REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: animal welfare; animal training; applied animal behavior; behavior analysis; behavioral engineering; environmental enrichment; zoos
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:20:08 CET)
The field of applied behavior analysis has been directly involved in both research and applications of behavioral principles to improve the lives of captive zoo animals. Thirty years ago, Forthman and Ogden (1992) wrote one of the first papers documenting some of these efforts. Since that time, considerable work has been done using behavioral principles and procedures to guide zoo welfare efforts. The current paper re-examines and updates Forthman and Ogden’s original points, with attention to the five categories they detailed: (1) promotion of species-typical behavior, (2) reintroduction and repatriation of endangered species, (3) animal handling, (4) pest control, and (5) animal performances. In addition, we outline three current and future directions for behavior analytic endeavors: (i) experimental analyses of behavior and the zoo, (ii) applied behavior analysis and the zoo, and (iii) within-subject methodology and the zoo. The goal is to provide a framework that can guide future behavioral research in zoos, as well as create applications based on these empirical evaluations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0845.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: funding; ex situ; education; EAZA; European Association of Zoos and Aquaria; EUAC; European Union of Aquarium Curators
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:10:30 CEST)
The European Union of Aquarium Curators (EUAC) includes 150 members and is an important association for the European public aquarium community. Since 2004, over one quarter of a million euros were awarded by the EUAC Conservation Fund to approximately 50 projects, which spanned across the globe. While projects varied greatly in content and scope, several achieved a significant impact in local populations and/or their focus species. This paper reports on results achieved by these conservation efforts and what improvements can be made, to ensure that the funding is indeed invested in conservation efforts per se. Perhaps the most valid conclusion to be drawn from the list of projects covered in this work is the fact that, regardless of the outcome, as far as preservation of the species are concerned, local communities were actively engaged in a subject that would, otherwise, remain unknown to them. Additionally, these EUAC funded projects highlight how public aquarium activities reach far beyond the acrylic panels surrounding the tanks and indeed the walls of the institution, as they spread around the world and raise awareness within local communities to preserve biodiversity. These results further suggest that a future direction for EUAC, as well as the public aquaria it consists of, could – indeed should - include more strenuous lobbying with legislating bodies, to ensure more adequate – and stronger – in situ conservation measures. In conclusion, with so many doubts being raised by different movements about the existence of aquaria and zoos, it is important that the public is aware that it is their visit to see the ambassadors of different species of animals that supports the funding of many of these pilot projects that aim to preserve species in their natural environment.