ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: virus density distribution; genotype; virus infection; immune response; resistance to treatment; nonlocal interaction; quasispecies diversification
Online: 4 December 2019 (03:59:20 CET)
The work is devoted to the investigation of virus quasispecies evolution and diversification due to mutations, competition for host cells, and cross-reactive immune responses. The model consists of a nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation for the virus density depending on the genotype considered as a continuous variable and on time. This equation contains two integral terms corresponding to the nonlocal effects of virus interaction with host cells and with immune cells. In the model, a virus strain is represented by a localized solution concentrated around some given genotype. Emergence of new strains corresponds to a periodic wave propagating in the space of genotypes. The conditions of appearance of such waves and their dynamics are described.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Influenza A virus; avian influenza virus; genomic surveillance; poultry farms; wild birds; HPAI H5N1.
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:54:36 CEST)
The Influenza A virus (IAV) is a highly infectious virus that poses a significant threat to global public health and food supplies. The current subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV), H5N1, is being closely monitored worldwide due to its unprecedented spread from Europe to North America and now to Central and South America. This review summarizes recent updates on the evolution of the different IAV subtypes in birds and mammals including humans, in Chile. The distribution and spread of AIV H5N1 in Chile indicated a complex interplay between ecological and human factors in that it was negatively correlated with distance to the closest urban center and precipitation and temperature seasonality. It is evident that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Chile was introduced from North America via the Atlantic migratory flyways as opposed to local transmission from other countries in South America. The presence of these viruses in Chile underscores the need for increased biosecurity on poultry farms and continuous genomic surveillance approaches to understand and control AIVs in both wild and domestic bird populations in Chile.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Chinese sacbrood virus; VP1; Apis cerana; Phylogenetic analysis
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:49:12 CET)
The Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) sacbrood virus (CSBV) causes death of larvae and colony collapse, and could damage the beekeeping industry in China. We sequenced complete genomes of CSBV strains derived from the Maerkang area, Wenjiang area, and Wanyuan area of Sichuan province of China. The genome length of CSBV strains from Sichuan was 8863bp, and it contained one complete Open Reading Frame of a gene with 8544 bp that encoded a protein with 2848 amino acids. The (G+C) % and (A+T) % composition ranged from 40.6 to 40.7 and 59.3 to 59.4, respectively. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the three CSBV strains and previously reported SBV and CSBV sequences from other regions. We found that viral strains clustered based on their region of origin and host species. The genetic sequences of the CSBV strain from Maerkang were 98.7% and 99.6% similar to CSBV strains from Wanyuan and Wenjiang, respectively. In addition, CSBV from Maerkang had 88.4%-95.2% sequence similarity to previously published genomes of CSBV or SBV from other areas. The VP1 gene sequenced in our study had a 43 bp deletion compared to VP1 sequences of CSBV from other regions in Asia. We detected 10 antigenic determinants on the VP1 protein of CSBV form Aba. Our study provides new insight into the diversity of CSBV strains in China and may help with identifying methods to prevent infection of honeybee colonies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; evolution and origin; RNA virus; application; concerns
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:58:58 CEST)
The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) has caused severe damage to the world. With the support of classic evolutionary theories and population genetics principles, many studies on the origin of SARS-CoV-2 have revealed encouraging results but meanwhile are still under debate. We are concerned with the validity of applying classic evolutionary theories and formula to the evolution of RNA viruses. We have raised several factors like the RNA replication feature and the RNA modification systems of the hosts, which might jeopardize the validity of the application of classic methods to analyze the SARS-CoV-2 data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus; phylogenetics; evolution; multi-year persistence
Online: 18 August 2018 (05:14:42 CEST)
There is an ongoing global pandemic of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection that results in substantial annual morbidity and mortality. In Australia, RSV is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). Nevertheless, little is known about the extent and origins of genetic diversity of RSV in Australia, nor the factors that shape this diversity. We conducted a genome-scale analysis of RSV infections in New South Wales (NSW). RSV genomes were successfully sequenced for 144 specimens collected between 2010-2016. Of these, 64 belonged to the RSVA and 80 to the RSVB subtype. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a wide diversity of RSV lineages within NSW and that both subtypes evolved rapidly in a strongly clock-like manner, with mean rates of approximately 6-8 x 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site per year. There was only weak evidence for geographic clustering of sequences, indicative of fluid patterns of transmission within the infected population, and no evidence of any clustering by patient age such that viruses in the same lineages circulate through the entire host population. Importantly, we show that both subtypes circulated concurrently in NSW with multiple introductions into the Australian population in each year, and only limited evidence for multi-year persistence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Highly pathogenic avian influenza; H5N1/H9N2 reassortant virus; Nigeria
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:38:06 CEST)
In 2021, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic and global food insecurity, the Nigerian poultry sector was yet exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and its economic challenges. Between 2021 and 2022, HPAI caused 467 outbreaks reported in 31 of the 37 administrative regions in Nigeria. In this study, we characterized the genome of 97 influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5N1, H5N2 and H5N8 identified in different agro-ecological zones and farms during the 2021-2022 epidemic. The phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes showed widespread distribution of the H5Nx clade 220.127.116.11b and similarity with the HPAI H5Nx viruses detected in Europe since late 2020. Topology of the phylogenetic trees indicates the occurrence of several independent introductions of the virus into the country followed by a regional evolution of the virus most probably linked to its persistent circulation in West African territories. An additional evidence of the evolutionary potential of HPAI viruses circulating in this region is the identification in this study of a putative H5N1/H9N2 reassortant virus in a mixed-species commercial poultry farm. Our data confirm Nigeria as a crucial hotspot for HPAI virus introduction from the Eurasian territories and reveal a dynamic pattern of avian influenza virus evolution within the Nigerian poultry population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: hepatitis virus; HBV; HCV; surveillance; Gabon; Africa
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:09:22 CEST)
Viral hepatitis remains one of the largest public health concerns worldwide. Especially in Central Africa, information on hepatitis virus infections has been limited, although the prevalence in this region has been reported to be higher than the global average. To reveal the current status of hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) infections and the genetic diversity of the viruses, we conducted longitudinal surveillance in Gabon. We detected 22 HBV and 9 HCV infections in 2,047 patients with febrile illness. Genetic analyses of HBV identified subgenotype A1 for the first time in Gabon and an insertion generating a frameshift to create an X-preC/C fusion protein. We also revealed that most of the detected HCVs belonged to the “Gabon-specific” HCV subtype 4e (HCV-4e), and the entire nucleotide sequence of the HCV-4e polyprotein was determined to establish the first reference sequence. HCV-4e strains possessed resistance-associated substitutions similar to those of other HCV-4 strains, indicating that the use of direct-acting antiviral therapy may be complex. These results provide a better understanding of the current situation of hepatitis B and C virus infections in Central Africa, and will help public health organizations develop effective countermeasures to eliminate chronic viral hepatitis in this region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: influenza virus; humoral response; hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus; broad neutralizing antibody(bnAb); heterosubtypic immunity of influenza; original antigenic sin "OAS"; "universal" influenza vaccine; protein microarray assay; mPLEX-Flu assay; multiple dimensional assays (MDA))
Online: 27 September 2019 (08:34:56 CEST)
The human antibody response to influenza virus infection or vaccination is as complicated as it is essential for protection against flu. The constant antigenic changes of the virus to escape human herd immunity hinder the yearly selection of vaccine strains since it is hard to predict which virus strains will circulate for the coming flu season. A "universal" influenza vaccine that could induce broad cross-influenza subtype protection would help to alleviate this burden. However, the human antibody response is intricate and often obscure, with factors like antigenic seniority or original antigenic sin "OAS", and back-boosting ensuring that each person mounts a unique immune response to infection or vaccination with any new influenza virus strain. Notably, the effects of existing antibodies on cross-protective immunity after repeated vaccinations are unclear. More research is needed to characterize the mechanisms at play, but traditional assays such as hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) are excessively limited in scope and too resource-intensive to effectively meet this challenge. In the past ten years, new multiple dimensional assays (MDAs) have been developed to help overcome these problems by simultaneously measuring antibodies against a large panel of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) proteins with a minimal amount of sample in a high throughput way. MDAs will likely be a powerful tool for accelerating the study of the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination and the development of a universal influenza vaccine.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2051.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Lethal mutation; reproductively lethal mutation; reproductive bottlenecking; evolution; natural selection; phenotype; asexual reproduction; sexual reproduction; virus; bacterium; plant; insect, animal; eusociality
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:24:23 CEST)
Reproductively lethal mutations (RLMs) are mutations that, upon expression of the encoded lethal phenotypes, cause individuals carrying them to die or to be sterile. An underappreciated fact is that loss-of-function RLMs in protein-coding genes can be phenotypically shielded by favorable environments rendering these genes conditionally non-essential, or by their sister alleles in diploid organisms. Absent of rigorous mitigation, such phenotype-shielding causes the number of genes incurring RLMs to increase over time, and simultaneously allows each RLM to reach high allele frequencies in a conspecific population. Over-accumulation of RLMs then sets the population up for eventual concurrent expression of large numbers of RLMs, and massive deaths in rapid succession, possibly even population-level extinction. This hypothetical scenario in turn predicts that organismal lineages that evolved means to minimize the allele frequencies of phenotypically shielded RLMs are favored by natural selection. We argue that bottlenecking the genome copies destined for reproduction is a universal strategy adopted by all living beings to compel phenotype-based RLM purging. We further postulate that primitive RNA replicons must first evolve bottlenecked reproduction before evolving the capacity to encode diffusible products. In more complex, multicellular organisms, RLM management through bottlenecked reproduction gains additional reinforcement through sexual reproduction. In short, the evidence chronicled in this essay strongly suggest that the Bottleneck, Isolate, Amplify, Select (BIAS) principle, originally proposed to explain intracellular evolutionary dynamics of viruses, may be universally applicable to all living beings.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: protein/RNA world: plasma membrane; cytoplasm; gene regulation; virus world; pre-retro virus; emergence of DNA; transcription and replication; first cells; hyperthermophiles; LUCA; Bacteria and Archaea; anoxygenic bacteria; oxygenic bacteria; global distribution of cyanobacteria
Online: 12 February 2020 (03:25:07 CET)
The emergence of proteins in the prebiotic world was a watershed event at the origin of life. With their astonishing versatility, the protein enzymes catalyzed crucial biochemical reactions within protocells into more complex biomolecules in diverse metabolic pathways, whereas structural proteins provided strength and permeability in the cell membrane. Five major biochemical innovations followed in succession after availability of various kinds of protein molecules during decoding and translation of mRNAs. These are: (1) the modification of the phospholipid membrane into the plasma membrane; (2) the origin of primitive cytoplasm; (3) primitive gene regulation; (4) the beginnings of the virus world; and (5) the advent of DNA. The creative role of viruses during prebiotic synthesis led to the origin of the DNA world, when DNA replaced mRNA as the major genome of the protocells. With the advent of DNA, replication of information was entirely dissociated from its expression. Because DNA is much more stable than mRNA with more storage capacity, it is a superb archive for information systems in the form of base sequences. DNA progressively took over the replicative storage function of mRNA, leaving the latter for protein synthesis. Genetic information began to flow from DNA to mRNA to protein in a two-step process involving transcription and translation. In the biological stage, DNA replication was central to the binary fission of the first cell, orchestrated by the duplication of genomes and then the division of the parent cell into two identical daughter cells. With the onset of binary fission, the population of primitive cells grew rapidly in the hydrothermal vent environment, undergoing Darwinian evolution and diversification by mutation. The habitat of the earliest fossil record (≥ 3.5 Ga) from the Archean sedimentary rocks of Canada, Greenland, Australia, South Africa, and India offers a new window on the early radiation of microbial life. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis from early hyperthermophiles would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting to the mesophilic global ocean.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0259.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: mimiviridae; algal virus; giant virus; phycodnaviridae; aquatic virus
Online: 15 August 2018 (03:00:29 CEST)
Since 1998, when Jim van Etten’s team initiated its characterization, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) had been the largest known DNA virus, both in terms particle size and genome complexity. In 2003, The Acanthamoeba-infecting Mimivirus unexpectedly superseded PBCV-1, opening the era of giant viruses, i.e. with virions large enough to be visible by light microscopy and genomes encoding more proteins than many bacteria. During the 15 following years, the isolation of many Mimivirus-relatives, have made the Mimiviridae one of the largest and most diverse family of eukaryotic viruses isolated from aquatic environments. Metagenomic studies keep suggesting that many more remain to be isolated. As Mimiviridae members are found to infect an increasing range of phytoplanckton species, their taxonomic position compared to the traditional Phycodnaviridae (i.e. etymologically “algal viruses”) became a source of confusion in the literature. Following a rapid history of the key discoveries that established the Mimiviridae family, we describe its current taxonomic structure and propose a set of operational criteria to help in the classification of future isolates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0484.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA world theory; Viral RNA; Genome stability; Viral evolution; Mutational signatures; RNA dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; RNA recombination; RNA damage; Hypermutation; APOBEC; ADAR; RNA editing; SARS-CoV-2; rubella virus
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:22:01 CEST)
The current SARS- CoV-2 pandemic underscores the importance of understanding the evolution of RNA genomes. While RNA is subject to the formation of similar lesions as DNA, the evolutionary and physiological impacts RNA lesions have on viral genomes are yet to be characterized. Lesions that may drive the evolution of RNA genomes can induce breaks that are repaired by recombination or can cause base substitution mutagenesis, also known as base editing. Over the past decade or so, base editing mutagenesis of DNA genomes has been subject to many studies, revealing that exposure of ssDNA is subject to hypermutation that is involved in the etiology of cancer. However, base editing of RNA genomes has not been studied to the same extent. Recently hypermutation of single-stranded RNA viral genomes have also been documented though its role in evolution and population dynamics. Here, we will summarize the current knowledge of key mechanisms and causes of RNA genome instability covering areas from the RNA world theory to the SARS- CoV-2 pandemic of today. We will also highlight the key questions that remain as it pertains to RNA genome instability, mutations accumulation, and experimental strategies for addressing these questions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0475.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Mononegavirales; Chaperones; Antivirals; Hsp70; Hsp90; CCT; Respiratory syncytial virus; Measles virus; Mumps Virus; Rabies virus; Ebola virus.
Online: 19 November 2018 (17:22:51 CET)
The order Mononegavirales harbors numerous viruses of significant relevance for human health, including both established and emerging infections. Currently, vaccines are only available for a small subset of these viruses and antiviral therapies remain limited. Being obligate cellular parasites, viruses must utilize the cellular machinery for their replication and spread. Therefore, targeting cellular pathways used by viruses can provide novel therapeutic approaches. One of the key challenges confronted by both hosts and viruses alike is the successful folding and maturation of proteins. In cells, this task is faced by cellular molecular chaperones, a group of conserved and abundant proteins that oversee protein folding and help maintain protein homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how the mononegavirales interact with cellular chaperones, highlight key gaps in our knowledge, and discuss the potential of chaperone inhibitors as antivirals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Flavivirus; Eye; West Nile Virus; Dengue fever Virus; Yellow Fever; Zika virus; Japanese Encephalitis Virus; Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:05:45 CET)
Flaviviruses are a group of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses predominantly transmitted by arthropods (mainly mos-quitoes), that cause severe endemic infections and epidemics on a global scale. It represents a major cause of systemic morbidity and death that are expanding worldwide. Among this group, Dengue fever, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis, and recently Zika virus have been linked to a spectrum of ocular manifestations. The latter encompass subconjunctival hemor-rhage and conjunctivitis, anterior and posterior uveitis (inclusive of vitritis, chorioretinitis, and retinal vasculitis), maculopathy, retinal hemorrhages, and optic neuritis. Clinical diagnosis of these infectious diseases is primarily based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular involvement. Diagnosis confirmation relies on laboratory testing, including RT-PCR and serological testing. Ocular involvement typically follows a self-limited course but can result in irreversible visual impairment. Effective treatment for flavivirus infections is currently unavailable. Prevention remains the mainstay for arthropod vector and zoonotic disease control. Effective vaccines are available only for Yellow Fever virus, Dengue virus and Japanese Encephalitis virus. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge regarding the ophthalmic mani-festations of the foremost flavivirus-associated human diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1089.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: insect vector; host plant; plant virus; virus detection; virus transmission
Online: 22 September 2023 (05:18:27 CEST)
The phytophagous insect pests were vectors and could transmit the majority of the phytoviruses to their host plants. The orders of Hemiptera and Thysanoptera were the most common vectors of phytoviruses. The orders Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, and Hemiptera were also the vectors of phytoviruses. Furthermore, aphids, whiteflies, cicadas, spittlebugs, leafhoppers, planthoppers, assassin bugs, plant bugs, stink bugs, lygaeid bugs, and thrips were among the most phytophagous insects that vector and transmit phytoviruses to healthy plants. The occurrence of a single species of these phytophagous insects resulted in one or more phytoviruses in general, and the Hemipteran order, in particular, vectored a lot of phytoviruses species. This review manuscript is focused on vectors of phytoviruses, techniques for their detection, and future directions. It will play a vital role in exploring scientific information concerning the interactions of phytoviruses and vector insects, the effect of phytoviruses on host behavior, mediators of phytoviruses transmission, persistent phytoviruses, some other insect vectors of the phytopathogen, mechanisms of host plant resistance against phytoviruses, and techniques of phytoviruses detection, as well as some important points to be considered in the future sustainably.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee; deformed wing virus; RNA virus vector; invertebrate virus; virus evolution; pollination; food security
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:15:14 CET)
We developed a honey bee RNA-virus vector based on the genome of a picorna-like Deformed wing virus (DWV), the main viral pathogen of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). To test the potential of DWV to be utilized as a vector, the 717 nt sequence coding for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), flanked by the peptides targeted by viral protease, was inserted into an infectious cDNA clone of DWV in-frame between the leader protein and the virus structural protein VP2 genes. The in vitro RNA transcripts from egfp-tagged DWV cDNA clones were infectious when injected into honey bee pupae. Stable DWV particles containing genomic RNA of the recovered DWV with egfp inserts were produced, as evidenced by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. These particles were infectious to honey bee pupae when injected intra-abdominally. Fluorescent microscopy showed GFP expression in the infected cells and Western blot analysis demonstrated accumulation of free eGFP rather than its fusions with DWV LP and/or VP2 proteins. Analysis of the progeny egfp-tagged DWV showed gradual accumulation of genome deletions for egfp, providing estimates for the rate of loss of a non-essential gene an insect RNA virus genome during natural infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Flavivirus; NS2B-NS3; ZIKA Virus; Dengue Virus; West Nile Virus; Inhibitors
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:46:44 CET)
Flaviviruses cause a significant amount of mortality and morbidity, especially in the area where they are endemic. A recent example is the outbreak of Zika virus though out the world. Development of antiviral drugs against different viral targets is as important as development of vaccine. During viral replication, the flavivirus genome is translated as a single polyprotein precursor, which must be cleaved into individual proteins by a complex of the viral protease, NS3, and its cofactor, NS2B. Flavivirus protease is the most attractive target for development of therapeutic antivirals because it is essential for processing of viral polyprotein precursor and generation of functional viral proteins. In this review, we have summarized recent development in drug discovery targeting NS3-NS2B protease of flaviviruses, especially Zika, dengue and West Nile virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Virus; plant virus; long noncoding RNA; replication; positive sense RNA virus
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:01:56 CEST)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of virus origin accumulate in cells infected by many positive strand (+) RNA viruses to bolster viral infectivity. Their biogenesis mostly utilizes exoribonucleases of host cells that degrade viral genomic or subgenomic RNAs in the 5’-to-3’ direction until being stalled by well-defined RNA structures. Here we report a viral lncRNA that is produced by a novel replication-dependent mechanism. This lncRNA corresponds to the last 283 nucleotides of the turnip crinkle virus (TCV) genome, hence is designated tiny TCV subgenomic RNA (ttsgR). ttsgR accumulated to high levels in TCV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana cells when the TCV-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), also known as p88, was overexpressed. Both (+) and (-) strand forms of ttsgR were produced in these cells in a manner dependent on the RdRp functionality. Strikingly, templates as short as ttsgR itself were sufficient to program ttsgR amplification, as long as the TCV-encoded replication proteins, p28 and p88, were provided in trans. Consistent with its replicational origin, ttsgR accumulation required a 5’ terminal G3(A/U)4 motif shown by others to be crucial for the replication of a TCV satellite RNA. More importantly, introducing a new G3(A/U)4 motif elsewhere in the TCV genome was alone sufficient to cause the emergence of another lncRNA. Collectively our results unveil a replication-dependent mechanism for the biogenesis of viral lncRNAs, thus suggesting that multiple mechanisms, individually or in combination, may be responsible for viral lncRNA production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; seroprevalence; flavivirus; arbovirus; fever; mosquito-borne virus; vector-borne virus
Online: 20 July 2023 (04:51:12 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a widespread mosquito-borne pathogen. Phylogenetically, two lineages of the ZIKV are distinguished: African and Asian-American. The latter became the cause of the 2015-2016 pandemic with severe defeat to newborns. In West African countries the African lineage has been found, but there is evidence of the emergence of Asian-American lineage in Cape Verde and Angola. This highlights the need not only to monitor the ZIKV, but also to sequence the isolates. In this article, we present a case report of Zika fever in a pregnant woman from Guinea, identified in 2018. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in serum sample. In addition, seroconversion of anti-Zika IgM and IgG antibodies was detected in repeated blood samples. Subsequently, the virus was isolated in C6/36 cell line. The detected ZIKV belonged to the African lineage, the Nigerian sublineage. The strains with the closest sequences were isolated from mosquitoes in Senegal in 2011 and 2015. In addition, we conducted serological screening of 116 blood samples collected from patients presenting to the hospital of Faranah with fevers during the period 2018-2021. As a result, it was found that IgM-positive patients occurred each year, seroprevalence varied between 5.6% and 17.1%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza A virus; avian influenza virus; virus tropism in human; antiviral; vaccine
Online: 6 February 2023 (06:03:08 CET)
A pandemic happens when a novel influenza A virus is able to infect and transmit efficiently to a new, distinct host species. Although the exact timing of pandemics is uncertain, it is known that both viral and host factors play a role in their emergence. Species-specific interactions between the virus and the host cell determine the virus tropism. These include binding and entering cells, replicating the viral RNA genome within the host cell nucleus, assembling, maturing, and releasing the virus to neighbouring cells, tissues, or organs before transmitting it between individuals. Influenza has a vast and antigenically varied reservoir. In wild aquatic birds, the infection is typically asymptomatic. Avian influenza virus (AIV) can cross into new species, and occasionally, it can acquire the ability to transmit from human to human. A pandemic might occur if a new influenza virus acquires enough adaptive mutations to maintain transmission between people. This review highlights the key determinants AIV must achieve to initiate a human pandemic and describes how AIV mutates to establish tropism and stable human adaptation. Understanding the tropism of AIV may be crucial in preventing virus transmission in humans and may help design vaccines, antivirals and therapeutic agents against the virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0467.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Ebola virus; filovirus; lipid binding; Marburg virus; membrane trafficking; virus assembly; VP40
Online: 29 February 2020 (13:12:20 CET)
Marburg virus (MARV) is a lipid-enveloped negative sense single stranded RNA virus, which can cause a deadly hemorrhagic fever. MARV encodes seven proteins, including VP40 (mVP40), a matrix protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic leaflet of the host cell plasma membrane. VP40 traffics to the plasma membrane inner leaflet, where it assembles to facilitate the budding of viral particles. VP40 is a multifunctional protein that interacts with several host proteins and lipids to complete the viral replication cycle, but many of these host-interactions remain unknown or are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of a hydrophobic loop region in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of mVP40 that shares sequence similarity with the CTD of Ebola virus VP40 (eVP40). These conserved hydrophobic residues in eVP40 have been previously shown to be critical to plasma membrane localization and membrane insertion. An array of cellular experiments and confirmatory in vitro work strongly suggests proper orientation and hydrophobic residues (Phe281, Leu283, and Phe286) in the mVP40 CTD are critical to plasma membrane localization. In line with the different functions proposed for eVP40 and mVP40 CTD hydrophobic residues, molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate large flexibility of residues in the EBOV CTD whereas conserved mVP40 hydrophobic residues are more restricted in their flexibility. This study sheds further light on important amino acids and structural features in mVP40 required for its plasma membrane localization as well as differences in the functional role of CTD amino acids in eVP40 and mVP40.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1888.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Metasurface; Corona Virus; Dielectric resonator; Virus Detection
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:32:02 CEST)
This study reports the design of a dielectric resonator (DR) metasurface-based terahertz biosensor for rapid and accurate detection of different kinds of viruses (H1N1, SARA-COV-2, etc.). The characterization of the sensor is done by analyzing its absorbance properties with and without the presence of the H1N1 virus layer of different concentrations and electrical properties in the frequency range of 2.4 THz to 3 THz. A full-wave EM model of the sensor is designed using CST MWS software. The geometrical parameters of the proposed biosensor, as well as its dielectric constant of the virus swab, are varied to achieve good performance with an absorption level close to 1 (100%). A significant change in the resonating pick-up frequency owing to the variation in the effective refractive index of the realized sensor ensures the detection and classification of the different concentrations of the same or different viruses. The presented design could be used for the rapid detection of viruses with the added advantages of contactless, label-free, and accurate identification of different concentrations of viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Antivirals; arbovirus; dengue virus; Streptomyces; virus replication
Online: 15 February 2023 (01:51:33 CET)
Dengue has long been a serious health burden to the global community, especially for those living in the tropics. In spite of the availability of vaccines, effective treatment for the infection is still needed and currently remained absent. In the present study, antiviral properties of the KSF 103 ME which consisted of a number of potential antiviral compounds were investigated against DENV-2. The effects of this extract against DENV-2 replication were determined using the qRT-PCR. Findings from the study suggested that the KSF 103 ME showed maximum inhibitory properties toward the virus during the virus entry stage at concentrations of more than 12.5 µg/mL. Minimal antiviral activities were observed at other virus replication stages; adsorption (42% reduction at 50 µg/mL), post-adsorption (67.6% reduction at 50 µg/mL), prophylactic treatment (68.4% and 87.7% reductions at 50 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively) and direct virucidal assay (48% and 56.8% reductions at 50 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively. The KSF 103 ME inhibited dengue virus repication with an IC50 value of 20.3 µg/mL and SI value of 38.9. The KSF 103 ME showed potent antiviral properties against DENV during the entry stage. Further studies will be needed to deduce the antiviral mechanisms of the KSF 103 ME against DENV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0796.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ebola Virus, Marburg Virus, HERC5, Antiviral, Interferon
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:44:44 CEST)
Survival following Ebola virus (EBOV) infection correlates with the ability to mount an early and robust interferon (IFN) response. The host IFN-induced proteins that contribute to controlling EBOV replication are not fully known. Among the top genes with the strongest early increases in expression after infection in vivo is IFN-induced HERC5. Using a transcription- and replication-competent VLP system, we showed that HERC5 inhibits EBOV virus-like particle (VLP) replication by depleting EBOV mRNAs. The HERC5 RCC1-like domain was necessary and sufficient for this inhibition and did not require zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP). Moreover, we showed that EBOV (Zaire) glycoprotein (GP) but not Marburg virus GP antagonized HERC5 early during infection. Our data identifies a novel ‘protagonist-antagonistic’ relationship between HERC5 and GP in the early stages of EBOV infection that could be exploited for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: deubiquitinase; envelope protein; USP38; virus infection; Zika virus
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:02:36 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, and its infection may cause severe neurodegenerative diseases. The outbreak of ZIKV in 2015 in South American has caused severe human congenital and neurologic disorders. Thus, it is vitally important to figure out inner mechanism of ZIKV infection. Here, our data suggested that the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 38 (USP38) played an important role in host resistance to ZIKV infection, during which ZIKV infection did not affect USP38 expression. Mechanistically, USP38 bound to ZIKV envelope (E) protein through its C-terminal domain and attenuated its K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitination, thereby repressed the infection of ZIKV. In addition, we found that the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 was essential to inhibit ZIKV infection, and the mutant that lacked the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 lost ability to inhibit the infection. In conclusion, we found a novel host protein USP38 against ZIKV infection, and this may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of ZIKV infection.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0021.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: virus; population bottleneck; positive sense RNA virus; evolution
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:28:45 CEST)
Many positive sense RNA viruses, especially those infecting plants, are known to experience stringent, stochastic population bottlenecks inside the cells they invade, but exactly how and why these populations become bottlenecked are unclear. A model proposed ten years ago advocates that such bottlenecks are evolutionarily favored because they cause the isolation of individual viral variants in separate cells. Such isolation in turn allows the viral variants to manifest the phenotypic differences they encode. Recently published observations lend mechanistic support to this model, and prompt us to refine the model with novel molecular details. The refined model, designated Bottleneck, Isolate, Amplify, Select (BIAS), postulates that these viruses impose population bottlenecks on themselves by encoding bottleneck-enforcing proteins (BNEPs) that function in a concentration-dependent manner. In cells simultaneously invaded by numerous virions of the same virus, BNEPs reach the bottleneck-ready concentration sufficiently early to arrest nearly all internalized viral genomes. As a result, very few (as few as one) viral genomes stochastically escape to initiate reproduction. Repetition of this process in successively infected cells isolate viral genomes with different mutations in separate cells. This isolation prevents mutant viruses encoding defective viral proteins from hitchhiking on sister genome-encoded products, leading to the swift purging of such mutants. Importantly, genome isolation also ensures viral genomes harboring beneficial mutations accrue the cognate benefit exclusively to themselves, leading to the fixation of such beneficial mutations. Further interrogation of the BIAS hypothesis promises to deepen our understanding of virus evolution, and inspire new solutions to virus disease mitigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1587.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Cystoviridae; cryoEM; dsRNA; ssRNA; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; virus capsid; virus envelope; virus infection
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:22:19 CEST)
From the first isolation of the cystovirus bacteriophage Φ6 from Pseudomonas syringae 50 years ago, we have progressed to a better understanding of the structure and transformations of the many parts of the virion. The three-layered virion encapsulating the tripartite double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, breaches the cell envelope on infection, generates its own transcripts, and coopts the bacterial machinery to produce its proteins. The generation of new virions starts with a procapsid with a contracted shape, followed by packaging single stranded RNA segments with concurrent expansion of the capsid, and finally replication to reconstitute the dsRNA genome. The outer two layers are then added, and the fully formed virions released by cell lysis. Most of the procapsid structure composed of the proteins P1, P2, P4 and P7 is now known, as well as its transformations to the mature, packaged nucleocapsid. The outer two layers are less well studied. One additional study investigated the binding of the host protein YajQ to the infecting nucleocapsid, where it enhances the transcription of the large RNA segment that codes for the capsid proteins. Finally, we relate the structural aspects of bacteriophage Φ6 top those of other dsRNA viruses, noting the similarities and differences.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Host jumping; viral evolution; trade-off; plant virus; RNA virus; Potyvirus; Plum pox virus
Online: 19 March 2021 (11:24:18 CET)
Understanding biological mechanisms that regulate emergence of viral diseases, in particular those events engaging cross-species pathogens spillover, are becoming increasingly important in Virology. Species barrier jumping has been extensively studied in animal viruses, and the critical role of a suitable intermediate host in animal viruses-generated human pandemics is highly topical. However, studies on host jumping involving plant viruses have been focused on shifting intra-species, leaving aside the putative role of “bridge hosts” in facilitating interspecies crossing. Here, we take advantage of several VPg mutants, derived from a chimeric construct of the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), analysing its differential behaviour in three herbaceous species. Our results showed that two VPg mutations in a Nicotiana clevelandii-adapted virus, emerged during adaptation to the bridge-host Arabidopsis thaliana, drastically prompted partial adaptation to Chenopodium foetidum. Although, both changes are expected to facilitate productive interactions with eIF(iso)4E, polymorphims detected in PPV VPg and the three eIF(iso)4E studied, extrapolated to a recent VPg:eIF4E structural model, suggested that two adaptation ways can be operating. Remarkably, we found that VPg mutations driving host-range expansion in two non-related species, not only are not associated with cost trade-off constraints in the original host, but also improve fitness on it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: safety of products of human origin; solid organ transplantation; hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation; West Nile virus; dengue virus; tick-borne encephalitis virus; Usutu virus; Chikungunya virus; Zika virus; mainland and overseas France
Online: 3 August 2023 (11:28:33 CEST)
Diseases caused by arboviruses are on the increase worldwide. In addition to arthropod bites, most arboviruses can be transmitted via accessory routes. Products of human origin (labile blood products, solid organs, hematopoietic stem cells, tissues) present a risk of contamination for the recipient if the donation is made when the donor is viremic. This narrative review describes the risks of acquiring certain arboviral diseases from human products, mainly solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells, in the French context. Mainland France and its overseas territories are exposed to a complex array of imported and endemic arboviruses, which differ according to their respective location. The main risks considered in this study are infections by West Nile virus, dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The ancillary risks represented by Usutu virus infection, chikungunya and Zika are also addressed more briefly. For each disease, the guidelines issued by the French High Council of Public Health, which is responsible for issuing guidelines to mitigate the risks associated with products of human origin and for supporting public health policy decisions, are briefly outlined. The aim of this review is also to contribute to the standardization of recommendations at international level in areas with the same viral epidemiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: reassortant virus; recombinant virus; chimeric virus; genetic engineering; reverse genetic; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 13 December 2022 (08:47:51 CET)
Due to the fact that to date, the question of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 has not been resolved yet, the author analyzed the main advances in the development of genetic engineering of viruses that took place before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The first artificial genetically modified viruses could appear in nature in the mid-1950s. The technique of nucleic acid hybridization was developed by the end-1960s. In the late 1970s, a method called the "reverse genetics" emerged to synthesize RNA and DNA molecules. In the early 1980-s, it became possible to combine the genes of different viruses and insert the genes of one virus into the genome of another virus. Since that time, the production of vector vaccines began. Currently, by modern technologies one can assemble any virus based on the nucleotide sequence available in the virus database or designed by a computer as a virtual model.Scientists around the world are invited to answer the call of Neil Harrison and Jeffrey Sachs of Columbia University, for a thorough and independent investigation into the origin of SARS-CoV-2. Only a full understanding of the origin of the new virus can minimize the likelihood of a similar pandemic in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0045.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: corona virus transmission; path of transmission of virus; missing information about corona virus; social distancing
Online: 8 May 2020 (04:41:22 CEST)
We present the detailed calculations of social distancing requirement. A comparative study of the growth pattern and death tolls in different communities indicates that the growth pattern of infected patients and death rate follow the similar distribution with different parametrizations. Every distribution follows an exponential growth pattern curve, like other microbes, then reaches the saturation point an d eventually decay s However, the argument for the exponential function depends on several parameters unbeknownst, as of yet. However, the slope varies different ial ly for various epicenter s and seems to have a relationship with parameters such as accessibi lity to healthcare facilities, pre existing medical conditions socio economic conditions and lifestyle. The mismatch of the growth pattern is also linked with the impact of various other factors and a premature interpretation of limit ed data. Novel behavi or of the virus brought many surprises, opened up new venues for medical research, and the need for the more detailed study of pathogens in the light of the interaction of RNA and DNA The adaptability to diverse ecological condition s and the relevant modification in the structure is also worth investigation The genetic modification can be studied using quantum mechanical probabilistic approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Tick-borne encephalitis virus; Yellow fever virus; vaccine strain; chimeric virus; infectious subgenomic amplicons; candidate vaccines
Online: 16 November 2022 (16:35:12 CET)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most threatening pathogens which affects the human central nervous system (CNS). TBEV circulates widely in Northern Eurasia. According to ECDC the number of TBE cases increase annually. There is no specific treatment for the TBEV infection, thus vaccination is the main preventive measure. Despite the existence of several inactivated vaccines currently being licensed, the development of new TBEV vaccines remains a leading priority in countries endemic to this pathogen. Here we report new recombinant virus made by infectious subgenomic amplicon (ISA) approach using TBEV and yellow fever virus vaccine strain (YF17DD-UN) as a genetic backbone. The recombinant virus is capable of effective replication in mammalian cells and induce TBEV-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Unlike the original vector based on the yellow fever vaccine strain chimeric virus became neuroinvasive in doses of 107-106 PFU and can be used as a model of Flavivirus neuroinvasiveness, neurotropism and neurovirulence. These properties of hybrid structures are the main factors limiting their practical use as vaccines platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Virus diagnosis; RNA; recombinant virus; alphacoronavirus; deltacoronavirus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV); porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:22:32 CEST)
It is important to be able to detect and differentiate between distinct porcine enteric coronaviruses that can cause similar diseases. However, the existence of naturally occurring recombinant coronaviruses such as swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) can give misleading results with currently used diagnostic methods. Therefore, we have developed and validated three duplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of, and differentiation between, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and SeCoV. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is also detected by two out of these three assays. In addition, a novel triplex assay was set up that was able to detect and differentiate between these alphacoronaviruses and the porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). The validated assays have low limits of detection, close to 100% efficiency and were able to correctly identify the presence of PEDV and SeCoV in 55 field samples, while 20 samples of other pathogens did not give a positive result. Implementing one or more of these multiplex assays into the routine diagnostic surveillance for PEDV will ensure that the presence of SeCoV, TGEV and PDCoV will not go unnoticed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0462.v1
Online: 25 April 2020 (11:18:57 CEST)
The induction of acoustic-mechanical oscillations to virus particles by illuminating them with microwave signals is analyzed theoretically. Assuming the virus particle being of spherical shape, its capsid consisting primarily of glycoproteins, a viscous fluid model is adopted while the outside medium of the sphere is taken to be ideal fluid. The electrical charge distribution of virus particle is assumed to be spherically symmetric with a variation along the radius. The generated acoustic-mechanical oscillations are computed by solving a boundary value problem analytically, making use of the Green’s function approach. Resonance conditions to achieve maximum energy transfer from microwave radiation to acoustic oscillation to the particle is investigated. Estimation of the feasibility of the technique to compete virus epidemics either for sterilization of spaces and/or use for future therapeutic applications is examined briefly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: natural products; population variability; bioactivities; Herpes Simplex virus; Chikungunya virus
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:44:28 CEST)
Medicinal plants are being tested as options to prevent infectious diseases in many countries. Baccharis crispa Spreng. (Asteraceae), is a native medicinal species widely used throughout South America. Our objective was to evaluate the antiviral activity of four wild populations of B. crispa from the province of Córdoba (Argentina) and determine if there is variability between them. The cytotoxicity of the extracts (chlorofom, ethanol and aquose) was evaluated by the neutral red uptake method. Using the plaque-forming unit reduction assay, virucidal and antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex type 1 and Chikungunya viruses were tested. Phytochemical screening of each extract was also performed. Puesto Pedernera (PP) population showed the best antiviral and virucidal effect, standing out the ethanolic extract as the least toxic and with the best inhibitory activity against both viral models. Villa del Parque (VP) population was inactive, regardless of the extract and the virus tested. The results revealed that extracts bioactivities vary significantly depending on the geographic area of collection, with PP and VP populations showing the most significant variability, not only in activity but also in chemical composition. These findings support the potential use of extracts as a source of therapeutic agents against different viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0626.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tilapia; negative-sense RNA virus; Tilapia lake virus; DNA vaccine
Online: 28 July 2021 (11:11:37 CEST)
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is the main tilapia-infecting virus worldwide, causing serious economic losses. However, there is no vaccine for this viral disease. Here, TiLV ORF10 (TiLV-ORF10) encoding a protein with abundant epitopes was constructed into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1, and used to evaluate the immune protective effects in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). RT-PCR and western blot analyses conﬁrmed vaccine plasmid expression in tilapia muscle tissues. Moreover, the transcription levels of immunoglobulin M, toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation factor 88, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, gamma-IFN, and nuclear factor κB immune-related genes were statistically signiﬁcantly upregulated in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias (P < 0.05). TiLV challenge experiments showed that relative percent survival (RPS) was signiﬁcantly enhanced in ﬁsh by this DNA vaccine. Moreover, RPS was enhanced further when using a higher amount of the DNA vaccine (85.72% RPS at a DNA dose of 45 μg pcDNA3.1–ORF10). Vaccination with pcDNA3.1–ORF10 signiﬁcantly reduced virus replication, as evidenced by the low amount of virus in the spleen, liver, and kidney of vaccinated tilapias after TiLV challenge. Thus, pcDNA3.1–ORF10 could induce protective immunity in tilapia and may be a potential vaccine candidate for controlling diseases caused by TiLV.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Neotropical non-human primates; serology; sylvatic cycles; Flavivirus; Dengue Virus; Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus; West Nile Virus
Online: 5 November 2020 (18:35:56 CET)
Arthropod-borne viruses belonging to the flavivirus genus possess an enormous relevance in public health. Neotropical non-human primates (NPs) have been proposed to be infected more frequently with flaviviruses due to their arboreal and diurnal habits, their genetic similarity to humans and their relative closeness to humans. However, the only known flavivirus in America that is maintained by sylvatic cycles involving NPs is Yellow Fever virus (YFV), and the NPs role as potential hosts of flaviviruses is still unknown. Here, we examined flavivirus exposure in 86 free range and captive NPs of Costa Rica to evaluate their involvement in flavivirus transmission cycles and their potential as flavivirus hosts. We used a highly-specific micro plaque reduction neutralization test (micro-PRNT) to determine the presence of antibodies against YFV, Dengue virus 1-4 (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile Virus (WNV) and Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV). We found evidence of seropositive NPs to DENV-1 8.2% (homotypic –3/86, heterotypic – 4/86), SLEV 15.1% (homotypic – 10/86, heterotypic – 2/86), WNV 2.3% (homotypic – 2/86) and 8.1% (7/86) undetermined Flavivirus species. No antibodies against YFV or ZIKV were found. This work provides compelling serological evidence of exposure in NPs of flaviviruses associated with urban cycles, i.e. DENV, and confirms decades of circulation of SLEV in the same environments. Also, the range of years of sampling and the socioeconomic region was statistically significant for the presence of Dengue and Flavivirus undetermined seropositive individuals, respectively. Both the years and socioeconomic regions with greater seroprevalence coincide with the years and socioeconomic regions with high numbers of Dengue human cases for the country. Our work suggests bidirectional? circulation of different flaviviruses between humans and wildlife with public health importance and underscores the necessity of further surveillance for flaviviruses in the humans/wildlife interface in Central America.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0407.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: covid; covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; zoonosis; ethnic disparities; health care disparities; virus strains; virus subtypes; virus variants
Online: 26 April 2020 (05:13:37 CEST)
A striking aspect of COVID-19 is the difference in the outcome of the infection between different countries, and different ethnic groups within one country. We surveyed the literature on SARS-CoV-2 complemented with comparative publications on SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses to capture the current understanding of virus – host interactions including virus subtypes, transmission, zoonotic aspects, and potential host determinants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1859.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RNA virus; negeviruses; SP24 protein; taxonomy; membrane-embedded protein; virus evolution
Online: 30 October 2023 (08:42:49 CET)
This paper describes new horizons in the diversity and taxonomy of negev-like viruses encoding the membrane-embedded SP24 protein. First, our data extend the known host range of SP24-encoding negev-like viruses to include brown algae, fungi, green plants, the phylum Entoprocta, the phylum Mollusca, and vertebrates. Second, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the evolution of the SP24 gene family may have involved frequent events of inter-order virus genome shuffling. Third, the identification of 2-3 copies of SP24 protein genes in some virus RNAs shows that virus genomes may have acquired additional SP24 genes during the evolutionary process due to duplications or new acquisition steps. Forth, the broad host specificity of some SP24-encoded viruses may be related to an important adaptive role of SP24. Fifth, insect and nematode genomes may acquire viral SP24 genes by putative horizontal transfer from negev-like viruses known to infect species of both taxa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2158.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Ebola virus; measles virus; VP35; PKR; PACT; RIG-I; drug screen.
Online: 31 August 2023 (08:42:45 CEST)
Infection with Ebola virus (EBOV) is responsible for haemorrhagic fever in humans with a high mortality rate. Combined efforts of prevention and therapeutic intervention are required to tackle highly variable RNA viruses, whose infections often lead to outbreaks. Here, we have screened the 2P2I3D chemical library using a nanoluc-based protein complementation assay (NPCA) and isolated two compounds disrupting the interaction of the EBOV protein fragment VP35IID with the N terminus of the dsRNA-binding proteins PKR and PACT, involved in IFN response and/or intrinsic immunity, respectively. The two compounds inhibited EBOV infection in cell culture as well as infection by measles virus (MV) independently of IFN induction. Consequently, we propose the compounds are antiviral by restoring intrinsic immunity driven by PACT. Given that PACT is highly conserved across mammals, we support further testing of the compounds in other species, as well as against further negative sense RNA viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: herpes simplex virus 1; HSV-1; virus-host interaction; miRNA; FoxO
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:34:09 CEST)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) expresses a large number of miRNAs, and their function is still not completely understood. In addition, HSV-1 has been found to deregulate host miRNAs, which adds to the complexity of regulation of efficient virus replication. In this study, we comprehen-sively addressed the deregulation of host miRNAs by massive-parallel sequencing. We found that only miRNAs expressed from a single cluster, miR-183/96/182 are reproducibly deregulated dur-ing productive infection. These miRNAs are predicted to regulate a great number of potential tar-gets involved in different cellular processes and have only 33 shared targets. Among these, mem-bers of the FoxO family of proteins were identified as potential targets for all three miRNAs. However, our study shows that the upregulated miRNAs do not affect the expression of FoxO proteins, moreover these proteins were upregulated in HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, we show that the individual FoxO proteins are not required for efficient HSV-1 replication. Taken together, our results indicate a complex and redundant response of infected cells to the virus infection that is efficiently inhibited by the virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: influenza virus; virus-host interaction; commonly prescribed drugs; drug adverse reaction
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:37:07 CEST)
Background: Every year, millions of people are hospitalized, and thousands die from influenza A virus (FLUAV) infection. Most cases of hospitalizations and death occur among elderly. Many of these elderly patients are reliant on medical treatment of underlying chronic diseases, such as arthritis, diabetes, and hypertension. We hypothesized that the commonly prescribed medicines for treatment of underlying chronic diseases can affect host responses to FLUAV infection, and thus contribute to morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether commonly prescribed medicines could affect host responses to virus infection in vitro. Methods: We first identified 45 active compounds of medicines commonly prescribed in Central Norway. Then we constructed a drug-target interaction network and identified potential implication of these interactions for FLUAV-host cell interplay. Finally, we tested the effect of 45 drugs on viability, transcription and metabolism of mock- and A/WSN/33(H1N1)-infected human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Results: In silico drug-target interaction analysis revealed that many drugs, such as acetylsalicylic acid, atorvastatin, candesartan, and hydroxocobalam, could target and modulate FLUAV-host cell interaction. In vitro experiments showed that these and other compounds at non-cytotoxic concentrations differently affected transcription and metabolism of mock- and FLUAV-infected cells. Conclusion: Many commonly prescribed drugs modulate FLUAV-host cell interactions in vitro and therefore could affect their interplay in vivo, thus, contributing to morbidity and mortality of patients with influenza virus infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: virus life history; transmission ecology; evolution; arthropod host; virus-host mutualism
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:42:38 CEST)
It remains poorly understood how the life history strategies and transmission ecologies of viruses of plants, arthropods, and vertebrates are interrelated. The present analysis hinges on the virus transmission success. Virus transmission reflects where in the host-body viruses are retained or replicating. Plants, arthropods, and vertebrates share a protective outer-layer, a circulatory system, and reproductive organs. The latter enables vertical virus transmission and associates with virus-host mutualism. Two broadly opposing virus life history strategies are considered. Acute viruses tend to be replicative and are swiftly transmitted to the next host. Instead, persistent viruses keep virus replicating costs and host damage to a minimum. The intertwined life histories and transmission ecologies are accordingly pieced together, based on the virus mono- or instead dual-host tropism, the location of virus retention or replication on or in the host-body, the presence of cyclical or mechanical transmission by arthropods, and of horizontal and vertical host-to-host transmission modes. It is shown that in the arthropod and in the vertebrate animal host, virus circulation in the hemocoel or blood circulation goes hand-in-hand with vertical transmission. Instead, plant phloem viruses do not transmit via seed. The latter is the rule for the plant-only viruses. The risk management implications are discussed in brief.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0106.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus evolution; cheat; cooperation; social evolution; defective interfering genome; satellite virus
Online: 22 April 2020 (06:02:05 CEST)
The success of many viruses depends upon cooperative interactions between viral genomes. For example, viruses that coinfect the same cell can share essential gene products, such as replicase, the enzyme that replicates the viral genome. However, when cooperation occurs, there is the potential for ‘cheats’ to exploit that cooperation. We suggest that: (1) the biology of viruses makes viral cooperation particularly susceptible to cheating; (2) cheats are common across a wide range of viruses, including viral entities that are already well studied, such as defective interfering genomes, and satellite viruses. Consequently, evolutionary theory developed to explain cheating offers a conceptual framework for understanding and manipulating viral dynamics. At the same time, viruses offer unique opportunities to study how cheats evolve, because cheating is relatively common in viruses, compared with taxa where cooperation is more usually studied, such as animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: pepino mosaic virus (PepMV); Solanum elaeagnifolium; S. rostratum; tomato brown rugose fruit virus (To-BRFV); virus reservoir; weed management
Online: 3 August 2022 (08:35:30 CEST)
Invasive weeds cause significant crop yield and economic losses in agriculture. The highest in-direct impact may be attributed to the role of invasive weeds as virus reservoirs especially within the commercial growing areas. The new tobamovirus tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), recently identified in the Middle-East, overcomes the Tm-22 resistance allele in the cultivated tomato varieties grown in greenhouses. In this study, we determined the role of invasive weed species as potential hosts for ToBRFV and pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). Out of all tested weed species, the invasive species So-lanum elaeagnifolium and S. rostratum, mechanically inoculated with ToBRFV, were positive for To-BRFV in both enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR tests. S. rostratum was also positive for PepMV. No conspicuous phenotype was observed on ToBRFV infected S. elaeagnifolium plants suggesting a hostplant associated defense response. S. rostratum plants inoculated with either ToBRFV alone or a mixture of ToBRFV and PepMV-IL, contained high ToBRFV levels. In addition, when inoculated with ToBRFV or PepMV-IL disease symptom manifestations were observed in S. rostratum plants and the symptoms were exacerbated upon mixed infections with both viruses. The distribution and abundance of both Solanaceae species increase the risks of virus transmission between species.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0698.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: raccoons; canine distemper virus
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:31:55 CEST)
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a serious contagious disease of canines, cats and sometimes ra-coons. The study included seven raccoons from Timisoara Zoo. The detection of CDV in all raccoons was accomplished using qRT-PCR, but several other exams were also conducted. Clinically, severe digestive disorders were observed, characterized by diarrhea and repeated hematemesis. Pseudomembranous gastroenteritis, congestion and pulmonary edema were found during the ne-cropsy of two racoons. Immunohistochemically, the brown color was highlighted in the examined sectionsand it was present in the cytoplasm of the cells from the germinal centers of the medullary area. Histopathological examination revealed lymphocyte depletion and intranuclear and intracy-toplasmic inclusions in the intestine. Based on the qRT-PCR assay, laboratory tests and lesions ob-served, it was established that the raccoons got infected with CDV, and two of them died as a result. The necropsy, histological lesions and immunohistochemical results are comparable between dogs and racoons. Through the results obtained, it was concluded that the interspecific infection is possible and the epidemiological risk of infection transmitted by racoons to domestic animals, such as dogs and cats, needs to be examined in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0502.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Medusavirus; giant virus; NCLDV
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:46:35 CET)
"Medusaviridae" is a proposed family of large DNA viruses so far represented by a sole virus isolated from a hot spring. In the present study, we report the isolation and genome sequencing of a new member of this family, medusavirus stheno, discovered from a freshwater sample with Acanthamoeba castellanii coculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0001.v1
Online: 1 March 2018 (04:11:26 CET)
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) causes a lifelong chronic infection and is associated with debilitating disease in kidney transplant recipients. Despite its importance, aspects of the virus life cycle remain poorly understood. In addition to the structural proteins, the late region of the BK genome encodes for an auxiliary protein called agnoprotein. Studies on other polyomavirus agnoproteins have suggested that the protein may contribute to virion infectivity. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for agnoprotein in BK virus release. Viruses lacking agnoprotein do not propagate to wild-type levels and fail to release from host cells. Despite this, loss of agnoprotein does not impair virion infectivity or morphogenesis. Instead, agnoprotein expression correlates with nuclear egress of BK virions. We demonstrate that the agnoprotein binding partner α-SNAP is necessary for BK virion release, and siRNA knockdown of α-SNAP prevents nuclear release of wild-type BK virions. These data highlight a novel role for agnoprotein and begin to reveal the mechanism by which polyomaviruses leave an infected cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0869.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Jingmenvirus group; Alongshan virus; qPCR; Flavivirus; Yanggou tick virus; tick-borne viruses
Online: 11 May 2023 (14:25:01 CEST)
The recently discovered Jingmenvirus group includes viruses with a segmented genome, RNA of a positive polarity, and several proteins with distant homology to the proteins of the members of the genus Flavivirus. Some Jingmenvirus group members, namely Alongshan virus (ALSV) and Jingmen tick virus, are reported to be tick-borne human pathogens, causing a wide variety of symptoms. ALSV is widely distributed in Eurasia, yet there is no reliable assay for its detection. Here, we describe a qPCR system for the detection of ALSV. Our data show that this system can detect as low as 104 copies of ALSV in the probe. It shows no amplification with common tick-borne viruses circulating in Eurasia, Yanggou tick virus—another member of the Jingmenvirus group—or some known members of the genus Flavivirus. The qPCR system was tested have no non-specific signal for Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, Haemaphysalis concinna, and H. japonica ticks. Overall, the qPCR system described here can be used for reliable and quantitative ALSV detection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Campenot, neurons, superior cervical ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, virus, alphaherpesvirus, herpes simplex virus, pseudorabies virus, fluorescence microscopy, cryo electron tomography
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:08:12 CEST)
The development of compartmentalized neuron culture systems has been invaluable in the study of neuroinvasive viruses, including the alpha herpesviruses Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and Pseudorabies Virus (PRV). This chapter provides updated protocols for assembling and culturing rodent embryonic superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in Campenot trichamber cultures. In addition, we provide several illustrative examples of the types of experiments that are enabled by Campenot cultures: 1. Using fluorescence microscopy to investigate axonal outgrowth/extension through the chambers, and alpha herpesvirus infection, intracellular trafficking, and cell-cell spread via axons. 2. Using correlative fluorescence microscopy and cryo electron tomography to investigate the ultrastructure of virus particles trafficking in axons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus; purification; affinity extraction; affinity chromatography, CCMV-binding peptide; virus-like particles; VLP, plant virus, nanotechnology, nanoparticles; virus production; safety issues; ultracentrifugation-free protocol; molecular dynamics
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:09:14 CET)
Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a plant virus explored as a nanotechnological platform. The robust self-assembly mechanism of its capsid protein allows for drug encapsulation and targeted delivery. Additionally, the capsid nanoparticle can be used as a programmable platform to display different molecular moieties. In view of future applications, efficient production and purification of plant viruses is a key step. In established protocols, the need for ultracentrifugation is a significant limitation due to cost, difficult scalability, and safety issues. In addition, the purity of the final virus isolate often remains unclear. Here, an advanced protocol for the purification of CCMV from infected plant tissue was developed, focusing on efficiency, economy, and final purity. The protocol involves precipitation with PEG 8000, followed by an affinity extraction using a novel peptide aptamer. The efficiency of the protocol was validated using size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, reversed-phase HPLC, and sandwich immunoassay. It was demonstrated that the final eluate of the affinity column is of exceptional purity (98.4%) determined by HPLC and detection at 220 nm. The scale-up of our proposed method seems to be straightforward, which opens the way to the large-scale production of such nanomaterials. This highly improved protocol may facilitate the use and implementation of plant viruses as nanotechnological platforms for in vitro and in vivo applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus; influenza A virus; influenza B virus; SARS-CoV-2; rapid RT-PCR; diagnostic accuracy; point-of-care testing
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:38:13 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B virus (IAV/IBV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are among the common viruses causing acute respiratory infections. Clinical diagnosis to differentiate these viruses is challenging due to similar clinical presentations, thus laboratory-based real-time RT PCR is the gold standard for diagnosis. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of STANDARD M10 Flu/RSV/SARS-CoV-2 (SD Biosensor Inc, Seoul, Korea). This retrospective study was conducted with archived respiratory samples positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2, IAV, IBV or RSV. The evaluation study involved a total of 322 respiratory samples comprising 215 positive samples (49 SARS-CoV-2, 48 IAV, 53 IBV, 65 RSV) and 107 negative samples. All samples were tested with both STANDARD M10 and either Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 or Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV (Cepheid, USA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value rates of STANDARD M10 were very similar to Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 or Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV ranges for each virus (98-100%). The overall agreement was 99.4% with 99.1% agreement for positive samples and 100% agreement for negative samples. In conclusion, the STANDARD M10 point-of-care test is suitable for rapid simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2, IAV, IBV and RSV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HBV; woodchuck hepatitis virus; early virus-host DNA integration; virus-induced oxidative DNA damage; dsDNA repair; NHEJ; retrotransposons; ocogenesis; hepatocellular carcinoma
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:34:45 CEST)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a dominant cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently it was shown that HBV and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) integrate into hepatocyte genome minutes after invasion. Retrotransposons and transposable sequences were frequent sites of the initial insertions suggesting a mechanism for spontaneous HBV DNA disperse throughout hepatocyte genome. Several somatic genes were also identified as early insertional targets in infected hepatocytes and woodchuck livers. Head-to-tail joints (HTJs) dominated amongst fusions indicating their creation by non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ). Their formation coincided with robust oxidative damage of hepatocyte DNA. This was associated with activation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-mediated dsDNA repair as reflected by augmented transcription of PARP1 and XRCC1, the PARP1 binding partner, OGG1, a responder to oxidative DNA damage, and by increased activity of NAD+, a marker of PARP1 activation, and HO1, an indicator of cell oxidative stress. The engagement of the PARP1-mediated NHEJ repair pathway explains HTJ format of the initial merges. The findings showed that HBV and WHV are immediate inducers of oxidative DNA damage, hijack dsDNA repair to integrate into hepatocyte genome and by this may initiate pro-oncogenic process. Tracking initial integrations may uncover early markers of HCC and help to explain HBV-associated oncogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Jingmen tick virus; Alongshan virus; flavi-like viruses; class II viral fusion proteins; O-liked glycans; mucin-like domain; virus evolution
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:29:14 CET)
Jingmen viruses are newly described segmented flavi-like viruses that have a worldwide distribution in ticks and have been associated with febrile illnesses in humans. Computational analyses were used to predict that Jingmen flavi-like virus glycoproteins have structural features of class II viral fusion proteins, including an ectodomain consisting of beta-sheets and short alpha-helices, a fusion peptide with interfacial hydrophobicity and a three domain architecture. Jingmen flavi-like virus glycoproteins have a sequence enriched in serine, threonine and proline at the amino terminus, which is a feature of mucin-like domains. Several of the serines and threonines are predicted be modified by the addition of O-linked glycans. Some of the glycoproteins are predicted to have an additional mucin-like domain located prior to the transmembrane anchor, whereas others are predicted to have a stem consisting of two alpha-helices. The flavivirus envelope protein and Jingmen flavi-virus glycoproteins may have diverged from a common class II precursor glycoprotein with a mucin-like domain or domains acquired after divergence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; liver cirrhosis; prevalence; cancer
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:30:13 CET)
Background and Aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in liver cirrhosis. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides detailed information on the prevalence of SBP among HBV and HCV-related liver cirrhosis globally. Methods: A systematic search for articles describing the prevalence of SBP in HBV, and HCV related cirrhosis was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Our search returned ten (10) eligible articles involving 1,713 viral cirrhosis cases representing eight (8) countries. A meta-analysis was performed on our eligible studies using the random effect model. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022321790). Results: The pooled prevalence of SBP in HBV associated cirrhosis had the highest estimate [8.0% (95% CI, 2.7 – 21.0%; I2= 96.13%; p < 0.001)], followed by SBP in HCV associated liver cirrhosis [4.0% (95% CI, 1.3% – 11.5%; I2 = 88.99%; p < 0.001)]. China (61.8%, CI: 57.1 – 66.3%), the USA (50.0%, CI: 34.6 – 65.4%), and Holland (31.1%, CI: 21.6 – 42.5%) had the highest estimate for SBP in HBV associated liver cirrhosis, SBP in HCV associated liver cirrhosis and SBP in HBV+HCV associated liver cirrhosis respectively. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of SBP in viral hepatitis-associated liver cirrhosis with the year of sampling and method of SBP detection at P<0.001. There was an increase in SBP incidence at the beginning of 2016 across the liver cirrhosis in this study. Conclusion: The findings of this review revealed an increase in the incidence of SBP in viral hepatitis over the last decade, the latter could be due to the global increase in Bacterial resistance. This indicates a possible future rise in the global prevalence of SBP among HBV, and HCV-related liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0209.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: spatiotemporal modeling; arbovirus transmission; remote sensing; eastern equine encephalitis virus; West Nile virus
Online: 16 May 2022 (12:22:14 CEST)
The irregular timing and spatial variation in zoonotic arbovirus spillover from vertebrate hosts to humans and livestock present challenges to predicting their occurrence from year to year and within their broader geographic range, compromising effective prevention and control strategies. The objective of this study was to quantify effects of landscape composition and configuration and dynamic temperature and precipitation values on the 2018 spatiotemporal distribution of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) and West Nile virus (WNV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) sentinel chicken seroconversion in northeastern Florida using Earth Observation (EO) data and a modeling framework that incorporated joint spatial and temporal effects. We investigated environmental effects using Bernoulli generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMMs) including a site level random effect, and then added spatial random effects and spatiotemporal random effects in subsequent runs. Models were executed using integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) and a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach in R-INLA. GLMMs that included a spatiotemporal random effect performed better relative to models that included only spatial random effects and better than non-spatial models. Results indicated strong spatiotemporal structure in seroconversion for both viruses, but EEEV exhibited more punctuated and compact structure at the beginning of the sampling season, while WNV exhibited more gradual and diffuse structure across the study area toward the end of the sampling season. Percentage of cypress/tupelo wetland land cover within 3500 m of coop sites and edge density of forest land cover within 500 m had a strong positive effect on EEEV seroconversion, while the best fitting model for WNV was the intercept only model with spatiotemporal random effects. Lagged temperature and precipitation variables included in our study did not have a strong effect on seroconversion for either virus when accounting for temporal autocorrelation, demonstrating the utility of capturing this structure to avoid Type I errors. Predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data for EEEV seroconversion demonstrates the potential to develop a temporally dynamic framework to predict arbovirus transmission.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus-host interaction; human immunodeficiency virus; protein-protein interactions; OMICs; transcriptomics; network analysis
Online: 30 April 2020 (03:07:05 CEST)
The interaction of human immunodeficiency virus with human cells is responsible for all stages of the viral life cycle, from the infection of CD4+ cells to reverse transcription, integration, and the assembly of new viral particles. To date, a large amount of OMICs data as well as information from functional genomics screenings regarding the HIV-1-host interaction has been accumulated in the literature and in public databases. We processed databases containing HIV-host interactions and found 2910 HIV-1-human protein-protein interactions, mostly related to viral group M subtype B, 137 interactions between human and HIV-1 coding and non-coding RNAs, essential for viral lifecycle and cell defense mechanisms, 232 transcriptomics, 27 proteomics, and 34 epigenomics HIV-related experiments. Numerous studies regarding network-based analysis of corresponding OMICs data have been published in recent years. We overview various types of molecular networks, which can be created using OMICs data, including HIV-human protein-protein interaction networks, co-expression networks, gene regulatory and signaling networks, and approaches for the analysis of their topology and dynamics. The network-based analysis can be used to determine the critical pathways and key proteins involved in the HIV life cycle, cellular and immune responses to infection, viral escape from host defense mechanisms, and mechanisms mediating different susceptibility of humans to infection. The proteins and pathways identified in these studies may represent a basis for developing new anti-HIV therapeutic strategies such as new small-molecule drugs preventing infection of CD4+ cells and viral replication, effective vaccines, "shock and kill" and "block and lock" approaches to cure latent infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0863.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: canine; respiratory; virus; disease; diagnostics
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:12:33 CEST)
Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) is caused by different viruses and bacteria. Viruses associated with CIRDC include canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV). Bacteria associated with CIRDC include Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, and Mycoplasma spp. The present study examined the prevalence of pathogens associated with CIRDC in specimens received by a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Georgia from 2018 to 2022. Out of 459 cases, viral agents were detected in 34% cases and bacterial agents were detected in 58% cases. A single pathogen was detected in 31% cases, while two or more pathogens were identified in 24% cases. The percentages of viral agents identified were CAV-2 (4%), CDV (3%), CPIV (16%), CCoV (7%), and CIV (2%). The percentages of bacterial agents were Bordetella bronchiseptica (10%), Mycoplasma canis (24%), Mycoplasma cynos (21%), and S treptococcus zooepidemicus (2%). Positive viral cases ranged from 2-4% for CAV-2, 1-7% for CDV, 1-4% for CHV, 9-22% for CPIV, 4-13% for CCoV, and 1-4% for CIV. Overall, the study showed that the most prevalent pathogens associated with CIRDC during the study period were CPIV, M. canis, and M. cynos.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0323.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Apoptosis; Dengue Virus; microRNAs; Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Online: 26 January 2023 (10:47:59 CET)
The World Health Organization has estimated an annual occurrence of approximately 392 million Dengue virus (DENV) infections in more than 100 countries where the virus is endemic, and this represents a serious threat to humanity. DENV is a serologic group with four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) belonging to the genus Flavivirus, in the family Flaviviridae. Dengue is the most widespread mosquito-borne disease in the world. The ~10.7 kb DENV genome encodes three structural proteins (capsid [C], pre-membrane [prM], and envelope [E]) and seven non-structural (NS) proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5). The NS1 protein is a membrane-associated dimer and a secreted, lipid-associated hexamer. Dimeric NS1 is found on membranes both in cellular compartments and cell surfaces. Secreted NS1 (sNS1) is often present in patient serum at very high levels, which correlates with severe dengue symptoms. This study was conducted to discover how NS1 protein, microRNAs-15/16 (miRNAs-15/16), and apoptosis are related during DENV-4 infection in human liver cell lines. Huh 7.5 and HepG2 cells were infected with DENV-4, and miRNAs-15/16, viral load, NS1 protein, and caspases-3/7 were quantified after different times of infection. This study demonstrated that miRNAs-15/16 are overexpressed during infection of HepG2 and Huh 7.5 cells by DENV-4 and have a relationship with NS1 protein expression, viral load, and activity of caspases-3/7, thus making these miRNAs potential injury markers during DENV infection in human hepatocytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0501.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Polycomb silencing; Virus; Herpesvirus; Latency
Online: 21 June 2021 (10:31:51 CEST)
The Human Herpesviruses persist in the form of a latent infection in specialized cell types. During latency, the herpesvirus genomes associate with cellular histone proteins and the viral lytic genes assemble into transcriptionally repressive heterochromatin. Although there is divergence in the nature of heterochromatin on latent herpesvirus genomes, in general the genomes assemble into forms of heterochromatin that can convert to euchromatin to permit gene expression and therefore reactivation. This reversible form of heterochromatin is known as facultative heterochromatin and is most commonly characterized by polycomb silencing. Polycomb silencing is prevalent on the cellular genome and plays a role in developmentally regulated and imprinted genes, as well as X chromosome inactivation. As herpesviruses initially enter the cell in an un-chromatinized state, they provide an optimal system to study how de novo facultative heterochromatin is targeted to regions of DNA and how it contributes to silencing. Here, we describe how polycomb-mediated silencing potentially assembles onto herpesvirus genomes, synergizing what is known about herpesvirus latency with facultative heterochromatin targeting to the cellular genome. A greater understanding of polycomb silencing of herpesviruses will inform on the mechanism of persistence and reactivation of these pathogenic human viruses and provide clues regarding how de novo facultative heterochromatin forms on the cellular genome.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0436.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; corona virus; India
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:31:15 CEST)
Novel Coronavirus infection mediated pandemic started in China in December 2019 and is still killing 1000s of people throughout the world. The second most populous country, India too is fighting against this infectious disease. The country is taking effective measures to curb the pandemic by exerting extensive campaigning on sanitation and strict social distancing measures to quell the explosion of the infection rate. The future of the COVID-19 infections in India still remain unpredictable, so precautionary methods need to be continued until the growth rate of new cases drop below one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Burkitt's lymphoma; Epstein-Barr Virus
Online: 18 January 2020 (09:01:45 CET)
The Tumor Microenviroment (TME) is a complex milieu that is increasingly recognized as a key factor in multiple stages of disease progression and responses to therapy as well as escape from immune surveillance. However, the precise contribution of specific immune effector and immune suppressor components of the TME in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains poorly understood. In this paper, we applied the computational algorithm CIBERSORT to Gene Expression Profile (GEP) datasets of 40 BL samples to draw a map of immune and stromal components of TME. Furthermore, by VECTRA multispectral immunofluorescence (IF) and multiple immunohistochemistry (IHC), we investigated the TME of an additional series of 40 BL cases and evaluated the possible role of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint axis. Our results indicated that M2 polarized macrophages are the most prominent TME component in BL. In addition, we investigated the correlation between PD-L1 and latent membrane protein-2A (LMP2A) expression on tumour cells, highlighting a subgroup of BL cases characterized by a non- canonical latency program of EBV with an activated PD-L1 pathway. In conclusion, our study analysed the TME in BL and identified a tolerogenic immune signature highlighting new potential therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0087.v1
Online: 14 March 2017 (18:34:37 CET)
For many years marine algae has been subject of numerous researches and as a source of natural products with antiviral activity, such as terpenes, alkaloids and sulphated polysaccharides. However, the anti-Zika virus (ZIKV) potential of algae has not been studied. In this study we evaluated extracts seven species of the three major classes of seaweeds (Phaeophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyceae) against ZIKV. All seaweeds tested are native of the Brazilian coast, except for Kappaphycus alvarezii that can be cultivated. ZIKV a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has become a public health problem. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of cases and a strong association between ZIKV outbreak and the spread of cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and microcephaly. All seaweed extracts tested in this work inhibits ZIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner. Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Osmundaria obtusiloba extracts were able to inhibit viral replication at low concentrations with EC50 values ranging from 1.38 to 1.98 µg/mL. We observed that O. obtusiloba presented a significant virucidal effect. Our results suggest that extracts of C. racemosa, K. alvarezii and O. obtusiloba presented very promising results, being excellent candidates for further studies, demonstrating that marine algae are an interesting source for the development of novel anti-ZIKV agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1517.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Antiviral; Thiourea derivatives; Hepatitis B Virus; Chronic hepatitis B infection; Mitochondria dysfunction; Exhausted hepatocytes
Online: 29 May 2023 (14:29:16 CEST)
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and the Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) are major risk factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In CHB infection, HBx induces mitochondrial dysfunction, exhaustion and impaired function in hepatocytes. Restoring hepatocyte health along with reduction in virus replication could be an ideal treatment for CHB. Thiourea derivatives are well known for their antiviral property though their effect on mitochondrial and/ or hepatocyte health remains obscure. This study focus on the repurposing of thiourea derivatives (DSA-00, DSA-02, and DSA-09) on hepatocyte replenishment. HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with thiourea derivatives, alongside Entecavir (ETV). The proteomics analysis showed both DSA-00 and ETV were enriched with proteins associated with antiviral responses. In addition, DSA-00 additionally showed increase in proteins linked to mitochondrial response. Whereas DSA-02 exhibited association with innate immune system and citric acid cycle and DSA-09 displayed pathways similar to DSA-00 and ETV. Treated groups exhibited enhanced bio-energetic and antiviral response as compared to the untreated group. FACS analysis revealed the restoration of exhausted hepatocytes by thiourea derivatives through targeting mitochondria. Our findings suggest that thiourea derivatives hold potential as a novel therapeutic agent that seems to restore mitochondrial health along with anti-viral response in CHB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Zika virus; Zika virus infection; perinatal transmission; mother-to-child transmission; breast milk; breastfeeding
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:44:05 CET)
To gain new insights into the potential of mother-to-child transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) through breast milk or breastfeeding practices, we systematically searched regional and international databases and screened 1,658 non-duplicate records describing women with suspected or confirmed ZIKV infection, intending to breastfeed or give breast milk to an infant. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria and inform this analysis. These studies reported on 97 mother-children pairs who provided breast milk for ZIKV assessment. Seventeen breast milk samples from different women were found positive for ZIKV via RT-PCR, and ZIKV replication was found in cell cultures from five out of seven breast milk samples from different women. Only three out of six infants who had ZIKV infection were breastfed, no evidence of clinical complications were found to be associated with ZIKV RNA in breast milk. This review updates our previous report by synthesizing the evidence from 12 new articles and we find no evidence of mother-to-child transmission through breast milk intake or breastfeeding. As the certainty of the present evidence is low, additional studies are still warranted to completely understand any potential of transmission of ZIKV through breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0501.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, Sida golden mosaic Florida virus, Whitefly, Snap beans, Lima beans
Online: 25 October 2020 (19:12:11 CET)
The production and quality of Phaseolus vulgaris (snap bean) have been negatively impacted by leaf crumple disease caused by two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses; cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFV), which often appear as a mixed infection in Georgia. Host resistance is the most economical management strategy against whitefly-transmitted viruses. Currently, information is not available with respect to resistance to these two viruses in commercial cultivars. In two field seasons (2018 and 2019), we screened Phaseolus sp. genotypes (n = 84 in 2018; n = 80 in 2019; most of the genotypes were common in both years with a few exceptions) for resistance against CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV. Twenty genotypes with high- to moderate-levels of resistance (disease severity ranging from 5-50%) to CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV were identified. Twenty-one genotypes were found to be highly susceptible with a disease severity of ≥66%. Adult whitefly counts differed significantly among snap bean genotypes for both years. The whole genome of these Phaseolus sp. (n=82) genotypes was sequenced and genetic variability among them was identified. Over 900 giga-base (Gb) of filtered data were generated and >88% of the resulting data were mapped to the reference genome, and SNP and Indel variants in Phaseolus genotypes were obtained. A total of 645,729 SNPs and 68,713 Indels including 30,169 insertions and 38,543 deletions were identified, which were distributed in 11 chromosomes with chromosome 02 harboring the maximum number of variants. These phenotypic and genotypic information will be helpful in genome-wide association studies that will aid in identifying genetic basis of resistance to these begomoviruses in Phaseolus sp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; yellow fever virus; cross-reactivity; neutralization; enhancement; zika congenital syndrome; stem cells
Online: 7 July 2020 (02:29:39 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that originated in Africa but emerged in Latin America in 2015. In this region, other flaviviruses such as Dengue (DENV), West Nile, and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) also circulate, allowing for possible antigenic cross-reactivity to impact viral infections and immune responses. Studies have found antibody mediated enhancement between DENV and ZIKV, but the impact of YFV antibodies on ZIKV infection has not been fully explored. ZIKV infections cause congenital syndromes, such as microcephaly, necessitating further research into ZIKV vertical transmission through the placental barrier. Recent advancements in biomedical engineering have generated co-culture methods that allow for in vitro recapitulation of the maternal: fetal interface. This study utilized a transwell assay, which is a co-culture model utilizing human placental syncytiotrophoblasts, fetal umbilical cells, and a differentiating embryoid body to replicate the maternal: fetal axis. To determine if cross reactive YFV vaccine antibodies impact the pathogenesis of ZIKV across the maternal fetal axis, maternal syncytiotrophoblasts were inoculated with ZIKV or ZIKV incubated with YFV vaccine anti-sera, and viral load was measured 72 hours post inoculation. Here we report that BeWo and HUVEC cells are permissive to ZIKV and that the impact of YFV post-vaccination antibodies on ZIKV replication is cell line dependent. Embryoid bodies are also permissive to ZIKV and the presence of YFV antibodies collected 1 to 6 months post vaccination enhances ZIKV infection. Our data show that each of the cell lines and EBs have a unique response to ZIKV complexed with post-vaccination serum suggesting there may be cell-specific mechanisms that impact congenital ZIKV infections. Since ZIKV infections can cause severe congenital syndromes, it is crucial to understand any potential enhancement or protection offered from cross-reactive, post-vaccination antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0505.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Viral Co-infection; SARS-CoV-2; Influenza A virus; Human Immunodeficiency virus
Online: 18 June 2020 (04:57:14 CEST)
In December 2019, pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Early in 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a new name for the 2019-nCoV-caused epidemic disease: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and declared COVID-19 to be the sixth international public health emergency. Cellular co-infection is a critical determinant of both viral fitness and infection outcome and plays a crucial role in shaping the host immune response to infections. In this study, sixty-eight public next-generation sequencing libraries from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were retrieved from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive database using SRA-Toolkit. Using an alignment-free method based on K-mer mapping and extension, SARS-CoV-2 was identified in all except three patients. Influenza A H7N9 (3/68), Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (1/68), rhabdovirus isolate (3/68), Human metapneumovirus (1/68), coronaviruses NL63 (1/68), Parvovirus (1/68), Simian virus 40 (1/68), and hepatitis virus (1/68) genome sequences were detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0181.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee virus; Hymenoptera; insect cell culture; cell lines; Apis mellifera; Deformed wing virus
Online: 12 February 2020 (09:06:34 CET)
With ongoing colony losses driven in part by the Varroa mite and the associated exacerbation of virus load, there is an urgent need to protect honey bees (Apis mellifera) from fatal levels of virus infection and from nontarget effects of insecticides used in agricultural settings. A continuously replicating cell line derived from the honey bee would provide a valuable tool for study of molecular mechanisms of virus – host interaction, for screening of antiviral agents for potential use within the hive, and for assessment of the risk of current and candidate insecticides to the honey bee. However, the establishment of a continuously replicating, honey bee cell line has proved challenging. Here we provide an overview of attempts to establish primary and continuously replicating hymenopteran cell lines, methods (including recent results) for establishing honey bee cell lines, challenges associated with the presence of latent viruses (especially Deformed wing virus), in established cell lines and methods to establish virus-free cell lines. We also describe the potential use of honey bee cell lines in conjunction with infectious clones of honey bee viruses for examination of fundamental virology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; novel corona virus; Wuhan virus; drug; vaccine; spike protein; epitope; vaccine design
Online: 5 February 2020 (15:34:15 CET)
The recent outbreak of the new virus in Wuhan city, China from the sea food market has led to the identification of a new strain called the corona virus and named as novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) belonging to Coronaviridae family. This has created major havoc and concern due to the mortality of 250 persons and affecting more than 10,000 people. This virus causes sudden fever, pneumonia and also kidney failure. In this study a computational approach is proposed for drug and vaccine design. The spike protein sequences were collected from a protein database and analysed with various bioinformatics tools to identify suitable natural inhibitors for the N-terminal receptor binding domain of spike protein. Also, it is attempted to identify suitable vaccine candidates by identifying B-Cell and T-cell epitopes. In the drug design, the tanshinone Iia and methyl Tanshinonate were identified as natural inhibitors based on the docking score. In the vaccine design, B-cell epitope VLLPLVSSQCVNLTTRTQLPPAYTN was found to have the highest antigenicity. FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-I allele and FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-II allele were identified as best peptides based on a number of alleles and antigencity scores. The present study identifies natural inhibitors and putative antigenic epitopes which may be useful as effective drug and vaccine candidates for the eradication of novel corona virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, immune responses, gene expression
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:12:05 CET)
Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses. The leucine-rich repeats (LRR)-containing domain is evolutionarily conserved in many proteins associated with innate immunity in invertebrates and vertebrates, as well as plants. We focused on the AaeLRIM1 and AaeAPL1 gene expressions in response to Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection using a time course study, as well as the developmental expressions in the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults. RNA-seq analysis data provided 60 leucine-rich repeat related transcriptions in Ae. aegypti in response to Zika virus (Accession number: GSE118858, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gds/?term=GSE118858). RNA-seq analysis data showed that AaeLRIM1 (AAEL012086-RA) and AaeAPL1 (AAEL009520-RA) were significantly upregulated 2.5 and 3-fold during infection by ZIKV 7-days post infection (dpi) of an Ae. aegypti Key West strain compared to an Orlando strain. The qPCR data showed that LRR-containing proteins AaeLRIM1, AaeAPL1 and five paralogues were expressed 100-fold lower than other nuclear genes, such as defensin, during all developmental stages examined. Together, these data provide insights into transcription profiles of LRR proteins of Ae. aegypti during its development and in response to infection with emergent arboviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0211.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; Flavivirus; RNA Viruses; Viruses; surveillance; occurrence; epidemiology; West Nile virus; Aedes; Culicidae
Online: 30 March 2017 (04:53:34 CEST)
In 2015 in Brazil, Zika virus showed features of geographic expansion and potentially increased virulence. In 2016, New York State issued emergency regulations after the World Health Organization declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. In this study, mosquito surveillance was conducted in Westchester County, New York, to identify Zika virus and other arboviruses. Twenty trap sites were used for surveillance of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, the Zika virus vector. The Westchester County Department of Health performed testing for Zika, West Nile, Eastern equine encephalitis, and other flaviviruses on 369 batches comprising 8,891 mosquitoes. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were identified in Nassau, Rockland, Suffolk, Westchester, and New York City. Despite the increased capacity for specimen analysis, Zika virus was not detected. This study provides the first evidence of appropriate Zika virus surveillance. However, the results do not allow determination of the potential mechanism of local vector-to-human transmission of Zika virus among Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. This study adds to the evidence regarding the distribution, emergence, and trapping capabilities of potential Zika virus vectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0781.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: porcine circovirus; swine influenza A virus; epithelial cells; macrophages; co-infection; viral pathogenesis; virus replication
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:22:26 CEST)
The pathogenesis of porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b) and swine influenza A virus (SwIV) during co-infection in swine respiratory cells is poorly understood. To elucidate the impact of PCV2b/SwIV co-infection, newborn porcine tracheal epithelial cells (NPTr) and immortalized porcine alveolar macrophages (iPAM 3D4/21) were co-infected with PCV2b and SwIV (H1N1 or H3N2 genotype). Viral replication, cell viability and cytokine mRNA expression were determined and compared between single-infected and co-infected cells. Finally, 3’mRNA sequencing was performed to identify the modulation of gene expression and cellular pathways in co-infected cells. It was found that PCV2b significantly decreased and improved SwIV replication, in co-infected NPTr and iPAM 3D4/21 cells respectively, compared to single infected cells. Interestingly, PCV2b/SwIV co-infection synergistically up-regulated IFN expression in NPTr cells whereas in iPAM 3D4/21 cells, PCV2b impaired the SwIV IFN induced response, both correlating with SwIV replication modulation. RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that the modulation of gene expression and enriched cellular pathways during PCV2b/SwIV H1N1 co-infection is regulated in a cell type-dependent-manner. This study revealed different outcomes of PCV2b/SwIV co-infection in porcine epithelial cells and macrophages and provides new insights on porcine viral co-infections pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0413.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever virus; early virus detection; artificial insemination; pathogenesis; transmission; boar semen; vertical transmission
Online: 22 November 2022 (09:13:27 CET)
Rapid spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV), causing severe disease with often high fatality rates in Eurasian suids, prevails as a threat for pig populations and dependent industries world-wide. Although advancing scientific progress continually enhances our understanding of ASFV pathogenesis, alternative transmission routes for ASFV have yet to be assessed. Here, we demonstrate that ASFV can efficiently be transferred from infected boars to naïve recipient gilts through artificial insemination (AI). In modern pig production, semen from boar studs often supplies many sow herds. Thus, the infection of a boar stud presents the risk of rapidly and widely distributing ASFV within or between countries. Daily blood and semen collection from four boars after intramuscular inoculation with ASFV strain ‘Estonia 2014’ resulted in detection of ASFV genomes in the semen as early as 2 dpi, in blood at 1 dpi while semen quality remained largely unaffected. Ultimately, after insemination with extended semen, 7 of 14 gilts were ASFV positive by 7 days post insemination, and all gilts were ASFV positive by 35 days post insemi-nation. Twelve out of 13 gilts aborted at the onset of fever. A proportion of fetuses originating from the remaining gilt showed both abnormalities and replication of ASFV in fetal tissues. Thus, we present evidence for the efficient transmission of ASFV to gilts via AI and also to im-planted embryos. These results underline the critical role that boar semen could play in ASFV transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0646.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Grapevine leafroll disease; viromics; dsRNA extraction; virus epidemiology; virus co-occurrence; Vitis vinifera; interspecific hybrid
Online: 29 September 2020 (08:49:24 CEST)
Quebec is the third-largest wine grape producing province in Canada, and the industry is constantly expanding. Traditionally, 90% of the grapevine cultivars grown in Quebec were rustic or semi-rustic and largely dominated by winter hardy interspecific hybrid Vitis sp. cultivars. Over the years, the winter protection techniques adopted by growers and climate changes have offered an opportunity to establish V. vinifera L. cultivars (e.g. Pinot Noir). We characterized the virome of leafroll-infected interspecific hybrid cultivar and compared it to the virome of V. vinifera cultivar to support and facilitate the transition of the industry. A dsRNA sequencing method was used to sequence symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevine leaves of different cultivars. The results suggested a complex virome in terms of composition, abundance, richness, and phylogenetic diversity. Three viruses, grapevine Rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, grapevine leafroll-associated virus (GLR) 3 and 2 and hop stunt viroid (HSVd) largely dominated the virome. However, their presence and abundance varied among grapevine cultivars. The symptomless grapevine cultivar Vidal was frequently infected by multiple virus and viroid species and different strains of the same virus, including GLR virus 3 and 2. Our data shows that viruses and viroids associated with the highest number of grapevines expressing symptoms included HSVd, GLR3 and GLR2, in gradient order. However, co-occurrence analysis revealed that the presence of GLR species was randomly associated with the development of virus-like symptoms. These findings and their implication for grapevine leafroll disease management were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Porcine rotavirus; G5; Virus isolation; Pathogenicity
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:02:46 CET)
(1) Background: Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the primary cause of severe intestinal diseases in piglets. Porcine rotaviruses (PoRVs) are widely prevalent in Chinese farms, resulting in significant economic losses to the livestock industry. However, isolation of PoRVs is challenging, and their pathogenicity in piglets is not well understood. (2) Methods: We conduct clinical testing on a farm in Jiangsu Province, China, and isolate strains of porcine rotavirus by continuously passaging on MA104 cells. Subsequently, the pathogenicity of the isolated strain in piglets was investigated.The piglets of the PoRV-infection group were orally inoculated with 1 mL of 1.0 × 106 TCID50 PoRV, whereas those of the mock-infection group were fed with an equivalent amount of DMEM. (3) Results: Fecal samples were collected from 28 piglets, all of which tested positive for RVAs. A G5P genotype porcine rotavirus strain was successfully isolated from one of the positive samples and named RVA/Pig/China/JS/2023/G5P(JS). The genomic constellation of this strain was G5-P-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. Sequence analysis revealed that the genes VP3, VP7, NSP2, and NSP4 of the JS strain were closely related to human RVAs, whereas the remaining gene segments were closely related to porcine RVAs, indicating a reassortment between porcine and human strains. Furthermore, infection of 15-day-old piglets with the JS strain resulted in a diarrheal rate of 100% (8 of 8) and mortality rate of 37.5% (3 of 8).(4) Conclusion: The isolated G5P  genotype rotavirus strain, which exhibited strong pathogenicity in piglets, may have resulted from recombination between porcine and human strains. It may serve as a potential candidate strain for developing vaccines, and its immunogenicity can be tested in future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1892.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Oncolytic virus; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:58:30 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer care and shown remarkable efficacy clinically. This efficacy is, however, limited to subsets of patients with significant infiltration of lymphocytes into the tumor microenvironment. To extend their efficacy to patients who fail to respond or achieve durable responses, it is now becoming evident that complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to extend efficacy to patients with immunologically “cold” tumours. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to selectively replicate within and kill tumour cells resulting in the induction of immunogenic cell death and the augmentation of anti-tumour immunity and have emerged as a promising modality for combination therapy to overcome the limitations seen with ICIs. Pre-clinical and clinical data has demonstrated that OVs can increase immune cell infiltration into the tumour and induce anti-tumour immunity, thus changing a “cold” tumour microenvironment that is commonly associated with poor response to ICIs, to a “hot” microenvironment which can render patients more susceptible to ICIs. Here, we review the major viral vector platforms used in OV clinical trials, their success when used as a monotherapy and when combined with adjuvant ICIs, as well as pre-clinical studies looking at the effectiveness of encoding OVs to deliver ICIs locally to the tumour microenvironment through transgene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1208.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cytokines; oclacitinib; oncolytic virus; dogs; cancer
Online: 18 July 2023 (10:10:30 CEST)
Human rhabdomyosarcomas are rarely cured by surgical resection alone. This is also true for high grade soft tissue sarcomas in dogs. Dogs with spontaneous sarcoma are good models for clinical responses to new cancer therapies. Strategic combinations of immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy (OV) could improve treatment responses in canine and human cancer patients. To develop an appropriate combination of immunotherapy and OV for dogs with soft tissue sarcoma (STS), canine cancer cells were inoculated with myxoma viruses (MYXVs) and gene transcripts were quantified. Next, cytokine concentrations in canine cancer cells were altered to evaluate their effect on MYXV replication. These studies indicated that, as in murine and human cells, type I interferons (IFN) play an important role in limiting MYXV replication in canine cancer cells. To reduce type I IFN production during OV, oclacitinib (a JAK1 inhibitor) was administered twice daily to dogs for 14 days starting ~7 days prior to surgery. STS tumors were excised and MYXV deleted for serp2 (MYXV∆SERP2) was administered at the surgical site at two time points post-operatively to treat any remaining microscopic tumor cells. Tumor regrowth in dogs treated with OV was decreased relative to historical controls. However, regrowth was not further inhibited in patients given combination therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0961.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: mpox, virus, outbreak, response, vaccination; Orthopoxvirus
Online: 13 June 2023 (16:57:40 CEST)
In Μay 2022, for the first time, multiple cases of mpox were reported in several non-endemic countries. The first ever case of the disease in Greece was confirmed on 8 June 2022 and a total of 88 cases were reported in the country until the end of April 2023. A multidisciplinary response team was established by the Greek National Public Health Organization (EODY) to monitor and manage the situation. EODY’s emergency response focused on enhanced surveillance, laboratory testing, contact tracing, medical countermeasures, and education of health care providers and the public. Even though management of cases was considered successful and the risk from the disease was down-graded, sporadic cases continue to occur. Here, we provide epidemiological and laboratory features of the reported cases to depict the course of the disease notification rate, that suggests measures for raising awareness as well as vaccination of high-risk groups of the population should be continued.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1257.v1
Online: 17 May 2023 (14:26:56 CEST)
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic brought new discoveries regarding arboviruses, especially flaviviruses, as ZIKV was described as sexually and vertically transmitted. The latter shows severe consequences for the embryo/fetus, such as congenital microcephaly and deficiency of the neural system, currently known as Congenital ZIKV Syndrome (CZS). To better understand ZIKV dynamics in trophoblastic cells present in the first trimester of pregnancy (BeWo, HTR-8, and control cell HuH-7), an experiment of viral kinetics was performed for African MR766 low passage and Asian-Brazilian IEC ZIKV lineages. The results were described independently, and demonstrated that the three placental cells lines are permissive and susceptible to ZIKV. We noticed cytopathic effects that are typical in vitro viral infection in BeWo and HTR-8. Regarding kinetics, MR766lp showed peaks of viral loads in 24 and 48 hpi for all cell types tested, as well as marked cells death after peak production. On the other hand, HTR-8 lineage inoculated with ZIKV-IEC exhibited increased viral production in 144 hpi, with a peak between 24 and 96 hpi. Furthermore, IEC had peak variations of viral production for BeWo in 144 hpi. Both cells types continued alive during the process of viral replication. Considering such in vitro results, the hypothesis that maternal-fetal transmission is probably a way of virus transmission between the mother and the embryo/fetus is maintained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0389.v1
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:54:31 CEST)
Members of the Ebolavirus genus demonstrate a marked differences in pathogenicity in humans with Ebola (EBOV) being the most pathogenic, Bundibugyo (BDBV) less pathogenic and Reston (RESTV) causing no severe disease in humans. The VP24 protein encoded by members of the Ebolavirus genus blocks type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling through interaction with host karyopherin alpha nuclear transporters, potentially contributing to virulence. Previously we demonstrated that BDBV VP24 (bVP24) binds with lower affinities to karyopherin alpha proteins relative to EBOV VP24 (eVP24), and this correlated with reduced inhibition of IFN-I signaling. We hypothesized that modification of eVP24-karyopherin alpha interface to make it similar to bVP24 would attenuate the ability to antagonize IFN-I response. We generated a panel of recombinant EBOVs containing single or combinations of point mutations in the eVP24-karyopherin alpha interface. Most of the viruses appeared to be attenuated in both IFN-I-competent 769-P and IFN-I-deficient Vero-E6 cells in the presence of IFNs. However, the R140A mutant grew at reduced levels even in the absence of IFNs in both cell lines, as well as in U3A STAT1 knockout cells. Both the R140A mutation and its combination with the N135A mutation caused almost complete inhibition of genome replication and transcription suggesting the role of these mutations in an IFN-I-independent attenuation. Additionally, we found that unlike eVP24, bVP24 does not inhibit interferon lambda 1 (IFN-λ1), which potentially explains the lower pathogenicity of BDBV relative to EBOV. Thus, the VP24 residues binding karyopherin alpha affect ebolavirus pathogenicity by IFN-I-dependent and independent mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: brain tumour; oncolytic virus; receptor; therapy
Online: 3 April 2023 (13:31:42 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive adult brain cancer with an average survival rate of around 15 months in patients receiving standard treatment. Oncolytic adenovirus expressing therapeutic transgenes represent a promising alternative treatment for GBM. Of the many human adenoviral serotypes described to date, adenovirus 5 (Ad5) has been most utilized clinically and experimentally. However, the use of Ad5 as an anti-cancer agent may be hampered by naturally high seroprevalence rates to Ad5 coupled with infection of healthy cells via native receptors. To explore whether alternative natural adenoviral tropisms are better suited to GBM therapeutics, we pseudotyped an Ad5 based platform with the fiber knob protein from alternative serotypes. We demonstrate that the adenoviral entry receptors coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and CD46 are highly expressed by both GBM and healthy brain tissue, whereas Desmoglein 2 (DSG2) is expressed at low level in GBM. We demonstrate that adenoviral pseudotypes, engaging CAR, CD46 and DSG2, effectively transduce GBM cells. However, the presence of these receptors on non-transformed cells presents the possibility of off-target effects and therapeutic transgene expression in healthy cells. To enhance specificity of transgene expression to GBM, we assessed the potential for tumour specific promoters hTERT and survivin to drive reporter gene expression selectively in GBM cell lines. We demonstrate tightly GBM specific transgene expression using these constructs, indicating that the combination of pseudotyping and tumour specific promoters approaches may enable the development of efficacious therapies better suited to GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; core protein; TNFα
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:38:14 CEST)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is a multifunctional protein that is involved in proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis mechanism of hepatocytes. HCV core protein genetic variability has been implicated in various outcomes of HCV pathology and treatment. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the role of HCV core protein in tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced death under the viewpoint of HCV genetic variability. Immortalized hepatocytes (IHH), and not the Huh7.5 hepatoma cell line, stably expressing HCV subtype 4a and HCV subtype 4f core proteins showed that only HCV 4a core protein could increase sensitivity to TNFα-induced death. Development of two transgenic mice expressing the two different core proteins under the liver-specific promoter of transthyretin (TTR) allowed for the in vivo assessment of the role of core in TNFα-induced death. Using the TNFα-dependent model of lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/Dgal) we were able to recapitulate the in vitro results in IHH cells in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing HCV 4a core protein were more susceptible to the LPS/Dgal model while mice expressing HCV 4f core protein had the same susceptibility as their littermate controls. Transcriptome analysis in liver biopsies from these transgenic mice gave insights into HCV core molecular pathogenesis, while linking HCV core protein genetic variability to differential pathology in vivo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0484.v1
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:32:40 CET)
Cell death by apoptosis is a major cellular response, in the control of tissue homeostasis and as a defense mechanism in case of cellular aggression like an infection. Cell self-destruction is part of antiviral responses, aimed at limiting the spread of a virus. Although it may contribute to the deleterious effects in infectious pathology, apoptosis remains a key mechanism for viral clearance and resolution of infection. The control mechanisms of cell death processes by viruses have been extensively studied. Apoptosis can be triggered by different viral determinants, through different pathways, as a result of virally induced cell stresses and innate immune responses. Zika virus (ZIKV) induces Zika disease in humans which has caused severe neurological forms, birth defects and microcephaly in newborns during the last epidemics. ZIKV also surprised by revealing an ability to persist in the genital tract and in semen, thus being sexually transmitted. Mechanisms of diverting antiviral responses such as the interferon response, the role of cytopathic effects and apoptosis in the etiology of the disease have been widely studied and debated. In this review, we examined the interplay between ZIKV infection of different cell types and apoptosis and how the virus deals with this cellular response. We illustrate a duality in the effects of ZIKV-controlled apoptosis, depending on whether it occurs too early or too late, respectively in neuropathogenesis, or in long-term viral persistence. We further discuss a prospective role for apoptosis in ZIKV-related therapies, and the use of ZIKV as an oncolytic agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0114.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: sensor; virus; detection; electromagnetic echo effect
Online: 4 December 2020 (14:36:35 CET)
Early identification of viruses leads to more efficient disease management and control, and is extremely important. A possible new approach for creating virus sensors is the Electromagnetic echo effect (EMEE). An important feature is that the signal from EMEE is highly dependent on the state of the irradiated body. This makes it possible to control ongoing reactions, even if these reactions are invisible to the human eye or other equipment. This article shows the possibility of registering reaction occurring in the presence of an avian coronavirus causing infectious bronchitis, strain Massachusetts. The same methodology can be applied for other types of viruses as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: influenza virus; H1N1; immunity; antigenic drift
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:24:27 CEST)
After the influenza H1N1 pandemic of 2009, the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 strain was replaced by the A/California/07/2009 strain for the influenza virus vaccine composition. After several seasons with no indications on the occurrence of antigenic drift, A/Michigan/45/2015 was chosen as the H1N1 vaccine strain for season 2017/2018. Since the immune response to influenza is shaped by the history of exposure to antigenically similar strains, the potential cross-protection between seasonal human influenza vaccine strains and the emerging pandemic strains was investigated. Human serum samples were tested by haemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis assays against A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/California/07/2009, and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains. Strong cross-reactions between A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains were observed in 2009/2010, most likely induced by the start of the 2009 pandemic, and the subsequent post-pandemic seasons from 2010/2011 onwards when A/California/07/2009 becomes the predominant strain. In 2014/2015 season, population immunity against A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains increased again, associated with strong cross-reactions. While haemagglutination inhibition assay has a higher sensitivity for detection of new seasonal drift, the single radial haemolysis assay is an excellent tool to determine the presence of pre-existing immunity, allowing a potential prediction on the booster potential of influenza vaccines against newly emerging drifted strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0061.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: holothurian; Apostichopus; wasting; virus; flavivirus; totivirus
Online: 3 September 2020 (06:20:30 CEST)
Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea; Echinodermata) are ecologically significant constituents of benthic marine habitats. We surveilled RNA viruses inhabiting 8 species (representing 4 families) of holothurian collected from four geographically distinct locations by viral metagenomics, including a single specimen of Apostichopus californicus affected by a hitherto undocumented wasting disease. The RNA virome comprised genome fragments of both single-stranded positive sense and double stranded RNA viruses, including those assigned to the Picornavirales, Ghabrivirales, and Amarillovirales. We discovered an unconventional flavivirus genome fragment which was most similar to a shark virus. Ghabivirales-like genome fragments were most similar to fungal totiviruses in both genome architecture and homology, and likely infected mycobiome constituents. Picornavirales, which are commonly retrieved in host-associated viral metagenomes, were similar to invertebrate transcriptome-derived picorna-like viruses. Sequence reads recruited from the grossly normal A. californicus metavirome to nearly all viral genome fragments recovered from the wasting-affected A. californicus. The greatest number of viral genome fragments was recovered from wasting A. californicus compared to any other surveyed holothurian, including the grossly normal A. californicus, which reflects a pattern observed in viral metagenomics study of sea star wasting. These results expand the known host range of flaviviruses, and suggest that fungi and their viruses may play roles in holothurian ecology.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue virus; multiple serovars; Epitopes; Vaccine
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:28:15 CEST)
Dengue is one of the life-threatening common neglected tropical diseases of the world, yet to develop any therapeutic for its treatment and prevention. Although there is a licensed vaccine reported, but becomes less efficacious due to the presence of multiple serovars of the dengue virus (DENV). Thus, an efficacious dengue vaccine potent to work against all the serovars is very crucial and time-demanding. Here we used a comprehensive hierarchical reverse vaccinology approach to design an epitope-based vaccine, targeted against multiple serovars of the DENV. Conservancy and population coverage analysis of the promiscuous epitopes revealed the robust immune response against multiple serovars of the DENV and various ethnicities. Final vaccine constructs comprising of B and T-cell epitopes, Universal pan-HLA DR or PADRE (AKFVAAWTLKAAA) sequence, and an adjuvant (β-defensin) at N-terminal of the construct with suitable linkers. Physiochemical properties and secondary structure profiling of the vaccine protein secured its hydrophilic, thermostable, and other structural nature. Molecular docking analysis indicates the deep binding of the proposed vaccine in the binding groove of the human immune TLR4 receptor present on the dendritic cell. In addition, disulfide engineering was coped to extend its stability. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation of the modeled vaccine-TLR8 complex showed minimum deformability. Finally, in silico cloning approach of the vaccine construct within an expression vector (pET28a+) assure good expression. Proposed vaccine may give novel insights for treatment of dengue patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0410.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coronavirus; prevention; species; symptom; virus origin
Online: 25 May 2020 (11:09:25 CEST)
There are many types of coronavirus on the bases of important hosts including human, rat, turkey, rabbit, etc. The virus looks like a crown or corona of the sun with its round projection, spike. Now a day, newly emerged coronavirus disease (COVID 19) was first detected at Wuhan, China in December 2019 and it became a public health emergency international concern. Although a couple of researches has been conducting, much secretes of the virus and disease is still not understood and not reached a common understanding yet. However, sharing basic information is crucial based on the existing published research articles and updated information. Therefore, this review aimed to draw attention to the COVID 19 pandemic facts, opportunities, and challenges based on up to date information on cases in Ethiopia. Accordingly, the coronavirus is a single-stranded, non-segmented RNA genome virus. Two third of the genome (5'end) consists of two genes that code nonstructural proteins and the other 2-7 genes (3' end) code structural proteins including spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid. The virus transmits from animal to human and suggested as it might be originated from a bat and/or seafood. Coronavirus transmit human to human by direct contact and droplets during coughing and sneezing and common symptoms like fever, dry cough, and tiredness, short breathing, etc. can be seen from the patient. So that stay at home and social distancing are the most practicing pre-prevention methods. The disease causes high economic loss, face to face education closure, community cultural practice, and mass gathering activities are prohibited. However, various charity associations and creativities found increase than before. To this end, peoples should accept and follow governmental advice and instructions to escape from the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0507.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: virus graphs; COVID-19; pandemic; epidemic
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:32:24 CEST)
Graph theory plays significant role in every field of science as well as technology. Every situation can be articulated in terms of suitable graphs by using various approaches of graph theory. Considering the recent pandemic in the world and the precautions taken for prevention of the COVID 19, it is the most appropriate way to exercise the graph models with theoretical as well as practical aspects to control this epidemic. This paper defines the variable set, variable graphs and their types with respect to variable vertex sets and variable edge sets. Depending upon the nature of the pandemic, there are four types of Virus graphs. Virus graph I and III are not so perilous for all living beings. Although, Virus graphs II and IV are extremely hazardous for the harmony of the world. In view of different aspects for expand of pandemic, growth types of virus graphs are divided in 1-1, 1-P and 1-all growth types. The COVID19 initially was in Virus graph-I type, but presently it is in Virus graph-II types. We present the table involving the number of infected people after n days with respect to different values of P and growth rates with I0 = 100. Moreover, the country wise starting dates of stages of the virus graph-I and II are specified. The concept of cut sets is applicable for prevention of COVID19 and the whole world is using the same analogy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: influenza virus; vaccines; passive immunization; immunotherapeutics
Online: 22 May 2019 (11:31:15 CEST)
Influenza is a disease that poses a significant health burden worldwide. Vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza virus infections. However, conventional vaccines are only effective for a short period of time due to the propensity of influenza viruses to undergo antigenic drift and antigenic shift. The efficacy of these vaccines is uncertain from year-to-year due to potential mismatching between the circulating viruses and vaccine strains, mutations arising due to egg adaptation, and potential contamination of the vaccine virus stock. Subsequently, the inability to store these vaccines long-term and vaccine shortages are challenges that need to be overcome. Conventional vaccines are also less effective for certain populations, including the young, old, and immunocompromised. This warrants for diverse efficacious vaccine developmental approaches, involving both active and passive immunization. As opposed to active immunization platforms (requiring the use of whole or portions of pathogens as vaccines), the rapidly developing passive immunization involves administration of either pathogen-specific or broadly acting antibodies against a kind or class of pathogens as a prophylactic treatment to corresponding acute infection. Several antibodies with broadly acting capacities have been discovered that may serve as means to suppress influenza viral infection and allow the process of natural immunity to engage opsonized pathogens whilst boosting immune system by antibody-dependent mechanisms that bridge the innate and adaptive arms. By that, passive immunotherapeutics approach assumes a robust tool that could aid control of influenza viruses. In this review, we comment on some improvements in influenza management and promising vaccine development platforms, with emphasis on the capacity of passive immunotherapeutics especially when coupled with the use of antivirals in the management of influenza infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1735.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Heartland Virus; Bandavirus; Amblyomma americanum; Haemaphysalis longicornis; vector-borne disease; Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:23:41 CEST)
Heartland virus (HRTV) is an emerging tick-borne bandavirus that is capable of causing severe disease characterized by acute thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. The virus is endemic to the eastern United States, and is carried by the Lone Star tick (Amblyomma americanum). Since its discovery in 2009, at least 60 human infections have been recorded across this area, with an overall 5-10\% estimated mortality rate. All infections reported thus far have occurred following a known tick bite or exposure to tick-infested areas, but the possibility of nosocomial transmission has not been ruled out. Despite relatively high rates of seroprevalence among certain wildlife species such as white-tailed deer, the reservoir species for HRTV remains unknown, as the virus has never been isolated from any mammalian wildlife species. Furthermore, how the virus is transmitted to its vector species in nature remains unknown, though laboratory studies have confirmed both horizontal and vertical transmission of HRTV in A. americanum. In addition, the recent 2017 introduction of the Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) to the US has raised concerns about possible spillover of HRTV into a new tick species that has been confirmed to be a competent vector for HRTV in the laboratory. Thus, an increased awareness of its clinical presentation is needed, and further research is urgently required to establish the natural transmission cycle and develop new countermeasures for this novel zoonotic pathogen
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Begomoviruses; movement protein; nuclear shuttle protein; suppression of antiviral signaling; virus-host interactions; intracellular virus movement
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:46:28 CEST)
Begomoviruses, which belong to the Geminiviridae family, are intracellular parasites transmitted by whiteflies to dicotyledonous plants, significantly damaging agronomically relevant crops. These nucleus-replicating DNA viruses need to move intracellularly from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then, like other plant viruses, spread systemically throughout the plant to cause dis-ease. The transport proteins of begomoviruses play a crucial role in recruiting host components for the movement of viral DNA within and between cells while exhibiting functions that suppress the host's immune defense. Pioneering studies on species of the Begomovirus genus have identified specific viral transport proteins involved in intracellular transport, cell-to-cell movement, and systemic spread. Recent research has primarily focused on viral movement proteins and their interaction with the cellular host transport machinery, significantly expanding our understanding of viral infection pathways. This review focuses on three main aspects: (i) the role of viral transport proteins, specifically movement proteins (MPs) and nuclear shuttle proteins (NSPs), (ii) their ability to recruit host factors for intra- and intercellular viral movement, and (iii) suppress antiviral immunity, with a particular emphasis on bipartite begomoviral movement proteins.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0112.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Thermodynamics; Calorimetry; Entropy; Enthalpy; Gibbs energy; Virus-host interaction; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Ebola virus
Online: 7 November 2022 (08:41:22 CET)
Biothermodynamics of viruses is among the youngest, but rapidly developing scientific disciplines. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has closely followed the results published by molecular biologists. Empirical formulas were published for 50 viruses and thermodynamic properties for multiple viruses and virus variants, including all variants of concern of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-COV, Ebola virus, Vaccinia and Monkeypox virus. A review of development of biothermodynamics of viruses during the last several decades and intense development during the last 3 years has been described in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0240.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Gene Silencing; Host–Virus Interaction; RNA Interference; Saccharum officinarum; Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus and Target Prediction
Online: 14 September 2021 (12:43:22 CEST)
The Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease (SCYLD) and is considered to be the most economically deleterious emerging pathogen that represents a potential threat and danger to sugarcane cultivation in China. Over the last two decades, high genetic diversity in the SCYLV genotypes was observed worldwide, with a greater chance of YLD incidence for sugarcane injury. SCYLV infection has significantly damaged its economic traits and is responsible for substantial losses in biomass production in sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to identify and comprehensively analyze sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) as therapeutic targets against SCYLV using plant miRNA prediction tools. Mature sugarcane miRNAs are retrieved and are used for hybridization of the SCYLV. A total of seven common sugarcane miRNAs were selected based on consensus genomic positions. The biologically significant, top ranked ssp-miR528 was consensually predicted to have a potentially unique hybridization site at nucleotide position 4162 for targeting the ORF5 of the SCYLV genome; this was predicted by all the algorithms used in this study. Then, the miRNA–mRNA regulatory network was generated using the Circos algorithm, which was used to predict novel targets. There are no acceptable commercial SCYLV-resistant sugarcane varieties available at present. Therefore, the predicted biological data offer valuable evidence for the generation of SCYLV-resistant sugarcane plants.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0434.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Australian bat lyssavirus; lyssavirus; rabies virus; immune evasion; nuclear trafficking; interferon; STAT1; bats; virus reservoirs; adaptation
Online: 19 February 2021 (10:06:42 CET)
Bats are reservoirs of many pathogenic viruses including the lyssaviruses rabies virus (RABV) and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Lyssavirus strains are closely associated with particular host reservoir species, with evidence of specific adaptation. Associated phenotypic changes remain poorly understood but are likely to involve P protein, a key mediator of the intracellular virus-host interface. Here, we examine the phenotype of P protein of ABLV, which circulates as two defined lineages associated with frugivorous and insectivorous bats, providing the opportunity compare proteins of viruses adapted to divergent bat species. We report that key functions of P protein in interferon/STAT1 antagonism and the capacity of P protein to undergo nuclear trafficking differ between lineages. Molecular mapping indicates that these differences are functionally distinct, and appear to involve modulatory effects on regulatory regions or structural impact, rather than changes to defined interaction sequences. This results in partial but significant phenotypic divergence, consistent with ‘fine-tuning’ to host biology, and with potentially distinct properties in the virus-host interface between bat families that represent key zoonotic reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0246.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: influenza virus; imprinting; haemagglutinin; antibody titre; quadrivalent vaccine; influenza A; H1N1; split-virion; isotype; virus neutralization
Online: 23 July 2019 (04:03:13 CEST)
Influenza virus imprinting is now understood to significantly the influence immune responses and clinical outcome of influenza virus infections that occur later in life. Due to the yearly cycling of influenza viruses, humans are imprinted with the circulating virus of their birth year to subsequently build a complex influenza virus immune history but very little is known about how the imprinting strain influences vaccine responses. To investigate the imprinted host immune responses to split-virion vaccination, we imprinted ferrets with a sublethal dose of the historical seasonal H1N1 strain A/USSR/90/1977. After a +60 day recovery period was given to build immune memory, ferrets were immunized and the challenge at Day 123. Samples were collected throughout the time course and immunological assays were performed to investigate recall mechanisms. The preimmune-vaccinated ferrets did not experience significant disease during challenge while naïve-vaccinated ferrets had severe disease. Hemagglutination inhibition assays showed preimmune ferrets had a more robust antibody response post vaccination, increased virus neutralization activity. Virus specific immunoglobulins were of predominantly the IgG isotype suggesting B cell maturity and plasticity at vaccination. These results are important and should be considered for vaccine design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0009.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: feline immunodeficiency virus; FIV; human immunodeficiency virus; HIV; animal models, opportunistic disease, lentiviral pathogenesis; molecular biology
Online: 2 April 2018 (07:54:28 CEST)
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction. This review summarizes current knowledge of FIV infection kinetics and mechanisms of immune dysfunction in relation to opportunistic disease, specifically in regard to studying HIV pathogenesis. Furthermore, we present data which highlight changes in the oral microbiota and oral immune system during FIV infection, and outline the potential for the feline model of oral AIDS manifestations to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-induced oral disease. Finally, we discuss advances in molecular biology, vaccine development, neurologic dysfunction, and the ability to apply pharmacologic interventions and sophisticated imaging technologies to study experimental and naturally occurring FIV, which provide an excellent, but often overlooked resource for advancing therapies and management of HIV/AIDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0557.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coinfection; tick Ixodes persulcatus; virus isolate; tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV); ectromelia virus; biological properties of co-isolate; electron microscopy; south of the Russian Far East
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:14:24 CEST)
The phenomenon of pathogens co-infection detected in the half fed on humans I. persulcatus tick in the south of the Far East was studied. Researchs were carried out on PEK, Vero, Vero-E6 cell lines, outbred mice, chicken embryos, using ELISA, PCR, IMFA, plaque formation, and electron microscopy. The tick contained an antigen and a genetic marker of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The patient had post-vaccination antibodies in a titer of 1:200, as a result of which, obviously, an antibody-dependent elimination of TBEV occurred. The tick-borne co-isolate also contained an unknown pathogen (Kiparisovo-144 virus), which, in our opinion, was a trigger for the activation of chronic infection in suckling white mice. In the laboratory coisolate, ectromelia virus was present, as evidenced by paw edema during intradermal infection of mice, characteristic rashes on the chorion-allantoic envilope of chicken embryos, and typical plaques on Vero-E6. The Kiparisovo-144 virus was not pathogenic for white mice and chicken embryos, but successfully multiplied in the PEK, Vero, and Vero-E6 lines. Viral co-infection was confirmed by electron microscopy. Passaging on mice contributed to an increase in the virulence of the co-isolate, whose titer increased by 10,000 times by the 5th passage, which poses a serious epidemiological danger.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Telomerase reverse transcriptase; TERT; TERT promoter; TERTp; human papillomavirus; HPV; Epstein Barr virus (EBV); Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; HHV-8; hepatitis B virus; HBV; hepatitis C virus; HCV; human T-cell leukemia virus-1; HTLV-1
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:11:58 CEST)
Human oncoviruses are able to subvert telomerase function in cancer cells through multiple strategies. The activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT) is commonly enhanced in virus-related cancers. Viral oncoproteins, such as high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8) LANA, hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBVx, hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) tax protein, interact with regulatory elements in the infected cells and contribute to the transcriptional activation of TERT gene. Specifically, viral oncoproteins have been shown to bind TERT promoter, to induce post-transcriptional alterations of TERT mRNA and to cause epigenetic modifications, which have important effects on the regulation of telomeric and extra-telomeric functions of the telomerase. Other viruses, such as herpesviruses, operate by integrating their genomes within the telomeres or by inducing alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in non-ALT cells. In this review, we recapitulate recent findings on virus-telomerase/telomeres interplay and the importance of TERT-related oncogenic pathways activated by cancer causing viruses.