REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: TRβ; tumor suppression; co-regulators; therapeutics
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:14:12 CEST)
There is compelling evidence that the nuclear receptor TRβ, a member of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family, is a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and other solid tumors. Cell-based and animal studies reveal that the liganded TRβ induces apoptosis, reduces an aggressive phenotype, decreases stem cell populations, and slows tumor growth through modulation of a complex interplay of transcriptional networks. TRβ-driven tumor suppressive transcriptomic signatures include repression of known drivers of proliferation such as PI3K/Akt pathway and activation of novel signaling (JAK1/STAT1) and metabolic reprogramming in both thyroid and breast cancers. The presence of TRβ is also correlated with a positive prognosis and response to therapeutics in BRCA+ and triple-negative breast cancers respectively. Ligand activation of TRβ enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. TRβ co-regulators and bromodomain-containing chromatin remodeling proteins are emergent therapeutic targets. This review considers TRβ as a potential biomolecular diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Subject: Keywords: water mist, fire suppression mechanisms, application areas
Online: 26 April 2021 (16:49:28 CEST)
Water mist fire suppression technology has attracted an increasing interest from the field of fire protection services such as fire safety for buildings, ships, spacecraft, libraries and museums due to its non-toxic and high efficiency in the suppression of a wide variety of fires. To support the technological development of water mist fire suppression system and its application areas, this review introduces the concept of water mist system and discusses its suppression mechanisms in comparison with other fire protection systems. The recent application areas of water mist system are surveyed for class A fires involving combustible solid materials such as wood, paper and textiles; class B fires involving flammable liquids such as petrol, oils, lubricants, paints and waxes; class C fires involving flammable gasses such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas; fires involving electrical (class E) equipment such as computers and information technology facilities; and the class F fires involving flammable cooking oils and fats. Finally, the paper concludes the review by identifying the current research trends, and providing the future direction for water mist technology and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0347.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: interocular suppression; consciousness; color vision; visual search; attentional templates; early visual system; awareness; continuous flash suppression; binocoular rivalry
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:32:29 CET)
Color can direct visual attention to specific locations through bottom-up and top-down mechanisms. Using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) as way to investigate the factors that gate access to consciousness, the current study investigated whether color also directly affected the timing of conscious perception. Low or high spatial frequency (SF) gratings with different orientations were shown as targets to the non-dominant eye of human participants. CFS patterns were presented at a rate of 10Hz to the dominant eye to delay conscious perception of the targets, and participants had the task to report the target’s orientation as soon as they could see it. With low-SF targets, two types of color-based effects became evident. First, when the targets and the CFS patterns had different colors, the targets entered consciousness faster than in trials where the targets and CFS patterns had the same color. Second, when participants searched for a specific target color, targets that matched these search settings entered consciousness faster compared to conditions where the target color was irrelevant and could vary from trial to trial. Thus, the current study demonstrates that color is a central feature of human perception and leads to faster conscious perception of visual stimuli through bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: PARP inhibitor; angiogenesis; immune suppression; recurrent ovarian cancer
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:02:09 CEST)
In the post-PARP inhibitor era, potential changes in tumor biology after maintenance therapy have not been well investigated in recurrent ovarian cancer. We reported a case with alterations in the clinical and histological features of multiple relapsed disease associated with PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy. The patient with high-grade serous carcinoma exhibited BRCA wildtype and homologous recombination proficiency status, and suffered from three recurrences and surgeries accordingly. Olaparib maintenance had been used during the second-line therapy. We compared the differences in clinics and pathology among three recurrences and relapsed lesions. Disease-free survivals were dramatically decreased after the exposure to olaparib. At exploration of quaternary cytoreduction, the relapsed tumor was characterized by a carcinomatosis-like metastasis pattern and an easy tendency of bleeding. Tumor cytopathological changes and alterations were observed in both the tumoral and non-tumoral stroma, among relapsed tumor tissues derived from secondary, tertiary and quaternary cytoreduction. Histopathology indicated hemorrhage, necrosis, atypical tumor cells, massive angiogenesis, and decreased CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly in the third relapsed disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show a unique metastatic pattern of angiogenic burst after PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer, which seemed to trigger invasive tumor growth and immune suppression. Further prospective studies and translational research focusing cytoreductive surgery after PARP inhibitor could progressively lead to an understanding of the biological behavior and metastatic patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; pediatric solid tumor; immune suppression
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:22:35 CEST)
Tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a complex network between tumor cells and a variety of components including immune, stromal and vascular endothelial cells as well as extracellular matrix. A wide panel of signals and interactions here take place, resulting in a bi-directional modulation of cellular functions. Many stimuli, on one hand, induce tumor growth and spread of metastatic cells and, on the other hand, contribute to the establishment of an immunosuppressive environment. The latter feature is achieved by soothing immune effector cells, mainly cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B and NK cells, and/or through expansion of regulatory cell populations, including regulatory T and B cells, tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this context, immune checkpoints (IC) are key players in the control of T cell activation and anti-cancer activities, leading to the inhibition of tumor cell lysis and of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Thus, these pathways represent promising targets for the development of effective and innovative therapies both in adults and childhood. Here we address the role of different cell populations homing the TME and of well-known and recently characterized IC in the context of pediatric solid tumors. We also discuss preclinical and clinical data available using IC inhibitors alone, in combination each other or administered with standard therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0184.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: depression; nurturing; honest signaling; reproductive suppression; anthocyanins; hormesis
Online: 15 July 2019 (13:31:03 CEST)
Background: Solon (2019) introduced genetic bandwagoning in a very general sense: A variant sequentially 1) evaluates its holder’s quality and 2) induces its holder to relinquish resources if the holder’s quality is low. Here, I introduce a more complex form of bandwagoning in order to account for a series of phenomena considered “paradoxical” by scientists specializing in their literatures: a) depression, b) differential nurturing, c) honest signaling of quality, d) reproductive suppression, e) stress-induced anthocyanins, and f) hormesis. These literatures are characterized by the following findings: 1) Low-quality individuals incur a cost against reproductive success compared to higher-quality individuals. 2) Individuals not (yet) identified as low-quality incur a cost against their ability to survive predators and/or parasites compared to individuals that have already been identified as low-quality. 3) Females incur a cost against reproductive success compared to males. 4) Males incur a cost against their ability to survive predators and/or parasites compared to females. 5) If conditions are challenging, individuals gain in both reproductive success and their ability to survive predators and/or parasites compared to less challenging conditions; however, too-challenging conditions detract from both. For each literature, at least one of these findings is unaccommodated by existing theory when considered in the context of that literature. Despite existing theory, these patterns are remarkably persistent. Question: Can paradoxes fitting these patterns be explained by genetic bandwagoning theory? Conclusion: Here, reservation is introduced as a form of bandwagoning in which a bandwagoning variant induces its holder to reserve from (i.e., withhold) some of its ability to survive parasites or predators. Reservation would occur for the purpose of assessing a holder’s quality when conditions are sufficiently unchallenging that few individuals are chronically stressed, so it is otherwise difficult to evaluate a holder’s quality. If the holder is subsequently killed, wounded, or infected, then it is identified as lacking the quality that would allow its descendants to survive more challenging conditions. The holder loses some or all of its resources as a direct consequence of the very death, wounding, or infection that identified its low quality. That is, in reservation, the two steps of bandwagoning are accomplished simultaneously. (This way of bandwagoning is distinguished from when the two steps are accomplished sequentially, which is termed resonation.) Reservation shares numerous premises with Zahavi’s handicap principle. If conditions are challenging, individuals would downregulate reservation and also be less likely to forego resources through resonation (which accounts for (5)). Additionally, a bandwagoning variant would likely evolve to vary the reservation it induces from holder to holder as a hedge against the possibility that conditions suddenly turn severe before it can adjust the reservation. Individuals already identified as low-quality would downregulate reservation (which accounts for (2) above) and would instead forego resources through resonation (which accounts for (1)). Additionally, females would downregulate reservation (which accounts for (4)) and, as a consequence, surviving females are more likely than surviving males to forego resources through resonation (which accounts for (3)).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Forecast splashing; suppression splashing; AOD; signal fusion; fuzzy control
Online: 10 June 2022 (07:51:53 CEST)
During the smelting process of AOD furnace, the unbalanced reaction of material will lead to the occurrence of splashing. It will not only damage the smelting equipment, but also seriously injure the personnel. In this study, first, the information of liquid level, audio information, and vibration information are detected by multiple sensors respectively. Then, the fused information is used to forecast the splashing. Finally, the multitasking fuzzy controller is used to suppress splashing. The results show that the method of forecasting and suppressing splashing can accurately forecast and achieve rapid suppression. Thus, the efficiency of smelting can be improved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0538.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Wolbachia, Aedes, population replacement, population suppression, incompatible insect technique
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:51:55 CEST)
Mosquitoes carrying endosymbiotic bacteria called Wolbachia are being released in mosquito and arbovirus control programs around the world. Open field releases of Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes have achieved over 95% population suppression, while the replacement of populations with Wolbachia-infected females is self-sustaining and can greatly reduce local dengue transmission. Despite many successful interventions, significant questions and challenges lie ahead. Wolbachia, viruses and their mosquito hosts can evolve, leading to uncertainty around the long-term effectiveness of a given Wolbachia strain, while few ecological impacts of Wolbachia releases have been explored. Wolbachia strains are diverse and the choice of strain to release should be made carefully, taking environmental conditions and the release objective into account. Mosquito quality control, thoughtful community awareness programs and long-term monitoring of populations are essential for all types of Wolbachia intervention. Releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes show great promise, but existing control measures remain an important way to reduce the burden of mosquito-borne disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0197.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic freedom; free speech; censorship; free inquiry; thought suppression
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:07:22 CEST)
This paper explores the suppression of ideas within academic scholarship by academics, either by self-suppression or because of the efforts of other academics. Legal, moral, and social issues distinguishing freedom of speech, freedom of inquiry, and academic freedom are reviewed. How these freedoms and protections can come into tension is then explored by an analysis of denunciation mobs who exercise their legal free speech rights to call for punishing scholars who express ideas they disapprove of and condemn. When successful, these efforts, which constitute legally protected speech, will suppress certain ideas. Real-world examples over the past five years of academics who have been sanctioned or terminated for scholarship targeted by a denunciation mob are then explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0175.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: surround suppression; extra-classical receptive field; optic tectum; size tuning
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:29:15 CET)
Surround modulation is a phenomenon whereby costimulation of the extra-classical receptive field and classical receptive field would modulate the visual responses induced individually by classical receptive field. However, there lacks systematic study about surround modulation properties existing in avian optic tectum. In this study, neuronal activities are recorded from pigeon optic tectum, and the responses to moving and flashed squares and bars of different sizes are compared. The statistical results showed that most tectal neurons presented surround suppression as stimuli size grew larger both in moving and flashed paradigms, and the suppression degree induced by larger flashed square was comparable with that by moving one when it crossed near the cell’s RF center, which corresponds to fully surrounding condition. The suppression degree grew weaker when the stimuli move across the RF border, which corresponds to partially surrounding condition. Meanwhile, the fully surround suppression induced by flashed square was also more intense than partially surrounded by flashed bars. The results provide new insight for understanding the spatial arrangement of lateral inhibitions from feedback or feedforward streams, which would help to make clear the generation mechanism of surround modulation found in avian optic tectum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0182.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: sterile insect technique; Aedes aegypti; suppression study; irradiation; vector control
Online: 6 April 2021 (15:27:55 CEST)
Dengue virus infections are a serious public health problem worldwide. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue in Cuba. Since there is no vaccine or specific treatment, the control efforts are directed to reduce mosquito populations. The indiscriminate use of pesticides can lead to increase insecticide resistance as well as adverse effects on human health. The sterile insect technique is a species-specific and environmental friendly method of insect control based on the release of large numbers of sterile males. The success of this technique in sustainable control of agricultural pests has encouraged its evaluation for mosquito control. Here, we describe an open field trial to evaluate the effect of the release of irradiated males on a wild population of Aedes aegypti. The case-control study was performed in a suburb of Havana, and compared the mosquito population before and after the intervention, in both control and treated areas. The wild population was monitored by an ovitrap network, recording frequency and density of eggs as well as their hatch rate. A significant induced sterility was observed in the field population, compared to the control. The ovitrap index and the mean eggs/ trap declined dramatically after an expected lag period of twelve and five weeks, respectively. For the last three weeks, no egg was collected in the treated area, evidencing a significant suppression of the wild population. We conclude that the sterile males released competed successfully, and induced enough sterility to suppress the local Aedes aegypti population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: antiretroviral therapy; differentiated service delivery; retention; suppression; Africa; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2020 (09:53:46 CEST)
Introduction: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV are being scaled up in the expectation that they will improve the quality and efficiency of treatment delivery and reduce costs while maintaining at least equivalent clinical outcomes. Even this minimum requirement of equivalent clinical outcomes is poorly documented for most models and settings, however. We reviewed the recent literature on DSD models to describe what is known about clinical outcomes. Methods: We conducted a rapid systematic review of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science and major international conference abstracts that reported outcomes of DSD models for the provision of ART in sub-Saharan Africa from January 1, 2016 to September 12, 2019. Sources reporting standard clinical HIV treatment metrics, primarily retention in care and viral load suppression, were reviewed and categorized by DSD model and source quality assessed. Results and Discussion: Twenty-nine papers and abstracts describing 37 DSD models and reporting 52 discrete outcomes met search inclusion criteria. Of the 37 models, 7 (19%) were facility-based individual models, 12 (32%) out-of-facility based individual models, 5 (14%) client-led groups, and 13 (35%) healthcare worker-led groups. Retention was reported for 73% of the models and viral suppression for 57%. Where a comparison with conventional care was provided, retention in most DSD models was within 5% of that for conventional care; where no comparison was provided, retention generally exceeded 80%. For viral suppression, all those with a comparison to conventional care reported a small increase in suppression in the DSD model; reported suppression exceeded 90% in 11/21 models. Analysis was limited by the extensive heterogeneity of study designs, outcomes, models, and populations. Most sources did not provide comparisons with conventional care, and metrics for assessing outcomes varied widely and were in many cases poorly defined. Conclusion: Existing evidence on the clinical outcomes of DSD models for HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is limited in both quantity and quality but suggests that retention in care and viral suppression are roughly equivalent to those in conventional models of care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: solid cancers; cell cycle; apoptosis; inflammation; mitochondria; stemness; tumor suppression
Online: 5 August 2019 (03:43:33 CEST)
The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)3 and 5 are activated by many cytokine receptors to regulate specific gene expression and mitochondrial functions. Their role in cancer is largely context dependent as they can both act as oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We review here the role of STAT3/5 activation in solid cancers and summarize their association to survival in cancer patients. The molecular mechanisms that underpins the oncogenic activity of STAT3/5 signaling includes the regulation of genes that control cell cycle, cell death, inflammation and stemness. In addition, STAT3 mitochondrial functions are required for transformation. On the other hand, several tumor suppressor pathways act on or are activated by STAT3/5 signaling including the p19ARF/p53 pathway, tyrosine phosphatases, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and 3, the sumo ligase PIAS3, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TMF/ARA160 and the miRNAs miR-124 and miR-1181. Cancer mutations and epigenetic alterations may alter the balance between pro-oncogenic and tumor suppressor activities associated to STAT3/5 signaling explaining their context dependent association to tumor progression both in human cancers and animal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MDOF isolation platform; geometrical nonlinearity; vibration suppression; adjustable stiffness property
Online: 12 April 2017 (04:29:06 CEST)
This study analyzes the modeling and dynamics of a novel passive in Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) vibration isolation platform which can achieve significant isolation effect. Symmetrical Scissor-Like structures (SLSs) are utilized in the proposed MDOF isolation platform as the supporting and isolation elastic components. Based on the mathematical modeling and theoretical analysis of the MDOF vibration isolation system with SLSs, the effect of structural parameter and joint friction on stiffness and damping properties is investigated. It is shown that due to geometric relations within the SLSs, the natural frequencies can be reduced via adjusting structural parameters of the SLS for different direction vibration isolation. Theoretical and experimental results show that the SLS isolation platform can achieve much better loading capacity and vibration isolation performance simultaneously by only using linear passive components because of the MDOF adjustable stiffness property. Therefore, with low costing and energy consumption, the proposed novel isolation platform can provide the improvement of vibration suppression in various engineering practices.
Online: 27 August 2019 (10:06:32 CEST)
Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world, whereas insect attacks is a prime cause of its losses on yield and quality. Despite it is important, little is known about the mechanism of cotton response to insect. In this study, we simulated insect feeding by applying insect oral secretions (OS) to wounds, and combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis to comprehensively investigate how OS from two major pest species (Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura) affect cotton defense responses. Obvious differences were observed that 12,668 and 13,379 genes differently expressed respectively in cotton after being treated with different OS when compared with wounding along. Upon the addition of OS, JA-signaling pathway were rapidly and strongly induced, however SA-biosynthesis related gens were significantly down-regulated. By constructing the co-expression gene network, we identified a hub gene which encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase may play important role in recognition and signal transduction at early stage. We also found that OS from different insect species altered abundance of flavonoid related compound with different patterns. Interestingly, Gossypol which is a well-known anti-insect compound was kept a relative low content after OS application relative to wounding which implied the existence of the suppression effects of OS to cotton defense response. This study illustrated the transcriptional and metabolic changes of cotton in responding to OS from two chewing insect species, identified potential key gene during the interaction process and finds the evidence for OS’s inhibition effects on cotton defense response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: crop-improvement; population genetics; weed suppression; sustainable weed management; Palmer amaranth; glyphosate
Online: 9 December 2021 (14:50:33 CET)
Increasing agricultural productivity is indispensable to meet future food demand. Crop im-provement programs rely heavily on genetic diversity. The success of weeds in the ecosystem can be attributed to genetic diversity and plasticity. Weedy rice, a major weed of rice, has diverse morphology and phenology, implying wide genetic diversity. Study was conducted to genotype weedy rice accessions (n =54) previously phenotyped for herbicide tolerance and allelopathic potential using 30 SSR markers. Cultivated rice (CL163, REX) and allelopathic rice (RONDO, PI312777, PI338047) were also included in the study. Nei’s genetic diversity among weedy rice (0.45) was found to be higher than cultivated rice (0.24) but less than allelopathic rice (0.56). The genetic relationship and population structure based on herbicide tolerance and allelopathic po-tential were evaluated. Herbicide-tolerant and susceptible accessions formed distinct clusters in the dendrogram, indicating their genetic variation, whereas no distinction was observed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic weedy rice accessions. Weedy rice accession B2, which was previously reported to have high allelopathy and herbicide tolerance, was genetically distinct from other weedy rice. Results from the study will help leverage weedy rice for rice improvement programs as both rice and weedy rice are closely related, thus having a low breeding barrier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0360.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: human health; light pollution; modeling; street light; Montréal; melatonin suppression; obtrusive light
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:20:47 CEST)
This paper describes the use of a new obtrusive light module of the Illumina v2 model to estimate the light that may enter bedroom windows. We used as input to the model, 1- the sources’ flux and spectrum derived from the color images taken by astronauts from the international space station, 2- an association between source spectrum and angular emission, and 3- a per zone inventory of obstacles properties and lamp height. The model calculate the spectral irradiance incident to buildings’ windows taking into account for the orientation of the street. By using the color information from an ISS image, we can classify pixels as a function of their spectra. With the same image, it is also possible to determine the upward photopic radiance for each pixel. Both serve as inputs to the model to calculate the spectral irradiance on any window. By having the spectral irradiance, it is possible to determine the Melatonin Suppression Index and the photopic irradiance on the window. Such information can later be used to perform epidemiological studies. The new methodology is applied to the case of Montréal in Canada for a set of houses’ locations. The computations are made for 2013 (pre-LED era).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0381.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: CCR6, CCL20, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflammation, Suppression, TH17 cells, Regulatory Treg cells
Online: 21 August 2018 (15:04:43 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) - associated immune mediated disorder which has attracted an extensive superfluity of experimental analyses. IBD has come to the fore of varied scrutinizing owing to its complexity by nature for comprising of two synergistic sub phenotypes; Crohn’s disease (CD) and Ulcerative colitis (UC). Both these disease entities cause potent immune dysregulation followed by intense tissue damage within the gut mucosal system, initiating symptoms which are severely debilitating. Multiple causative factors are said to be responsible for IBD but direct immune dysfunction is kindled by overplay of innate and adaptive immune responses produced against a pathogenic microbial attack through the weakened or leaky gut epithelial barrier. Once immune homeostasis is not achieved by tolerating agents, the self-assertive adaptive immunity mobilize its various T and B cell cohorts initializing their allied immune mechanisms by vigorously deploying them towards the site of infection. CCR6 and its unique solitary ligand CC-chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) are small protein molecules which are abundantly expressed by T and B lymphocytes and act as chemotactic immune-modulatory envoys that help in the deployment of the effector lymphocyte arm of the immune system, producing two directly opposing outcomes in IBD. This dichotomous immunity consists of either immune tolerance or inflammation which then develops into a chronic state, remaining catatonic to inherent immunity or targeted clinical therapy. In this review, we have chronologically identified a plethora of experimental studies radiating into 14 different compartments highlighted in the visual depiction which have employed both mouse models and clinical subjects spanning a period of nearly two decades. In doing so, we expect the research community would further benefit by tracing through the history, thereby understanding the CCR6 –CCL20 axis in IBD and identifying the gaps in literature which can be fortuitously filled in the future.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Corona discharge; corona ring; corona suppression; high voltage capacitor banks; shunt capacitor banks
Online: 4 November 2021 (11:21:35 CET)
Capacitor banks are widely used in current electrical transmission systems in order to improve power quality and increase efficiency. Utilizing high voltage components such as, shunt capacitors in the power grid imposes new challenges to the system which are required to be addressed. One of these challenges is corona discharges that can have negative impacts on capacitor banks such as power loss, insulator erosion followed by equipment failure, and radio interference. Although previous studies have almost exclusively focused on optimization of corona suppression rings for transformers and transmission lines, no specific studies have conducted regarding high voltage capacitor banks. This paper presents a novel study concerning verification and development of corona discharge suppression models on AC and DC capacitor banks with two different voltage levels. The employed method is based on the Maxwell’s equations and finite element method (FEM) which is implemented with the help of COMSOL Multiphysics© software. Results have verified the necessity of suppression methods as well as the efficiency of proposed solutions. Corona inception voltage levels are identified and effective factors on its appearance are reviewed. Analyses of proposed solutions have shown significant improvements in optimization of corona suppression methods as well as enhancement of maintenance maneuverability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tomato cultivar; allelopathy; competitive ability; plant-plant interactions; weed suppression; sustainable agriculture; weed management; vegetable
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:33:20 CEST)
The present study aims to identify tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars with weed-suppressive ability against target weed species in the tomato growing season. A greenhouse study was conducted with 17 tomato cultivars and target weeds Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). Tomato plants and weed species were grown in the same pot. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. The largest effect of tomato interference was on Palmer amaranth. Cultivar 15 reduced Palmer amaranth height, chlorophyll, and biomass by 58, 28, and 83%, respectively. Chlorophyll percentage of yellow nutsedge seedlings was suppressed by 15% by cultivar 64, whereas 13% of its height was reduced by cultivar 20. Cultivar 15 reduced biomass of yellow nutsedge by 40%. The percentage of chlorophyll of large crabgrass was reduced by 22% with cultivar 5, whereas the height and biomass were reduced by 35 and 44% with cultivars 38 and 63, respectively. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38, 33, and 7 were most suppressive against the problematic weed species in tomato.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: helial-mesenchymal transition; EMT spectrum; hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotypes; CTC clusters; stemness; immune suppression; EMT metrics; systems biology
Online: 18 April 2019 (08:02:27 CEST)
Cancer cells can acquire a spectrum of stable hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) states during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cells in these hybrid E/M phenotypes often combine epithelial and mesenchymal features and tend to migrate collectively commonly as small clusters. Such collectively migrating cancer cells play a pivotal role in seeding metastases and their presence in cancer patients indicates an adverse prognostic factor. Moreover, cancer cells in hybrid E/M phenotypes tend to be more associated with stemness which endows them with tumor-initiation ability and therapy resistance. Most recently, cells undergoing EMT have been shown to promote immune suppression for better survival. A systematic understanding of the emergence of hybrid E/M phenotypes and the connection of EMT with stemness and immune suppression would contribute to more effective therapeutic strategies. In this review, we first discuss recent efforts combining theoretical and experimental approaches to elucidate mechanisms underlying EMT multi-stability (i.e. the existence of multiple stable phenotypes during EMT) and the properties of hybrid E/M phenotypes. Following we discuss non-cell-autonomous regulation of EMT by cell cooperation and extracellular matrix. Afterwards, we discuss various metrics that can be used to quantify EMT spectrum. We further describe possible mechanisms underlying the formation of clusters of circulating tumor cells. Last but not least, we summarize recent systems biology analysis of the role of EMT in the acquisition of stemness and immune suppression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0359.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Mutual coupling suppression; slotted array antennas; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems; decoupling method
Online: 20 August 2018 (14:46:43 CEST)
This paper presents a new approach to suppress interference between neighbouring radiating elements resulting from surface wave currents. The proposed technique will enable the realization of low-profile implementation of highly dense antenna configuration necessary in SAR and MIMO communication systems. Unlike other conventional techniques of mutual coupling suppression where decoupling slab is located between the radiating antennas the proposed technique is simpler and only requires embedding linear slots near the periphery of the patch. Attributes of this technique are (i) significant improvement in the maximum isolation between the adjacent antennas by 26.7 dB in X-band, & >15 dB in Ku and K-bands; (ii) reduction in edge-to-edge gap between antennas to 10 mm (0.37λ); and (iii) improvement in gain by >40% over certain angular directions, which varies between 4.5 dBi to 8.2 dBi. The proposed technique is simple to implement at low-cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3; photoprotection; DNA damage; cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers; edema; photoimmune suppression; female vs male mice; ER-β knockout
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:49:22 CET)
Susceptibility to photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis is greater in male than in female humans and mice and is exacerbated in female estrogen receptor-beta knockout (ER-β-/-) mice. We previously reported that the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) applied topically protects against ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induction of cutaneous cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in female mice. Here we compare these responses in female versus male Skh:hr1 mice, in ER-β-/- versus wild type C57BL/6 mice, and in female ER-blockaded Skh:hr1 mice. Induction of CPDs was significantly greater in male than female Skh:hr1 mice and was more effectively reduced by 1,25(OH)2D in female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice, than in male Skh:hr1 or ER-β-/- mice respectively. This correlated with reduced sunburn inflammation by 1,25(OH)2D in female but not male Skh:hr1 mice. Furthermore, although 1,25(OH)2D alone dose-dependently suppressed basal CHS responses in male Skh:hr1 and ER-β-/- mice, UV-induced immunosuppression was universally observed. In female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice, the immunosuppression was decreased by 1,25(OH)2D dose-dependently, but not in male Skh:hr1, ER-β-/- or ER-blockaded mice. These results reveal a sex bias in genetic, inflammatory and immune photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D favoring female mice, that is dependent on the presence of ER-β.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Artificial Light at Night; Intrusive Light; Direct Light Pollution; Radiometry; Multispectral; Multiangular; Melatonin Suppression Index; Star Light Index; Spectroscopy; Measurement; Synthetic photometry
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:20:35 CET)
Increased exposure to artificial light at night can affect human health including disruption of melatonin production and circadian rhythms and extend to increased risks of hormonal cancers and other serious diseases. In addition, multiple negative impacts on fauna and flora are well documented, and it is a matter of fact that artificial light at night is a nuisance for ground-based astronomy. These impacts are frequently linked to the colour of the light or more specifically to its spectral content. Artificial light at night is often mapped by using space borne sensors, but most of them are panchromatic and thus insensitive to the colour. In this paper, we suggest a method that allows high resolution mapping of the Artificial light at night by using ground-based measurements with the LANcube system. The device separates the light detected in four bands (Red, Green, Blue, and Clear) and provides this information for six faces of a cube. We found relationships between the LANcube’s colour ratios and 1- the Melatonin Suppression Index, 2- the StarLight Index and 3- the Induced Photosynthesis Index. We show how such relationships combined with data acquisition from a LANcube positioned on the top of a car can be used to produce spectral indices maps of a whole city in a few hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vibration suppression; topology optimization; band gaps; Bloch theory; finite element analysis (List three to ten pertinent keywords specific to the article; yet reasonably common within the subject discipline.)
Online: 20 November 2020 (16:35:21 CET)
Vibration suppression in a field of frequencies and the creation of band gaps which do not allow the propagation of the waves is studied in this paper by means of microstructures designed through topology optimization. Topology optimization is formulated in frequency domain. Band gap design is based on Floquet-Bloch theory and genetic optimization. The result is appealing in view of modern 3D printing techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diffusion-weighted whole body imaging with background suppression（DWIBS）; magnetic res-onance imaging (MRI); lung cancer; response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST); ap-parent diffusion coefficient (ADC); BD Score
Online: 5 January 2023 (01:43:25 CET)
Chemotherapy for lung cancer has made remarkable progress, and its selection has been subdivided by genetic analysis. Although response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) is a simple and highly objective evaluation method, it has been pointed out that it has the disadvantage of not being able to accurately evaluate the therapeutic effect of molecularly targeted drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether quantitative evaluation of DWIBS is useful in determining the effectiveness of treatment for lung cancer. There were 31 patients with lung cancer and 56 patterns were obtained. First, the determination of treatment effect (PD, SD, PR) based on RECIST was performed on CT. Second, tDV and ADC (median) were measured using BD score from DWI images taken at the same time, and the rate of change was calculated. Then, we compared and examined the correlation between RECIST and the rate of change in tDV. There were correlations between RECIST and the rate of change in tDV in PD and PR cases respectively. Compared RECIST on CT, DWIBS using BD score would be more accurate for response evaluation of treatment. There was a tendency that tDV decreased with increasing ADC values, but some of the cases had a dissociated response with increasing ADC values and increasing tDV. Thus, since the color display of ADC values allows us to infer their contents, it would be useful for the evaluation of cases such as dissociated response and pseudoprogression, which are suspected to be atypical responses that are difficult to evaluate with RECIST and other methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0020.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: hepatitis C virus; hepatocellular carcinoma; immunotherapy; multi-component DNA vaccine; nucleocapsid (core) protein; telomerase reverse transcriptase; eukaryotic expression; CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response; immune suppression; assays of reporter expression; induction of type I interferons
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:18:59 CEST)
Chronic HCV infection and associated liver cancer impose a heavy burden on the healthcare system. Direct acting antivirals eliminate HCV, unless it is drug resistant, and partially reverse liver disease, but they cannot cure HCV-related cancer. Possible remedy could be a multi-component immunotherapeutic vaccine targeting both HCV-infected and malignant cells, also those not infected with HCV. To meet this need we developed a two-component DNA vaccine based on the highly conserved core protein of HCV to target HCV-infected cells, and a renowned tumor associated antigen telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) based on the rat TERT, to target malignant cells. Their synthetic genes were expression-optimized, and HCV core was truncated after aa 152 (Core152opt) to delete the domain interfering with immunogenicity. Core152opt and TERT DNA were highly immunogenic in BALB/c mice, inducing IFN-γ/IL-2/TNF-α response of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Also, DNA-immunization with TERT enhanced cellular immune response against luciferase encoded by a co-delivered plasmid (Luc DNA). However, DNA-immunization with Core152opt and TERT mix resulted in abrogation of immune response against both components. A loss of bioluminescent signal after co-delivery of TERT and Luc DNA into mice indicated that TERT affects the in vivo expression of luciferase directed by the immediate early cytomegalovirus and interferon-β promoters. Panel of mutant TERT variants was created and tested for their expression effects. TERT with deleted N-terminal nucleoli localization signal and mutations abrogating telomerase activity still suppressed the IFN-β driven Luc expression, while the inactivated reverse transcriptase domain of TERT and its analogue, enzymatically active HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, exerted only weak suppressive effects, implying that suppression relied on the presence of the full-length/nearly full-length TERT, but not its enzymatic activity. The effect(s) could be due to interference of the ectopically expressed xenogeneic rat TERT with biogenesis of mRNA, ribosomes and protein translation in murine cells, affecting the expression of immunogens. HCV core can aggravate this effect, leading to early apoptosis of co-expressing cells, preventing the induction of immune response.