ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0997.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; temporary disability; cumulative incidence; healthcare workers; National Network of Epidemiological Surveillance; Spain
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:49:18 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCW) have been the professional category most exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The pandemic’s impact on HCW was analyzed in terms of COVID-19-related temporary disability (TD) between February 15 2020 and May 1 2021. TDs in HCW for COVID-19 infection or quarantine were described. TD quarantine/infection ratios and TDs per 100,000 affiliated HCW were compared with the cumulative incidence (CI) of COVID-19 cases notified to the National Network of Epidemiological Surveillance. TDs rates by economic activity and occupation were computed. A total of 429,127 TDs were recorded, 36,6% for infection. Three-quarters (76%) were women. The median TD quarantine/infection ratio was 2.5 (Interquartile range [IQR] 1.5-3.9). TDs rates in HCW were always above the CI except for the last two months of the fourth wave. Hospital activities accounted for 84% of TDs and showed the highest TD rate for infection (8,279/100,000). The highest TDs rates were registered among Nursing assistants, Nursing professionals and Physicians: 7,426, 6,925 and 5,508/100,000, respectively. The results demonstrate the high impact of COVID-19 on HCW in Spain and it’s inequalities. They also confirm that TDs represent a complementary source of information for epidemiological and public health surveillance and could provide an early warning of new emerging infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Temporary Immersion Bioreactor; Micropropagation; Plantain; plant tissue culture
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:26:15 CET)
The genus Musa spp. contains commercially important fleshy fruit producing plants including plantains and bananas with a strong potential of providing food security and source of revenue to farmers. Occasionally, plantlets are often not available to fulfill the supply demand of farmers particularly in Caribbean region. Concerns with the quality of vegetative tissues along with the possibility of the transmission of phytopathogens makes availability of plantlets limited to farm-ers. Micropropagation of plantains offers an alternative to producing large number of in-vitro plantlets. However, conventional methods of micropropagation techniques require high produc-tion costs and are labor-intensive. Recently, Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (TIB) has emerged as an alternative to conventional micropropagation methods. Our work utilized SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), molecular and biochemical tools (qRT-PCR and ICP-OES) to characterize and compare the morphological, elemental composition, and photosynthetic gene expression of plantains cultured on TIB. Additionally, morphological features of growth and propagation rates were analyzed for comparing outputs obtained from temporary immersion bioreactor with conventional micropropagation (CM) techniques. Results showed higher growth and multiplication rates for plantlets cultivated in TIB. Gene expression analysis of selected photosynthetic genes demonstrated high transcript abundance of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in plantain tissues obtained by TIB. Elemental composition analysis showed higher content of iron in plantains grown in TIB suggesting a potential correlation with PEPC expression. These results demonstrate the potential of TIB to be an efficient method to produce healthy in-vitro plantains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0166.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: public space; sharing and inclusiveness; quality; urban regeneration; temporary uses
Online: 9 November 2022 (02:15:59 CET)
The paper proposes, through an experimental method, a conceptualisation of theoretical-methodological and practical guidelines for the project on the system of collective open spaces, residual areas, abandoned areas that characterise the contemporary city, both in the urban contexts of the historical city, and in the more marginal areas of the modern suburbs. This methodology was experimented on an historical neighbourhood in Rome (San Lorenzo discrict) starting from the results of some researches conducted in collaboration between Sapienza University of Rome and the Escuela de Architettura, Universidad San Jorge and some design experiments conducted by Gràvalosdimonte design studio. This methodology and experimentation combines the theme of the inter-scalarity of the project (territorial, urban and local scale) with the themes of the flexibility and proximity of functions with respect to local instances and contingencies caused by the pandemic situation and by the sustainability perspectives, with particular reference to the need for urban health, the dialectic between public and private space in the perspective of the notion of common good, the bottom-up project for the construction of proximity spaces and plurality in the decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Embryogenesis; Cobalt-60 radiation-induced mutagenesis; Temporary immersion systems (TIS).
Online: 24 December 2021 (14:47:29 CET)
The development of gamma rays mutant rice lines would be a solution for introducing variability in already farmer using varieties. In vitro gamma (60Co) mutagenesis reduces chimeras and allows a faster selection of desired traits but requires laboratory process optimization. The objective of the present work was the in vitro establishment of a recalcitrant rice embryogenic calli, the determination of its sensitivity to gamma radiation (Co-60), sequencing MATK and Rubisco for identification purposes, as well as generation optimization. The radiosensitivity of embryogenic calli resulted in an LD50 of 110Gy, while the 20% lethal dose was 64Gy. All sequenced genes matched perfectly with already reported MATK and Rubisco O. sativa genes with a clear SNP that identifies the local variety related to the southeast Asia Region. Callus induction improves with an MS with 2mg/L 2,4D, and the regeneration was achieved with an MS medium with 3mg/L BAP and 0,5mg/L NAA. The optimized radiation condition was 60Gy with an 83% regeneration in a semisolid medium, allowing a balance between mutation and regeneration. When increased to 80Gy, the regeneration rate falls to 29%. An immersion system (RITA®) of either 60 or 120 seconds every 8hours allowed a systematic and homogeneous total regeneration of the recalcitrant line, in contrast with the semisolid medium that resulted in positive but irregular regeneration. Other well-known recalcitrant cultivars, CR1821, CR1113 also had an improving regeneration in the immersion system, demonstrating its potential use for recalcitrant materials. To our knowledge, this is the first report on using an immersion system to allow regeneration of gamma-ray mutants from recalcitrant rice materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0185.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bioresorbable implants; Magnesium alloy; PHB; Biocompatibility; Cytotoxicity; NO; temporary implants
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:35:07 CEST)
Magnesium and its alloys are not normally used as bio-resorbable temporary implants due to their high and uncontrolled degradation rate in physiological liquid environment. The improvement of corrosion resistance to simulated body fluids (SBF) of a Magnesium alloy (AZ31) coated with poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and contact angle measurements were used to characterize surface morphology, material composition and wettability, respectively. pH modification of the SBF corroding medium, mass of Mg2+ ions released, and weight loss of the samples exposed to the SBF solution, and electrochemical experiment were used to describe the corrosion process and its kinetics. Materials biocompatibility was described by evaluating the effect of corrosion by products collected in the SBF equilibrating solution on hemolysis ratio, cytotoxicity, Nitric Oxide (NO), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). The results showed that the PHB coating can diffusively control the degradation rate of Magnesium alloy improving its biocompatibility: hemolysis rate of materials was lower than 5%, while in vitro Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells（HUVECs) compatibility experiments showed that PHB coated Mg alloy promoted cell proliferation and had no effect on the NO content, the T-AOC was enhanced compared with the normal group and bare AZ31 alloy. PHB coated AZ31 Magnesium alloy extraction fluids have a less toxic behavior due to the lower concentration of corrosion by-products deriving from the diffusion control exerted by the PHB coating films both from metal surface to the solution and vice versa. These findings provide more reference value for the selection of such system as tunable bioresorbable prosthetic materials
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: temporary grandstand; lateral vibration experiment; vibration dose value; annoyance rate; human health risk
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:03:32 CEST)
Excessive vibration of temporary grandstand owing to crowd has lateral rhythmic motions can cause human in panic, which attracted increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on experiments that a temporary grandstand occupied 20 participants is oscillated by a shaking table with a series of random waves and induced by crowd with rhythmic swaying motions at lateral direction, respectively. And then a series of vibration perception questionnaires about crowd reaction are obtained. Evaluation of annoying level derives in concept of degree of membership and annoying rate method is proposed, then the human health risk of vibration serviceability of temporary grandstand is assessed with acceleration vibration dose value(VDV). From these results it is clear that standing crowd is more tolerant to vibration than seated crowd. The measured vibrations generated by crowd activities on temporary grandstand can cause panic in crowd. New relationship between the annoyance rate and structural acceleration VDV at logarithmic coordinate is proposed. The findings of this study can be utilized to manage the vibration of temporary grandstand and assess the human health risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: parametric design, paper in architecture, temporary architecture, pop-up structures, membrane structures, isogeometric analysis, fabrication
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:17:11 CEST)
Temporary pavilions play an important role as experimental fields for architects, designers and engineers, apart from providing exhibition spaces. Novel structural and formal solutions applied in pavilions also can give them unusual appearance that attracts eyesight of spectators. In this article authors explore the possibility of combination of structural novelty, visual attractiveness and low-cost by a design and construction of a temporary pavilion. For that purpose, an innovative structural system and design approach was applied, i.e. membrane structure designed in Rhino and Grasshopper environments with the use of Kiwi!3D IsoGeometric analysis tool. The designed pavilion, named Obverse/Reverse, was built in Opole, Poland, for the occasion of World Architecture Day in July 2019. Design and construction was performed by the authors in cooperation with students’ organisation Humanisation of Urban Environment from the Faculty of Architecture Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. The Rresultant pavilion proved the possibility of obtaining a low-budgets but visually attractive architectural solution with the adaption of parametrical design tools and some scientific background with innovative structural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0512.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social sustainability; seasonal migration; circular migration; industrial agriculture; Huelva; Lleida; Romanian migration; temporary migration programs
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:24:46 CET)
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Romanian migrants have become one of the most significant national groups doing agricultural work in Spain, initially coming via a temporary migration program and later under several different modalities. However, despite their critical importance for the functioning of Europe’s largest agro-industry, the study of this long-term circular mobility is still underdeveloped in migration and agriculture literature. Thanks to extensive fieldwork carried out in the provinces of Huelva and Lleida in Spain and in the counties of Teleorman and Buzău in Romania, this paper has two main objectives: first, to identify some of the most common forms of mobility of these migrants and second, to discuss whether this industrial agriculture, hugely dependent on migrant work, is socially sustainable. The case of Romanian migrants in Spanish agriculture will serve to show how a critical sector for the EU and for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations, operates on an unsustainable model based on precariousness and exploitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: exploratory spatial data analysis; LISA; temporary assistance for needy families (TANF); tanf responsiveness to great recession; spatial clusters; TANF policy choices; TANF maximum aid
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:35:09 CEST)
During the 2008 Great Recession, many families with children relied on cash assistance from Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. The present study applied Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) tools to analyze geographically varying spatial clusters of states’ unemployment rates, TANF caseload growth rates, TANF policy choices such as benefit levels and TANF responsiveness rates to the recession. We analyzed 45 contiguous states and Washington D.C. A standardized TANF responsiveness index was developed to compare states’ TANF growth rates relative to their labor market conditions. The western states were found to be very responsive to the recession with ratios greater than one. In contrast, Texas and Arizona, with ratios below 1, were unresponsive to the recession. The presence of strong spatial clusters in unemployment rate and TANF maximum aid were found. In the case of maximum aid, there was a strong presence of Low-Low spatial clusters in Southern States and High-High clusters in Northeastern States. The findings suggest that several neighboring states in the northeast and some in the south had similar levels of financial commitment during the 2008 recessionary as the ones found by earlier research conducted during non-recessionary periods. The findings have implications for future federal actions and for state level collaboration.