ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway noise; railway vibration; squeal noise vibration; screeching noise vibration; impact noise vibration; abatement; mitigation; life cycle analysis
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:39:40 CEST)
The railway industry focus in the past years was to research, find and develop methods to mitigate noise and vibration resulted from wheel/rail contact along track infrastructure. This resulted in a wide range of abatement measures that are available for the professionals of the industry today. However, although there are many options in the market, their practical implementations depend upon general constraints that affect most technological application in the engineering world. The progression of these technologies have facilitated the selection of more adequate methods for each best case scenario, but further studies are ought to be made to proper assess if each one is fit for their purpose. Every method implementation must be analyzed through budget and timeframe limitations, which includes building, maintenance and inspection costs and time allocation, while also aiming to meet different benefits, such as environmental impact control and wear of the whole infrastructure. There are several situations and facilities in a railway project design that need noise and vibration mitigation methods and each design allocates different priorities for each one of them. Traditionally the disturbance caused by railways to the community are generated by wheel/rail contact sound radiation that expresses in different ways, depending on the movement of the rolling stock and track alignment, such as rolling noise, impact noise and curve noise. More specifically, in special trackworks such as turnouts, the main area of this study, there are two noises types that must be evaluated: impact noise and screeching noise. With respect to the second, it is similar to curve squeals and, being such, its mitigation methods are to be assigned as if it was to abate curve squeal in turnouts and crossings. The impact noise on the other hand, emerges from the sound made by the rolling stock moving through joints and discontinuities (i.e. gaps) that composes these special components of a railway track. A life cycle analysis is therefore substantial for this reality and in this case will be applied to Squeal and Impact Noise on Special Trackwork. The evaluation is based on a valid literature review and the total costs were assumed by industry reports to maintain coherency. The period for a life cycle analysis is usually of 50 years, hence it was the value assumed. As for the general parameters, an area with high density of people was considered to estimate the values for a community with very strict limits for noise and vibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Flexible Manipulator; Mechanics; Vibration control; Inverse system
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:58:03 CET)
This paper describes the development of a controller that enables trajectory control and vibration control. The controller performance was verified the using a 3D 2-link, flexible manipulator. On trajectory control using inverse kinematics, it was confirmed that the deflection due to its own weight deteriorated the track following performance. The vibration component of the resonance frequency of the flexible manipulator was generated, and the tip position accuracy is deteriorated. Using the results of control experiments based on the inverse kinematics, the system is identified and then created an inverse system for simultaneous control of trajectory control and vibration control. The target trajectories were the three joint angles. Finally, it was demonstrated through experiments on actual manipulator, that the system could sufficiently follow the ideal trajectory and suppress link vibrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0182.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Vibration Control, Piezoelectric, Fuzzy Logic Control, Launch Vehicle
Online: 21 December 2018 (11:12:32 CET)
Satellites are subject to various severe vibration during different phases of flight. The concept of satellite smart adapter is proposed in this study to achieve active vibration control of launch vehicle on satellite. The satellite smart adapter has 18 active struts in which the middle section of each strut is made of piezoelectric stack actuator. Comprehensive conceptual design of the satellite smart adapter is presented to indicate the design parameters, requirements and philosophy applied which are based on the reliability and durability criterions to ensure successful functionality of the proposed system. The coupled electromechanical virtual work equation for the piezoelectric stack actuator in each active strut is drived by applying D'Alembert's principle. Modal analysis is performed to characterize the inherent properties of the smart adapter and extraction of a mathematical model of the system. Active vibration control analysis was conducted using fuzzy logic control with triangular membership functions and acceleration feedback. The control results conclude that the proposed satellite smart adapter configuration which benefits from piezoelectric stack actuator as elements of its 18 active struts has high strength and shows excellent robustness and effectiveness in vibration suppression of launch vehicle on satellite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0053.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Electro-Rheological fluid; Semi-active vibration control; tunable vibration absorber; type-1 fuzzy control; interval type-2 fuzzy control
Online: 23 May 2017 (15:58:35 CEST)
This study presents a vibration control using actively tunable vibration absorbers (ATVA) to suppress vibration of a thin plate. The ATVA’s is made of a sandwich hollow structure embedded with the electrorheological fluid (ERF). ERF is considered to be one of the most important smart fluids and it is suitable to be embedded in a smart structure due to its controllable viscosity property. ERF’s apparent viscosity can be controlled in response to the electric field and the change is reversible in 10 microseconds. Therefore, the physical properties of the ERF-embedded smart structure, such as the stiffness and damping coefficients, can be changed in response to the applied electric field. A mathematical model is difficult to be obtained to describe the exact characteristics of the ERF embedded ATVA because of the nonlinearity of ERF’s viscosity. Therefore, a fuzzy modeling and experimental validations of ERF-based ATVA from stationary random vibrations of thin plates are presented in this study. Because Type-2 fuzzy sets generalize Type-1 fuzzy sets so that more modelling uncertainties can be handled, a semi-active vibration controller is proposed based on Type-2 fuzzy sets. To investigate the different performances by using different types of fuzzy controllers, the experimental measurements employing type-1 fuzzy and interval type-2 fuzzy controllers are implemented by the Compact RIO embedded system. The fuzzy modeling framework and solution methods presented in this work can be used for design, performance analysis, and optimization of ATVA from stationary random vibration of thin plates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: experimental identification; multi-poles placement control; smart flexible manipulator; active vibration control; non-collocation
Online: 9 January 2017 (04:56:13 CET)
This paper presents experimental identification and vibration suppression of a flexible manipulator with non-collocated piezoelectric actuators and strain sensors using optimal multi-poles placement control. To precisely identify the system model, a reduced order transfer function with relocated zeros is proposed, and a first-order inertia element is added to the model to compensate the non-collocation. Comparisons show the identified model match closely with the experimental results both in the time and frequency domains, and a fit of 97.2% is achieved. Based on the identified model, a full-state multi-poles placement controller is designed, and the optimal locations of the closed loop poles are determined. The feasibility of the proposed controller is validated by simulations. Moreover, the controller is tested for different locations of the closed loop poles, and an excellent performance of the optimal locations of the closed loop poles is shown. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by experiments. Results show that the vibrations of the expected modes are significantly diminished. Besides, vibrations of the higher modes are also slightly suppressed. Accordingly, multi-mode vibrations of the manipulator are well attenuated, and the tip displacement converges quickly with the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: real-time control; mechatronics; PZT actuators; vibration; hardware-in-the-loop
Online: 4 August 2016 (06:20:33 CEST)
This paper proposes an innovative mechatronic piezo-actuated module to control vibrations in modern machine tools. Vibrations represent one of the main issues that compromise seriously the quality of the workpiece. The active vibration control (AVC) device is composed by a host part integrated with sensors and actuators synchronized by a regulator, able to make a self-assessment and adjust to the environmental alteration. This study presents the mechatronic model based on the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the AVC device. To ensure a real time performance, a H2-LQG controller has been developed and validated by simulations involving machine tool, PZT actuator and controller models. The Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) architecture is adopted to control and attenuate the vibrations. A set of experimental tests has been performed to validate the AVC module on a commercial machine tool. The feasibility of the real time vibration damping is demonstrated and the simulation accuracy is evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: focal vibration therapy; vibration frequency; vibration amplitude; vibration intensity
Online: 5 March 2021 (10:10:38 CET)
Focal vibration therapy can provide neurophysiological benefits. Unfortunately, standardized protocols are non-existent. Previous research presents a wide range of protocols with a wide range of effectiveness. This paper is part of a broader effort to identify effective, standardized protocols for focal vibration therapy. The vibration characteristics of four commercially available focal vibration devices that have been used for research and clinically were measured. An accelerometer was used for the measurements. Frequency and peak-to-peak amplitude were measured. Measurements were made when the devices were free and then again when they were strapped to the human body. Vibration frequency ranged from 120 to 225 Hz. Free vibration amplitude ranged from 2.0 to 7.9 g’s (peak-to-peak). When the devices were strapped to the body (constrained), vibration amplitude decreased by up to 65.7%. These results identify effective ranges of focal vibration frequency and amplitude. They illustrate the importance of identifying vibration environment, free or constrained, when quoting vibration characteristics. Finally, the inconsistency of multi-actuator devices is discussed. These results will guide protocol development for focal vibration and potentially better focal vibration devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: diesel sport utility vehicle (SUV); idle vibration; multi-body dynamic model; vibration reduction; vibration absorber
Online: 22 April 2022 (07:52:21 CEST)
This paper presents a study on the idle vibration reduction of a diesel sport utility vehicle (SUV). To reduce idle vibration, the transmission paths of vibration from the engine to the driver seat floor were investigated with the vehicle components related to idle vibration. Furthermore, operational deflection shape (ODS) tests were conducted to visualize the vibration shapes during engine idling. Experimental modal analyses were performed to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes. Through the ODS and modal tests, the vibration characteristics of the diesel SUV during idling were identified. Considering these vibration characteristics, a multi-body dynamic model for the diesel SUV described by differential equations of motion was established to evaluate the idle vibration. To implement the dynamic model effectively, the equivalent stiffnesses and damping coefficients included in the model were determined experimentally or analytically. The established dynamic model was verified by comparing the natural frequencies and idle vibration levels between simulations. Using this dynamic model, we analyzed the effects of various design variables on idle vibration and obtained an optimal design for reducing the idle vibration level. Finally, we present a design guide to reduce the idle vibration for diesel SUVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0382.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: forest road surface; forest road damage; vibration measurements; vibration software
Online: 19 September 2018 (10:43:25 CEST)
Regarding number of vehicles, forest roads are characterized by low traffic intensity, but on the other hand great values of ground pressure between wheels of timber truck units and forest road surface occur, often with pressures values above 80 kN which additionally causes damage of the upper and lower forest road layer. There are currently several methods for assessing condition of a forest road surface which are mainly used for assessing state of public roads, but can be used in forestry as well. Assessing condition of forest road surface was done by measuring vibrations with a specially developed software for Android OS installed on a Huawei MediaPad 7 Lite. Software measured vibrations in all three axes, coordinates of device, speed of the vehicle and time. Aim of this research was to determine accuracy of collected data so that this method can be used for scientific and practical purposes. Research was carried out on the segment of a forest road during driving a vehicle equipped with a measuring device. Tests were performed in both driving direction of the forest road segment with different measuring frequencies, tyre inflation pressures and driving speeds. Values of vibrations were classified and translated on a map of forest road together with devices’ measured coordinates. Vibration values were compared with places of recorded forest road surface damages. Research results show no significant difference in vibration values between 1 Hz and 10 Hz of measurement frequencies. Based on the analysis of collected data and obtained results, it is clear that it is possible to assess the condition of a forest road surface by measuring vibrations. The greatest values of vibrations were recorded on the most damaged parts of the forest road. Vibrations do not depend on tyre inflation pressure, but ranges of vibrations are decreasing with decreasing driving speed. Accuracy of collected data depends on GPS signal quality, so it is recommended that each segment of forest road is recorded twice so that location of damages on forest road can be confirmed with certainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0223.v1
Online: 16 May 2018 (07:36:50 CEST)
In this paper, a multibody calculation methodology has been applied to the vibration analysis of a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged diesel engine, with a simulation driven study of the angular speed variation of a crankshaft under consideration of different modeling assumptions. Moreover, time dependent simulation results, evaluated at the engine supports, are condensed to a vibration index and compared with experimental results, obtaining satisfactory outcomes. The modal analysis also considers the damping aspects and has been conducted using a multibody model created with the software AVL/EXCITE. The influence of crankshaft torsional frequencies on the rotational speed behavior has been evaluated in order to reduce the vibration phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: temporary grandstand; lateral vibration experiment; vibration dose value; annoyance rate; human health risk
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:03:32 CEST)
Excessive vibration of temporary grandstand owing to crowd has lateral rhythmic motions can cause human in panic, which attracted increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on experiments that a temporary grandstand occupied 20 participants is oscillated by a shaking table with a series of random waves and induced by crowd with rhythmic swaying motions at lateral direction, respectively. And then a series of vibration perception questionnaires about crowd reaction are obtained. Evaluation of annoying level derives in concept of degree of membership and annoying rate method is proposed, then the human health risk of vibration serviceability of temporary grandstand is assessed with acceleration vibration dose value(VDV). From these results it is clear that standing crowd is more tolerant to vibration than seated crowd. The measured vibrations generated by crowd activities on temporary grandstand can cause panic in crowd. New relationship between the annoyance rate and structural acceleration VDV at logarithmic coordinate is proposed. The findings of this study can be utilized to manage the vibration of temporary grandstand and assess the human health risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: comfort; vibration; biomechanics; postural stabilization
Online: 23 May 2022 (12:14:30 CEST)
In future automated vehicles we will often engage in non-driving tasks and will not watch the road. This will affect postural stabilization and may elicit discomfort or even motion sickness in dynamic driving. Future vehicles shall accommodate this by properly designed seats and interiors whereas comfortable vehicle motion shall be achieved with smooth driving styles and well de-signed (active) suspensions. To support research and development in dynamic comfort, this paper presents validation of a multi-segment full body human model including visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback for postural stabilization. Dynamic driving is evaluated using a “sicken-ing drive” including a 0.2 Hz 4 m/s2 slalom. Vibration transmission is evaluated with compliant automotive seats, applying 3D platform motion and evaluating 3D translation and rotation of pelvis, trunk and head. The model matches human motion in dynamic driving and reproduces fore-aft, lateral and vertical oscillations. Visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback are shown to be essential in particular for head-neck stabilization. Active leg muscle control at the hips and knees is shown to be essential to stabilize the trunk in the high amplitude slalom condition but not in low amplitude horizontal vibrations. However, active leg muscle control can strongly affect 4-6 Hz vertical vibration transmission. Compared to the vibration tests, the dynamic driving tests show enlarged postural control gains to minimize trunk and head roll and pitch, and to align head yaw with the driving direction. Human modelling can create the required insights to achieve breakthrough comfort enhance-ments while enabling efficient development for a wide range of driving conditions, body sizes and other factors. Hence, modelling human postural control can accelerate innovation of seats and vehicle motion control strategies for (automated) vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: force; ultrasonic vibration; modeling; milling
Online: 20 June 2019 (03:48:07 CEST)
Force reduction is one of the most important benefit of applying ultrasonic vibration on milling. However, most of studies so far are limited to experimental investigation. In the current study, an analytical predictive model on cutting forces in ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling is proposed. The three types of tool-workpiece criteria are considered based on the instantaneous position and velocity of tool center. Type I criterion indicates that there is no contact if the instantaneous velocity is opposite to tool rotation direction. Type II criterion checks whether the vibration displacement is larger than the instantaneous uncut chip thickness. Type III criterion considers the overlaps between current and previous tool paths due to vibration. If none of these criteria is satisfied, milling forces are nonzero. Then the calculation is performed by transforming milling and tool geometry configuration to orthogonal cutting at each instant. The orthogonal cutting forces are predicted through the exhaustive search of shear angle and calculation of shear flow stress on tool-chip interface. The axial force is then calculated based on tool geometry, and the milling forces in feed, cutting, and axial directions are calculated after coordinate transformation. The proposed predictive force model in ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling is validated through comparison to experimental measurements on Aluminum alloy 2A12. The predicted values are able to match the measured milling forces with high accuracy of average difference of 13.6% in feed direction and 13.8% in cutting direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0355.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Neck Muscle Vibration; Proprioception; Body Schema
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:45:37 CEST)
Upper limb control depends on accurate internal models of limb position relative to the head and neck, accurate sensory inputs, and accurate cortical processing. Transient alterations in neck afferent feedback induced by muscle vibration may impact upper limb proprioception. This research aimed to determine the effects of neck muscle vibration on upper limb proprioception using a novel elbow repositioning task (ERT). 26 right-handed participants aged 22.21 2.64 performed the ERT consisting of three target angles between 80-90 (T1), 90-100 (T2) and 100-110 (T3). Controls (CONT) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of rest and the vibration group (VIB) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of 60Hz vibration over the right sternocleidomastoid and left cervical extensor muscles. Task performance was reassessed following experimental manipulation. Significant time by group interactions occurred for T1: (F1,24 = 25.330, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.513) where CONT improved by 26.08% and VIB worsened by 134.27%, T2: (F1,24 = 16.157, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.402) where CONT improved by 20.39% and VIB worsened by 109.54%, and T3: (F1,24 = 21.923, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.447) where CONT improved by 37.11% and VIB worsened by 54.39%. Improvements in repositioning accuracy indicates improved proprioceptive ability with practice in controls. Decreased accuracy following vibration suggests that vibration altered proprioceptive inputs used to construct body schema, leading to inaccurate joint position sense and the observed changes in elbow repositioning accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0255.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: atom gravimeter; vibration compensation; vehicle-mounted
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:34:46 CET)
The performance of the absolute atom gravimeters used on moving platforms, such as vehicles, ships and aircrafts, is strongly affected by the vibration noise. To suppress its influence, we summarize a vibration compensation method utilizing data measured by a classical accelerometer. The measurements with the accelerometer show that the vibration noise in the vehicle can be 2 order of magnitude greater than that in the lab during daytime, and can induce an interferometric phase fluctuation with a standard deviation of 16.70π. With the compensation method, our vehicle-mounted atom gravimeter can work normally in these harsh conditions. Comparing the Allan standard deviations before and after the vibration noise correction, we find a suppression factor of 22.74 can be achieved in static condition with an interrogation time of T = 20 ms, resulting a sensitivity of 1.35 mGal/Hz1/2, and a standard deviation of 0.5 mGal with an average time of 10 s. We also demonstrate the first test of an atom gravimeter in a moving vehicle, in which a suppression factor of 50.85 and a sensitivity of 60.88 mGal/Hz1/2 were realized with T = 5 ms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0582.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy harvesting; triboelectric nanogenerators; vibration energy
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:26:44 CEST)
In this study, we propose a module-type triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) capable of harvesting power from a variety of mechanical energy sources. The potential energy and kinetic energy of water are used for the rotational motion of the generator module, and electricity is generated by the contact/separation generation mode between the two triboelectric surfaces inside the rotating TENG. Through the parametric design of the internal friction surface structure and mass ball, we optimized the output of the proposed structure. To magnify the power, experiments were conducted to optimize the electrical output of the series of TENG units. The electrical signal generated by the module-type TENG can be used as a sensor to recognize the strength and direction of various physical quantities, such as wind or earthquake vibrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0159.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: harvester; piezoelectric; dynamic vibration absorber; trimming
Online: 13 March 2018 (04:42:34 CET)
Piezoelectric cantilever harvesters have a large power output at their natural frequency, but in some applications the frequency of ambient vibrations is different from the harvester’s frequency and/or ambient vibrations are periodic with some harmonic components. To cope with these operating conditions harvesters with integrated trimming devices (ITDs) are proposed. Some prototypes are developed with the aid of an analytical model and tested with an impulsive method. Results show that a small trimming device can lower the main resonance frequency of a piezoelectric harvester of the same extent as a larger tip mass and moreover generates at high frequency a second resonance peak. A multi-physics numerical FE model is developed for predicting the generated power and for performing stress-strain analysis of harvesters with ITDs. The numerical model is validated on the basis of experimental results. Several configurations of ITDs are conceived and studied. Numerical results show that harvesters with ITDs are able to generate relevant power at two frequencies owing to the particular shape of the modes of vibration. The stress in the harvesters with ITDs is smaller than the stress in the harvester with a tip mass trimmed to the same frequency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave filters; vibration sensitivity; acoustic noise
Online: 26 February 2018 (07:56:14 CET)
A novel characterization method for discrete saw filters vibrational sensitivity is presented. The proposed approach allows the characterization of filters under vibrations and the extraction of a behavioural model. Filters are assumed to be transducers so that external induced vibrational energy is partially transformed in a undesired simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation of the input RF signal. When the filter is mechanically excited with vibrations, it introduces spurious amplitude and phase modulation to the input signal that can potentially affect the link quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0326.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: circular torus; deformation; vibration; Gauss curvature; Maple
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:04:29 CET)
The formulation used by most of the studies on an elastic torus are either Reissner mixed formulation or Novozhilov's complex-form one, however, for vibration and some displacement boundary related problem of a torus, those formulations face a great challenge. It is highly demanded to have a displacement-type formulation for the torus. In this paper, I will carry on my previous work [ B.H. Sun, Closed-form solution of axisymmetric slender elastic toroidal shells. J. of Engineering Mechanics, 136 (2010) 1281-1288.], and with the help of my own maple code, I am able to simulate some typical problems and free vibration of the torus. The numerical results are verified by both finite element analysis and H. Reissner's formulation. My investigations show that both deformation and stress response of an elastic torus are sensitive to the radius ratio, and suggest that the analysis of a torus should be done by using the bending theory of a shell, and also reveal that the inner torus is stronger than outer torus due to the property of their Gaussian curvature. Regarding the free vibration of a torus, our analysis indicates that both initial in u and w direction must be included otherwise will cause big errors in eigenfrequency. One of the most intestine discovery is that the crowns of a torus are the turning point of the Gaussian curvature at the crown where the mechanics' response of inner and outer torus is almost separated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0297.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Acoustic black hole; vibration control; energy propagation
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:23:03 CEST)
The plate embedded with acoustic black hole (ABH) indentations is potential for structural vibration and noise control. This work focuses on the mid- and low-frequency performance of plates embedded with the array of ABH for energy focalization and vibration & noise suppression. Plates embedded with two-dimensional ABHs are modelled with detailed Finite Element (FE) models, and the power flow method is introduced to analyze the energy propagation characteristics arising from ABH effect. Then the distribution of average vibration power density along ABH radius is studied. Next, the energy dissipation effects of the plate model embedded with ABH array with two types of damping layers are investigated. Finally, the sound pressure levels of the ABH structure are calculated and discussed. This work is helpful to understand the characteristics of plates embedded with ABH array in reducing vibration and noise radiation. Results show the tremendous potential of ABH array for vibration and noise control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: high frequency; acceleration; vibration; orthodontics; tooth movement
Online: 6 April 2018 (10:57:40 CEST)
Evaluation of the effect of a high frequency acceleration device on clear aligner exchange intervals and treatment time required to achieve prescribed tooth movements. Sixteen subjects with similar Class I malocclusions, 5mm or less crowding, and treated with Invisalign were divided into two groups. Group 1 (experimental; N=8) underwent aligner treatment in conjunction with daily use of the high frequency acceleration device and exchanged aligners every 5 days. Group 2 (controls; N=8) underwent aligner treatment without use of the device and exchanged aligners every 14 days according to the manufacturer's recommended interval. All subjects were treated by one investigator, and results were evaluated by both; total number of aligners used, and number of refinements required, prior to final Vivera retention scan. A significant decrease in both treatment time, and number of aligners required to complete treatment was observed by experimental subjects as compared to controls. In addition, no refinements were required by experimental subjects, whereas 6 of 8 of the control subjects required 1 or more refinements. Use of the high frequency acceleration device in conjunction with Invisalign treatment resulted in more predictable tooth movement and a significant decrease in the length of treatment.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0366.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Vibration Detection; Progress; Power Plant; Bibliometrics; Visual Analysis
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:24:21 CEST)
After long years of development, the technology of analyzing the working condition of power units based on vibration signals has had relatively stable applications, but the accuracy and the degree of automation and intelligence for fault diagnosis are still inadequate due to the limitations of the current development of key technologies. With the development of big data and artificial intelligence technology, the involvement of new technologies will be an important boost to the development of this field. To support the subsequent research, bibliometrics is used as a tool to sort out the development of the technology in this field at the macro level; at the micro level, the classical and key literature is studied to grasp the development status at the technical level and prepare for the selection of entry points to continue in-depth innovation afterwards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0341.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: microfoming; energy field assisted micro/nanoforming; ultrasonic vibration
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:53:15 CET)
Excitation of the acoustic field leading to the Blaha effect affects the plasticity of the material significantly in ultrasonic vibration-assisted forming. In a micro-forming field, the effects are more significant in the deformation in surface of materials -, in which reduction of the surface roughness based on the increasing of plastic deformation of surface asperity was effective . On the other hand, the effect on deformation behavior of the bulk region indicted reduction in the yield stress of materials, and not only acoustic effect , but also impact effect is found to generate a large amount of dislocation and produce plastic deformation . However, the effect on the bulk is more significant as that on the surface. Differences in the effect on the surface and the bulk are not clarified. In this study, the mechanism of the deformation in the surface of the material with ultrasonic vibration assistance is investigated and compared with that in the bulk. Forging tests using a newly developed ultrasonic vibrator were carried out on pure Cu foils with various process conditions. The longitudinal vibration frequency of the ultrasonic transducer is 60∓2kHz, and the vibration amplitude is in an adjustable range of 0~10μm. Forging test was carried out at different initial stress, specimen size and amplitude. The difference in acoustic softening and impact effects on the surface and the bulk was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Medical device; surgery; hip arthroplasty; acoustics; vibration emissions
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:43:22 CET)
The success of total hip arthroplasty depends on the experience of the surgeon, and one of the ways the surgeon currently determines the final implant insertion depth is to listen to the change in audible pitch of the hammering sound. We investigated the use of acoustic vibration emissions as a novel method for insertion quality assessment. A non-invasive contact microphone-based measurement system for insertion depth estimation, fixation and fracture detection was developed using a simplified in vitro bone/implant (n=5). 2583 audio recordings were analysed in vitro to obtain energy spectral density functions. Out of the four main resonant peaks under in vitro conditions, broach insertion depth statistically correlates to increasing 3rd and 4th peak frequencies. Degree of fixation was also observed as higher goodness of fit (0.26-0.78 vs. 0.12-0.51 between two broach sizes, the latter undersized). Finally, however, the moment of fracture could not be predicted. A cadaver in situ pilot study suggests comparable resonant frequencies in the same order of magnitudes with the bone model. Further understanding of the signal patterns are needed for an early warning system diagnostic system for imminent fractures, bone damage, improving accuracy and quality of future procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0300.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: elliptic torus; oblique; deformation; vibration; Gauss curvature; Maple
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:39:27 CET)
The formulation used by the most of studies on an elastic torus are either Reissner mixed formulation or Novozhilov's complex-form one, however, for vibration and some displacement boundary related problem of the torus, application of those formulations has encountered great difficulty. It is highly demanded to have a displacement-type formulation for the torus. In this paper, I will simulate some typical problems and free vibration of the torus. The numerical results are verified by both finite element analysis and H. Reissner's formulation. My investigations show that both deformation and stress response of an elastic torus are sensitive to the radius ratio, and suggest that the analysis of a torus should be done by using the bending theory of a shell, and also reveal that the inner torus is stronger than outer torus due to the property of their Gaussian curvature. Regarding the free vibration of the torus, our analysis indicates that both initial in u and w direction must be included otherwise will cause big errors in eigenfrequency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Micro-dissection; Ultrasonic vibration; Flexure-guided; Tissue section
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:06:42 CET)
Biological micro-dissection has a wide range of applications in the field of molecular pathology. The current laser-assisted dissection technology is expensive, and laser radiation can lead to sample contamination. As an economical and pollution-free micro-dissection method, piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection has a wide application prospect. However, the performance of the current piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection technology is unsatisfactory. In this paper, a novel piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection device based on a flexure mechanism is proposed in order to solve the problems of low dissecting precision and excessive wear of the dissecting needle caused by the harmful lateral vibration of the current piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-dissection device. By analyzing the flexibility of flexure hinge, the type of flexure beam and the optimal design parameters are determined. Through comparing the harmonic response simulation analysis of the micro-dissection device based on a flexure mechanism and the traditional micro-dissection device without the flexure mechanism, the newly designed micro-dissection device achieves the best vibration effect when the driving frequency is 28kHz, compared with the traditional micro-dissection device, the lateral vibration suppression effect is improved by 68%. Then, based on the 3D printing technology, a prototype of a novel micro-dissection device was produced, and its performance was tested. It was found that the flexure mechanism did indeed suppress the lateral vibration of the needle tip. Finally, the experiments of 5μm thick paraffin-embedded rat liver sections were carried out, and the effects of different dissecting parameters on the dissecting effect were analyzed, and the optimal dissecting parameters were obtained. By comparing the dissecting effects of the tissue sample and the wear condition of the needle tip between the novel micro-dissection device and the traditional micro-dissection device under their optimal dissecting parameters, it is proved that the suppression of harmful lateral vibration not only significantly improves the dissecting effect, but also improves the service life and durability of the dissecting needle, which is beneficial to reduce the equipment costs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0417.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: hepatic fibrosis; hepatocullar carcinoma; vibration controlled transient elastography
Online: 19 August 2020 (13:00:28 CEST)
The prevalence of obesity or metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide (“Globally metabodemic”). Approximately 25% of adult general population is suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which has become serious health problem. Hepatic fibrosis is the most significant determinant of all cause and liver -related mortality in NAFLD. Noninvasive test (NIT) should be urgently required to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD. Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index is the 1st triaging tool for excluding advanced fibrosis because of its accuracy, simplicity, and cheapness especially for general physicians or endocrinologists, although FIB-4 index has several drawbacks. Accumulating evidence has suggested that vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE) and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test may become useful as the 2nd step after triaging by FIB-4 index. The leading cause of mortality in NAFLD is cardiovascular disease (CVD), extrahepatic malignancy, and liver-related diseases. NAFLD often complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased simultaneous liver kidney transplantation (SLKT). FIB-4 index could be a predictor of not only liver-related mortality and incident hepatocullar carcinoma (HCC) but also prevalent and incident CKD, CVD, and extrahepatic malignancy. Although NITs as milestones for evaluating treatment efficacy have never been established, FIB- 4 index is expected to reflect histological hepatic fibrosis after treatment in several longitudinal studies. We here review the role of FIB-4 index as 1st step NIT in management of NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0557.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: orthodontics clear aligner, pain; vibration, high-frequency, HFA
Online: 24 October 2018 (08:14:49 CEST)
Evaluation of the effects of a high-frequency acceleration (HFA) device on patient pain response to orthodontic forces. A multi-centered trial investigating pain sensitivity to orthodontic forces on 75 subjects at 4 study centers. Subjects underwent clear aligner treatment, with or without adjunctive HFA and documented their pain intensity using the validated NRS10 numeric rating scale. In-Office and At-Home ratings were measured separately for each subject for immediate and extended effect evaluations. Use of HFA devices in conjunction with clear aligner orthodontic treatment demonstrated significant reduction in subjects’ recorded pain ratings vs controls within 5 minutes of aligner exchange, (p = 0.006) and significant reduction in recorded pain ratings vs controls over a 7-day period following aligner exchange (p = 0.018). A 99.6% daily compliance rate with at home use of the HFA device was recorded for all subjects in the study. HFA significantly reduces pain attributed to orthodontic force. HFA delivers clinically significant immediate pain relief, and clinically significant extended pain relief over the 7 days following adjustment.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: reciprocating pump; oil station; pipeline; vibration; pressure pulsation
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:46:23 CET)
Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause pressure pulsation, and the vibration of the pipeline will lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of the reciprocating pump pipeline based on the pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the excited force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by the indoor experiment. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and proposed the stress reduction and vibration reduction measures. The main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1) Excited force is produced in the bend or tee joint, and it can also influence the straight pipe in different levels; (2) In this pipeline system, the pump discharge pipe has a larger vibration amplitude and lower natural frequency; (3) The vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85°C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stability criterion; bipedal excitation; excessive vibration; dynamic performances.
Online: 15 May 2017 (17:58:14 CEST)
The excessive vibration caused by crowds walking across footbridges has attracted great public concerns in the past few decades. This paper presents, from considering the dynamic characteristics of the bipedal crowd model, a new stability limit criterion based on the bipedal excitation model. The stability limit can be used to estimate the upper boundary of crowd size. In addition, the dynamic stable performances of a structure, under a certain walking crowd size, can be predicted by the stability criterion. This proposed mechanism provides an alternative comprehension how crowd excite the excessive sway motion with a large-span structure.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nonlinear plate vibration; structural acoustics; harmonic balance method
Online: 18 November 2016 (10:13:10 CET)
This paper addresses the analysis for the nonlinear vibration response of a rectangular tube with a flexible end and non-rigid acoustic boundaries. This is a further work of the linear structural acoustic problem in a well-known acoustic book. In fact, the acoustic boundaries of an enclosed space sometimes are non-rigid and the structural vibration responses are nonlinear. These two points are the focuses of this paper. The multi-level residue harmonic balance method is applied to this nonlinear structural acoustic problem. The results obtained from the multi-level residue harmonic balance method and numerical method are generally in good agreement. The effects of excitation magnitude, tube length, and phase shift parameter etc. are examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: gearbox; dynamic model; harmonic response; input speed; coupled vibration
Online: 14 June 2022 (04:13:21 CEST)
The fault diagnosis of the gearbox is primarily based on the analysis of the harmonic response. However, the generation mechanism of the harmonic response of the gear pair is still not distinctly explained in a healthy gearbox. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to establishing a dynamic model of the gearbox for this issue. In this model, the contact force of the bearing and the meshing stiffness of the gear pair are determined by the Hertz theory and the potential energy method, then the shaft motion is used as the connection to establish the coupling relationship between the gear pair and the bearing. After this dynamic model is confirmed by experiments and existing models, the coupling relationship inside the gearbox and the harmonic response of the gear pair are studied using this model. The result demonstrates that a closed control loop is formed due to the vibration transmission between the gear pair, the bearing and the shaft, and there is a strong coupled vibration between the gear pair and the bearing in the gearbox. Due to the generation of the center distance error, misalignment angle and disorganized meshing process of the gear pair, the meshing stiffness is altered, which excites the harmonic response of the gear pair. When the speed of the gearbox is increased, although the vibration amplitude of the gearbox is increased, the system predominantly vibrates at the fundamental frequency, and the harmonic of the gear pair is also shifted to the low frequency band.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0349.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: elliptic torus; oblique; nonlinear deformation; vibration; Gauss curvature; Maple
Online: 25 November 2021 (11:21:55 CET)
For a given material, different shapes correspond to different rigidities. In this paper, the radii of the oblique elliptic torus are formulated, a nonlinear displacement formulation is presented and numerical simulations are carried out for circular, normal elliptic, and oblique tori, respectively. Our investigation shows that both the deformation and the stress response of an elastic torus are sensitive to the radius ratio, and indicate that the analysis of a torus should be done by using the bending theory of shells rather than membrance theory. A numerical study demonstrates that the inner region of the torus is stiffer than the outer region due to the Gauss curvature. The study also shows that an elastic torus deforms in a very specific manner, as the strain and stress concentration in two very narrow regions around the top and bottom crowns. The desired rigidity can be achieved by adjusting the ratio of minor and major radii and the oblique angle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0256.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: hierarchical agglomeration; complex vibration spectra; bedload monitoring; underwater acoustics
Online: 12 July 2020 (12:27:37 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel data processing framework dedicated to bedload monitoring in underwater environments. After calibration, by integration the total energy in the nominal bandwidth, the proposed experimental setup is able to accurately measure the mass of individual sediments hitting the aluminum plate. This require a priori knowledge of the vibration trasients in order to match a predefined dictionary. Based on unsupervised hierarchical agglomeration of complex vibration spectra, the proposed algorithms allow to accurately localize the transients corresponding to the shocks created by sediment impacts on a steel plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0426.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: riser; vortex-induced vibration; fatigue damage prediction; empirical method
Online: 21 September 2018 (04:04:01 CEST)
To gain insight into riser motions and associated fatigue damage due to vortex-induced vibration (VIV), data loggers such as strain sensors and/or accelerometers are sometimes deployed on risers to monitor their motion in different current velocity conditions. Accurate reconstruction of the riser response and empirical estimation of fatigue damage rates over the entire riser length using measurements from a limited number of sensors can help in efficient utilization of the costly measurements recorded. Several different empirical procedures are described here for analysis of the VIV response of a long flexible cylinder subjected to uniform and sheared current profiles. The methods include weighted waveform analysis (WWA), proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), modal phase reconstruction (MPR), a modified WWA procedure, and a hybrid method which combines MPR and the modified WWA method. Fatigue damage rates estimated using these different empirical methods are compared and cross-validated against measurements. Detailed formulations for each method are presented and discussed with examples. Results suggest that all the empirical methods, despite different underlying assumptions in each of them, can be employed to estimate fatigue damage rates quite well from limited strain measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0097.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: collective vibration; raman spectroscopy; superconductivity; CuO2 plane; YBCO system
Online: 6 June 2018 (13:11:24 CEST)
The phonon modes in YBa2Cu3O7-δ and YBa2-xLaxCu3O7-δ systems have been systematically studied by Raman spectroscopy. The new phonon modes of 104 cm-1, 94 cm-1, and 89 cm-1 were found in all these samples. A crude estimate about the wavenumber of the collective vibration of the stable CuO2 plane was given in this paper. The standard deviations of the new phonons in YBa2Cu3O7-δ and YBa2-xLaxCu3O7-δ systems were discussed. The results of the calculation indicated that the 104 cm-1 mode probably stands the c-direction collective vibration of the stable CuO2 plane, the 94 cm-1 mode stands the a-direction vibration, and the 89 cm-1 mode stands b-direction vibration. The relevance between these phonons and the superconductivity was discussed. It is found that, as the Tc decreased, the 104 cm-1 mode and the 94 cm-1 mode softened, and the 89 cm-1 mode hardened slightly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vibrations; dynamics; sounding rocket; vibration filtering; signal processing; space engineering
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:10:51 CEST)
Determining the vibration environment is crucial to analyzing a design of any mechanical system, especially such dynamic systems as sounding rockets. Accuracy of measurement using accelerometers could be improved by application of mechanical vibration filtering and amplifying devices. This work presents a theoretical description of a tunable filter and amplifier. Principle of work is provided as well as results from application of the device on a sounding rocket are provided. It is shown that implementation of such devices allowed for enhancing the accuracy of acceleration measurements. Conclusions on future implementations are also provided.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Optical fiber-sensors; Rayleigh backscattering; Φ-OTDR system; Vibration measurement.
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:26:13 CET)
Recently, the phase-sensitive OTDR (Φ-OTDR) based vibration sensor system has gained the focus of many researchers and some efforts have been undertaken to push further the limitations imposed on the performance of the Φ-OTDR sensor system. Then, progress in the different areas of its performance evaluation factors such as: improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spatial resolution (SR) in the sub-meter range, enlargement of the sensing range, frequency response bandwidth over the conventional limit and phase signal demodulation for quantitative measurement have been realized. This paper presents an overview of the recent progress in the Φ-OTDR based vibration sensing system in the different areas mentioned above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: vibration-induced flow; micro-pillar; numerical analysis; micro-PIV; acoustofluidics
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:57:56 CET)
The steady streaming (SS) phenomenon is gaining increased attention in the microfluidics community, because it can generate net mass flow from the zero-mean vibration. We developed numerical simulation and experimental measurement tools to analyze this vibration induced flow, which has been challenging due to its unsteady nature. Validity of these analysis methods is confirmed by comparing the three-dimensional (3D) flow field induced around a cylindrical micropillar under circular vibration. In the numerical modeling, we directly solved the flow in the Lagrangian frame so that the substrate with a micropillar becomes stationary, and the result was converted to the Eulerian frame to compare them with the experimental results. The present approach enables to avoid the introduction of moving boundary or small perturbation approximation. The flow field obtained by the micro particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement supported the three-dimensionality observed in the numerical results, which could be important for controlling the mass transport and manipulating particulate objects in the microfluidic systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MDOF isolation platform; geometrical nonlinearity; vibration suppression; adjustable stiffness property
Online: 12 April 2017 (04:29:06 CEST)
This study analyzes the modeling and dynamics of a novel passive in Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) vibration isolation platform which can achieve significant isolation effect. Symmetrical Scissor-Like structures (SLSs) are utilized in the proposed MDOF isolation platform as the supporting and isolation elastic components. Based on the mathematical modeling and theoretical analysis of the MDOF vibration isolation system with SLSs, the effect of structural parameter and joint friction on stiffness and damping properties is investigated. It is shown that due to geometric relations within the SLSs, the natural frequencies can be reduced via adjusting structural parameters of the SLS for different direction vibration isolation. Theoretical and experimental results show that the SLS isolation platform can achieve much better loading capacity and vibration isolation performance simultaneously by only using linear passive components because of the MDOF adjustable stiffness property. Therefore, with low costing and energy consumption, the proposed novel isolation platform can provide the improvement of vibration suppression in various engineering practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: pulsating heat pipe; local vibration; starting-up characteristic; heat transfer performance
Online: 15 July 2021 (11:15:54 CEST)
This study mainly experimentally investigates and explores the effects of local low-frequency vibrations on the starting-up and heat transfer characteristics of the pulsating heat pipe. A micro motors with the vibration frequency of 200 Hz were imposed on the external surface of evaporation, condensation and adiabatic section of the pulsating heat pipe, respectively, and the starting-up temperature and the average temperatures along the evaporation section as well as the thermal performances of the vibrating heat pipe were experimentally scrutinized under the local vibrations of different positions. The following important conclusions can be achieved by the experimental study: 1) The effect of vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section on the starting-up time of pulsating heat pipe is more significant than that at the condensation section. 2) The vibrations at different positions can reduce the starting-up temperature of the pulsating heat pipe. The effect of the vibrations at the evaporation section is the best as the heating power is lower, and the effect of the vibration at the adiabatic section is the best as the heating power is higher. 3) The vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section can reduce the thermal resistance of the pulsating heat pipe. However, the vibrations at the condensation section have little effect on the thermal resistance of the pulsating heat pipe. 4) The vibrations at the evaporation section and at the adiabatic section can effectively reduce the temperature of evaporation section of the pulsating heat pipe, but the vibrations at the condensation section have no effect on the temperature of evaporation section of the pulsating heat pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0646.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: artificial intelligence, deep learning, classification model, hyper-gravity machine, vibration monitoring
Online: 25 December 2020 (08:20:17 CET)
Hypergravity accelerators are a type of large machinery used for gravity training or medical research. A failure of such large equipment can be a serious problem in terms of safety or costs. This paper proposes a prediction model that can proactively prevent failures that may occur in a hy-pergravity accelerator. The method proposed in this paper was to convert vibration signals to spectograms and perform classification training using a deep learning model. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of the method proposed in this paper. A 4-channel accel-erometer was attached to the bearing housing, which is a rotor, and time-amplitude data were obtained from the measured values by sampling. The data were converted to a two-dimensional spectrogram, and classification training was performed using a deep learning model for four conditions of the equipment: Unbalance, Misalignment, Shaft Rubbing, and Normal. The ex-perimental results showed that the proposed method had a 99.5% F1-Score, which was up to 23% higher than the 76.25% for existing feature-based learning models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0681.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: FEM analysis, vibration control, H2 and H∞ optimization, MTMD, parameter optimization
Online: 27 November 2020 (09:04:49 CET)
The research paper presents a new approach towards constructing motion equations for structures with attached MTMDs (multiple tuned mass dampers). A primary system, with MDOF (multiple dynamic degrees of freedom) was reduced to an equivalent system with a SDOF (single degree of freedom) through the modal approach, and equations from additional MTMDs were added to a thus-created system. Optimization based on H2 and H∞ for the transfer function associated with the generalized displacement of an SDOF system. The research work utilized GA (genetic algorithms) and SA (simulated annealing method) optimization algorithms to determine the stiffness and damping parameters for individual TMDs. The effect of damping and stiffness (MTMD tuning) distribution depending on the number of TMDs was also analyzed. The paper also reviews the impact of primary system mass change on the efficiency of optimized MTMDs, as well as confirms the results of other authors involving greater MTMD effectiveness relative to a single TMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nuclear power plant; electric cabinet; tuned mass damper; earthquake; vibration control
Online: 23 September 2019 (06:13:10 CEST)
In this study, a tuned mass damper is proposed as a seismic acceleration mitigating technique of an electrical cabinet inside the nuclear power plant. In order to know the mitigation performance, the electrical cabinet and the tuned mass damper were modeled using SAP2000. The sine sweep wave was used to confirm the vibration characteristics of the cabinet over a wide frequency range, and the several various earthquakes were applied to the cabinet to verify the control performance of the tuned mass damper. After analyzing the numerical results, it is summarized that the application of the proposed technique can reduce the acceleration response of the cabinet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0295.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: FGM porous circular plate; free vibration; exact solution; multiparametric frequency equations
Online: 18 October 2018 (06:23:35 CEST)
Free vibration analysis of the porous functionally graded circular plates has been presented on the basis of classical plate theory. The three defined coupled equations of motion of the porous functionally graded circular/annular plate were decoupled to one differential equation of free transverse vibrations of plate. The one universal general solution was obtained as linear combination of the multiparametric special functions for the functionally graded circular and annular plates with even and uneven porosity distributions. The multiparametric frequency equations of functionally graded porous circular plate with diverse boundary conditions were obtained in the exact closed-form. The influences of the even and uneven distributions of porosity, power-law index, diverse boundary conditions and the negligibled effect of the coupling in-plane and transverse displacements on the dimensionless frequencies of the circular plate were comprehensively studied for the first time. The formulated boundary value problem, the exact method of solution and the numerical results for the perfect and imperfect functionally graded circular plates have not yet been reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-laminated timber floors; End supports; End fixity factor; Vibration serviceability
Online: 4 October 2018 (13:21:12 CEST)
As an emerging building solution, cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors have been increasingly used in mass timber construction. The current vibration design of CLT floors is conservative due to the assumption of simple support conditions in the floor-to-wall connections. It is noted that end fixity occurs as a result of clamping action at the ends, arising from the gravity load applied by the structure above the floor and by the mechanical fasteners. In this paper, the semi-rigid floor-to-wall connections are treated as elastically restrained edges against rotations to account for the effect of partial constraint. A rotational end-fixity factor was first defined to reflect the relative bending stiffness between CLT floors and elastic restraints at the edges. Then, for the design of vibration serviceability of CLT floors as per the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86), restraint coefficients were defined and their analytical expressions were derived for natural frequencies and the mid-span deflection under a concentrated load, respectively. In particular, a simplified formula of the restraint coefficient for the fundamental frequency was developed to assist engineers in practical design. At last, by comparing with reported experimental data, the proposed design formula showed excellent agreement with test results. In the end, the proposed end fixity factor with their corresponding restraint coefficients is recommended as an effective mechanics-based approach to account for the effect of end support conditions of CLT floors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: variational mode decomposition; Euclidean Distance; diesel engine; vibration signal; denoising algorithm
Online: 29 September 2017 (14:53:38 CEST)
Variational mode decomposition (VMD) is a recently introduced adaptive signal decomposition algorithm with a solid theoretical foundation and good noise robustness compared with empirical mode decomposition (EMD). There is a lot of background noise in the vibration signal of diesel engine. To solve the problem, a denoising algorithm based on VMD and Euclidean Distance is proposed. Firstly, a multi-component, non-Gauss, and noisy simulation signal is established, and decomposed into a given number K of band-limited intrinsic mode functions by VMD. Then the Euclidean distance between the probability density function of each mode and that of the simulation signal are calculated. The signal is reconstructed using the relevant modes, which are selected on the basis of noticeable similarities between the probability density function of the simulation signal and that of each mode. Finally, the vibration signals of diesel engine connecting rod bearing faults are analyzed by the proposed method. The results show that compared with other denoising algorithms, the proposed method has better denoising effect, and the fault characteristics of vibration signals of diesel engine connecting rod bearings can be effectively enhanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nonlinear vibration; imperfection; curved SWCNT; nonlocal theory; differential quadrature method (DQ)
Online: 18 September 2016 (10:14:46 CEST)
Imperfection sensitivity of large amplitude vibration of curved single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is considered in this study. The SWCNT is modeled as a Timoshenko nano-beam and its curved shape is included as an initial geometric imperfection term in the displacement field. Geometric nonlinearities of von Kármán type and nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen are employed to derive governing equations of motion of nano-beam. Spatial discretization of governing equations and associated boundary conditions is performed using differential quadrature (DQ) method and the corresponding nonlinear eigenvalue problem is iteratively solved. Effects of value and location of the geometric imperfection, and the nonlocal small-scale parameter on the nonlinear frequency ratio and imperfection sensitivity of a curved SWCNT for various boundary conditions are investigated. The results show that the geometric imperfection plays a significant role in the nonlinear vibration characteristics of curved SWCNTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0501.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Timoshenko beam; rotary inertia; bending shear curvature natural frequency relationship; spring mass system vibration; closed-form solutions; first-order dynamic stiffness matrix; second-order vibration analysis
Online: 15 September 2021 (15:33:01 CEST)
This study presents an exact solution to the free vibration analysis of a uniform Timoshenko beam using an analytical approach, a harmonic vibration being assumed. The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. In this paper, a moment-shear force-circular frequency-curvature relationship was presented. The complete study was based on this relationship and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations were derived. The free vibration response of single-span systems, as well as that of spring-mass systems, was analyzed; closed-form formulations of matrices expressing the boundary conditions were presented and the natural frequencies were determined by solving the eigenvalue problem. Systems with intermediate mass, spring, or spring-mass system were also analyzed. Furthermore, first-order dynamic stiffness matrices in local coordinates were derived. Finally, second-order analysis of beams resting on an elastic Winkler foundation was conducted. The results obtained in this paper were in good agreement with those of other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0744.v1
Subject: Keywords: Distributed fiber optic vibration sensors; Φ-OTDR; Rayleigh backscattering; multi-fiber sensor
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:20:20 CEST)
Distributed fiber optic vibration sensors based on Φ-OTDR using Rayleigh backscattering of highly coherent light source pulses are very popular type in the area of sensors due to many attractive features, mainly due to its distributed manner of sensing, i.e. they can operate as thousands of local sensors simultaneously. The paper summarizes and describes several important modifications of the original sensor scheme to enhance its key performance parameters and to extend its application potential. A multi-fiber sensor form was proposed. Single- and two-fiber sensors were designed, constructed and tested both in the laboratory and in a real environment. Variants of two-fiber sensor utilizing optical switches for the sensor flexibility enhancement are proposed and their applications are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0571.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 1D-CNN; fault diagnosis; rolling bearing; vibration signal; single load; different load
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:22:43 CET)
The diagnosis of a rolling bearing for monitoring its status is critical for maintaining industrial equipment using rolling bearings. The traditional method of diagnosing faults of the rolling bearing has low identification accuracy, which needs artificial feature extraction to enhance the accuracy. 1D-CNN method not only can diagnose bearing faults accurately but also overcome shortcomings of the traditional methods. Different from machine learning and other deep learning models, the 1D-CNN method does not need pre-processing one-dimensional data of rolling bearing’s vibration. Thus, it enhances the processing speed and improves the network structure to have a reasonable design for small sample data sets. This study proposes and tests a 1D-CNN method for diagnosing rolling bearings. By introducing the dropout operation, the method obtains high accuracy and improves the generalizing ability. The experimental results show 99.52% of the average accuracy under a single load and 98.26% under different loads.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: composite instrument of smartstation; accelerometer; dynamic displacement; vibration frequency; structural health monitoring
Online: 18 August 2020 (09:45:07 CEST)
Monitoring the dynamic responses of bridge structures has received considerable attention. It is important to synchronously measure both the quasi-static and dynamic displacements of bridge structures. However, the traditional accelerometer method cannot capture the quasi-static displacement component, although it can detect the dynamic displacement component. To this end, a novel composite instrument of a smartstation was proposed to monitor vibration displacements of footbridges. Full-scale experiments were conducted on a footbridge to validate the feasibility of the composite instrument-based monitoring method. A Chebyshev filter and wavelet algorithms were developed to process the composite instrument measurements. It was concluded that the measurement noise of the composite instrument was mainly distributed in a frequency range of 0–0.1 Hz. In two case studies with displacement peaks of 5.7–10.0 mm and 1.3– 2.5 mm, the composite instrument accurately identified the quasi-static and dynamic displacements. The composite instrument will be a potential tool for monitoring structural dynamics because of its enhanced overall performance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: High frequency vibration; clear aligners; skeletal Class II; non-surgical treatment; malocclusion
Online: 9 July 2020 (11:45:30 CEST)
This study presents a novel technique utilizing high frequency vibration to shorten treatment time and preserve alveolar bone in challenging orthodontic cases treated with Invisalign® clear aligners. Four non-growing orthodontic patients (age range 14-47 years old) with Class II skeletal patterns (convex profiles with retrognathic mandibles) who sought correction of their crowded teeth and non-surgical correction of their convex profiles were included in this study. These patients were treated using Invisalign clear aligners together with high frequency vibration (HFV) devices (120 Hz) (VPro5™) that were used by all patients for five minutes per day during active orthodontic treatment. Vertical control and forward rotation of the mandible for each patient was achieved through pre-programming the Invisalign to produce posterior teeth intrusion. Successful forward rotation of the mandibles achieved in all patients led to improvement of their facial convex profiles (ANB improved 2.1 + 0.5 degrees; FMA improved 1.2 +1.1 degrees). Dental decompensation was achieved by lingual tipping of the lower incisors and palatal root torque of upper incisors. The use of HFV together with Invisalign facilitated achieving these results within a 12+6 month period. In addition, more bone labial to the lower incisors after their lingual movement was noted. In conclusion, the use of HFV concurrent with SmartTrack Invisalign aligners allowed complex tooth movement and forward projection without surgery in non-growing patients with skeletal Class II relationships. The clinical impact and implications of this case series is that the use of HFV facilitates complex orthodontic tooth movement including posterior teeth intrusion and incisor decompensation in addition to increased bone formation labial to lower incisors that may minimize future gum recession due to their labial inclination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: axial fan; laser scanning vibrometry; wind tunnel; inlet cross-flow; blade vibration
Online: 5 July 2017 (04:22:10 CEST)
In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously been studied only numerically or using blade mounted strain gauges. For this study, Laser Scanning Vibrometry was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, overall blade vibration increased by 100% at low fan flow rate due to cross-flow, and by 20% at high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation rate harmonics were amplified, i.a. a synchronous blade tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade pass frequency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electromagnetic tuned mass damper; H2 optimization; structural vibration control; negative inductance; negative resistance.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:37:50 CEST)
To realize structural vibration control,a two parameters H2 optimization design was proposed to optimize the tuning ratio and damping ratio for electromagnetic tuned mass damper (EMTMD). The control effect of this two parameters optimization design is better than that of classical tuned mass damper (TMD).For this two parameters optimization,the most important thing is that the inductance of the coil can be set very small and the external load resistance can be positive ,which can avoid the use of complex negative impedance circuit. If Ref. were designed according to the H2 optimization of two parameters, the EMTMD can be used for multi-modal vibration control of structures without connecting negative inductance and negative resistance spontaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0140.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: RF polarimetry; acoustic wave; aqueous electrolyte solution; Debye ionic vibration potential; relaxation time
Online: 4 June 2021 (11:52:35 CEST)
The present work is an effort to explain theoretically the physics of some processes we have observed in our previous experiments. They occur under any mechanical excitation in solutions of strong electrolytes. We assume that the occurrence of the low-frequency Debye ionic vibration potential (IVP) and the deviation of the RF polarization vector are conjugated, but only in the sense that the power flux density of some physical process "X" responsible for the rotation of the polarization vector is proportional to the square of the electric potential voltage. While the independence of the RF anisotropy appearance from the applied voltage and from the Debye potential in particular has been proved experimentally. An equivalent electrical circuit that simulates the observed effects within the solution excited by an acoustic wave is proposed and tested for physical feasibility. Special attention is paid to the basic theory of the ionic vibrational potential, namely, its predictions in the low-frequency range, which contradict both experiment and the energy conservation law. Given the futility of describing the "memory" effect as a process of electrical or molecular origin, several arguments are presented in favor of the fluid-gyroscopic mechanism. It was suggested that the rotation of the polarization vector of the RF signal is due to a change in the electric moment of the liquid atoms and/or the nuclear moment of ions having an odd mass number. The applications of the research are also supplemented. The results of new experiments show that the RF anisotropy of the solution is transported by the carrier. Accordingly, it is possible to create a completely contactless unitary sensor of velocity and inhomogeneities of the liquid, moreover, the experimental setup has previously confirmed the affordability of the idea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: obesity; irisin; whole-body vibration; exercise; weight loss; rehabilitation; weight management; muscle strength
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:27:26 CET)
The use of whole-body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and only very recently an empirical foundation for reporting guidelines for human WBV studies has been published. Controversies about safety and therapeutic dosage stll exist. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic and mechanical effects of low-intensity WBV in according to the ISO 2631 norm on subjects with obesity. 41 obese subjects (BMI≥ 35 kg/mˆ2) were recruited to participate in a 3-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program including fitness training and WBV training. During WBV the posture was monitored with an optoelectronic system with 6 infrared cameras (Vicon, Vicon Motion System, Oxford, UK). The primary endpoints were: variation in body composition, factors of the metabolic syndrome, functional activity (sit-to-stand and 6-min walking test), muscle strength, and quality of life. Secondary endpoints were: modification of irisin, testosterone, growth hormone, IGF1 levels. We observed significant changes in salivary irisin levels, Group 2 (p<0.01) as compared to the control group, while muscle strength, function, and other metabolic and hormonal factors did not change after a 3-week low-intensity WBV training respect control group. Future studies are needed to deeper investigate the potential metabolic effect of low-intensity WBV in managing weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0627.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Fiber Bragg Structure; microwave photonics; vibration; fiber optic sensor; Address Fiber Bragg Grating
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:56:51 CET)
The paper presents the results of a study of the concept of address fiber Bragg structures in the problem of vibration control. The mathematical model of measuring transformation is presented; the experimental study of a vibration diagnostics system based on Address Fiber Bragg Gratings is carried out; the quantitative and qualitative comparative assessment with electronic accelerometers is made; the gain by an order of magnitude in some parameters is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0508.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: XPS plates; composite subgrade structure; vibration isolation; impact load test; freeze-thaw cycles
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:40:37 CEST)
Silty clay modified by fly ash and crumb rubber is a kind of sustainable subgrade filler which has good anti-freeze-thaw resistance stability but wake vibration isolation performance. The objective of this study was to improve the vibration isolation of the modified soil and investigate the vibration isolation effect of the composite subgrade structure of XPS plates and the modified soil by indoor impact test. First, the vibration isolation performance of silty clay, modified soil and composite subgrade structure was respectively evaluated. Second, the effect of XPS plate’s thickness and vibration intensity on the vibration performance of the composite subgrade structure were evaluated. Third, the vibration isolation performance of the test groups under the condition of freeze-thaw cycles was assessed. The results show that the vibration isolation performance of subgrade can be effectively improved by setting XPS plates. The composite subgrade structure has certain vibration isolation effect, especially in vertical direction. Considering vibration isolation performance and costs, 5cm is the optimum XPS plates thickness. The composite subgrade structure has great vibration isolation performance under the condition of freeze-thaw cycles, so it is suitable to be applied in road subgrade in seasonal frozen regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; fiber optic sensor; accelerometer; hetero-core; low-frequency vibration measurement
Online: 21 June 2018 (07:53:45 CEST)
In this paper, a novel pendulum-type accelerometer based on hetero-core fiber optics has been proposed for structural health monitoring targeting large-scale civil infrastructures. Vibration measurement is a non-destructive method for diagnosing the failure of structures by assessing natural frequencies and other vibration patterns. The hetero-core fiber optic sensor utilized in the proposed accelerometer can serve as a displacement sensor with robustness to temperature changes in addition to immunity to electromagnetic interference and chemical corrosions. Thus the hetero-core sensor inside the accelerometer measures applied acceleration by detecting the rotation of an internal pendulum. A series of experiments showed that the hetero-core fiber sensor linearly responded to the rotation angle of the pendulum ranging within ±5°, and furthermore the proposed accelerometer could reproduce the waveform of input vibration in a frequency band of several Hz order.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Gear-rotor-bearing system; bearing fitting clearance; vibration response; rotating speed; multiple harmonic response
Online: 7 March 2022 (12:31:56 CET)
Mechanical power and motion are often transmitted by the gear-rotor-bearing system. When there are fitting clearances between the housing and outer ring in bearings, complex vibration responses will be generated, which makes the operating status difficult to identify. Therefore, for analyzing dynamic responses, a dynamic model of gear-rotor-bearing systems with bearing fitting clearances is proposed. In the model, the bearing system with fitting clearances and gear pair system are combined, and the coupling relationship is determined by the gyroscopic mo-tion of the shaft. The friction force and collision force caused by fitting clearances are also con-sidered, which are simulated by the Coulomb friction model and Hertz theory. The result shows that the meshing stiffness will also be excited by the bearing displacement. When there are fit-ting clearances on the bearing, the amplitude modulation of the bearing outer raceway to the system time-domain response is intensified, and the multiple harmonic frequency of bearings and gear pairs are generated on the spectrum, as well as defect frequencies of gear pairs. As the fitting clearance is increased, the higher multiple harmonic responses will be caused. Although the response amplitude of the gearbox is increased by raising the input speed, multiple harmon-ic responses are suppressed, which makes the system mainly vibrate at the fundamental fre-quency. Then, the dynamic model and the vibration analysis are experimentally verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Feature engineering; vibration; high performance computing (HPC); dataset; prognostics and availability management (P&AM)
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:21:24 CEST)
The Industrial Internet of things (IIoT) enabled smart system has entered into a golden era of rapid technology growth. IIoT is a concept to make every system interrelated such that they are able to collect and transfer data over a wireless network without human intervention. In this paper, we discuss the development of an IoT enabled system to monitor the vibration signature of equipment as part of prognosis and availability management system (P&AM) that serves to prevent unplanned operation downtime and catastrophic failure of a whole system. In order to simply the complexity of processing video content and performing inference, the Intel OpenVINO platform was selected because of it’s simplicity, portability across Intel AI processors, performance and comprehensiveness of it’s analytical and diagnostics capabilities that can be tested in Intel’s DevCloud. The IIoT system consists of a High Performance Computing (HPC) platform based on Intel’s Xeon processors and Movidius AI accelerator, Intel’s OpenVINO toolkit for AI, a Regul high performance programmable controller capturing vibration data through sensors and a low-latency network connection. Notifications of anomalies are sent to a smartphone. This paper reveals an approach for the features extraction and selection, known as feature engineering, of the equipment component we want to protect. Feature engineering is the first step for the P&AM of these components and extends to the whole system. The broader aim of this paper is to help technical leaders at the exploring or experimenting stages of their AI framework to learn the concepts of implementing algorithms using datasets that have real value to their companies. Datasets generated and referred to in this paper were generated by simulation under various material failure scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Francis turbine; crack; dynamic behavior; vibration localization; lumped parameter mode; localization factor; forced response
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:14:30 CEST)
The crack in the blade is the most common type of fatigue damage for Francis turbines. However, the crack sometimes is difficult to be detected in time using the current monitoring system even when the crack is very large. To better monitor the crack, it is imperative to research the effect of a crack on the dynamic behavior of a Francis turbine. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a Francis turbine runner model with a crack was researched numerically. The intact numerical model was first validated by the experimental data available. Then, a crack was created at the intersection line between one blade and the crown. The change in dynamic behavior with increasing crack length was investigated. Crack-induced vibration localization theory was used to explain the dynamic behavior changes due to the crack. Modal analysis showed that the adopted theory could basically explain the modal behavior change due to the crack. The FFT results of the modal shapes and the localization factors (LF) were used to explain the forced response changes due to the crack. Based on the above analysis, the challenge of crack monitoring was analyzed. This research can also provide some references for more advanced monitoring technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Hamilton’s principle; Nonlinear vibration; Two-phase flow; Critical mixture velocity; Cantilever pipes; Perturbation method
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:31:13 CEST)
This paper studied the nonlinear vibrations of top tensioned cantilevered pipes conveying pressurized steady two-phase flow under thermal loading. The coupled axial and transverse governing partial differential equations of motion of the system were derived based on Hamilton’s mechanics with the centreline assumed to be extensible. Multiple scale perturbation method was used to resolve the governing equations, which resulted to an analytical approach for assessing the natural frequency, mode shape and the nonlinear coupled axial and transverse steady state response of the pipe. The analytical assessment reveals that at some frequencies the system is uncoupled, while at some frequencies a 1:2 coupling exists between the axial and the transverse frequencies of the pipe. Nonlinear frequencies versus the amplitude displacement of the cantilever pipe conveying two-phase flow at super critical mixture velocity for the uncoupled scenario exhibit a nonlinear hardening behaviour, an increment in the void fractions of the two-phase flow resulted to a reduction in the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies and the coupled amplitude of the system. However, increasing the temperature difference, pressure and the presence of top tension were observed to increase the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies without a significant change in the coupled amplitude of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0034.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Gaussian Processes; Stochastic Variational Inference; Manifold Gradient Ascent; Multi-fidelity modeling; Structural Dynamics; Vibration Torsion
Online: 4 July 2022 (06:02:50 CEST)
Bayesian techniques for engineering problems, that rely on Gaussian process (GP) regression, are known for their ability to quantify epistemic and aleatory uncertainties and for being data efficient. The mathematical elegance of applying these methods usually comes at a high computational cost when compared to deterministic and empirical Bayesian methods. Furthermore, using these methods becomes practically infeasible in scenarios characterized by a large number of inputs and thousands of training data. The focus of this work is on enhancing Gaussian Process-based metamodeling and model calibration tasks, when the size of the training datasets is significantly large. To achieve this goal, we employ a stochastic variational inference algorithm that enables rapid statistical learning of the calibration parameters and hyperparameter tuning, while retaining the rigor of Bayesian inference. The numerical performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on multiple metamodeling and model calibration problems with thousands of training data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0591.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: health indicator; performance degradation assessment; deep learning; vibration monitoring; bearing; remaining useful life; digital twin
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:59:20 CET)
Estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of components is a crucial task to enhance the reliability, safety, productivity, and to reduce maintenance cost. In general, predicting the RUL of a component includes constructing a health indicator ( ) to infer the current condition of the component, and modelling the degradation process, to estimate the future behavior. Although many signal processing and data-driven based methods were proposed to construct the , most of the existing methods are based on manual feature extraction techniques, and need the prior knowledge of experts, or rely on a large amount of failure data. Therefore, in this study, a new data-driven method based on the convolutional autoencoder (CAE) is presented to construct the . For this purpose, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) technique is used to convert the raw acquired vibrational signals into a two-dimensional image; then, the CAE model is trained by the healthy operation dataset. Finally, the Mahalanobis Distance (MD) between the healthy and failure stages is measured as the . The proposed method is tested on a benchmark bearing dataset and compared with several other traditional construction models. Experimental results indicate that the constructed exhibits a monotonically increasing degradation trend and has a good performance to detect incipient faults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling(UVAM); homogenization; ball-end milling; surface integrity; high frequency cutting force
Online: 3 September 2018 (12:44:32 CEST)
This paper aims to study the surface homogenization and integrity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by longitudinal-torsional coupled ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end milling. A method of continuous processing between the flat surface and freeform surface connection is proposed by using ultrasonic vibration assisted ball-end precision milling, during this process, it is not necessary to exchange the cutting tool. The way has been explored for changing the homogenization of surface on Ti-6Al-4V by ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling (UVAM). Cutting experiments employing three parameters, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and two types of machining forms using ball-end milling with UVAM and conventional milling (CM) respectively. The high frequency cutting force, finished surface roughness, topography and residual stresses on the surface and tool wear have been measured by advanced instruments. Particularly, adopting the high frequency cutting force measurement system, it is concluded cutting force in ball-end milling decreased significantly using UVAM as against CM. Moreover, the surface roughness by UVAM with ball-end milling is much better than the CM at a high cutting speed. However, an opposite trend is observed at a low cutting speed. Especially, there is a steep decrease from Ra 0.828 μm average value at 4000 rpm to Ra 0.129 μm average value at 5000 rpm. At the same time, the homogenization of surface roughness and residual stresses decrease significantly in UVAM as compared to which in CM when taking the transversal-longitudinal ratio into consideration. Cutting experiments and measuring results are demonstrated the validity and feasibility of UVAM with ball-end milling, and this method enjoys significant advantages compared to CM process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0086.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: vibration measurement; frequency prediction; deep learning; convolutional neural network; photogrammetry; computer vison; non-contact measurement
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:31:00 CEST)
Vibration measurement serves as the basis for various engineering practices such as natural frequency or resonant frequency estimation. As image acquisition devices become cheaper and faster, vibration measurement and frequency estimation through image sequence analysis continue to receive increasing attention. In the conventional photogrammetry and optical methods of frequency measurement, vibration signals are first extracted before implementing the vibration frequency analysis algorithm. In this work, we demonstrated that frequency prediction can be achieved using a single feed-forward convolutional neural network. The proposed method is verified using a vibration signal generator and excitation system, and the result obtained was compared with that of an industrial contact vibrometer in a real application. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve acceptable prediction accuracy even in unfavorable field conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: artificial sand plant; stone crusher; screen unit and sand unit; beating phenomenon; vibration measurement and reduction
Online: 2 June 2020 (09:35:03 CEST)
Due to limitation of natural sand from rivers and seas, artificial sand production from large stones or rocks is being increased. However, this sand manufacturing process is dangerous and causes several social problems such as high level of unwanted vibrations or noises. This study investigates vibration characteristics of sand and screen units in artificial sand production plant whose actuating operation is multiple with several different exciting frequencies. As a first step, vibration levels are measured at the sand and screen unit positions using accelerometers in time and frequency domains. The measurement is carried out at two different conditions: activating sand unit only and operating entire facilities such as stone crusher. Vibration signals acquired from several locations of the sand and screen units of the plant are collected and analyzed from waveforms and spectrums of the signals. It is identified that the vibration acceleration level of the screen unit is higher than that of the sand unit. In addition, it is found from the acceleration signals measured at plant office and shipping control center those places are far away from the plant location that the beating phenomenon is occurred by close driving frequencies for several sand units. In this work, the vibration caused from the beating is significantly reduced by adjusting the driving frequencies for the sand units so that they are sufficiently scattered to avoid the beating.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: blade vibration; blade tip-timing; rotating stall; axial compressor; blade health monitoring; least squares; bladed disc dynamics
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:32:49 CET)
Complex blade responses such as a rotating stall or simultaneous resonances are common in modern engines and their observation can be a challenge even for state-of-the-art tip-timing systems and trained operators. This paper analyses forced vibrations of axial compressor blades, measured during the bench tests of the SO-3 turbojet. In relation to earlier studies conducted in ITWL with a small number of sensors, a multichannel tip-timing system let us observe simultaneous responses or higher-order modes. To find possible symptoms of a failure, blade responses in a healthy and unhealthy engine configuration with an inlet blocker were studied. The used analysis methods covered all-blade spectrum and the circumferential fitting of blade deflections to the harmonic oscillator model. The proposed modal solver can track the vibration frequency and adjust the engine order on the fly. That way, synchronous and asynchronous vibrations are observed and analysed together with an extended variant of least squares. The proposed approach helps to avoid common mistakes and saves a lot of work related to configuring the conventional solver.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0442.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Axially functionally graded non-prismatic Timoshenko beam; finite difference method; additional points; vibration analysis; direct time integration method
Online: 24 September 2021 (13:12:35 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the vibration analysis of axially functionally graded non-prismatic Timoshenko beams (AFGNPTB) using the finite difference method (FDM). The characteristics (cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, elastic moduli, shear moduli, and mass density) of axially functionally graded beams vary along the longitudinal axis. The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. The FDM is an approximate method for solving problems described with differential equations. It does not involve solving differential equations; equations are formulated with values at selected points of the structure. In addition, the boundary conditions and not the governing equations are applied at the beam’s ends. In this paper, differential equations were formulated with finite differences, and additional points were introduced at the beam’s ends and at positions of discontinuity (supports, hinges, springs, concentrated mass, spring-mass system, etc.). The introduction of additional points allowed us to apply the governing equations at the beam’s ends and to satisfy the boundary and continuity conditions. Moreover, grid points with variable spacing were also considered, the grid being uniform within beam segments. Vibration analysis of AFGNPTB was conducted with this model, and natural frequencies were determined. Finally, a direct time integration method (DTIM) was presented. The FDM-based DTIM enabled the analysis of forced vibration of AFGNPTB, considering the damping. The results obtained in this study showed good agreement with those of other studies, and the accuracy was always increased through a grid refinement.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0660.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Axially functionally graded non-prismatic Euler-Bernoulli beam; finite difference method; additional points; vibration analysis; direct time integration method
Online: 24 September 2021 (11:27:04 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the vibration analysis of axially functionally graded (AFG) non-prismatic Euler-Bernoulli beams using the finite difference method (FDM). The characteristics (cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, elastic moduli, and mass density) of AFG beams vary along the longitudinal axis. The FDM is an approximate method for solving problems described with differential equations. It does not involve solving differential equations; equations are formulated with values at selected points of the structure. In addition, the boundary conditions and not the governing equations are applied at the beam’s ends. In this paper, differential equations were formulated with finite differences, and additional points were introduced at the beam’s ends and at positions of discontinuity (supports, hinges, springs, concentrated mass, spring-mass system, etc.). The introduction of additional points allowed us to apply the governing equations at the beam’s ends and to satisfy the boundary and continuity conditions. Moreover, grid points with variable spacing were also considered, the grid being uniform within beam segments. Vibration analysis of AFG non-prismatic Euler-Bernoulli beams was conducted with this model, and natural frequencies were determined. Finally, a direct time integration method (DTIM) was presented. The FDM-based DTIM enabled the analysis of forced vibration of AFG non-prismatic Euler-Bernoulli beams, considering the damping. The results obtained in this paper showed good agreement with those of other studies, and the accuracy was always increased through a grid refinement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0252.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Timoshenko beam; finite difference method; additional points; element stiffness matrix; tapered beam; second-order analysis; vibration analysis; direct time integration method
Online: 30 September 2021 (16:24:48 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) using the finite difference method (FDM). The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. The FDM is an approximate method for solving problems described with differential equations. It does not involve solving differential equations; equations are formulated with values at selected points of the structure. In addition, the boundary conditions and not the governing equations are applied at the beam’s ends. The model developed in this paper consisted of formulating differential equations with finite differences and introducing additional points at the beam’s ends and at positions of discontinuity (concentrated loads or moments, supports, hinges, springs, brutal change of stiffness, spring-mass system, etc.). The introduction of additional points allowed us to apply the governing equations at the beam’s ends. Moreover, grid points with variable spacing were considered, the grid being uniform within beam segments. First-order, second-order, and vibration analyses of structures were conducted with this model. Furthermore, tapered beams were analyzed (element stiffness matrix, second-order analysis, vibration analysis). Finally, a direct time integration method (DTIM) was presented; the FDM-based DTIM enabled the analysis of forced vibration of structures, with damping taken into account. The results obtained in this paper showed good agreement with those of other studies, and the accuracy was increased through a grid refinement. Especially in the first-order analysis of uniform beams, the results were exact for uniformly distributed and concentrated loads regardless of the grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0559.v3
Subject: Keywords: Euler Bernoulli beam; finite difference method; additional points; element stiffness matrix; tapered beam; first-order analysis; second-order analysis; vibration analysis; direct time integration method
Online: 23 September 2021 (13:08:38 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT) using the finite difference method (FDM). The EBBT covers the case of small deflections, and shear deformations are not considered. The FDM is an approximate method for solving problems described with differential equations. The FDM does not involve solving differential equations; equations are formulated with values at selected points of the structure. Generally, the finite difference approximations are derived based on fourth-order polynomial hypothesis (FOPH) and second-order polynomial hypothesis (SOPH) for the deflection curve; the FOPH is made for the fourth and third derivative of the deflection curve while the SOPH is made for its second and first derivative. In addition, the boundary conditions and not the governing equations are applied at the beam’s ends. In this paper, the FOPH was made for all of the derivatives of the deflection curve, and additional points were introduced at the beam’s ends and positions of discontinuity (concentrated loads or moments, supports, hinges, springs, etc.). The introduction of additional points allowed us to apply the governing equations at the beam’s ends and to satisfy the boundary and continuity conditions. Moreover, grid points with variable spacing were also considered, the grid being uniform within beam segments. First-order analysis, second-order analysis, and vibration analysis of structures were conducted with this model. Furthermore, tapered beams were analyzed (element stiffness matrix, second-order analysis). Finally, a direct time integration method (DTIM) was presented. The FDM-based DTIM enabled the analysis of forced vibration of structures, with damping taken into account. The results obtained in this paper showed good agreement with those of other studies, and the accuracy was increased through a grid refinement. Especially in the first-order analysis of uniform beams, the results were exact for uniformly distributed and concentrated loads regardless of the grid. Further research will be needed to investigate polynomial refinements (higher-order polynomials such as fifth-order, sixth-order…) of the deflection curve; the polynomial refinements aimed to increase the accuracy, whereby non-centered finite difference approximations at beam’s ends and positions of discontinuity would be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0327.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: KirchhoffLove plate; finite difference method; additional points; plate of varying thickness; plate with stiffeners; skew edge; plate buckling analysis; vibration analysis; direct time integration method;
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:51:59 CET)
This paper presents an approach to the Kirchhoff-Love plate theory (KLPT) using the finite difference method (FDM). The KLPT covers the case of small deflections, and shear deformations are not considered. The FDM is an approximate method for solving problems described with differential equations. The FDM does not involve solving differential equations; equations are formulated with values at selected points of the structure. Generally in the case of KLPT, the finite difference approximations are derived based on the fourth-order polynomial hypothesis (FOPH) and second-order polynomial hypothesis (SOPH) for the deflection surface. The FOPH is made for the fourth and third derivative of the deflection surface while the SOPH is made for its second and first derivative; this leads to a 13-point stencil for the governing equation. In addition, the boundary conditions and not the governing equations are applied at the plate edges. In this paper, the FOPH was made for all of the derivatives of the deflection surface; this led to a 25-point stencil for the governing equation. Furthermore, additional nodes were introduced at plate edges and at positions of discontinuity (continuous supports/hinges, incorporated beams, stiffeners, brutal change of stiffness, etc.), the number of additional nodes corresponding to the number of boundary conditions at the node of interest. The introduction of additional nodes allowed us to apply the governing equations at the plate edges and to satisfy the boundary and continuity conditions. First-order analysis, second-order analysis, buckling analysis, and vibration analysis of plates were conducted with this model. Moreover, plates of varying thickness and plates with stiffeners were analyzed. Finally, a direct time integration method (DTIM) was presented. The FDM-based DTIM enabled the analysis of forced vibration of structures, with damping taken into account. In first-order, second-order, buckling, and vibration analyses of rectangular plates, the results obtained in this paper were in good agreement with those of well-established methods, and the accuracy was increased through a grid refinement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vibration suppression; topology optimization; band gaps; Bloch theory; finite element analysis (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article; yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Online: 20 November 2020 (16:35:21 CET)
Vibration suppression in a field of frequencies and the creation of band gaps which do not allow the propagation of the waves is studied in this paper by means of microstructures designed through topology optimization. Topology optimization is formulated in frequency domain. Band gap design is based on Floquet-Bloch theory and genetic optimization. The result is appealing in view of modern 3D printing techniques.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0350.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials; sp1-hybridized bonds; carbon atomic wires; ion-assisted pulsed-plasma deposition; nanocavities; cluster-assembling; vibration-assisted growing; acoustic activation; vibrational patterns; electromagnetic activation; self-organizing of the nanostructures; nano-cymatics; controlled patterning; synergistic effect
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:07:52 CET)
Structural self-organizing and pattern formation are universal and key phenomena observed during growth and cluster-assembling of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials at the ion-assisted pulse-plasma deposition. Fine tuning these universal phenomena opens access to designing the properties of the growing carbyne-enriched nano-matrix. The structure of bonds in the grown carbyne-enriched nano-matrices can be programmed by the processes of self-organization and auto-synchronization of nanostructures. We propose the innovative concept, connected with application of the universal Cymatics phenomena during the predictive growth of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials. We also propose the self-organization approach for increase stability of the long linear carbon chains. The main idea of suggested concept is manipulating by the self-organized wave patterns excitation phenomenon and their distribution by the spatial structure and properties of the nanostructured metamaterial grows region through the new synergistic effect. Mentioned effect will be provided through the vibration-assisted self-organized wave patterns excitation along with simultaneous manipulating by their properties through the electric field. We propose to use acoustic activation of the plasma zone of nano-matrix growing. Interaction between the inhomogeneous electric field distribution generated on the vibrating layer and the plasma ions will serve as the additional energizing factor controlling the local pattern formation and self-organizing of the nano-structures. Suggested concept makes it possible to provide precise predictive designing the spatial structure and properties of the advanced carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials.