I. aquatica showed the lowest (13118.67 mg/100g). The aquatic weeds paper sheets were rich in containing bioactive compounds and the number in E. fluctuans, A. philoxeroides, and I. aquatica paper sheets were 31, 33, and 40, respectively. There were no significant changes in the nutritional content of aquatic weeds in paper sheet form compared to the raw weeds which suggests promising prospects for the production and consumption as a source of nutrition and bioactive compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: coffea arabica; roasting degrees; scion; nutraceuticals; acrylamide; caffeine; minerals
Online: 19 September 2023 (13:23:39 CEST)
The main commercial variety of coffee is the Coffea arabica specie, however, it is very susceptible to damage caused by nematodes, for this reason scions of the C. arabica specie are used on ro-busta (Coffea canephora) rootstocks to improve tolerance to these microorganisms, because they modify the organoleptic, nutraceutical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of five roasting degrees on commercial beans (light, medium light, medi-um, medium, medium dark and dark) in two varieties of Coffea arabica species (Colombia and Costa Rica) and their respective scions on C. canephora of the Romex variety. The scion of the Co-lombia variety with the medium dark roast had the highest concentration of caffeine, while the coffee beans of the Costa Rica variety with the light roast grade had the highest concentration of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), while the highest acrylamide content was found in the scion of the Co-lombia variety with the medium light roast beans and nutritional content differs considerably between varieties, however, there is similarity between roasting degrees. The degree of roasting, variety and scion of coffee influences the organoleptic, nutraceutical and nutritional content of the coffee infusion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1103.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Momordica balsamina L.; Phytotherapy; phytochemicals; biological properties; Nutritional values; cosmeticl uses
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:52:00 CEST)
Abstract: This comprehensive review seeks to deepen our comprehension of the African plant Momordica balsamina L. by elucidating its therapeutically important molecules and micronutrient composition. Commonly referred to as the balsam apple, this plant species is extensively harnessed for its diverse therapeutic potentials across its various organs including leaves, fruits, roots, and stems. Numerous bioactive molecules have been isolated or identified within this plant, notably encompassing polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, and carotenoids. These compounds exhibit a wide array of biological activities, ranging from antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, to anti-malarial properties, among others. Furthermore, the leaves of Momordica balsamina L. stand out for their abundant micronutrients, proteins, and amino acids. This investigation aims to shed light not only on the botanical characteristics of the Momordica balsamina plant and its potential applications in traditional medicine, but also on its chemical composition, biological functionalities, and physicochemical attributes, thus accentuating its nutritional advantages. Nonetheless, an intriguing avenue presents itself for the exploration of strategies to conserve this species, delve deeper into its potential within the cosmetics industry, and innovate methodologies for the synthesis or biosynthesis of these bioactive molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: female athletes; winter sports; nutrition; altitude; body composition
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:49:31 CEST)
Eating disorders, especially restrictive eating, are common among female athletes. There are two main types of winter sports, those that are practised outdoors on snow (-25 to +5ºC and 2500 m), such as alpine skiing or snowboarding, and those that are practiced indoors on ice (5-10º C at low altitude), such as figure skating and ice hockey. The aim of this research was to identify the nutritional status and potential risk of female athletes practising winter sports considering the altitude of training. The sample was composed of 58 women (aged 19.81 years (SD: 12.61) who were competitors in some winter sports. Anthropometrics and nutritional variables were taken. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for all the characteristics except thigh skinfold and neither group had an EI that matched their TEE. Both groups met at least 2/3rd of the RDI for all minerals and vitamins, except iodine, fluorine, vit D, E and retinol. This study suggest that female winter sports athletes have insufficient energy, vitamin and mineral intake that can be worsened by altitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: persimmon; biotechnological potential; drying methods
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:21:35 CEST)
A significant increase in persimmon production, combined with a higher percentage of fruits intended for export, led to the need to adapt post-harvest technology to ensure that the fruits reach the end consumer in optimal condition. Persimmon is a climacteric fruit, so the respiratory rate and ethylene production regulate its ripening during storage. Depending on the variety, it can be tart or impatient (initially). During mass harvesting, the pulp of persimmon, regardless of its variety, is usually very hard, but then it softens quickly, which creates problems during transportation. The fruit pulp of tart varieties of persimmon is usually lighter than that of tart varieties, but there are fewer filamentous fibers in the pulp of tart varieties that support its structure, therefore, during post-harvest aging, seedless astringent fruits soften faster than less tart fruits with 1-2 or more seeds. In addition, there are many intermediate varieties that change their food-tasting and technological properties depending on the degree of pollination in a single year. This encourages farmers to adhere to various strategies to reduce post-harvest losses. Persimmons are usually sold fresh or dried in the markets. In this article, we sought to compile an up-to-date and brief overview of the latest achievements in the persimmon drying technique, which may arouse interest among farmers and entrepreneurs seeking to implement their projects in this field of production activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: adherence; biofilm formation; colonic epithelium; rectoanal junction; Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; transcriptomics; virulence genes
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:03:12 CEST)
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are notorious foodborne pathogens capable of causing severe diarrhea and other life-threatening complications in humans. Cattle remain a major reservoir and asymptomatic carriers of STEC. In reservoir animals, the rectoanal junction (RAJ) serves as the primary colonization site of STEC playing a critical role in its transmission to humans through contaminated food sources. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the adaptation of STEC in the RAJ of the asymptomatic reservoir host and its subsequent infection of human colonic epithelial cells in an event of a foodborne transmission to cause diarrhea remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to unravel the intricate dynamics of STEC O157:H7 serotype in these two distinct host environments: bovine RAJ cells and human colonic epithelial cells, during initial colonization. In this context, comparative transcriptomics analysis was employed to investigate the differential gene expression profiles of STEC O157:H7 during its interaction with these cell types. The bacterial cells were cultured under controlled conditions to simulate the microenvironments of both bovine RAJ and human colonic epithelial cells. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we identified key bacterial genes and regulatory pathways that were significantly modulated in response to each specific host environment. Our findings reveal distinct expression patterns of bacterial genes involved in virulence, including adherence, metal iron homeostasis and stress response in STEC O157:H7 grown in bovine RAJ cells as op-posed to human colonic epithelial cells six hours post-infection. Additionally, the comparative analysis highlights the potential role of certain genes in host adaptation and tissue-specific pathogenicity. Furthermore, this study sheds light on the potential factors contributing to the survival and persistence of STEC O157:H7 in the bovine reservoir, and its ability to colonize in-testinal epithelium and cause disease in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0895.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: hydrolyzable tannins; condensed tannins; Aspergillus sp.; Box Hunter & Hunter design; biological activities
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:52:53 CEST)
The Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) prickly pear peel, is a residue product and was used as a substrate in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain bioactive compounds of interest due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. A Box Hunter & Hunter design to evaluate the independent factors was used. These factors were temperature (°C), inoculum (spores/g), humidity (%), pH, NaNO3 (g/L), MgSO4 (g/L), KCl (g/L) and KH2PO4 (g/L). The response factors were hydrolyzable and condensed tannins amount. In addition, the fermentation extracts the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. The results showed that the humidity (%), inoculum (spores/g) and temperature (°C) affect the release of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. The treatments 13 and 16 were the best to accumulate condensed (43 mg/g) and hydrolyzable tannins (3.8 mg/g) respectively. Besides, the fermented extracts showed a higher antioxidant activity compared than the unfermented peel extracts, as well as a high inhibition versus E. coli, Alternaria sp. and Botrytis spp. The use of the fermentation process is a good alternative for the recovery of waste and the accumulation of bioactive molecules with potential industrial application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0880.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: football players; melatonin; football performance; soccer; sport nutrition; European football
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:10:22 CEST)
Background: to know the existing documentation related to exogenous melatonin in the performance of professional soccer players. Methods: critical and systematic review. Data were obtained by looking up the following bibliographic data bases: Web of Science, MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus. The used terms were "Soccer Athlete", "Melatonin" and "Soccer Performance", using as a filter: "Humans". The search update was in May 2023. Results: having applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 articles were selected out of 59 retrieved references. The dose of melatonin administered in the studies ranged between 5 and 8 mg. The outcomes showed a decrease in oxidative stress, muscle damage and inflammatory markers in the melatonin-treated group. Conclusions: Exogenously administered melatonin seems to attenuate some of the effects derived from physical exercise such as oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage in professional soccer players, and since it has no potential adverse effects, it could be interesting to apply it in this population. However, the direct effects of melatonin supplementation on physical performance have not been demonstrated, so more research is needed on the intervention period, effective dose and larger participant populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0862.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: decontamination; food; UVC; threshold; irradiation
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:37:05 CEST)
Cross-contamination poses a pervasive challenge within the realm of food production. The propagation of infections is recognized to occur in an uncontrolled manner. Given the essential nature of food for human sustenance, the domain necessitates stringent control over contamination and cross-contamination due to the perilous potential for severe intoxication. In the context of managing biological contamination in fresh food items, commencing from production and extending to the final consumable, the utilization of chemicals must be judiciously limited to avert adverse effects. This biochemical approach, however, engenders environmental and health quandaries attributable to the incessant employment and discharge of such materials. The present research is centered upon demonstrating, at a laboratory scale, a process involving the leaching of plants, accompanied by the application of UVC irradiation during this procedure. This obviates the necessity for chemical solutions. The empirical findings showcased that subjecting the solution utilized for vegetable washing to UV irradiation rendered it 99 % microorganism-free in vegetables and 99.999% in the water component. This attests to efficacious decontamination, resource conservation, and mitigation of discharge-associated predicaments. The mathematical model precisely characterizes the behaviors manifested in the empirical data, thereby establishing a close correspondence with the kinetics law equation. Grasping the fundamental mechanisms and articulating them enables the enhancement of optimization and seamless integration of this approach to combat cross-contamination with heightened efficacy. This approach to addressing cross-contamination holds significant promise, underscoring its pivotal role in elevating food safety measures and ameliorating environmental repercussions. Envisioning the implementation of these practices at an industrial scale carries the potential to yield substantial dividends in terms of public health and sustainable practices
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0721.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: γ-aminobutyric acid; oolong tea; blood pressure; brainwave; quality of life
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:24:41 CEST)
Emerging evidence demonstrated that using a new manufacturing technology to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-fortified oolong (GO) tea could relieve human stress and exert versatile physiological benefits. The purpose of this human research aims to investigate therapeutic effects of daily GO tea consumption on the improvement of blood pressure, relaxation-related brain waves and quality of life (QOL) during a period of 28 consecutive days. Total polyphenols, major catechins and free amino acids were analyzed via HPLC assay. Changes of heart rate, blood pressure, α-brain wave (index of relaxation) and eight-item QOL score were investigated on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively. The chemical analysis results showed that GO tea contained the most abundant amino acids and GABA, contributing to the relaxation activity. Among all study participants, daily drinking GO tea could reduce systolic blood pressure on day 21 and diastolic blood pressure on day 28 (p < 0.05, respectively). For participants with pre-hypertension, GO tea could effectively reduce heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure on day 28 (p < 0.05). At the end of the study, incremental changes in alpha-brain wave and QOL scores were also demonstrated (p < 0.05, respectively). This study recommended that GO tea might potentially serve as a natural source of alternative therapy to benefit blood pressure, stress-relief and QOL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0554.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: edible coating, shelf-life, biopolymers, food waste, fruits, vegetables, by-products.
Online: 7 September 2023 (14:45:30 CEST)
In the past years, consumers have increased their interest to buy healthier food products, rejecting those products with more additives and giving preference to the fresh ones. Moreover, the current environmental situation has made society more aware of the importance of reducing the production of plastic and food waste. In this way and considering the Food Industry need of reducing the food spoilage along the food chain, edible coating has been considered as an eco-friendly food packaging that can replace traditional plastic packaging providing an improvement in the product’s shelf-life. Edible coating are thin layers applied straightaway on the food materials’ surface, that are made of biopolymers that usually incorporate other elements, such as nanoparticles or essential oils, to improve their physicochemical properties. These materials must provide a barrier that can prevent the pass of water vapor and other gasses, the microbial growth, the moisture loss, and the oxidation, so the shelf-life could be extended. The aim of this review was to compile the current data available to give a global vision of the formulation process and the different ways to improve the characteristics of the coats applied in both fruits and vegetables. In this way, the suitability of compounds in by-products produced during the Food Industry chain were also considered for the edible coating production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Differential responders; Clustering; Personalized nutrition; Type 2 diabetes
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:38:56 CEST)
The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has surged in recent decades and the identification of differential glycemic responders can aid tailored treatment for prevention of pre-diabetes and T2DM. A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) based on regular foods offers potential to uncover differential responders in dynamical postprandial events. We aimed to fit a simple mathematical model on dynamic postprandial glucose data from repeated MMTTs among partic-ipants with elevated T2DM risk, to identify response clusters and investigate their association with T2DM risk factors and gut microbiota. Data were used from a 12-week multi-center dietary inter-vention trial involving high-risk T2DM adults, comparing high- versus low-glycemic index foods within a Mediterranean diet context (MEDGICarb). Model-based analysis of MMTTs from 155 participants (81 females, 74 males) revealed two distinct plasma glucose response clusters that were associated with baseline gut microbiota. Cluster A, inversely associated with HbA1c and waist circumference and directly with insulin sensitivity, exhibited a contrasting profile to cluster B. Findings imply that a standardized breakfast MMTT using regular foods could effectively distin-guish non-diabetic individuals at varying risk levels for T2DM using a simple mechanistic model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0509.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Microalgae; Antioxidants; Wellness; Longevity; Health benefits; Natural antioxidants; Sustainable production; Bioactive compounds
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:17:39 CEST)
In recent times, there has been a revolutionary surge in antioxidant research, with a focus on harnessing microalgae to enhance wellness and extend human longevity. Microalgae, a diverse group of unicellular photosynthetic organisms, have emerged as promising sources of natural antioxidants due to their ability to synthesize various bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, polyphenols, and tocopherols. These antioxidants play a pivotal role in scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidative stress, known contributors to aging and chronic diseases. This review provides an overview of recent advancements in understanding microalgae's antioxidant potential, covering their biochemical composition, extraction techniques, and purification methods. Moreover, it delves into compelling in vitro and in vivo studies showcasing microalgae-derived antioxidants' protective effects against oxidative damage, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. The sustainable cultivation of microalgae in controlled environments further supports the potential for large-scale production and commercialization of their antioxidant compounds. As microalgae continue to revolutionize antioxidant research, they hold immense promise in developing novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to promote human health and wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0303.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: cape gooseberry; coating; impregnation; immersion; conservation; goldenberry
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:06:50 CEST)
The cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) is an exotic tropical fruit of great national and international importance due to its nutritional, and organoleptic properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate different postharvest treatments: Coating, Vacuum Impregnation, and Immersion, on the conservation of some quality characteristics of cape gooseberry fruit. Moreover, different conditions of the selected treatment were studied. The weight loss was assessed with gravimetric analysis for fresh and treated fruits. Firmness was determined by instrumental texture. The sensory analysis was conducted using a multidimensional profile approach. Of the treatments evaluated, the lowest weight loss was recorded with the use of coating and immersion. However, the immersion process resulted in the product with the highest overall quality according to the sensory analysis and presented the most appropriate texture according to the firmness values. Finally, in the evaluation of immersion, a significant influence of the CaCl2 immersion time (p<0.05) on the firmness values of the product was found, resulting in longer times leading to less firm products. Considering 10% as a commercial standard limit for weight loss, the fruit treated under immersion and coating processes can be stored for at least 12 days. The immersion process is highlighted because it improved the sensory characteristics with respect to the control (without treatment). Thus, it process gives added value to the fruit and is presented as a promising alternative for the postharvest treatment of cape gooseberries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0260.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: antidiabetic; antioxidants; Coccinia grandis; herbal porridge, phototherapeutics; nano encapsulation; diabetic mellitus
Online: 5 September 2023 (07:48:30 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is a cluster of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. Since this epidemic growing worldwide, the usage of phototherapeutics to manage diabetes is vital. Coccinia grandis (Aka ivy gourd) belongs to cucumber family is identified as a most effective herb, especially for diabetes and many other disease conditions. Hence, an instant herbal porridge cube incorporating Coccinia grandis leaf powder was produced and sensory acceptability of the porridge was evaluated using trained panelists. The bioactive activity of Coccinia grandis leaf powder showed that 66.77±0.74 mg/g GAE of Total Phenolic Content, 27.65±6.79% of DPPH radical scavenging activity, 5.72% of alpha-amylase inhibition activity and 59.64% of alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity. The effect on postprandial blood sugar levels after consuming the developed porridge was measured using healthy adults and it was observed there was no blood sugar elevation during the 2 hours of time. As a further development, Coccinia grandis leaf extract was nano-encapsulated with food grade Sodium alginate and it was incorporated into the same porridge as a safe delivery method of bioactive compounds. In-vitro digestion assay was conducted and the results show that alpha-amylase inhibition activity for the gastric phase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity for the intestinal phase was higher in nano-encapsulated porridge. The study concludes that, consuming nano-encapsulated Coccinia grandis leaf extract with porridge is more beneficial for diabetic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: curcumin; curcuminoid; α, β-unsaturated carbonyl group; demethoxycurcumin; bisdemethoxycurcumin; N-acetylcysteine; glutathione; thiol antioxidant
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:06:19 CEST)
Many biological functions of curcumin have been reported. As certain bioactivities of curcumin are eliminated by antioxidants, reactive oxygen species generated by curcumin have been suggested as a relevant mechanism. In the present study, effects of different types of antioxidants on stability and bioactivities of curcumin were analyzed. High concentrations (>4mM) of the thiol antioxidants including N-acetylcysteine (NAC), glutathione (GSH) and β-mercaptoethanol accelerated decomposition of curcumin and other curcuminoids; Submillimolar levels (<0.5 mM) of GSH and NAC rather improved their stability. Ascorbic acid or superoxide dismutase also stabilized curcumin regardless of their concentration. Cellular levels and bioactivities of curcumin including cytotoxicity and induction of heme oxygenase-1 were significantly reduced in the presence of 8 mM of GSH and NAC. The effects were enhanced in the presence of submillilmolar GSH and NAC, or non-thiol antioxidants. The present results indicate that antioxidants with reduced thiol group could directly interact with α, β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety of curcuminoids and modulate their stability and bioactivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Dietary intake assessment; Wearable camera; Food; Nutrients; Portion size; Nutritional analysis
Online: 1 September 2023 (16:36:47 CEST)
Background: Accurate estimation of dietary intake is challenging. But whilst some progress has been made in high-income countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain behind, contributing to critical nutritional data gaps. This study aimed to validate an objective, passive image-based dietary intake assessment method against weighed food records in London, UK for onward deployment to LMICs. Methods: Wearable camera devices were used to capture food intake of eating occasions in 18 adults and 17 children of Ghanaian and Kenyan origin living in London. Participants were provided pre-weighed meals of Ghanaian and Kenyan cuisine and camera devices to automatically capture images of the eating occasions. Food images were assessed for portion size, energy, and nutrient intake, and relative validity of the method compared to the weighed food records. Results: Pearson and Intra-class correlation coefficient of estimates of intakes of food, energy and 19 nutrients ranged from 0.60 to 0.95 and 0.67 to 0.90, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the image-based method and weighed food record. Under-estimation of dietary intake by the image-based method ranged from 4 to 23%. Conclusions: Passive food image capture and analysis provides an objective assessment of dietary intake comparable to weighed food records.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: zinc–selenite interactions; polysaccharides; L. edodes; immunomodulation
Online: 1 September 2023 (13:00:45 CEST)
Mycelial cultures of Lentinula edodes, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been used in our previous research to obtain selenium-containing immunomodulatory preparations. Our current attempts to obtain a new preparation containing both selenium and zinc, two micronutrients necessary for the functioning of the immune system, extended our interest in the simultaneous accumulation of these elements by mycelia growing in media enriched with selenite and zinc(II) ions. Subsequently, we have studied the effects of new L. edodes mycelium water extracts with different proportions of selenium and zinc concentrations on activation of T cell fraction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the expression of activation markers on human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells stimulated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies (Abs). It was demonstrated that all extracts with different proportions of polysaccharides, selenium and zinc tended to upregulate the expression of all activation markers on both types of T cell populations stimulated in parallel with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 beads, however, statistically significant changes were observed for PD-1 and CD25 antigens on CD8+ T cells. The selenium and zinc content in the examined preparations modified the immunomodulatory activity of mycelial polysaccharides, however, the mechanisms of action of various active ingredients of the mycelial extracts seem to be different.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2159.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fish; fishing; freshness; hygiene; pathogens; safety
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:40:37 CEST)
Fish and fish products are very appreciated in the human diet because of high quality proteins and other important nutrients, such as minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Maintaining freshness, quality and safety is essential in the fish supply chain, starting from on board vessels where the product must be carefully checked and protected from any source of contamination. Safe fishing and handling of fish are very important to reduce the risk of foodborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum type E, viruses, and parasites. The inspection of raw material, use of good quality ice and water, high standards of personnel hygiene and cleanliness of equipment and fa-cilities as well as proper storage temperature are the most effective measures to ensure safety of fish and fish products for consumers. This review describes the good hygiene practice to be ap-plied on ships to preserve both fish products and public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: kale juice; probiotics; Limosilactobacillus reuteri; Limosilactobacillus fermentum; Anti-inflammatory
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:48:25 CEST)
This study investigates the synergistic impact of fermenting kale juice with Limosilactobacillus strains on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Kale's rich nutrient profile, especially its flavonoids, offers potential health benefits. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are employed in kale fermentation to enhance nutrient bioavailability and generate bioactive compounds. Kale juices fermented with L. reuteri EFEL6901 or L. fermentum EFEL6800 exhibited superior microbial growth. Free sugars and amino acids were converted to alcohols and organic acids, affecting the organoleptic and health-related properties of product. In addition, fermentation increased quercetin and kaempferol content, indicating improved availability. Furthermore, the fermented juice exhibited notable antioxidant activity and suppressed NO production, revealing anti-inflammatory potential. Gene expression analysis confirmed reduced pro-inflammatory markers and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokines. This research highlights the promising potential of fermented kale juice, enriched with Limosilactobacillus strains, as a functional food with combined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2116.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria; Bioprotective cultures; Meat products; Curing agents; Proteomics; Adaptive response
Online: 31 August 2023 (04:10:09 CEST)
During meat processing, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to competitively adapt to the hostile en-vironment produced by curing additives (CA). The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of Latilactobacillus curvatus CRL 705, a bioprotective strain of meat origin, to adapt to CA. A physiological and proteomic approach was performed. CRL 705 was grown in a chemically de-fined medium (CDM) containing specific concentrations of CA (NaCl, nitrite, sucrose and ascor-bic acid). The results showed minor differences in growth kinetics in the presence of CA. Glucose consumption, present in CDM, and production of lactic acid and bacteriocins were not signifi-cantly affected. Proteomic analyses indicated that most of the identified proteins (36 out of 39) mainly related to carbohydrate metabolism (18%), posttranslational modifications (15.6%), energy production and conversion (11.1%), translation (11.1%) and nucleotide metabolism (8.9%), were under expressed. In response to the studied CA, CRL 705 slowed down its general metabolism, achieving slight changes in physiological and proteomic parameters. The observed performance is another characteristic that extends the well-known competitive profile of CRL 705 as a meat starter- and -bioprotective culture. This is the first report dealing with the impact of CA on LAB proteomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1980.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB); Lactococcus garvieae; Streptococcus uberis; Streptococcus parauberis; Weissella hellenica; Weissella confusa; Weissella paramesenteroides; Weissella cibaria; Mammalicoccus sciuri
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:35:11 CEST)
This mini-review deals with some non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) species with a controversial nature known to be both human and animal pathogens but also health-promoting and probiotic. The focus is put on Lactococcus garvieae, two Streptococcus species (Str. uberis and Str. parauberis), four Weissella species (W. hellenica, W. confusa, W. paramesenteroides and W. cibaria) and Mammalicoccus sciuri which worldwide are often found within the microbiotas of different kinds of cheese, mainly traditional artisanal ones made from raw milk and/or relying on environmental bacteria for their ripening. Based on literature data, their virulence and health-promoting effects are examined, and some of the mechanisms of these actions are investigated. Additionally, their possible roles in cheese ripening are also discussed. The analysis so far showed that, in general, the pathogenic and the beneficial strains, despite belonging to the same species, show pretty different genetic constitutions. Yet, when the safety of a given strain is assessed, genomic analysis on its own is not enough, and a polyphasic approach is needed including additional physiological and functional tests.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1995.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: meat; fish; carcinogens; mitigation; epidemiology
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:17:00 CEST)
Being a great source of protein, B-vitamins and minerals, meat and fish are staple foods in many cultures. However, cooking at high temperatures can produce chemicals associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. This review investigates the possible carcinogenic activity of chemicals formed during the cooking of meat and fish including heterocyclic amines (HCAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). High-temperature cooking methods for meat, including grilling or frying, result in the formation of HCAs. Meat that has been smoked, grilled, or cooked over an open flame produces PAHs whereas, dry heat methods including roasting, grilling, and frying results in formation of AGEs. In vitro studies have shown that these compounds can damage DNA, cause mutations, and promote the growth of cancer cells. Research shows that thoroughly cooked meat increases the risk of cancer, particularly colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. Alternative cooking techniques, marinades, and incorporating fruits and vegetables can help to mitigate this risk. For determining the efficacy of these measures, additional studies are required. For the purpose of lowering the potential carcinogenic activity of chemicals formed during the cooking of meat and fish, mitigation techniques must be understood and put into practice. Cancer can be avoided by informing people about the dangers of eating meat and fish that have been cooked at high temperatures and by encouraging better diets and cooking styles. In order to lessen the possible health concerns related to the eating of meat and fish, further studies are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1914.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: infant flours; management; production units; Ouagadougou; Burkina Faso
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:49:31 CEST)
In Burkina Faso, the infant flours produced are intended for weaning-age and malnourished children. This study was to evaluate the management of infant flour production in Ouagadougou. A survey was conducted among the production units to determine the raw materials used in the production of infant flours, the production processes, the methods of conservation of raw materials and infant flours, the types of infant flours produced as well as their packaging. The results showed that 45.45% of the production units surveyed were of the semi-industrial type against 54.54% from the artisanal and CREN types. Among the raw materials, the most used cereals were millet, sorghum and maize. As for legumes, peanuts and soybeans were the most used at respectively 35% and 31%. For the conservation of raw materials, 85.71% of infant flour producers had storage warehouses and 66% used storage pesticides. These flours produced were intended for children of wean age (37.14%) and children in nutritional recovery (62.86%). Flours were stored in an airy (94.29%), dry area/environment (88.57%) and in the presence of light (91.43%). All the results of this survey reflect that efforts are still expected to further improve the nutritional and sanitary quality of the infant flours produced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1713.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fresh-cut Gastrodia elata; melatonin; ROS metabolism; phenylpropanoid pathway
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:22:18 CEST)
The application of melatonin (MT) has been shown to improve the quality during the storage of fruits and vegetables. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of MT on the quality of fresh-cut Gastrodia elata during low temperature (4°C) storage. The results indicate that MT treatment could suppress the respiratory rate and malondialdehyde content of fresh-cut G. elata, while also slowing down the decline in total acidity and total soluble solids. The treatment with MT reduced the superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide production, inhibited the activity and expression of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Additionally, it led to increased activity and expression of antioxidant-related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase, while also resulted in elevated levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione. Furthermore, the treatment with MT induced an increase in total phenolic and flavonoid content of fresh-cut G. elata and enhanced the activity and expression of key enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase). In summary, MT enhances the antioxidant capacity by activating both ROS metabolism and phenylpropanoid pathway, thus maintaining the quality of fresh cut G. elata.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1437.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: edible fats; deep frying; stir frying; RBD coconut oil; purchasing women
Online: 23 August 2023 (04:48:17 CEST)
Fat and oils plays one of the major roles in Sri Lankan modern unhealthy diet. The study was guided to collect, analyze, and interpret data about the awareness of general community on edible fat and oil products available in the market and their knowledge about healthy ways of usage. A total of 250 purchasing women were surveyed with a welldeveloped questionnaire. Results revealed that, Coconut oil (71%) is the leading supermarket oil product purchased and consumption of animal fats and oil are very limited (<3%) in Kandy. Educational level affects significantly (P<0.05) on purchasing behavior. Regardless of educational level and working status, price (73%) will be the most significant factor look at during purchasing edible oils. Total of 57% of purchasing women use the same oil for both deep frying and stir frying. Besides, 43% of women keep two different types. From all respondents, 83% use oil more than one time after first cooking. Working women prefer internet and facebook (38%) as the major food related information searching resource, while newspapers (35%) are among non-working women. All in all, lowering the price of healthy fat and community awareness programs will encourage healthy fat and oil purchasing behavior in Sri Lanka.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1590.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: temperature fluctuation; kiwifruits; cold storage; flesh texture; qualities
Online: 22 August 2023 (14:53:28 CEST)
Kiwifruits are often exposed to various temperature fluctuation (TF) during postharvest storage. To evaluate the effect of TF on the qualities of kiwifruits, fruits were stored at 2 ºC, 2 ºC or 5 ºC (TF2ºC-5ºC), 2 ºC or 7 ºC (TF2ºC-7ºC), alternating every 12 h. Observations revealed that kiwifruits stored at constant 2 °C showed the lowest loss of weight and vitamin C due to the minimum ethylene production and respiratory rate compared to that of TF2ºC-5ºC and TF2ºC-7ºC. Moreover, the results of RT-qPCR verifed that the expression of genes encoding polygalacturonase, β-galacturonidase, and pectin methyl esterase was significantly increased by the treatment of TF. Hence, TF accelerated the degradation of the cell walls, softening, translucency and relative conductivity of the flesh of kiwifruits. Besides, the impact of TF2ºC-7ºC on kiwifruits was more significant relative to TF2ºC-5ºC. The present study provides a theoretical basis for kiwifruit during cold storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1524.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: cysteine-rich peptides; cell penetration; microproteins; metal-binding peptides; coffee waste product; chemical synthesis; hevein-like peptide; non-chitin binding hevein; ginsentide
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:35:21 CEST)
Coffee processing generates a huge amount of waste which contains many natural products. Here, we report the discovery of a panel novel cell-penetrating and metal-ion binding microproteins designated coffeetide cC1a-c and cL1-6 from the husk of two popular coffee plants, Coffea canephora and Coffea liberica, respectively. Combining sequence determination and database search, we showed that the prototypic coffeetide cC1a is a 37-residue, eight-cysteine microprotein with a hevein-like cysteine motif but without a chitin-binding domain. NMR determination of cC1a revealed a compact structure that confers it resistance to heat and proteolytic degradation. Disulfide mapping together with chemical synthesis revealed that cC1a has a ginsentide-like, and not a hevein-like, disulfide connectivity. In addition, transcriptomic analysis showed that the 98-residue micrcoproten-like coffeetide precursor contains a three-domain arrangement like ginsentide precursors. Molecular modeling together with experimental validation revealed a Mg2+ and Fe3+ binding pocket at the N-terminus formed by three glutamic acids. Importantly, cC1a is amphipathic with a continuous stretch of 19 apolar amino acids, and which enables its cell penetration to target intracellular proteins, despite being highly negatively charged. Our findings suggest that coffee by-products could provide a source of ginsentide-like bioactive peptides that have potential to target intracellular proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1428.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: lacticaseibacilli; benefit; yoghurt; supplement; functional food
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:44:32 CEST)
Goat milk starts to be gradually the preferred milk by consumers worldwide and also in Slovakia. It is also demanded as functional and/or nutraceutical drink as it is rich in bioactive components. Goat milk contains complex of microbiota among which the phylum Firmicutes have been occurred with abundance 20.5 %. Among individual representatives of this phylum are involved also lacticaseibacilli. This study has been focused on bacteriocin-producing, beneficial strain Lacticaseibacillus paracasei LPa 12/1 isolated from raw goat milk and its potential to be additive in dairy products. Based on safety testing of bacteriocin-producing LPa 12/1 strain using BALB/c mice, it looks as safe. Even increase tendency in phagocytic activity in blood of mice was noted after LPa 12/1 strain application. Encapsulated form of LPa 12/1 strain producing thermo-stable bacteriocin seems to be a suitable to supplement dairy products. The strain colonized better ewe-goat milk yoghurt (up to 6.1 cfu/g log 10) than cow milk yoghurt (almost 5.0 cfu/g log 10). Although specific organoleptic tests were not involved, cow milk yoghurts remained in better consistency after LPa 12/1 strain supplementation in comparison with ewe-goat milk yoghurts. LPa 12/1 strain may be supposed as a new potential additive in dairy products/yoghurts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: prebiotics; probiotics; by-product; tropical fruits; cashew; fermented milk.
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:18:11 CEST)
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) processing generates a by-product (CB) with potential for health benefits and could be a favorable ingredient to be added to a probiotic food matrix. This study aimed to assess the functional attributes of CB in fermented milk with a probiotic and a starter culture using in vitro- gastrointestinal conditions. Using a standardized fermentability assay, two strains more adapted to the dehydrated CB were chosen and applied in: Test Formulation (TF, with CB) and Control Formulation (CF, without CB). TF and CF were fermented by the probiotic strain Lacticaseibacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19® and the starter Streptococcus thermophilus ST-M6®. During a 28-day refrigerated (6-8 °C) shelf-life study, both strains used in CF and TF were resistant and maintained a population above 8.0 log CFU/mL in the fermented milk. TF had significant increase in total phenolic compounds and greater antioxidant potential during shelf life, along with improved survival of F19® after in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The cashew by-product revealed to be promising as a substrate for the strains studied and the presence of CB increased the content of phenolics and antioxidant activity during storage, as well as the gastric resistance to the probiotic., leading to a promising healthy product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: AAPH; Protein oxidation; Myofibrillar protein; Gel properties
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:47:21 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical properties and gel-forming capacity of duck myofibrillar proteins under the effects of 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-mediated oxidation. Duck myofibrillar proteins were extracted and treated with different concentrations of AAPH solutions (0, 1, 3, 5, 10 mmol/L) and then analysed for carbonyl content, dynamic rheology, protein profiles and gel-forming properties (colour, water holding capacity, hardness, protein profile, microstructure). The results showed that with increasing AAPH concentration, the carbonyl content of protein showed an increasing trend (p < 0.05); SDS-PAGE pattern results indicated that moderate oxidation (3 mmol/L AAPH) induced myosin aggregation via covalent bonds including disulfide, enhanced protein-protein, and thus improved protein-water interactions and gel strength of DMPs heat-induced gels. However, high oxidation (5 and 10 mmol/L AAPH) led to partial degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as evidenced by lower storage modulus and irregular microstructure, which significantly reduced gelation ability. These results suggest that the internal relationship between alkanoperoxy radical-induced oxidation should be taken into account in the processing of duck meat, as mild protein oxidation is conducive to improving gel quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: expiration date; best before; consumer understanding; consumer behavior; consumer perception of health risk; expired food
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:55:02 CEST)
In these times, consumers mistakenly believe that the terms “expiration date” and “best before” found on packages only convey information about food safety. Consequently, a misunderstanding of these terms contributes to food waste. In this sense, the understanding and behavior of the con-sumer with respect to the two terms were evaluated; in addition, the consumer's perception of the health risks of consuming expired food was analyzed. The research was carried out with the population of the sector of Lurigancho-Chosica, Lima – Peru; sample size was 555 participants. An online survey was sent to consumers over 18 years of age, from different sociodemographic and socioeconomic conditions. In general terms, it was found that 45% (p <0.01) consider that both terms mean the same thing, this result is a problem for food safety. The 67% (p <0.05) and 45% (p <0.05) correctly defined the first and second terms, respectively; however, the behavior is not coherent with the understanding of the terms. In addition, irrational and dangerous behavior toward expired food was evidenced, i.e., they consume expired food - "expiration date", and discard expired food - "best before". Finally, the health risks they perceived from consuming expired foods of both terms were: upset stomach, vomiting, gas, intoxi-cation, and malnutrition; these perceptions are erroneous and unfounded. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic conditions influence the under-standing, behavior, and perception of health risks. Therefore, in general lines, the level of understanding of the terms was low (p<0.01), the be-havior was inappropriate toward expired food (p<0.01), and the percep-tion of the health risk of consuming expired food was incorrect (p<0.01).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1310.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: electrochemical biosensors; enzyme immobilisation; nanomaterials; Food analysis; Process monitoring
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:27:39 CEST)
Electrochemical biosensors based on immobilized enzymes are among the most popular and commercially successful biosensors. Literature in this field suggests that modification of electrodes with nanomaterials is an excellent method for enzyme immobilization, which can greatly improve the stability and sensitivity of the sensor. However, the poor stability, weak reproducibility, and limited lifetime of the enzyme itself still limit the requirements for the development of enzyme electrochemical biosensors for food production process monitoring. Therefore, constructing sensing technologies based on enzyme electrochemical biosensors remains a great challenge. This article outlines the construction principles of four generations of enzyme electrochemical biosensors and discusses the applications of single-enzyme systems, multi-enzyme systems and nano-enzyme systems developed based on these principles. The article further describes methods to improve enzyme immobilisation by combining different types of nanomaterials such as metals and their oxides, graphene-related materials, metal-organic frameworks, carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers. In addition, the article highlights the challenges and future trends of enzyme electrochemical biosensors, providing theoretical support and future perspectives for further research and development of high-performance enzyme chemical biosensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: milk fat globule membrane; phospholipids; ganglioside; cholesterol; development
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:37:50 CEST)
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a complex tri-layer membrane that wraps droplets of lipids in milk. In recent years, it has attracted widespread attention due to its excellent bioactive functions and nutritional value. The milk fat globule membrane contains a diverse array of bioactive lipids, including cholesterol, phospholipids, and sphingolipids, which play pivotal roles in mediating the bioactivity of the milk fat globule membrane. We sequentially summarize the main lipid types in milk fat globule membrane in this comprehensive review and outline the characterization methods used to employed them. In this comprehensive review, we sequentially describe the types of major lipids found in the milk fat globule membrane and outline the characterization methods employed to study them. Additionally, we compare the structural disparities among glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and gangliosides, while introducing the formation of lipid rafts facilitated by cholesterol. The focus of this review revolves around an extensive evaluation of current research on lipid isolates from the milk fat globule membrane, as well as products containing milk fat globule membrane lipids, with respect to their impact on human health. Notably, we emphasize clinical trials encompassing a large number of participants. The summarized bioactive functions of milk fat globule membrane lipids encompass regulation of human growth and development, influence on intestinal health, inhibition of cholesterol absorption, enhancement of exercise capacity, and anti-cancer effects. By offering a comprehensive overview, the aim of this review is to provide valuable insights into the diverse biologically active functions exhibited by lipids in milk fat globule membrane.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: C. humilis; Green grape; Antioxidant properties; Polyphenolic compounds; Functional fruit juice
Online: 14 August 2023 (13:37:55 CEST)
The objective of this investigation was to enhance the sensory appeal of Cerasus humilis (C. humilis) juice and ascertain potential interactions among bioactive compounds within a functional juice matrix. Sensory attributes, color, antioxidant potential, polyphenol and vitamin C (VC) concentrations, and sugar levels were assessed. Diverse dosage combinations were examined to determine their impact on the quality of both C. humilis and Green grape juices. Among the formulations, CG5 exhibited elevated antioxidant activit y and polyphenol content (455.02 mg TE/100 ml and 173.1 mg/100 ml, respectively), coupled with favorable consumer preference. Notable variations in compound content were observed across the seven analyzed juices. In the blended juices (CG1–CG5), interactions between distinct juices influenced VC and sugar levels, with other bioactives contributing to beneficial modifications, displaying a progressive rise. This study innovatively crafted delectable and convenient C. humilis juice, upholding its intrinsic high antioxidant activity, thereby presenting a novel avenue for marketable functional juice offerings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Southern Atlantic Diet; Anticancer; glucosinolates; sulforaphane; phenolic compounds; flavonoids; antioxidant; chemoprevention; nutragenomic; nutraceutical
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:49:55 CEST)
Scientific evidence increasingly supports the strong link between diet and health, acknowledging that a well-balanced diet plays a crucial role in preventing chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular issues, and certain types of cancer. This perspective opens the door to developing precision diets, particularly tailored for individuals at risk of developing cancer. It encompasses a vast research area and involves the study of an expanding array of compounds with multi-level "omics" compositions, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, miRNomics, and metabolomics. We review here the components of the Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) from both a chemical and pharmacological standpoint. The information sources consulted, complemented by crystallographic data from the Protein Data Bank, establish a direct link between SEAD and its anticancer properties. The data collected strongly suggest that SEAD offers an exceptionally healthy profile, particularly due to the presence of beneficial biomolecules in its foods. The inclusion of olive oil and paprika in this diet provides numerous health benefits, and science supports the anti-cancer properties of dietary supplements with biomolecules sourced from vegetables of the brassica genus. Nonetheless, further research is warranted in this field to gain deeper insights into the potential benefits of SEAD's bioactive compounds against cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: taste; hedonic rating; facial expressions; emotion; estimation
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:37:59 CEST)
Previous studies have indicated that facial expressions can serve as an objective evaluation method for hedonics (overall pleasure) of food and beverages. In this study, we aimed to validate the findings of our previous research, which demonstrated that facial expressions induced by tastants can predict the perceived hedonic ratings of these tastants. Facial expressions of 29 female participants (aged 18-55 years) were recorded using a digital camera while they consumed 12 different concentrations of solutions representing five basic tastes. The facial expressions were then analyzed using the widely-used facial expression analysis application, FaceReader, to identify seven emotions (surprise, happiness, scare, neutral, disgust, sadness, and anger) with scores ranging from 0 to 1. Participants also rated the hedonics of each solution on a scale from -5 (extremely unpleasant) to +5 (extremely pleasant). A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to develop a formula to predict perceived hedonic ratings. The formula's applicability was tested by analyzing emotion scores for 11 additional taste solutions consumed by 20 other participants. The predicted hedonic ratings demonstrated good correlation and concordance with the perceived ratings, supporting the validity of our previous findings using different software and taste stimuli among diverse participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0952.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: phlorotannin; starch digestion; edible seaweed; anti-diabetic effect
Online: 11 August 2023 (13:20:28 CEST)
Seaweeds, notably cochayuyo (Durvillaea incurvata), are recognized for their rich macro- and micronutrient content, along with their inhibitory effects on the α-glucosidase enzyme. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this inhibition in actual starchy food products under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The study utilized freeze-dried cochayuyo, extracted using hot pressurized liquid extraction with 50% ethanol at 120 C and 1500 psi. The inhibition mechanism of α-glucosidase was determined, and the polyphenol composition of the extract was analyzed using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. The study further evaluated the extract’s impact on starch digestibility, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity in noodles as representative starchy food under gastrointestinal conditions. The results indicate that the α-glucosidase inhibition mechanism is mixed. Phenolic compounds, primarily tetraphloroethol, could contribute to this anti-enzymatic activity. The extract was observed to decrease starch digestibility, indicated by a lower rate constant (0.0158 vs. 0.0261 min-1) and digested starch at an infinite time (77.4 vs. 80.5 g/100 g). A significant increase (~1200 vs. ~390 µmol TROLOX/100 g) in antioxidant activity was also noted during digestion when the extract was used. Thus, the study suggests that the cochayuyo extract can reduce starch digestion and enhance antioxidant capacity under gastrointestinal conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0911.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Biopolymers; Food-wrapping; Design of Experiments
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:55:31 CEST)
Paper is one of the most promising materials for food packaging and wrapping due to its low environmental impact, but surface treatments are often needed to improve some performance, e.g. the resistance to fats and oils. In this context, this research is focused on the formulation of a new paper bio-coating. Paper was coated with liquids containing Poly(hexano-6-lactone) (PCL), Glycerol and variable percentages of starch (5 - 10% w/w PCL dry weight), agar agar (0 - 1.5% w/w PCL dry weight) and PEG (5% or 15% w/w PCL dry weight) to improve coating uniformity and diffusion. A Design of Experiments approach was implemented to find statistically reliable results in terms of best coating formulation. Coated paper was characterized through mechanical and physical properties. Results showed that agar content (1.5% w/w PCL dry weight) has a beneficial effect on increasing the resistance to oil. Furthermore, the best coating composition has been calculated, and it is: 10% w/w PCL dry weight of Starch, 1.5% w/w PCL dry weight of agar and 15% w/w PCL dry weight of PEG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0920.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: agaricus bisporus; chitosan; polysaccharide; lipid absorption; pancreatic lipase; obesity
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:36:31 CEST)
Agaricus bisporus is well known as a source of polysaccharides that could improve human health. The objective of this study was to explore anti-obesity effect of A. bisporus extract (H2Oslim®) abundant in polysaccharides and its underlying mechanism. Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vitro was determined after treatment with H2Oslim® and chitosan. Treatment with H2Oslim® and chitosan significantly decreased pancreatic lipase activity. Five-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups for acute feeding with vehicle, H2Oslim® at 80 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day, and H2Oslim® at 160 mg/kg BW/day. H2Oslim® does-dependently increased plasma lipid clearance in an oral lipid tolerance test. Five-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were fed a control diet (CD), a high fat diet (HFD), an HFD with H2Oslim® at 80 mg/kg BW/day, H2Oslim® at 160 mg/kg BW/day, or chitosan at 160 mg/kg BW/day for eight weeks. HFD-fed mice showed significant increases of body weight, fat mass, white adipose tissue, average lipid droplet size, and serum levels of glucose, triglyceride, ALT, and AST compared to those in the CD group. However, H2Oslim® or chitosan administration ameliorated these increases. H2Oslim® or chitosan signifi-cantly reduced dietary efficiency and increased fecal excretion levels of lipid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol. These in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that H2Oslim® might act as an anti-obesity agent by inhibiting pancreatic lipase-mediated lipid absorption, at least in part.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0801.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: lipid oxidation; protein oxidation; β-carotene; α-tocopherol; fatty acid; heme iron; beef meat; pasture; concentrate
Online: 10 August 2023 (04:18:19 CEST)
Beef meat production in Uruguay is based on pasture or concentrate feeding systems, leading to differences in meat quality. The objective of this study was to compare the oxidative and color stability during refrigerated retail display of beef meat from these two systems. For this, ten Aberdeen Angus steers were reared and fed on pasture and other ten were finished on a concentrate diet. After slaughter, the Semimembranosus muscle was cut into slices and put in a refrigerated showcase for 3, 6, and 9 days simulating commercial conditions. The β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and fatty acid content were determined before the display, and the lipid and protein oxidation, color parameters, and heme iron content were determined before and during the display. Meat from steers fed pasture had a lower content of intramuscular fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio, lipid and protein oxidation, L* and a* values, and a higher content of linolenic acid, DHA, total n-3, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol. In conclusion, meat from pasture-fed steers was more stable during the retail display, which can probably be explained by a higher content of antioxidant compounds, such as β-carotene and α-tocopherol, and presented a healthier fatty acid profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0714.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: goat, milk, cheese, sensory, supplementation
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:54:50 CEST)
Three dietary treatments were assayed in 350 milking Murciano-Granadina multiparous goats in full-lactation: a control diet and two experimental diets, one including flaked linseed (FL) and the other salmon oil (SO). Neither dietary treatment affected the daily milk yield, cheese yield or the physicochemical parameters of the milk and cheese. With regard to the fatty acid profile (FA), the milk and cheese from animals whose diet was supplemented with SO had a higher percentage of fatty acids than those obtained with the FL supplemented diet, except for C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 n-6, trans-9, trans-12 C18:2, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, C18:3 and C19:0, which reached their highest levels in milk obtained with the diet supplemented with FL. The decrease in the percentage of C16:0 was greater in the milk derived from the FL diet than from the SO diet. The FL supplemented diet improved the nutritional value of milk due to a reduction in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and an increase in polyunsaturated acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The decrease in n-6/n-3 in observed milk was more pronounced with the FL diet. No differences in the sensory profile were found for the milk and cheese derived from the different dietary treatments. Keywords: goat, flaked linseed, salmon oil, fatty acid, sensory profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Krill oil; Ultraviolet; Skin photoaging; Marine-derived ingredients
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:07:26 CEST)
Krill oil (KO) shows promise as a natural marine-derived ingredient for improving skin health. This study investigated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-wrinkle, and moisturizing effects on skin cells and UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice. In vitro assays on HDF, HaCaT, and B16/F10 cells, and in vivo experiments on 66 hairless mice, were conducted. Mice received oral KO administration (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) once a day for 15 weeks and UVB radiation three times a week. In vitro, KO significantly countered UVB-induced oxidative stress, reduced wrinkles, and prevented skin water loss by enhancing collagen and hyaluronic synthesis. In vivo, all KO dosages showed dose-dependent inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammatory photoaging-related skin changes. Skin mRNA expressions for hyaluronan synthesis and collagen synthesis genes also increased dose-dependently after KO treatment. Histopathological analysis confirmed that Krill Oil (KO) ameliorated the damage caused by UVB-irradiated skin tissues. These findings suggest that KO may be a valuable intervention to mitigate UVB-induced skin photoaging and address various skin concerns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0675.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fruits; vegetables; plant-based; processed foods; UV-C treatment; bioactive; nutrients; nutrition security
Online: 8 August 2023 (13:02:14 CEST)
A variety of bioactive substances present in fruits and vegetables processed products have health-promoting properties. Consumption of nutrient-rich plant-based products is essential to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Preservation is paramount in manufacturing plant-based non-solid foods such as juices, purees, and sauces. Thermal processing has been widely used to preserve fruit and vegetable-based products by reducing enzymatic and microbial activities, thereby ensuring safety and prolonged shelf life. However, the nutritional value of products is compromised due to the deleterious effects of thermal treatments on essential nutrients and bioactive compounds. To prevent the loss of nutrients associated with thermal treatment, alternative technologies are being researched extensively. In studies conducted on non-solid food, UV-C treatment has been proven to preserve quality and minimize nutrient degradation. This review compiles information on the use of UV-C technology in preserving the nutritional attributes of non-solid foods derived from fruit and vegetables. Legislation, market potential, consumer acceptance, and limitations of UV-C are reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0662.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fresh cheese; Lactobacillus acidophilus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus; probiotics
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:51:07 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of added cultures of probiotic lactic acid bacteria on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of fresh cheese as well as their viability. Probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. rhamnosus were evaluated at two inoculation times (before the renneting and salting processes) following a factorial treatment arrangement. The bacterial count (log CFU g-1), acidity determination (% lactic acid), pH and percentage of syneresis were evaluated at 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of refrigerated storage (4–5 °C). The texture profile analysis and an extended preference test were carried out at 21 days of storage. At the end of storage, fresh cheeses containing L. rhamnosus, added prior to the renneting process, had similar acidity values (0.18% lactic acid), pH (5.36) and percentage of syneresis (4.71%) compared to those for the cheeses without probiotics or control. Excluding adhesiveness, no differences were observed in texture profile parameters among the assessed cheeses. The fresh cheese supplemented with L. rhamnosus before the renneting process had a microorganism count greater than 6 logarithmic cycle/g, and the highest preference among treatments. The results from this study suggest that fresh cheese can be an excellent matrix for probiotic microorganisms, in particular L. rhamnosus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aged vinegar; Microbial community; Physicochemical characteristics; Correlation
Online: 7 August 2023 (04:59:59 CEST)
In this paper, the main physicochemical characteristics and evolutionary laws of microbial community structure during the fermentation of aged vinegar were discussed, and the correlation between Cuqu and microorganisms and physicochemical characteristics during fermentation was explored. The results showed that there are significant differences in genera at different stages of fermentation, the main dominant bacteria in R1 are Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus and Issatchenkia. At R2 fermentation stage, Lactobacillus, Acetobacter and Saccharomyces showed an upward trend and finally became absolute advantage bacteria. The main genus of bacteria at the end of overall fermentation is Aspergillus. Correlation analysis shows that in Cuqu, the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with reducing sugars and amino acid nitrogen are the same, while the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with pH and saccharification power are the same. During the fermentation process, pH, reducing sugar and saccharification ability are mainly positively correlated with bacterial genera. And research has found that during the fermentation process, the overall correlation between fungal communities and physicochemical characteristics is weaker compared to bacteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Saponins; emulsifiers; foaming agents; plant extract; food functionality
Online: 4 August 2023 (09:46:20 CEST)
Saponins are a diverse group of naturally occurring plant secondary metabolites present in a wide range of foods ranging from grains, pulses, green leaves to sea creatures. They consist of a hydrophilic sugar moiety linked to a lipophilic aglycone, resulting in an amphiphilic nature and unique functional properties. The amphiphilic structures enable saponins to exhibit surface-active properties, forming stable foams and complexes with various molecules. In the context of food applications, saponins are utilized as natural emulsifiers, foaming agents, and stabilizers. They contribute to texture and stability in food products and have potential health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering and anticancer effects. Saponins possess additional bioactivities that make them valuable in the pharmaceutical industry as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic agents to name a few. Saponins can demonstrate cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines and can also act as adjuvants, enhancing the immune response to vaccines. Their ability to form stable complexes with drugs further expands their potential in drug delivery systems. However, challenges such as bitterness, cytotoxicity, and instability under certain conditions need to be addressed for effective utilization of saponins in foods and related applications. In this paper, we have reviewed chemistry, functionality, and application aspects of saponins from various plant sources and have summarised the regulatory aspects of food application of Quillaja saponins. Further research to explore the full potential of saponins in improving food quality and human health has been suggested. It is expected that this article will be a useful resource for researchers in food, feed, pharmaceutical and material science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0359.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: dry fractionation; quinoa flour; sorghum flour; gluten-free bread; sourdough fermentation
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:37:15 CEST)
Roller milling of sorghum and quinoa seeds into flour fractions (course, middle, and fine) was investigated, chemically analysed and applied in the baking of gluten-free sourdough bread. Gap settings were adjusted to 0, 5, 8 and 10 for quinoa and 3, 5, and 7 for sorghum. The fine fractions reached values of up to about 41% (gap 8) for quinoa and around 20% for sorghum (gap 5). SEM pictographs illustrated clear separation of each fraction with chemical analysis showing high contents of protein, TDF (total dietary fibre) and IDF (insoluble dietary fibre) in the course fraction. Up to 77% starch content was obtained in the fine fraction with significant amounts of SDF (soluble dietary fibre) which has good health benefits. Increasing the dough moisture up to 90% helped in decreasing the bread crumb firmness, while low Avrami parameters and RVA pasting behaviour indicated slow bread staling rate for both sourdough breads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: T. molitor flour; Burger; Shelf-life; Based-to-plant; Sensory analyses
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:22:08 CEST)
Environmental concerns, among other causes, are leading to meat replacement in the diet by healthy, nutritious and tasty foods. Alternative protein sources of plant origin can be an alternative to meat, but their low biological value proteins can be a problem. Novel foods, such as insect meals, can meet currently consumer demands. Therefore, this research has developed innovative prototypes of analogue burgers with animal and vegetable proteins. Concerned about health and allergies, a prototype incorporating soya to satisfy coeliacs was developed. An iterative and heuristic process was carried out to test the product development feasibility. The main raw materials used were insect flour (Tenebrio molitor), seitan and soya. In addition, oat and sodium alginate were used as binders. Shelf-life of the new product was evaluated by physicochemical (pH, aw, moisture, colour, acidity and peroxide index) and sensory analysis (quantitative analysis -QDA-). The production of the burger analogues was feasible. Product characterisation showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among samples for organoleptic properties, highlighting texture changes. Using a multivariate model, it was established “The best before date” at 7 days for all developed prototypes, conditioned by microbial growth. Finally, the spoilage model indicated an important contribution to bacterial growth with a notable modification in the pastiness and hardness of the burger analogues developed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nanoplastics; microplastics; plastic oligomers
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:15:53 CEST)
Abstract: The ongoing use of plastic polymers to manufacture food packaging has raised concerns about the presence of nano- and microplastics (NMPs) in a variety of foods. This review provides the most recent data on NMPs' migration from plastic packaging into milk and dairy products. Also discussed are the possible effects of NMPs on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Different kinds of milk products, including skimmed or whole liquid and powder milk, infant formula milk, and other dairy products, have been found to contain NMPs of various sizes, shapes, and concentrations. NMPs may interact with proteins, carbohydrates, and fats and have a detrimental impact on how well these nutrients are digested and absorbed by the body. The presence of NMPs in the gastrointestinal tract may impact how lipids, proteins, glucose, iron, and energy are metabolised, increasing the risk of developing health conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some cancers. In addition to NMP, plastic oligomers released from food packaging material have been found to migrate to various food simulants and milk, though their effect on human health has yet to be investigated. Viewpoints on potential directions for future studies on NMPs and nutrient digestion, absorption, and health are also presented in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Beetroot (Beta vulgaris); Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY); Gas Chromatog-raphy-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS); selective TOCSY; Homonuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC); fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:01:22 CEST)
Abstract: Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L) has been known for being a rich source of phytochemicals, minerals and vitamins. This study presents a model system for how the combination of extrac-tion/chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR offers an efficient way to profile metabolites in the extracts of a natural product, beetroot . Such combination may lead to the identification of more nutritional or medicinal compounds in natural products, and it is essential for our ongoing investigation to study the selective adsorption/desorption of these metabolites on nanoparticles. The aqueous and organic extracts underwent analyses using UV-vis spectroscopy; GC-MS; LC-MS; 1H, 13C, TOCSY, HSQC, and selective TOCSY NMR experiments. Polar Extract: The two forms of betalain pigment were identified by UV-vis and LC MS. Fourteen amino acids, sucrose, and other compounds among which is riboflavin, were identified by LC-MS. 2D TOCSY showed the spin coupling correlations corresponding to some of these compounds. The HSQC spectrum showed 1H/13C spin correlation in sucrose confirming the high abundance of sucrose in beetroot. Organic Extract: GC-MS data enabled the identification of several compounds including six fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) with higher than, on average, 90% similarity score. Selective TOCSY NMR data showed the spin coupling pattern corresponding to oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids. 31P NMR spectra indicate that phospholipids exist in both the organic and aqueous phases. Keywords: Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L); Total Correlation Spectroscopy (TOCSY); Gas Chromatog-raphy-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS); selective TOCSY, Homonuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC); fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Bifidobacterium; growth inertia; solid-liquid-liquid passage culture; viable bacterium concentrations; rapid growth
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:45:31 CEST)
Bifidobacterium is the most beneficial flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, but there is a concentration threshold for Bifidobacterium to exert its beneficial properties. In this work, the effect of several simple culture methods on the number of viable bifidobacteria was discussed to improve its viable concentrations, and we unexpectedly discovered that bifidobacteria have inert growth. The concentration of viable bacteria of two isolated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BZ11 and BZ25 and Lactobacillus plantarum SQ-4 were investigated using solid-liquid-liquid circulation subculture, solid-liquid-liquid subculture and solid-liquid-liquid circulation subculture. These 3 subculture methods increase the viable cell concentration, and the best is the solid-liquid-liquid subculture. The highest concentrations of third-generation BZ11 and BZ25 were 9.62 × 109 CFU/mL and 1.21 × 1010 CFU/mL in order by solid-liquid-liquid subculture method, which was 10.38 times and 42.31 times higher (P<0.05) than those of the first generation, respectively. However, none of these three subculture methods increased the concentration of SQ-4. These results suggested that Bifidobacterium has growth inertia and Solid-liquid-liquid passage culture inhibiting the growth inertia. This finding is valuable in promoting the industrial application of probiotic bifidobacteria to potential probiotic food production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermentation; 16SrDNA; Lactic Acid Bacteria; Phenotypical; Genotypical.
Online: 31 July 2023 (09:56:44 CEST)
Fermented rice is known as a healthy food due to the presence of lactic acid bacteria as fermentative microorganisms. The study was carried out to discover and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from white and red fermented rice (BG varieties). Fermentation was carried out naturally by soaking red, white, raw and cooked rice in water using an earthen pot. Species were confirmed based on 16S r DNA gene sequencing and studied for phenotypic characteristics including morphological, physiological (growth temperature, salt tolerance, milk coagulation) and biochemical characteristics (carbohydrate fermentation pattern) using API 50CH kits. Distinct clusters like cocci (48), diplo cocci (30) and rods (30) shaped bacteria were observed from fermented rice. Five species of lactic acid bacteria including Latilactobacillus curvatus GR Lb1,2 10 and 11 (predominant Bacillus species), Latilactobacillus graminis Lb8, Limosilactobacillus fermentum GRLb17, Weissella confuse GRLb4 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GRLc1 were identified. The base pair length of amplified DNA for the isolates was 1500 Bp. The beneficial physiological and biochemical properties of isolated Lactobacillus species from fermented rice revealed their potential applications in the food industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1912.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nutrient solution; flavonoids; phenols; DPPH; ORAC; vitamins; mineral content; organic acids; sensory analysis
Online: 27 July 2023 (12:02:55 CEST)
This research presents a comparative analysis of the yield and nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivated in an aeroponic system with two distinct nutrient solutions: (i) commercial hydroponic fertilizers and (ii) aquaponic water without added fertilizers. Both systems were maintained under the same controlled conditions, enabling the comparison of growth parameters, leaf area, antioxidant activity, mineral content, and sensory characteristics of the lettuce. The hydroponic system demonstrated superior performance concerning the fresh weight of lettuce head and root, leaf count, and leaf area. In contrast, the aquaponic system produced a higher dry weight of lettuce heads and a more extensive root-to-shoot ratio. Concerning nutrient concentration, the hydroponic nutrient solution composition exhibited elevated levels of NO3–, P, NH4+, and K in contrast to the aquaponic nutrient solution, which had a more significant S, Cl–, Na, and Mg content. Regarding the nutritional value, lettuce from the hydroponic system exhibited significantly higher levels of K, S, P, Zn, Fe, Mn, and vitamin B2. In contrast, lettuce from the aquaponic system exceeded with higher content of Ca, Na, Mg, Al, B, and Si. Remarkably, the lettuce cultivated in the aquaponic system demonstrated significantly enhanced total flavonoid and phenol content, and antioxidant capacity compared to its hydroponically grown counterpart.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1873.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: hemp waste; food fortification; Ciclope; Futura 75; hemp flour; dough mixing; amino acids; fatty acids
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:26:19 CEST)
The edible portion of Cannabis sativa L. are the seeds. The seeds are generally used for the production of hemp oil, appreciated for the high percentage of α-linolenic acid. The waste obtained after seeds oil extraction, reduced in fine powder, is the subject of this study. Since hemp seeds are considered to be a source of many valuable bioactive compounds, the addition of hemp seed flour to durum wheat for making fortified bread could have an effect on the health of consumers. The aim of this study was to use variable percentages of hemp seed flour for the production of bread, and to determine the fortification impact on chemicals, texture, organoleptic characteristics, crumb color, changes in crumb texture, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging activity and amino acids contents. The rheological and chemical qualities of bread samples, obtained by using a durum wheat cultivar Ciclope fortified with defatted hemp seeds flours, were evaluated. The solid residue left after the extraction of the oil from seeds (generally thrown away as waste or added to feed) was shredded and sieved at 0.530 mm (Hemp 1) or 0.236 mm (Hemp 2). Samples of fortified breads were obtained by substitution of variable percentages of durum wheat flour with the two hemp flours (5%, 7.5%, and 10%). Fortified bread’s total phenolic content was in a range of 0.73±0.017 and 1.73±0.029 mg GAE/g and an-ti-radical scavenging activity was included in the range from 1.17±0.099 and 3.18±0.071mmol TEAC/100g, according to the increasing fortification. Comparison between bread made with Ciclope semolina and hemp flour fortified breads, showed a large increase in amino acid content in fortified samples ones. In particular, bread fortified with 10% Hemp 2 flour highlights a greater content of glutamic acid, tyrosine, proline and essential amino acids such as leucine and isoleucine, compared to the other samples with same percentage of substitution. The amount of hemp seed flour influenced the color of the crumb by increasing the yellow index from 18.24 (100% Ciclope) to 21.33 (bread with Hemp 2 flour at 5%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1885.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food safety; fresh produce; biocontrol; foodborne; phage application
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:28:53 CEST)
A commercial phage biocontrol for reducing Listeria monocytogenes has been described as an effective tool for improving fresh produce safety. Critical challenges in the phage application must be overcome for the industrial application. The validation studies were performed in two processing lines of two industry collaborators in Spain and Denmark, selecting shredded iceberg lettuce as the ready-to-eat (RTE) product of higher process volume. The biocontrol treatment optimized in lab-scale trials for the application of PhageGuard ListexTM was confirmed in industrial settings by four tests, two in Spain and two in Denmark. Results showed that the method of application that included the device and the processing operation step were appropriate for the correct application. The proper dose of Phage Guard ListexTM was reached in shredded iceberg lettuce and the surface was adequately covered for the successful application of phages. There was no impact on the headspace gas composition (CO2 and O2 levels), nor on the color when untreated and treated samples were compared. The post-process treatment PhageGuard ListexTM did not cause any detrimental impact on the sensory quality, including flavor, texture, browning, spoilage and visual appearance of over the shelf-life as the phage solution was applied as a fine, mist solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1793.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Biocides; One Health; Food chain; Antimicrobial resistance
Online: 27 July 2023 (02:20:07 CEST)
Acid stress poses a common challenge for bacteria in diverse environments by the presence of inorganic (e.g., mammals’ stomach) or organic acids (e.g., feed additives; acid-based disinfectants). Limited knowledge exists regarding acid-tolerant strains of specific serotypes, clonal lineages, or sources in human/animal pathogens, namely non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) and Enterococcus faecium (Efm). This study evaluated acidic pH and peracetic acid (PAA) susceptibility of Efm (n=72) and NTS (n=60) from diverse epidemiological/genetic backgrounds, and with multiple antibiotic resistance profiles. Efm minimum growth/survival-pH was 4,5-5/3-4 and for NTS 4,0-4,5/3,5-4,0. Among Efm, only those of clade-non-A1 (non-hospital associated) or food chain demonstrated greater tolerance to acidic pH compared to clade-A1 (hospital-associated clones) or clinical isolates (P<0.05). MDR (multidrug-resistant) NTS survived better to acidic pH (P<0.05). The MICPAA/MBCPAA was 70-120/80-150mg/L for Efm and 50-70/60-100mg/L for NTS. Efm-clade-A1 or MDR strains exhibited higher PAA tolerance than clade-non-A1 or non-MDR ones (P<0.05). Higher tolerance was found in non-MDR and clinical NTS than in food chain isolates (P<0.05), but not between different serogroups. This unique study identifies specific NTS or Efm populations more tolerant to acidic pH or PAA, emphasizing the need for further research to tailor control measures of public health and food safety within a One Health framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1782.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Omani goats; Meat quality; Fatty acids; Spirulina; Jabbali; Sahrawi
Online: 26 July 2023 (11:21:47 CEST)
Current low meat production in Omani goats under traditional feeding regimes justifies a study of the effects of Spirulina Platensis (SP) supplementation on goats’ performance. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating SP into diets on carcass characteristics, fatty acid profile and meat quality traits of two Omani goat breeds. Thirty-six eleven-month-old bucks from the Jabbali and Sahrawi goat breeds (n= 18/breed) were divided into three groups (control, Treatment 1, and treatment 2). All animals received a conventional concentrate feed ration (con-trol (CON) consisting of pellets creep fed. Animals were fed SP daily with Treatment 1 (T1) fed at 2g/head and Treatment 2 (T2) fed at 4g/head. Sahrawi bucks showed a highly significant response to SP feeding compared to Jabbali bucks. Average daily gain and carcass traits (body length, leg length and the rack weight) of Sahrawi bucks were significantly higher in the T1 group than in the CON group. The weights of omental and kidney fat increased in T1 group of Sahrawi goats, while it increased in T2 group of Jabbali goats compared to CON group. Ultimate pH increased in T1 group and meat color (lightness) increased in T2 group in both LD and SM muscles of Sahrawi goats. Most of PUFA n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio increased in T1 group, while most of MUFA2 and PUFA n-3 fatty acids increased in T2 group of Sahrawi goats. In addition, a significant decrease in pentadecanoic and margaric acids of Sahrawi goats was observed by adding SP to the diet com-pared to the control group. The study concluded that incorporating SP (2g and 4g/head) into the diet of Omani goats, especially Sahrawi goats, can increase growth performance, improve fatty acid composition and meat quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1785.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: in vivo; aroma release; aroma perception; dynamic methods; nosespace; DIMS; TI; TDS; TCATA; APCI-MS; PTR-MS
Online: 26 July 2023 (11:11:42 CEST)
Perception of flavor is a dynamic process during which the concentration of aroma molecules at the olfactory epithelium varies with time as they are released progressively from the food in the mouth during consumption. The release kinetics depends on the food matrix itself, but also on food oral processing, such as mastication behavior and food bolus formation with saliva, for which huge inter-individual variations exist due to physiological differences. Sensory methods, such as time-intensity (TI), or the more recent methods temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) and temporal check-all-that-apply (TCATA), are used to account for the dynamic and time-related aspects of flavor perception. Direct injection mass spectrometry (DIMS) techniques that measure in real-time aroma compounds directly in the nose (nosespace), aimed at obtaining data that reflect the pattern of aroma release in real-time during food consumption, supposed to be representative of perception, have been developed since 25 years. Examples obtained with MS operated in chemical ionization mode at atmospheric or sub-atmospheric pressure (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization APCI or proton transfer reaction PTR) will be given, with emphases on studies conducted with simultaneous dynamic sensory evaluation. Inter-individual variations in terms of aroma release and their relevance for understanding flavor perception will be discussed, as well as evidenced cross-modal interactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1720.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fusarium spp.; Fusarium dry rot of potato; pathogenicity; mycotoxin; control
Online: 26 July 2023 (09:43:00 CEST)
Fusarium dry rot is one of the major postharvest potato diseases of during storage after harvest, which not only results in quality degradation but also brings up huge economic losses. The dis-ease can be elicited by some species of Fusarium, the pathogenic fungi of Fusarium causing potato dry rot are considerably diverse in various countries and regions. Fusarium spp. infection is as-sociated with dry rot produce mycotoxins, which has phytotoxicity and mycotoxicoses on hu-mans and animals. Chemical synthetic fungicide is considered as the main control measure to Fusarium dry rot of potato, nevertheless, it is unfortunate that the persistent application inevitably results in the emergency of resistant strain and environmental contamination. A comprehensive disease control strategy includes potato cultivar selection, appropriate cultural practices (crop rotation, cultivate pattern, fertilization, and irrigation), harvesting process and postharvest treatment (harvesting, classification, packaging, wound healing), storage condition (environ-mental disinfection, temperature, humidity and gas composition) along with the application of fungicide pre-harvest or postharvest. Recently, emerging studies indicated that eco-friendly strategies include physical control, chemical methods (such as the application of generally rec-ognized as safe (GRAS) compounds or chemical (elicitors) and biological control have been in-troduced to combat Fusarium dry rot of potato.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1673.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: red cabbage; encapsulation; anthocyanins; whey protein isolate; high-methoxyl pectin; coacervation; nanoparticles; antioxidant; food-waste; by-products
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:54:52 CEST)
Encapsulation is a valuable strategy to protect and deliver anthocyanins (ACNs), phenolic com-pounds with outstanding antioxidant capacity but limited stability. In this study, coacervation was used to encapsulate an ACNs-rich red cabbage extract (RCE). Two agri-food by-products polymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and apple high-methoxyl pectin (HMP), were blended at pH 4.0 in a specific ratio to induce the formation of nanoparticles (NPs). The process optimisation yielded a monodispersed population (PDI < 0.200) of negatively charged (-17 mV) NPs with an average diameter of 380 nm. RCE concentration influenced size, charge, and antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner. NPs were also sensitive to pH increase from 4 to 7, showing a progressive breakdown. The encapsulation efficiency was 30%, with a retention of ACNs within the polymeric matrix being influenced by their chemical structure: diacylated and/or C3-triglucoside forms were more efficiently encapsulated than monoacylated C3-diglucosides. In conclusion, we report a promising, simple, and sustainable method to produce monodispersed NPs for ACNs encapsu-lation and delivery. Evidence of differential binding of ACNs to NPs, dependent on specific ac-ylation/glycosylation patterns, indicate that care must be taken in the choice of the appropriate NPs formulation for the encapsulation of phenolic compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1671.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: fermentation; sour bamboo shoots; volatile compounds; core microbiota
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:43:09 CEST)
Fermented bamboo shoots are a distinctive ingredient in Southern cuisine. In this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS) were employed to investigate the relationship among physicochemical properties, characteristic volatile compounds, and core microbial communities. The results show that the chewiness, fracturability, hardness, and pH decreased, while total acidity increased during 60d-fermentation. The contents of reducing sugar and nitrite reached the peak on the 14th day of fermentation and then decreased. A total of 80 volatile compounds were detected during sour bamboo shoot fermentation, with 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol having the highest concentration. Among them, 12 volatile compounds (VIP ≥ 1) were identified as characteristic aroma substances of sour bamboo shoots. The dominant bacterial phyla in sour bamboo shoots were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while Bacillus and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus. Correlation analysis showed that Firmicutes positive correlation with 3,6-Nonadien-1-ol, (E,Z)-, Oxalic acid, isobutyl hexyl ester ,(-)-O-Acetylmalic anhydride, TA Bacillus was negative correlation with Silanediol, dimethyl-, and Oxime-, methoxy-phenyl-. This study provides a theoretical basis for screening flavor-enhancing microorganisms as fermentation agents in sour bamboo shoots, which can contribute to the improvement of their quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1630.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan; gelatin; edible coating; performance optimization; sweet cherry; preservation
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:17:40 CEST)
To prepare an edible coating with a good preservative effect on sweet cherries, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and gelatin (GL) were selected as the film-forming matrix in this experiment, and CaCl2 and ascorbic acid (AA) were added as crosslinking agents and antioxidants, respectively. First, the film was prepared by the casting method, and the film formula with better mechanical and barrier performance was filtered out by one-factor and response surface optimization test, and the differences in the preservation effect of different film formulations (CMCS-GL, CaCl2- CMCS-GL, AA -CaCl2- CMCS-GL) on sweet cherries were compared. and then the different film formulations were compared. The difference in film formulation on the preservation effect of sweet cherries was investigated. The results showed that the optimal formulation for an edible film based on CMCS-GL with good performance was CMCS: GL (w:w)=2:1, with the additional amount of 1% glycerol, 2% CaCl2, 0.1% Tween-20, 2% AA, the tensile strength, elongation at break, oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability of the film obtained with this formula were: 16.28 MPa, 71.46%, 1.39×10-12 g- cm/(cm2-s-Pa), 5.10×10-11 cm3-cm/(m2-s-Pa), respectively. In the preservation of sweet cherries, all three film formulations effectively reduced the rotting rate and weight loss during storage while preserving the high hardness and skin color of the fruit. Among them, the formulation AA -CaCl2- CMCS-GL showed the best preservation effect and can be used as a new method for postharvest preservation of sweet cherries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: beef potentiator; enzymatically hydrolyzed beef liquid; ultrasound; enzymatic hydrolysis; flavor
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:39:34 CEST)
Beef potentiator is an important flavor enhancer in food industry, while it is prone to generating insufficient taste compounds and off-odor compounds during enzymatic hydrolysis of beef, resulting in poor flavor of beef potentiator. It has been extensively reported that sonication is capable of improving food flavor. However, the effect of sonication on the flavor of enzymatically hydrolyzed beef liquid (EHBL) was scarcely reported. Herein, we investigated the effect of sonication on the flavor of EHBL using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), physicochemical analysis and SPME-GC-olfactometry/MS. QDA showed that sonication had a significant effect on taste improvement and off-odor removal of EHBL. Compared with the control, sonication (40 kHz, 80 W/L) increased the contents of total nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids (FAAs) and hydrolysis degree of EHBL by 19.25%, 19.80%, 11.83%, 9.52%, 14.37% and 20.45%. Notably, sonication markedly enhanced the contents of sweet FAAs, umami FAAs and bitter FAAs of EHBL by 19.66%, 14.04% and 9.18%, respectively, which contributed to the taste improvement of EHBL. SPME-GC-olfactometry/MS analysis showed that aldehydes and alcohols were the main contributors to aroma compounds of EHBL, sonication significantly increased the contents of key aroma compounds and 115.88% of alcohols content in EHBL. Notably, sonication decreased contents of the fishy odorants, hexanoic acid and nonanal, markedly by 35.29% and 26.03%, which was responsible for the aroma improvement of EHBL. Therefore, sonication could become a new potential tool to improve the flavor of EHBL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: refined olive oil fortification; herbs; plant by-products; conventional maceration (CM); incubation shaking maceration (ISM); ultrasound assisted maceration (UAM); in vitro predicted bioavailability
Online: 21 July 2023 (07:47:00 CEST)
Nowadays, the high demand for healthy foods and sustainable products, has led the food industry to explore innovative food technologies, such as fortification with bioactive compounds like antioxidants and polyphenols, that may be sourced from herbs or by-products. The aim of the present study was to explore the enrichment of refined olive oils with natural bioactive compounds such as the herbs rosemary (salvia rosmarinus), basil (ocimum basil), sage (salvia officinalis), lemon balm (melissa oficinallis), st. john’s wort (hypericum perforatum), pink savory (Thymbra satureja), dittany (origanum dictamnus), and by-products such as pomace from olives, olive leaves (olea europaea tree), orange peel (citrus sinensis), lemon peel (citrus limon), pomegranate peel (punica granatum) and mandarin peel (citrus reticulate). The fortification of the refined olive oils was performed with the use of different methodologies such as Conventional maceration (CM), Incubation shaking maceration (ISM), and Ultrasound assisted maceration (UAM). Their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were measured with Folin–Ciocalteu assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay respectively. All methods demonstrated that different parameters such as time of maceration, temperature and sample concentration, play an important role in the fortification process of the refined olive oils. The predicyed bioavailability of the antioxidant and phenolic compounds in the fortified oils was determined with in vitro digestion and ranged from 4.84% to 53.11%. Furthermore, the refined olive oils fortified with pomace, basil, st. john's wort, and pomegranate peel presented the highest antioxidant and phenolic predicted bioavailability indices during the in vitro process compared to the control refined olive oil. Finally, fortification with natural herbs or by-products can be considered an innovative method for the improvement of the nutritional value of refined olive oils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: DSC melting profile; Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA); Artificial neural networks (ANN); Multiple Linear Regression (MLR); MARS; SVM; Food fraud; Oils adulteration
Online: 20 July 2023 (13:56:40 CEST)
Flaxseed oil is one of the best sources of n-3 fatty acids, thus its adulteration with refined oils can lead to a reduction in its nutritional value and overall quality. The purpose of this study was to use the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique to detect adulterations of cold-pressed flaxseed oil with refined rapeseed oil (RP). Based on the melting phase transition curve, parameters such as peak temperature (T), peak height (h), and percentage of area (P) were determined for pure and adulterated flaxseed oils with a RP concentration of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50% (w/w). Significant linear correlations (p ≤ 0.05) between the RP concentration and all DSC parameters were observed, except for h1. In order to assess the usefulness of the DSC technique for detecting adulterations, three chemometric approaches were compared: 1) classification models (Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA Adaptive Regression Splines, MARS, Support Vector Machine, SVM, Artificial Neural Networks, ANNs); 2) regression models (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, MARS, SVM, ANNs, PLS) and 3) a combined model of Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). With the LDA model, the highest accuracy of 99.5% in classifying the samples, followed by ANN> SVM > MARS was achieved. Among the regression models, the ANN model showed the highest correlation between observed and predicted values (R= 0.996), while other models showed goodness of fit as following MARS> SVM> MLR. Comparing OPLS-DA and PLS methods, higher values of R2X(cum) =0.986 and Q2 =0.973 were observed with the PLS model than OPLS-DA. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the DSC technique combined with chemometrics for predicting the adulteration of cold-pressed flaxseed oil with refined rapeseed oil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1410.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: mantle tissue; novel toxin; scallop; small intestine
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:22:45 CEST)
We previously showed that feeding mice a diet containing 1% mantle tissue decreased food consumption, leading to death. We also isolated and identified toxic substances in the mantle tissue. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics and stability of mantle tissue toxicity. Treatment of mantle tissue with 1 mM HCl, 1 mM NaOH, 1 mM dithiothreitol, and 1 mM H2O2 and heating did not reduce the toxicity of mantle tissue in mice. These results suggest that mantle toxins are stable in tissues, particularly when exposed to acidic and digestive enzymes. We examined whether mantle tissue exhibited acute toxicity. Diets containing 1% and 20% mantle extract showed similar levels of toxicity, demonstrating that feeding of mantle tissue does not lead to acute toxicity. Finally, we examined the toxicity of the mantle tissue against small intestinal tissue. Chronic feeding of mantle tissue to mice changed the color of the small intestine. Real-time PCR analysis showed that mantle tissue feeding caused changes of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in the small intestine. These results suggest that feeding of mantle tissue causes toxicity after causing initial damage to the small intestinal tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1313.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Citrus by-products; Pectin extraction; Optimization; Characterization; Response surface methodology; technological properties
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:54:28 CEST)
Citrus peels are considered as a rich source of valuable biomolecules like pectin as polymer of polysaccharide acid. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize pectin extraction from Citrus clementina peels using citric acid as extraction solvent. The effect of parameters conditioning the extraction process and pectin yield (pH, temperature, extraction time, solid/liquid ratio, and raw material particle size) was investigated using a Box-Behnken design. The quality of the extracted pectin was assessed both chemically (moisture, ash, protein, and sugar content) and functionally (gelling power and emulsifying activity). According to the screening experiment, the factors pH, temperature, and particle size were the main factors influencing the pectin yield. The adjusted mathematical model enabled us to plot response surfaces in order to determine optimal extraction conditions. The highest production yield of pectin (26.6%) was obtained at the optimal conditions of: pH = 1.5; temperature 100 °C and particle size = 0.1 mm for an extraction time of 30min. Compared to the predicted value of 26.6%, the experimental extraction yield was about 21.4% of pectin. Concerning the functional properties, the extracted pectin has a high gelling power of 164°SAG and an emulsifying activity of 38.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: rhamnogalacturonans type II (RG-II); mannoproteins (MP); polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose (PRAG); winemaking by-products; volatiles; phenols sensory quality
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:51:40 CEST)
Most authors have investigated the role of mannoproteins on wine quality but very few analyze the use of grape derived polysaccharides as they are not commercially available. Purified grape derived polysaccharides from red wine (WPP) and winemaking by-products (DWRP: Distilled Washing Residues Polysaccharides) were used as potential fining agents to modulate white wine flavour. Phenolics and volatile compounds were analyzed in control and wines treated with WPP, DWRP and commercial mannoproteins (CM) after one and twelve months of bottling, and a sensory analysis was conducted. WPP and DWRP, rich in rhamnogalacturonans-II, showed as good modulators of wine aroma and astringency. Improvement of wine aroma was related to an increase of all volatile families expect higher alcohols and volatile acids. The modulation of astringency and bitterness was related to a reduction in the proanthocyanidin content and its mean degree of polymerization. Extracts with polysaccharides with higher protein contents presented higher retention of volatile compounds, and DWRP extract showed more positive effects on the overall aroma. Our novel results open the possibility of obtaining valuable polysaccharides from distilled washing residues of wine-pomaces, which could promote its valorization as by-product. This is the first time to describe the potential use of this by-product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Germinated brown rice; Cooked rice; Texture; Back extrusion
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:40:13 CEST)
The texture properties of cooked rice are a dominant property which can indicate the eating quality. Evaluation of back extrusion (BE) test precision and sensitivity for cooked germinated brown rice (GBR) texture in production process was investigated in this study. BE test on texture properties of cooked GBR rice show high precision of measurement of hardness, toughness and stickiness tests which indicated by the repeatability and reproductivity test but the sensitivity indicated by coefficient of variation of the texture properties. The findings of the study of the effect of different soaking and aging duration in the production of Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) GBR on cooked GBR texture measured by BE test confirmed the developed protocol for evaluation of high precision and sensitivity of the texture measurement method. Repeatability and reproducibility of reliable measurements have a low standard deviation of the farthest different between replicates, which is considered high precision. High coefficient of variation where the relative wide variation of the absolute value of the property can be detected indicate high sensitivity which even small resolution can be detected or vice versa. But the correlation coefficient among the texture properties by BE were not related to the precision or sensitivity of the test. By these results, the original protocol for determination of precision and sensitivity of food texture measurement was successfully verified as the usable evaluation protocol for GBR texture measurement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Copper; Mercury; Arsenic; Organic Acids; Antibiotic Resistance; Food Safety
Online: 19 July 2023 (03:31:51 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has a significant global impact on human, animal, and environmental health. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics in clinical and animal production settings are the main drivers behind the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. However, other compounds with antimicrobial activity may also contribute to this global public health problem. The aim of this comprehensive review is to provide detailed insights into the impact of metals and organic acids on the emergence and spread of AMR in the food chain, for which their role is not fully understood. The review examines the widespread use of organic acids in the food industry as feed additives or disinfectants, the crucial role of copper in animal growth and the harmful effects of mercury and arsenic as pollutants in food-producing environments. Additionally, it explores the antimicrobial mechanisms of metals and organic acids, the tolerance mechanisms developed by bacteria, and the interplay between genes responsible for metal tolerance and AMR. The comprehensive and integrated data presented highlights the need to further explore and understand the role of metals and organic acids as drivers of AMR to develop well-defined strategies effectively mitigating the AMR crisis within the food chain context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1166.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: dairy products; health benefits; lactobacillus; microorganisms; milk adulteration; nutrients
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:04:53 CEST)
The quality and safety of fermented milk products, which make up a sizeable portion of human nutrition, are greatly influenced by both the milk itself and the starting cultures employed to ferment it. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) create a variety of metabolites throughout the fermentation process, altering the organoleptic properties of the substrates. The final product’s nutritional value and digestibility are enhanced by fermentation of the raw materials, which also adds vitamins, vital amino acids, and fatty acids. The quality and safety of fermented milk products, which make up a sizeable portion of human nutrition, are greatly influenced by both the milk itself and the starting cultures employed to ferment it. The inhibition of the growth of pathogenic microbes, which lowers the likelihood of the emergence of foodborne diseases, is another crucial function of LAB. A variety of pathogenic bacteria are frequently present in raw (unpasteurized) milk, and other raw materials; these pathogenic bacteria should be removed during the fermentation process. As a result, a variety of LAB metabolites, such as hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and bacteriocins, function as bio preservative agents, enhancing food safety and lengthening the shelf life of the finished products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1173.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Challenge test; Listeria monocytogenes; natural ingredients combinations, food safety.
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:31:24 CEST)
In the food industry, Listeria is a standard control microorganism in ready-to-eat food since it may be pathogenic and cause a disease called listeriosis. The objective of the present study was to carry out a challenge test to verify the efficiency of different combinations of natural antimicrobial ingredients, against Listeria monocytogenes, to be used in ready-to-eat foods. Six different formulations of cooked ham were elaborated: a control, and five different formulations. An initial inoculation of 2 log cycles was used in the different products and the growth of Listeria was monitored at different temperatures and times (4° C for 17 w; 7ºC for 12 w). Control samples showed a progressive growth, reaching 5-6 log after 3 or 4 weeks. The rest of samples showed constant counts of Listeria during the all study. Only samples containing: 100 ppm nitrite + 250 PPM ascorbic acid+0,7% PRS DV-5 did not control the growth of Listeria at 7 ° C after 7 w of storage. The results obtained allowed to classified the cooked ham elaborated using any natural ingredients combinations as a “Ready-to-eat food unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes other than those intended for infants and for special medical purposes”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1122.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: resistant maltodextrin; pasteurized orange juice; sensory evaluation; physico-chemical properties; volatile aroma compounds
Online: 17 July 2023 (13:27:05 CEST)
Although the beneficial health effects of prebiotics have been demonstrated in numerous research papers, its incorporation into daily food remains unfamiliar to consumers. This work evaluates the resistant maltodextrin (RMD) addition in the sensory attributes of pasteurized orange juice, together with the physico-chemical properties and the aromatic profile. RMD addition moderately improved almost all sensory attributes evaluated by panellists. It also proportionally increased °Brix together with density and decreased acidity. Colour changes were registered with higher RMD concentrations. Orange pulp presence affected the volume particle size distribution analysis while RMD addition did not exercised any effect. The aroma volatile compounds were also analysed. Pulp-added samples marked higher alcohol and aldehydes quantity, whereas pulp-free samples registered higher terpenes and terpenoids values. Ketones and acids were also quantified. RMD had a moderate impact on volatile compounds quantifications, playing the orange pulp presence a much more decisive role. A correlation analysis was also performed to relate instrumental and sensorial determinations for all samples. This work proves that the addition of RMD to orange juice is technologically feasible while also achieving a good response at the sensory level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: isoflavones; soymilk; β-glucosidase; probiotics; gastrointestinal digestion in vitro
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:58:03 CEST)
Soy isoflavones are considered important sources of bioactive compounds, but they are poorly absorbable, due to their large hydrophilic structures. Some biotransformation strategies have been used to convert the glycosidic form into aglycones, making them available for absorption. This study evaluated the potential of enzymatic and/or microbial fermentation bioprocesses in soymilk extract before and after gastrointestinal in vitro digestion. Commercial β-glucosidase and mix of commercial probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum e B. lactis were used to biotransform soymilk extract. Isoflavone profile was quantified by HPLC-DAD, total phenolic content by Folin–Ciocalteu test, and antioxidant capacity by ORAC and FRAP. Soymilk enzymatically treated (ET) followed by microbial fermentation (ET+F) resulted in the conversion of glycosylated isoflavones (6-fold lower than control for daidzin and 2-fold for genistin) to aglycones (18-fold greater than control for dadzein and genistein), besides to increase the total phenolic content (3.48 for control and 4.48 mg/ml ET+F) and to improve antioxidant capacity represented by the ORAC (120 for control and 151 mg/ml ET+F) and by the FRAP (285 for control and 317 µl/ml for ET+F) before in vitro digestion. Further, the digested ET+F samples resulted a higher content of genistein (2-fold higher than control) also an increase in the total phenolic content (2.81 for control and 4.03 mg/ml for ET+F) and antioxidant capacity by ORAC were greater compared to undigested samples. In addition, the microbial fermentation process isolated also resulted in the positive effects, but de combination of ET followed by F presented a synergistic effect, suggesting the greater potential for both bioprocesses to contribute to functional and nutritional properties on fermented soy-based products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Thawing methods; Frozen pork; Moisture distribution; Water holding capacity; Microstructure
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:39:05 CEST)
The effect of seven different thawing methods (atmospheric temperature thawing (AT), microwave thawing (MT), microwave magnetic nanoparticles thawing (MMT), microwave vacuum thawing (MVT), far-infrared thawing (FT), far-infrared magnetic nanoparticles thawing (FMT) and far-infrared ultrasonic thawing (FUT)) on water mobility and microstructure of frozen pork was examined. The results showed that the thawing loss, cooking loss, and centrifugal loss of MVT treatment were lower than those of other thawing methods. The results of LF-NMR and NMRI showed that in MVT and FUT treatment, the proportion of bound water and non-flowing water increased, while the proportion of free water decreased. The microstructure was significantly improved by microwave or far-infrared thawing assisted by magnetic nanoparticles, and the frozen pork samples had a more compact and granular microstructure. In summary, MVT and FUT improved the quality of thawed meat and have broad potential applications in thawing meat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1018.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: edible insects; insect-based food; market avilability; alternative protein; Poland; insect powders
Online: 17 July 2023 (07:28:08 CEST)
In Poland, there has recently been a lot of interest in the possible use of insects as a new food source. Since they have many nutritional and environmental advantages, insects are a promising and sustainable source of protein. Although, in many parts of the world insects are a highly valued food, in Poland the development of insect-based food has only recently started, and the availability of products on the market is constantly increasing. This study examines the market availability of food products with insect additives in Poland, considering both online and sta-tionary stores. The assortment of products was analyzed based on the country of origin, insect species, form of insects, and product category. Polish consumers have more access to in-sect-based food products than ever before, with whole insects, protein bars, and powdered ver-sions predominating the market's offers..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0964.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: sour beer; craft brewing; STA1 gene; dextrin; hybrid; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces uvarum; Pichia membranifaciens
Online: 14 July 2023 (13:26:32 CEST)
The increasing demand for craft beer drives the search for novel ale yeast cultures from brew-ing-related wild environments. The focus of bioprospecting for craft cultures is to identify feral yeasts suitable to imprint unique sensorial attributes to the final product. Here, we integrated phylogenetic, genotypic, genetic, and metabolomic techniques to demonstrate that sour beer during aging in wooden barrel is a source of suitable craft ale yeast candidates. Differently from traditional lambic beer maturation phase, during aging of sour-matured production style beer, different biotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated the cultivable in-house mycobiota, fol-lowed by Pichia membranifaciens, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces anomalus. In addi-tion, three putative S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum hybrids were identified. S. cerevisiae feral strains sporulated, produced viable monosporic progenies, and have STA1 gene as well as the full-length promoter. During hopped wort fermentation four S. cerevisiae strains and the S. cere-visiae x S. uvarum hybrid WY213 overcame non-Saccharomyces strains in fermentative rate and ethanol production, except for P. membranifaciens WY122. This strain consumed maltose after a long lag phase, in contrast with the phenotypic profile descripted for the species. According to STA1+ genotype S. cerevisiae partially consumed dextrin, but no 4-vynil guaiacol was detected among VOCs, suggesting that these strains were phenolic off flavor-negative (POF-). In conclu-sion, the strains characterized here have relevant brewing properties and are exploitable as in-digenous craft beer starters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: biocultural conservation; expectation theory; extrinsic cues; food neophobia; sustainable extractivism; wild food plants
Online: 14 July 2023 (10:29:25 CEST)
Despite the global richness of food plants, only a small portion is used as food for humans. Although most wild food plants (WFPs) are underutilized as food, they can contribute to food security and biocultural conservation through sustainable management. The goal of this research was to identify the best terminological presentation of a novel food product and to understand the influences of the expectations on products with WFP. This research was conducted using an online questionnaire with a final national sample of 724 people. The participants answered questions about their socioeconomic profile, food neophobia, prior knowledge, and expectations regarding the taste and appropriateness of native fruit juices. The questions were randomized so that a person would not receive the same picture or product name more than once. The results show that taste expectancy decreases in relation to products associated with WFP names and forest environments. Food neophobia is the variable that influences expectations the most. To ensure biocultural conservation and cultural valuation, WFP popularization programs should maintain the original (popular) name of the species. However, to help more distant consumers develop familiarity, the flavor, shape, color, or texture of these products can be associated with those of conventional plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1006.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Citrus limetta Risso; Citrus limetta; Citrus sinensis; Citrus reticulate; essential oil
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:44:58 CEST)
The revaluation of agri-food waste to provide consumers with bioactive compounds for a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is growing exponentially in society. In the present work, the chemical and physical properties of essential oils (EO) extracted from the peels of four citrus fruits grown and commercialized in Amazonas, Peru: lime (Citrus limetta Risso), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta sp.), mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and orange (Citrus sinensis) were determined. The essential oils were extracted using green solvent and then their antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging technique; the total phenolic content using Folin Ciocalteu's reagent. Total flavonoids, refractive index, density, specific heat capacity, Ramam mapping and main phenolic compounds were also determined by liquid chromatography (UHPLC-DAD). It was found that lime and mandarin essential oils had higher antioxidant capacity (1592.38 and 1216.13 μmol TE/g) and higher total phenolic content (680.78 and 420.28 mg AGE/g); while sweet lemon peel essential oil had higher total flavonoid content (23.18 mg QE/g). Given their characteristics, these essential oils have a high potential for use in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0904.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry; melting profile; storage analysis; plant oils; stability; authenticity
Online: 13 July 2023 (10:48:00 CEST)
An approach of implementing X-bar and R control charts as a statistical control tool to monitor changes in the melting profile of fresh and stored flaxseed oils by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used. Phase transition melting profiles were collected after 0, 2, 4, 6 months of storing flaxseed oils, originated from five different cultivars. Four peaks at around -36, -30, -25, -12 °C were identified using the deconvolution analysis procedure, which enabled data to be collected on peak temperature (T), peak height (h) and the peak area (A), as well as the ratio calculated from these parameters. Control charts of DSC parameters, linked to the second peak (h2, A2) and calculated ratios of those parameters showed an increasing or decreasing trend within the storage time, thus were considered to be indicators of oil deterioration. Since DSC parameters related to the first peak (h1, A1) and third peak (h3, A3) remained unchanged within storage, they were established as the markers of flaxseed oil authenticity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0741.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermented foods; Antibiotic-resistant bacteria; Antibiotic-resistant genes
Online: 12 July 2023 (09:30:13 CEST)
Fermented food products are widely consumed for their nutritional and health-promoting properties earning them a central place in diets around the globe. However, these foods can present a paradox, as they have the potential to harbor not only beneficial probiotics but also antibiotic-resistant (AR) microbes and genes. The impact of AR in fermented foods has far-reached implications, such as its potential effects on human health, repercussions in the food industry, and environmental consequences. An in-depth analysis of AR in fermented foods, including dairy products, fermented fruits and vegetables, meat products, and beverages, would provide insights into the extent and ramifications of the issue with these foods. Therefore, this review systematically presents the status of AR in fermented foods, with a particular focus on AR bacteria and genes within this category of food products. The review also highlights the complexities of AR in fermented foods, emphasizing the role of bacterial adaptation during the fermentation process and the dynamics of bacterial gene transfer. Various contributing factors to AR are brought into focus, including intrinsic resistance among bacteria in fermented foods and the potential risk of contamination with pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, this review presents a range of mitigation strategies, from the development of novel antimicrobials to advances in fermentation technology and regulatory control. This comprehensive perspective on the intricate interplay between AR and fermented food will potentially pave the way for more targeted research and mitigation strategies in this critical area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0617.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermented beverages; type 2 diabetes; postprandial hyperglycemia; carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; Rice
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:02:32 CEST)
Background: The therapeutic benefits of fermented foods in the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus have been reported. Aim: Inhibitory effect of fermented rice beverages on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Method: Two fermented rice beverages-fermented rice alone (FKR) and fermented rice plus roasted peanuts (FKRG) were produced using spontaneous fermentation. Capacity of the beverages to inhibit al-pha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase and pancreatic lipase in vitro was evaluated and compared with standards (positive controls). Results: FKR exerted inhibition of α-glucosidase between 9.23-21.11% and FKRG 1.11-17.36% at the various concentrations respectively, with both samples showing the most significant inhibition (about 20%) at 125 μg/mL. FKRG exhibited greater alpha-amylase inhibition activity than FKR, but for both samples, the most significant (P < 0.05) inhibition occurred at 500 μg/mL. With pancreatic lipase, no significant inhibition was observed for both FKR and FKRG at the tested concentrations compared to Orlistat used as control; how-ever, at 31.25 μg /mL FKRG showed an inhibitory effect of approximately 15%, which was not evident at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Low to moderate inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by both FKR and FKRG, showed that the fermented rice beverages have potential to modulate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes in vitro. This is an indi-cation that fermented rice beverage could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0611.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: pulses; antioxidant capacity; prediction; thermal processing; flour; Bayesian model; cereals; support vector machines (SVR)
Online: 11 July 2023 (02:52:17 CEST)
During the last years, the increasing evidence of dietary antioxidant compounds and reducing chronic diseases and the relationship between diet and health have promoted an important innovation on the baked product sector, aiming at healthier formulations. This study aims to develop a tool based on mathematical models to predict baked goods total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The high variability of antioxidant properties of flours based on the aspects related to type of grains, varieties, proximal composition and processing, among others, makes very difficult to innovate on food product development without specific analysis. Using Total phenol content (TP), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) as proxies of antioxidant capacity. Three Bayesian-type models are proposed based on a double exponential parameterised curve that reflects the initial decrease and subsequent increase as a consequence of the observed processes of degradation and generation, respectively, of the antioxidant compounds. Once the values of the main parameters of each curve have been determined, support vector machines (SVR) with exponential kernel were used to predict, based on the temperature and duration of baking as well as the values of proteins and fibers of each native grain, the values of TAC during the baking time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: eating jetlag; eating window; dietary fibers; melatonin-containing foods; chronotype; social jetlag; sleep duration; light sleep phase; deep sleep phase; REM sleep phase
Online: 10 July 2023 (14:45:33 CEST)
The study examined eating timing, diet, and the ratio of sleep phases in people with social jetlag (SJL). The study involved 83 participants who filled out a questionnaire, and 21 of them took part in the study of sleep phases by electroencephalography during the week. SJL was associated with a higher incidence rate of eating jetlag, eating phase delays, an increase in calorie intake after 9 p.m., a decrease in dietary fiber intake for breakfast, and melatonin-containing product consumption for dinner. Young people with SJL had a reduction in total sleep and light sleep phase duration by 60 and 36 min on work/school days and an increase in total sleep and REM sleep phase duration by 66 and 60 min on weekends, respectively. Young people consuming foods with more than 4234.5 ng of melatonin for dinner, compared with their peers consuming less than 313.2 ng of melatonin, showed a decrease in SJL and sleep debt by 54 and 90 min and an increase in the total sleep and the deep sleep phase duration by 66 and 30 min, respectively. Thus, the consumption of melatonin-containing foods for dinner is associated with a decrease in circadian misalignment and a sleep quality improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0360.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Salvia hispanica L; physical properties; seed composition; amino acid profile; fatty acid profile; mineral composition; phytic acid
Online: 10 July 2023 (14:17:41 CEST)
In the last decades, cultivation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has expanded around the world and the seeds have become well known due to their rich composition in nutrients and bioactive compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical, chemical and nutritional profile of eight chia seeds grown in different Latin-American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay and Peru). The results showed that several nutritional parameters such as the protein content and amino acid profile, dietary fiber content, lipid content, mineral composition and phytate present in the seeds depend on the location they were grown in. Other parameters such as ash content, fatty acid profile or physical parameters were uniform across locations (except for color parameters). The results support the notion that nutritional characteristics of seeds are determined by the seed's origin, further analysis is needed to define the exact mechanisms that control the changes in the seeds nutritional properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0536.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Active food packaging; Biopolymer; Viola odorata; Natural preservative
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:37:36 CEST)
In this research, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of active films based on potato starch containing Viola odorata extract (VOE) were investigated both in vitro and in chicken fillets. The VOE was added to the starch film formulation at 0, 1, 2, and 3% (w/v). The results showed that by increasing the extract level, the total phenol content and antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium improved remarkability. The results of meat tests indicated significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of active films containing different levels of VOE in chicken fillets, and a direct relationship was observed between the concentration of the extract and the functional activity of the films, so with the increase in the concentration of the extract in the films, the rate of lipid oxidation and growth of microorganisms in chicken fillets decreased significantly during the storage period, and less volatile nitrogen bases, metmyoglobin, and oxidation products were produced in the fillets. In general, the results of this research demonstrated that active film based on potato starch containing VOE (especially 2 and 3% levels) has the ability to extend the oxidative and microbiological shelf life of chicken fillets during cold storage for at least eight days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0588.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Phaeodactylum tricornutum; Spirulina platensis; Salt stress; Phenolics; Antioxidant capacity; in vitro digestion
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:00:46 CEST)
Microalgae have gained attention as alternative food sources due to their nutritional value and biological effects. This study investigated the effect of salt stress on the antioxidant activity, phenolic profile, bioa-vailability of bioactive compounds, and microbial counts in the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis and di-atom species Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Culturing these microalgae in different salt concentrations (15 35‰), we observed the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in the control groups. S. platensis (20‰) exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to P. tricornutum (30‰), which decreased with in-creasing salt stress. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, we identified and quantified 20 phenolic compounds in P. tricornutum and 24 in S. platensis. The bioavailability of these compounds was assessed through in vitro di-gestion, with the highest amounts observed in the intestinal phase. Salt stress negatively affected the syn-thesis of bioactive substances. Microbial counts ranged from 300 to 2.78x104 cfu/g for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and from 10 to 1.35x104cfu/g for yeast/mold in P. tricornutum samples, while S. platensis samples ranged from 300 to 1.9x104cfu/g and 10 to 104 cfu/g, respectively. This study suggests that adding salt at different ratios to the nutrient media during the production of P. tricornutum and S. platensis can impact phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, microbial load evaluation, and in vitro bioaccessibility of the studied microalgae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0453.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: postprandial bioactivity; polyphenols; functional olive oil; orange peel extract; cardiometabolic risk
Online: 7 July 2023 (03:55:50 CEST)
Olive oil, as the main source of polyphenols in the Mediterranean diet pattern, is mentioned to show remarkable postprandial bioactivity, contributing to the reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors. In recent years, the consumption of refined olive oil, instead of other olive oil classes, led to a reduced intake of polyphenols from the usual diet. This controlled, human nutritional intervention inves-tigated whether the enhancement of refined olive oil with orange peel extract may modulate postprandial lipemia, glycemia and oxidative stress, in individuals at cardiometabolic risk. In a cross-over framework, 21 participants aged 30-65 years, who met the eligibility criteria, received a fat and carbohydrated meal of mashed potatoes, homogenized with refined olive oil (50 mL) or the functional olive oil, enhanced with 10% orange peel extract, intervening a washout week. Blood draws were performed in fasting, 30min, 1.5h and 3h after the meal intake. Plasma lipids, glucose, uric acid and total plasma antioxidant capacity according to FRAP method, were measured at each timepoint. A significant reduction of LDL-cholesterol was observed, 1.5 h and 3 h after the func-tional meal intake, compared to non-significant changes after the control meal (p <0.05). No other statistically significant interactions were detected to the remaining biomarkers (p> 0.05). Further investigation is needed for safer conclusions about the postprandial modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors, by the functional olive oil, enhanced with orange peel extract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: phytochemicals; seaweed; seagrass; Kappaphycus; Cymodocea; antimicroboal; phenolic; GC‒MS; radical scavenging
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:12:49 CEST)
The present work was performed to evaluate the levels of phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of marine red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and seagrass (Cymodocea serrulata). Quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against 5 potential pathogenic bacteria was investigated. In both cases were found presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates and ashes. Alkaloids were only found in K. alvarezii, buy not in C. serrulata. The antimicrobial properties of both K. alvarezii and C. serrulata chloroform extracts were found to be antagonis-tically effective against the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Klebsiella pneu-moniae. GC‒MS analysis revealed the presence of 94 bioactive compounds in K. alvarezii and 104 C. serrulata, including phenol, decane, dodecane, hexadecane, vanillin, heptadecane, diphenyla-mine, benzophenone, octadecanoic acid, dotriaconate, benzene, phytol, butanoic acid, and 2-hydroxyl-ethyl ether, which played a vital role in antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Thus, in view of the results, both K. alvarezii and C. serrulata could be considered as sources of ingre-dients with appreciable nutritional and medicinal value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0019.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermentation; vitamins; minerals; bioactive compounds; prebiotics; conjugated fatty acids
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:27:55 CEST)
Microorganisms present in fermented foods and beverages play a vital role in enhancing both nutritive and non-nutritive components. During the fermentation, microorganisms can either naturally occur in the food through spontaneous fermentation or be intentionally added as starter cultures with a variety of species and strains. In this review, the focus is placed on micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, and three major macromolecules – prebiotics, bioactive peptides, and functional fatty acids. During fermentation, non-digestible carbohydrates like fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides are synthesized, imparting prebiotic properties that support gut health. Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins by microorganisms yields bioactive peptides with diverse health benefits. Furthermore, fermentation facilitates the formation of fatty acids, including short-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid, potentially exerting physiological effects. By harnessing the power of microbial fermentation, nutrient-rich and bioactive compounds can be enhanced, offering a promising approach to address global malnutrition concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2267.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Metabolomics; Cheese seasonality; Pecorino Romano PDO; Conjugated linoleic acids; Omega-3; Fatty acid; Mineral; Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis; Linear Discriminant Analysis; Cross validation
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:57:36 CEST)
The seasonal variation in fatty acids and minerals concentrations was investigated through the analysis of Pecorino Romano cheese samples collected in January, April, and June. A fraction of samples contained missing values in their fatty acid profile. Probabilistic Principal component analysis coupled with Linear Discriminant Analysis was employed to classify cheese samples on a production season basis while accounting for missing data and quantifying the missing Fatty acids concentration for the sample in which they were absent. The levels of rumenic acid, vac-cenic acid and omega-3 compounds were positively correlated with the spring season, while the length of the saturated fatty acids increased throughout the production seasons. Concerning the classification performances, the optimal number of principal components (i.e., 5) achieved an ac-curacy in cross-validation equal to 98 %. Then, when the model was tasked to impute the lacking Fatty acid concentration values, the optimal number of principal components resulted in an R2 value in cross-validation of 99.53%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Bionanocomposite; Sago starch, TiO2; Penganum harmala; Chicken meat; Antimicrobila activity
Online: 28 June 2023 (12:26:09 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop sago starch-based bionanocomposite films containing TiO2 nanoparticles and Penganum harmala extract (PE) to increase the shelf life of chicken fillets. First, sago starch films containing different levels of TiO2 nanoparticles (1, 3 and 5%) and PE (5, 10 and 15%) were prepared, and the thickness, barrier properties, and antibacterial activity of the films. Then, the produced films were used for the chicken fillets packaging and the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of samples were examined during 12-day storage at 4°C. The results showed that the addition of the combination of nanoparticles and extract and increasing their levels in the films increased the antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results also demonstrated that during the storage period, the pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and the number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts in fillets increased (p<0.05). However, coating the fillets with bionanocomposites can significantly reduce the rate of change in chemical properties and microbial growth of the samples. This sample increased the shelf life of the fillets by at least 8 days compared to the control sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1891.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aloe Vera; Milkshakes; Functional Foods
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:22:30 CEST)
Advanced food processing techniques have drastic effects on the food, mainly on the nutritional profile; furthermore, the sedentary lifestyle led by people makes the body starve for nutrients and has a negative impact on proper growth and health. Addressing those major issues, various organic and functional foods have been widely recognised in recent times. The current work intends to prepare and evaluate a functional food made out of Aloe Vera. The health claims of Aloe Vera were uncountable. From the organoleptic profiling of the milk shake up to the 5% addition of Aloe Vera, all the sensory parameters were more satisfying. Incorporating Aloe Vera in the milkshake will be an innovative novel food product while enhancing the functional properties of Aloe Vera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1904.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Bacteriophages; Shiga-toxigenic E. coli; biocontrol; biofilms; food-contact surfaces
Online: 27 June 2023 (12:36:36 CEST)
(1) Background: Formation of biofilms on food-contact surfaces by Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) can pose a significant challenge to the food industry, making conventional control-methods insufficient. Targeted use of bacteriophages to disrupt these biofilms could reduce this problem. Previously isolated and characterized bacteriophages (n=52) were evaluated against STEC biofilms in-vitro and on food-contact surfaces. (2) Methods: Phage-treatments (9 logs PFU/ml), in phosphate-buffered-saline, were used individually or as cocktails. Biofilms of STEC (O157, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were formed in 96-well micro-titer plates (7 logs CFU/ml; 24 h) or on stainless-steel (SS) and high-density-polyethylene (HDPE) coupons (9 logs CFU/cm2; 7 h), followed by phage-treatment. Biofilm-disruption was measured in-vitro at 0, 3, and 6 h as a change in optical-density (A595). Coupons were treated with STEC-serotype-specific phage-cocktails or a 21-phage cocktail (3 phages/serotype) for 0, 3, 6 and 16 h and surviving STEC populations enumerated. (3) Results: Of the 52 pages, 77% showed STEC-biofilm disruption in-vitro. Serotype-specific phage-treatments reduced pathogen population within the biofilms by 1.9-4.1 and 2.3-5.6 logs CFU/cm2, while the 21-pahge cocktail reduced it by 4.0 and 4.8 logs CFU/cm2 on SS and HDPE, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Bacteriophages can be used to reduce STEC and their biofilms.