HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1962.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: methotrexate (MTX); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); cytokeratin -18 ( CK -18)
Online: 29 May 2023 (08:56:15 CEST)
Background: CK-18 is a serological marker of apoptosis that has been widely associated with fibrosis and steatosis in NASH. Many studies have showed association CK-18 levels with NAFLD. To date, there is a profound lack of rheumatology studies on the effect of MTX therapy with regard to CK-18 levels. The relationship between CK-18 levels and cumulative MTX dose, MTX treatment duration, weekly MTX dose is not available in the literature. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) and cumulative methotrexate dose in rheumatology patients on methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Besides, we studied the correlations between CK-18 and clinical parameters including age, disease duration , duration of MTX therapy, cumulative steroid dose and biochemical parameters such as alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase AST). Methods : We recruited 79 rheumatology patients on methotrexate (MTX) therapy as MTX group and 38 patients not on MTX therapy as non-MTX group . All subjects were tested for their serum CK-18 levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. We identified 20 patients with the highest CK-18 levels and 20 patients with the lowest CK-18 levels and had ultrasound liver performed on them. Results : The median serum CK-18 levels were marginally higher among the patients on MTX (1.20 ng/mL [0.19-37.15]) compared to the non-MTX group (1.17 ng/mL [0.37-34.32]). There was a significantly positive relationship between serum CK-18 levels and cumulative MTX dose (r = 0.329, p = 0.003) and total duration of MTX therapy (r = 0.284, p = 0.011). Apart from the above-mentioned variables, the CK-18 levels in MTX group significantly correlated with age (r = 0.265, p = 0.018), ALT (r = 0.440, p = <0.001) and AST (r = 0.478, p= 0.004). Ultrasound liver findings showed median CK-18 levels was higher among patients with abnormal liver findings although statistical significance was not reached. Conclusion : Among patients on MTX therapy, serum CK-18 levels correlated positively with cumulative MTX dose , total duration of MTX treatment , ALT and AST levels. These findings are preliminary and requires validation by future studies in the field of rheumatology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1835.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccines; breakthrough infection; hybrid immunity; SARS-CoV-2 antibody
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:05:24 CEST)
More than 3 years have passed since the emergence of COVID-19. On May 8, 2023, COVID-19 in Japan was downgraded to Category 5 by the Infectious Disease Control Law. In Japan, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, cases of infection and deaths from severe disease were few compared with those of Western countries. However, in the medical field, screening for COVID-19 was given top priority, resulting in confusion and proving disadvantageous for many patients, also the overreaction to COVID-19 as the most important issue in society can be attributed largely to statements by infectious disease experts. In addition, the mRNA vaccine emerged in 2021, and most of the population was vaccinated up to two times within a short period of less than 1 year because infectious disease experts strongly promoted vaccination. After 2022, when vaccination progressed, and the Omicron strain, which is an attenuated strain, became the mainstay of the SARS-CoV-2, the number of severe cases of COVID-19 decreased significantly; however, the number of infected people increased dramatically instead. A significant portion of the population is thought to have hybrid immunity due to vaccination plus natural infection and maintains high antibody titers. Henceforth, additional vaccination should be given preferentially to those who will benefit most from it. Conversely, measures against COVID-19 caused serious damage to the economy and society. Policies that not only address countermeasures against infection, but also those that encompass the economy and society as a whole are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1753.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Chronic pain; Medical Devices; Neuromodulation; Clinical trials; Bayesian
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:27:31 CEST)
Chronic non-cancer pain is a highly debilitating condition affecting approximately 20% of the global population. Chronic pain may lead to significant physical disability, emotional distress, social isolation and financial burden. Whilst. pharmacological therapies remain the cornerstone of pain management in non-cancerous chronic pain, factors including the current opioid epidemic have led to non-pharmacological techniques becoming a more attractive proposition. We explored the prevalence of medical device use and their treatment efficacy in non-cancer pain management. A systematic methodology was developed, peer reviewed and published in PROSPERO (CRD42021235384). Key words of medical device, pain management devices, chronic pain, lower back pain, back pain, leg pain and chronic pelvic pain using Science direct, PubMed, Web of Science, PROSPERO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PorQuest and ClinicalTrials.gov. All clinical trials, epidemiology and mixed methods studies that reported the use of medical devices for non-cancer chronic pain management published between the 1st of January 1990 and the 30th of April 2022 were included. 13 studies were included in systematic review, of these 6 were used in the meta-analysis with 173 participants. Our meta-analysis for pain reduction in each study showed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization treatment and pulsed electromagnetic therapy produced significant treatment on chronic lower back pain patients. Pooled evidence revealed the use of medical device related interventions resulted in 0.7 degree of pain reduction under a 0-10 scale. Significant improvement in disability scores, with a 7.44 degree reduction in disability level compared to a placebo using a 50 score range was also seen. The application of medical devices in patients with chronic pain has gained popularity due to increasingly cost effective techniques, minimally invasiveness and greater awareness of risks associated with pharmacological management. Our analysis has shown that the optimal use of medical devices in a sustainable manner requires further extensive research, needing larger cohort studies with greater gender parity, in a more diverse range of geographical locations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1557.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Meta-analysis; heterogeneity; reviewer; checklist
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:09:07 CEST)
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become an important way to summarize data. The hierarchy of evidence-based medicine confers a high platform to meta-analyses. Hence, it is imperative that the analytical and reporting strategy associated with a meta-analysis be standardized. The modern tradition of reporting and publishing a meta-analysis is riddled with several methodological flaws. The most common of these flaws involve the choice of the model used to conduct the meta-analysis and the way that the heterogeneity of studies is assessed. The use of the I2 statistic as a means of detecting within-study heterogeneity is a common methodological flaw encountered in reporting summary statistics.One of the ways to rectify the above flaws is to arm reviewers with an objective way to scrutinize the manuscript. This narrative review enlists six checklists for reviewers to improve the reporting of meta-analyses. The first two checklists address reporting of the risk of bias and assessment of publication bias with the help of a funnel plot. Checklists 3, 4, and 5 address the choice of model selected for the meta-analysis, the method to assess the confidence interval, and the measures of heterogeneity. The final checklist addresses the question asked in the meta-analysis, binary versus an effect size estimate. Although there are many more aspects which can help improve the assessment of a manuscript, these basic checklists can be employed by reviewers without the need for an external statistical analysis to enhance and improve meta-analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0896.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: fibroscan, liver fibrosis, systemic sclerosis
Online: 25 April 2023 (07:14:28 CEST)
Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare, multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized by widespread inflammation, vascular abnormalities, and both skin and visceral organ fibrosis. Tissue fibrosis is the final phase of a complex biological process of immune activation and vascular damage. Objectives The aim of study was to assess hepatic fibrosis and steatosis in SSc patients by transient elastography (TE). Methods Fifty-nine SSc patients, satisfying the 2013 ACR/EULAR classification criteria, were recruited. Clinical and laboratory findings, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS), ac-tivity index, video-capillaroscopy, echocardiography, and lung function data were ana-lyzed. Liver stiffness (LS) was measured by transient elastography (TE), with 7 kPa used as the cut-off value for significant liver fibrosis and steatosis. Specifically, values ≥ 238 CAP ≤ 259 dB/m were considered consistent with mild steatosis (S1), 260 ≥ CAP ≤ 290 dB/m with moderate steatosis (S2) and ≥291 dB/m with severe steatosis (S3) Results The median age of patients was 51 years, with a median disease duration of 6 years. Median LS was 4.5 (2.9–8.3) kPa; 41 patients (69.5%) had no evidence of fibrosis (F=0), 16 (27.1%) displayed LS values between 5.2 and 7 kPa; only 2 patients (3.4%) had LS values >7 kPa (F3). The median CAP value for liver steatosis was 223 dB/m (IQR: 164–343). Overall, 39 patients (66.1%) did not show evidence of steatosis (CAP values <238 dB/m); 9 patients (15.2%) showed values consistent with mild (S1) steatosis (CAP value ≥238 ≤259 dB/m); 8 patients (13.5%) had moderate (S2) steatosis (CAP value ≥260 ≤290 dB/m); 3 patients (5.1%) were deemed to have severe steatosis (S3) due to CAP values ≥291 dB/m. Conclusions Only 3.4% of our patient population showed evidence of marked liver fibrosis, which is the same prevalence as that expected in the general population. Likewise, the prevalence of significant steatosis was low (5.1%) and depending on the same variables associated with fatty liver in the general population. TE was shown to be an easy and valuable method for detection and screening of liver fibrosis in SSc patients with no additional risk factors for liver disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: SGLT-2 Inhibitors; Inflammasome; NLRP3; reno-protective effects; Cardio-protective effects; neuro-protective effects.
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:33:39 CEST)
Nucleotide-binding domain like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the kidney and the heart is increasingly being suggested to play a key role in mediating inflammation. In the kidney, NLRP3 activation has been associated with the progression of diabetic kidney disease. In the heart, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has been related to enhanced release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the subsequent induction of atherosclerosis and heart failure. Apart from their glucose-lowering effects, SGLT-2 Inhibitors have been documented to attenuate activation of the NLRP3, thus, resulting in the constellation of an anti-inflammatory milieu. In this review, we will focus on the interplay between SGLT-2 Inhibitors and the inflammasome in the kidney, the heart and the neurons in the context of diabetes mellitus and its complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0298.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; anticoagulation; enoxaparin; bleeding risk; prognosis; oxygen; vaccination; D-dimer; non-critically ill
Online: 13 April 2023 (05:32:20 CEST)
Abstract: This is a retrospective study of patients admitted to Jackson Hospital, Montgomery, Alabama with a diagnosis of COVID-19 from January 1, 2021, to February 15, 2022. The independent variable used in the models were patient sex, age, race, BMI category, daily D-dimer categories, categories of anticoagulation doses (Enoxaparin 40 mg VS. Enoxaparin 80 mg VS Enoxaparin 1mg/kg or equivalent), bleeding episodes, and vaccination status. The three different categories of anticoagulation doses were considered for the purpose of the study. Results: The study reviewed a total of one hundred (100) hospitalized patients. Intermediate-dose anticoagulation was found to be the optimal dose as only fourteen percent (14%) patients died compared to a thirty-six percent (36%) and fifty percent (57%) death rate among those treated with low-dose and high-dose anticoagulation, respectively. The multivariate linear regression model predicting patient oxygen requirements revealed D-Dimer and bleeding status to be statistically significant predictors with a p value of <0.01. For the patients who had a D-dimer value ≥ 2 µg/mL, the oxygenation requirement was predicted to be 31 L higher than those with a D-dimer <2 µg/mL (99% CI; p<0.01). When mean D-dimer and corresponding oxygen requirements were calculated per hospitalization days category, the D-dimer levels and oxygen requirements were noted to follow the same trends indicating both values tended to increase and decrease simultaneously. Conclusion: The study concludes daily D-dimer trends can predict COVID-19 patient survival or daily oxygen requirements indicating D-dimer can be the miracle molecule for COVID-19 prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: NLP; NLU; Twitter; Sentiment Analysis; Opinion Mining; Nigeria; Election; Machine Learning; BERT; LSTM; SVM
Online: 20 March 2023 (02:52:52 CET)
Election outcomes have been predicted in the past with the help of various state-of-the-art language models. Sentiment analysis helps in establishing the opinions of the public about a particular subject, a popular experiment known as opinion mining. Twitter has grown in popularity and proven to be a key tool in mining people’s sentiments concerning election and other trending subjects of interest. The outcome of the just concluded Presidential election in Nigeria shifts the focus on Lagos State governorship election. In this study, we propose a Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model for the sentiment analysis of governorship election in Lagos State Nigeria using Twitter data. A total of 800,000 personal and public tweets were scraped from twitter concerning the three prominent contesting candidates using carefully selected search queries. The tweets were preprocessed to avoid noise and inconsistencies. The preprocessed tweets were passed into the pretrained and finetuned BERT model. The result was analyzed to establish the sentiments of the public about the candidates. The social networks of the candidates were also analyzed. The parameter-tuning yield different results with different learning rates (LR). Results showed that the learning rate at 1e-7 gave the best performance and that the smaller the learning rate, the higher the accuracy but the larger the epoch size, the higher the accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Keywords: Hypertension; Avocado leaves; Blood pressure; seniors
Online: 26 October 2022 (02:13:28 CEST)
Background: Hypertension is a condition of a person's blood pressure being at a level above normal, hypertension treatment can be done herbally using avocado leaves. Avocado leaves can lower blood pressure because they contain active substances, namely flavonoids and quercetin. This research was conducted in the working area of the Tilango Health Center. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of giving boiled water of avocado leaves on reducing blood pressure in the elderly with hypertension. Methods: Design This study used a two-group quasi-experimental pre-test - post-test design. The sample is the elderly who have hypertension, amounting to 125 people with purposive sampling technique. The research instrument used a questionnaire. Results: Statistical test using T-Test on blood pressure before and after the intervention was given a significance value of 0.000 (p-value < 0.05 ). Conclusion : This study concludes that there is a significant effect between giving avocado leaf boiled water on reducing blood pressure in the elderly with hypertension in the working area of the Tilango Health Center.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0460.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: adherence; COVID-19; arterial hypertension; health services
Online: 26 August 2022 (11:37:35 CEST)
Access to health services compromises therapeutic adherence in patients with HTN, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The aim of the research is to determine the influence of access to health services on adherence to antihypertensive treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. We included a cross-sectional analytical study. A survey was applied to 241 hypertensive patients at the Daniel Alcides Carrión Hospital, Callao-Peru. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Absolute and relative frequencies were reported and the chi-square test was applied with a statistical significance level of p<0.05. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using the Stepwise method. An association was found between non-adherence to treatment and health expenses (ORa: 1.9 CI 95% 1.7-2.2), not receiving care due to lack of a doctor (ORa: 2.8 CI 95% 1.5-3.2), having difficulty with schedules (ORa: 3.7 CI 95% 2. 3-5.5), fear of receiving care at the hospital (ORa: 4.5 CI 95 % 2.7-6.8), trust in health personnel (ORa: 7.5 CI 95% 2.3-10.5) and considering that the physician does not have enough knowledge (ORa: 3.1 CI 95% 2.4-7.8). Therapeutic adherence was associated with physician availability for care, difficulty with schedules, fear of being seen in the hospital, trust in health personnel, and waiting time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: kidney disease; hemodialysis; immunosuppression; pulmonary infections; computed tomography
Online: 24 August 2022 (08:30:16 CEST)
Patients under immunosuppressive therapy for kidney diseases or on maintenance hemodialysis are more susceptible to infection than the general population since loss of renal function per se was an immunocompromised condition. Of relevance, CT imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of pulmonary infectious diseases. We hence presented diverse CT findings of pulmonary infections in the above said patients collected during our arduous work against a wide range of pathogens including klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, candida parapsilosis, aspergillus, cryptococcus, mucor, pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus, mycobacterium and nocardia. Notably, the pulmonary pathological changes were either primary pneumonia or secondary to the catheter-associated bloodstream infection. For a descriptive purpose, pulmonary manifestations of Wegener’s granuloma, lung cancer and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage/infection in vasculitis were also examined. As such, we retrospectively elaborated most likely CT features of each individual pathogen and briefly covered the differential diagnosis as well. Arguably, combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting could make a presumptive diagnosis and early treatment even more convenient. From the experience of first-line nephrologists, our work could make a substantial contribution to the expeditious and efficacious management of pulmonary infections in the pertinent patient population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0017.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: High-intensity interval training; Continuous aerobic training; Systolic blood pressure; Diastolic blood pressure; Pre-hypertension
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:21:03 CEST)
The likelihood of pre-hypertensive young adults developing hypertension has been steadily increasing over the past few years. Despite the fact that aerobic exercise training (AET) has demonstrated positive results in lowering high blood pressure, the efficacy of different types of AET among pre-hypertensive young adults has not been well-established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on blood pressure (BP) of physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults. 32 adults (age 20.0±1.1 years and BMI 21.5±1.8) were randomly assigned into 3 groups: HIIT, CMT and control (CON). HIIT and CMT groups participated in 5 weeks of AET; while the CON group followed a DASH diet plan only. The HIIT protocol consisted of 1:4 minute work to rest ratio of participants 80%-85% heart rate reserve (HR-reserve) and 40%-60% HR-reserve respectively for 20-minutes, CMT group exercised at 40%-60% of HR-reserve continuously for 20-minutes. In both HIIT and CMT groups, systolic blood pressure (SBP) (3.8±2.8 mmHg, P=0.002 VS 1.6±1.5 mmHg, P=0.011) was significantly reduced. While, significant reductions in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (2.9±2.2 mmHg, P=0.002) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (3.1±1.6mmHg, P<0.0005) were noted only in the HIIT group. No significant differences in SBP (-0.4±3.7 mmHg, P=0.718), DBP (0.4±3.4 mmHg, P=0.714), or MAP (0.1±2.5mmHg, P= 0.892) were observed in the CON group. Both HIIT and CMT decreased the BP in physically inactive pre-hypertensive young adults; however, HIIT yielded more beneficial results in terms of reducing the SPB, DBP and MAP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: point-of-care ultrasound; internal medicine; lung ultrasound; echocardiography; abdominal ultrasound
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:39:57 CET)
Accumulated data show the utility of diagnostic multi-organ point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) in the assessment of patients admitted to an internal medicine ward. Assess whether multi-organ PoCUS (lung, cardiac, and abdomen) provides relevant diagnostic and/or therapeutic information in patients admitted for any reason to an internal medicine ward. Prospective, observational, and single-center study, at a secondary hospital. Multi-organ PoCUS was performed during the first 24 hours of admission. The sonographer had access to the patients’ medical history, physical examination, and basic complementary tests performed in the ED (laboratory, X-ray, electrocardiogram). We considered a relevant ultrasound finding if it implied a significant diagnostic and/or therapeutic change. In the second semester of 2019, 310 patients were enrolled (48.7% men, mean age 70.5 years). Relevant ultrasound findings were detected in 86 patients (27.7%) and in 60 (19.3%) triggered a therapeutic change. These findings were associated with older age (Mantel-Haenszel 2 = 25.6; p< .001) and higher degree of dependency (Mantel Haenszel 2 = 5.7; p = .017). Multi-organ PoCUS provides relevant diagnostic information, complementing traditional physical exam, and facilitates therapy adjustment, regardless of the cause of admission. Multi-organ PoCUS to be useful need to be systematically integrated into the decision-making process in internal medicine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0459.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: in vivo magnetic resonance; liver metabolism; hyperpolarization; stable isotopes
Online: 23 August 2021 (15:34:21 CEST)
The liver is a key node of whole-body nutrient and fuel metabolism and is also the principal site for detoxification of xenobiotic compounds. As such, hepatic metabolite concentrations and/or turnover rates inform the status of both hepatic and systemic metabolic diseases as well as the disposition of medications. As a tool to better understand liver metabolism in these settings, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers a non-invasive means of monitoring hepatic metabolic activity in real time both by direct observation of concentrations and dynamics of specific metabolites as well as by observation of their enrichment by stable isotope tracers. This review summarizes the applications and advances in human liver metabolic studies by in vivo MRS over the past 35 years and discusses future directions and opportunities that will be opened by the development of ultra-high field MR systems and by hyperpolarized stable isotope tracers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Aviptadil; Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; VIP; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Corona Virus; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ARDS; Acute Lung Injury; ALI; surfactant; Alveolar Type II; ATII
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:16:20 CEST)
RLF-100 (Aviptadil), a synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is shown to block replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been granted Fast Track Designation by the US FDA for the treatment of Critical COVID-19 with Respiratory Failure. We describe the clinical course of the first patient treated with this investigational medication in an open label manner -- a 54 year old patient suffering antibody-mediated rejection of his double lung transplant who contracted COVID-19 with respiratory failure refractory to all currently available therapies. He received three infusions of RLF-100 under an FDA-approved emergency use IND. Within 24 hours of the third infusion, substantial improvement in oxygen saturation and radiographic improvement in characteristic COVID-19 pneumonitis was noted. He was discharged from intensive care at that point and scheduled for discharge to home at 1 week on room air. Despite an intervening hospitalization for trauma, he remains alive and free of respiratory failure at 28 days post treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; liver fibrosis; amino acids; insulin resistance
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:29:39 CEST)
Altered amino acid levels have been found in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is not clear whether this alteration is due to altered hepatic metabolism or insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association among amino acid levels, fatty liver, and liver fibrosis while eliminating the influence of insulin resistance. NAFLD and liver fibrosis were diagnosed using transient elastography and subjects were divided in three groups: normal, NAFLD, and liver fibrosis. To exclude the influence of insulin resistance, the subjects were matched using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The amino acid serum levels were compared among the groups. Of 731 enrolled subjects, 251 and 33 were diagnosed with NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Although significant differences were observed among the groups in the serum levels of most amino acids, all but those of glutamate and glycine disappeared after matching for HOMA-IR. The multivariate logistic regression revealed that glutamate, glycine, and HOMA-IR were independent risk factors for liver fibrosis. The altered serum levels of most amino acids were associated with insulin resistance, while the increase in glutamate and the decrease in glycine levels were strongly associated not only with insulin resistance, but also with altered liver metabolism in patients with liver fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: endothelial disorders; glycocalyx injury; syndecan-1; nonlinear regression
Online: 28 June 2019 (07:42:18 CEST)
Endothelial disorders are related to various diseases. An initial endothelial injury is characterized by endothelial glycocalyx injury. We aimed to evaluate endothelial glycocalyx injury by measuring serum syndecan-1 concentrations in patients during comprehensive medical examinations. A single-center, prospective, observational study was conducted at Asahi University Hospital. The participants enrolled in this study were 1313 patients who underwent comprehensive medical examinations at Asahi University Hospital from January 2018, to June 2018. One patient undergoing hemodialysis was excluded from the study. At enrollment, blood samples were obtained, and study personnel collected demographic and clinical data. No treatments or exposures were conducted except for standard medical examinations and blood sample collection. Laboratory data were obtained by collection of blood samples at the time of study enrolment. According to nonlinear regression, the concentrations of serum syndecan-1 were significantly related to age (p = 0.016), aspartic aminotransferase concentration (AST, p = 0.020), blood urea nitrogen concentration (BUN, p = 0.013), triglyceride concentration (p < 0.001), and hematocrit (p = 0.006). These relationships were independent associations. Endothelial glycocalyx injury, which is reflected by serum syndecan-1 concentrations, is related to age, hematocrit, AST concentration, BUN concentration, and triglyceride concentration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0377.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: acute exacerbation; consolidation: GGO; HRCT; idiopathic; IPF; LDH; nintedanib; Pirfenidone; triggered
Online: 20 December 2018 (08:43:57 CET)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is often seen in elderly men who smoke. Diagnosis of IPF requires integration of a detailed clinical history, specific physical examination, laboratory findings, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest, and histopathology. IPF has a heterogeneous clinical course, from an asymptomatic stable state to progressive respiratory failure or acute exacerbation (AE). AE of IPF has several important differential diagnoses, such as heart failure and volume overload. The International working project proposed new criteria of AE of IPF in 2016 dividing it into triggered and idiopathic AE. On the basis of these criteria, physicians can detect AE of IPF more easily. The recent international IPF guideline emphasized the utility of chest HRCT. In addition, two anti-fibrotic agents have become available. We should attend not only to management of AE, but also to its prevention. The diagnostic process, laboratory findings, typical chest imaging, management and prognosis of AE are comprehensively reviewed.