ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0391.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: cigarette filter; superhydrophobic; highly selective; absorbent; oil spillage
Online: 19 September 2018 (21:36:11 CEST)
Ecological and environmental damage caused by oil spillage has attracted great attention. Used cigarette filter (CF) has also caused negative environmental consequences. Converting CF to economical materials is a feasible way to address these problems. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method for production of a highly hydrophobic absorbent from CF. CF was modified by using different volume ratios of octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrimethoxysilane. When the volume ratio was 3:2, the modified CF had the high water contact angle of 155°. It could selectively and completely absorb silicone oil from an oil-water mixture and showed a good absorption capacity of 38.3 g/g. The absorbed oil was readily and rapidly recovered by simple mechanical squeezing, and it could be reused immediately without any additional treatments. The as-obtained superhydrophobic modified CF retained an absorption capacity of 80% for pump oil and 82% for silicone oil after 10 cycles. The modified CF showed good elasticity in the test of repeated use. The present study provides novel design of a functional material for development of hydrophobic absorbents from used CF via a facile method toward oil spillage cleanup as well as a new recycling method of CF to alleviate the environmental impact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0331.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: superhydrophobic coatings; self-cleaning; stone artworks; conservation; future prospect
Online: 23 March 2020 (04:02:06 CET)
The development of innovative materials is one of the most important focuses of research in heritage conservation. Eligible materials can not only protect the physical and chemical integrity of artworks, but also preserve their artistic and aesthetic features. Recently, as one of the hot research topics in materials science, biomimetic superhydrophobic materials have gradually attracted the attention of conservation scientists due to their unique properties. In fact, ultra-repellent materials are particularly suitable for hydrophobization treatments on outdoor artworks. Owing to their excellent hydrophobicity, superhydrophobic materials can effectively prevent the absorption, penetration of liquid water as well as the condensation of water vapor, thus greatly relieving water-induced decay phenomena. Moreover, in presence of liquid water, the superhydrophobic surfaces equipped with self-cleaning property can clean the dirt, dust deposited spontaneously, thereby restoring the artistic features simultaneously. In the present paper, besides the basic principles of wetting on solid surfaces, materials and methods reported for preparing bioinspired ultra-repellent materials, the recently proposed materials for art conservation are also introduced and critically reviewed. Lastly, the current status and the problems encountered in practical application are also pointed out, and the focus of future research is prospected as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0008.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Superhydrophobic; Water-repellent; Chemical etching; Self-cleaning; Anti-fogging
Online: 2 January 2017 (17:27:05 CET)
Development of the self-cleaning and anti-fogging superhydrophobic coating for aluminum surfaces which is durable in the aggressive conditions has raised tremendous interest in materials science. In this work, by employing chemical etching technique with mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid, followed by passivation with lauric acid, superhydrophobic aluminum surface was synthesized. The surface morphology analysis reveals the presence of rough microstructures on coated aluminium surface. Superhydrophobicity with water contact angle of 170 ± 3.9° and sliding angle of 4 ± 0.5° is achieved. Surface bounces off the high speed water jet, indicating excellent water-repellent nature of coating. It is also continuously floated on water surface for several weeks, showing excellent buoyancy nature. Additionally, coating maintains its superhydrophobicity after undergoing 100 cycles of adhesive tape peeling test. Its superhydrophobic nature withstands 90° and 180° bending, and repeated folding and de-folding. Coating exhibits the excellent self-cleaning property. In low temperature condensation test, almost no accumulation of water drops on the surface, showing the excellent anti-fogging property of coating. This approach can be applied to any size and shape of aluminium surface and hence has great industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0123.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Sol-gel; Hybrid coating; Superhydrophobic; textile fabric; polydimethylsiloxane; contact angle
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:46:02 CEST)
This work attempted to fabricate superhydrophobic fabric via simple immersion technique. Textile fabrics were coated with silica nanoparticles prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to obtain sufficient roughness with hydrophobic surface chemistry. Then the coated fabrics were treated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to reduce the surface energy. The effects of PDMS concentration on the surface morphology and superhydrophobicity of as-prepared fabric were investigated. The morphology and the composition of superhydrophobic fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results revealed the formation of spherical silica nanoparticles with average particle size of 250 nm throughout the fabric surface. The possible interactions between silica nanoparticles and APTES, as well as the fabrics were elucidated. Investigating the hydrophobicity of fabrics via water contact angle (WCA) measurement showed that the treated fabric exhibits excellent water repellency with a water contact angle as high as 151° and a very low water sliding angle. It also found that the treated fabric maintained most of its hydrophobicity against repeated washing. The comfort properties of the obtained superhydrophobic fabrics in term of air permeability and bending length did not reveal any significant changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0616.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: interfacial crystallization; liquid marble, hydrophobic particle; superhydrophobic surface; coffee-stain effect.
Online: 25 September 2020 (15:30:00 CEST)
We report interfacial crystallization in droplets of saline solutions placed on superhydrophobic surfaces and liquid marbles filled with the saline. Evaporation of saline droplets deposited on superhydrophobic surface resulted in the formation of cup-shaped millimeter-scaled residues. The formation of the cup-like deposit is reasonably explained within the framework of the theory of the coffee-stain effect, namely, the rate of heterogeneous crystallization along the contact line of the droplet is many times higher than in the droplet bulk. Crystallization within evaporated saline marbles, coated with lycopodium particles, depends strongly on the evaporation rate. Rapidly evaporated saline marbles yielded dented shells built of a mixture of colloidal particles and NaCl crystals. We relate the formation of these shells to the interfacial crystallization promoted by hydrophobic particles coating the marbles, accompanied with the upward convection flows supplying the saline to the particles, serving as the centers of interfacial crystallization. Convective flows prevail over the diffusion mass transport for the saline marbles heated from below.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0536.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: ZnO urchins; nanostructured surfaces; E. coli; superhydrophilic; superhydrophobic; anti-reflective surfaces
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:13:45 CET)
Functional ZnO nanostructured surfaces are important in a wide range of applications. Here we report facile fabrication of ZnO surface structures at near room temperature with morphology resembling that of sea urchins, with densely packed, μm-long, tapered nanoneedles radiating from the urchin centre. The ZnO urchin structures were successfully formed on several different substrates with high surface density and coverage, including silicon (Si), glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and copper (Cu) sheets, as well as Si seeded with ZnO nanocrystals. Time-resolved SEM revealed growth kinetics of the ZnO nanostructures on Si, capturing the emergence of “infant” urchins at the early growth stage and subsequent progressive increase in the urchin nanoneedle length and density, whilst the spiky nanoneedle morphology was retained throughout the growth. ε-Zn(OH)2 orthorhombic crystals were also observed alongside the urchins. The crystal structures of the nanostructures at different growth time were confirmed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. On seeded Si substrates, a two-stage growth mechanism was identified, with a primary growth step of vertically aligned ZnO nanoneedle arrays preceding the secondary growth of the urchins atop the nanoneedle array. The antibacterial, anti-reflective, and wetting functionality of the ZnO urchins—with spiky nanoneedles and at high surface density—on Si substrates was demonstrated. First, bacteria colonisation was found to be suppressed on the surface after 24 h incubation in Gram-negative E. coli culture, in contrast to control substrates (bare Si and Si sputtered with 20 nm ZnO thin film). Secondly, the ZnO urchin surface, exhibiting superhydrophilic property with a water contact angle ~0°, could be rendered superhydrophobic with a simple silanization step, characterised by a water static contact angle θ of 159° ± 1.4° and contact angle hysteresis ∆θ < 7°. The dynamic superhydrophobicity of the surface was demonstrated by bouncing-off of a falling 10 μL water droplet, with a contact time of 15.3 milliseconds (ms), captured using a high-speed camera. Thirdly, it was shown that the presence of dense spiky ZnO nanoneedles and urchins on the seeded Si substrate exhibited a reflectance R < 1% over the wavelength range λ = 200–800 nm. The ZnO urchins with unique morphology via a facile fabrication route at room temperature, readily implementable on different substrates, may be further exploited for multifunctional surfaces and product formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0505.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: superhydrophobic surface; degradable; one-step method; Dip-coating; poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)
Online: 26 August 2021 (10:08:41 CEST)
In this study, the degradable superhydrophobic Mg/P/Z/F/H (magnesi-um/poly(-caprolactone)/zinc oxide/1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTES)/ heating process) composite materials were prepared through one-step method for enhancing the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloys. Electrochemical measurements showed that Mg/P/Z/F/H materials significantly improved the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl. The self-cleaning, adhesion and stability tests suggested that Mg/P/Z/F/H composite materials had well self-cleaning properties, good adhesion strength and stability in wet atmosphere.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0345.v1
Subject: Keywords: Copper indium gallium selenide layers; Solar cell efficiency; Self-cleaning; Superhydrophobic coatings; Vapour deposition technique
Online: 17 February 2021 (08:23:49 CET)
Solar cell layers technology has achieved global standing in the solar cell layers deposition process, and it covers the innovative methods and techniques in significant applications. Recent solar cell layers technology has an advanced interest in a refined approach to enhance performance and highlights the importance of recent proficient procedures for manufacturing. For example, the application is used to search for novel materials for solar cells' layers to clarify the current energy crisis. The technological process and various types of solar cells depend on climate change. Among them, layers of solar cells and silicon wafer solar cells are very encouraging. Solar cell layers technology has led to solar cells being a more reasonable active option in design and production. The productivities facilitated by new solar cells still need to be enhanced for the various processes involved in the additional enhancement from Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) microfilms to solar cell crystal structure dye-sensitized solar cells. The hydrophobic coating works as an anti-dust coating, enhancing efficiency and decreasing the cost of cleaning solar cells. In Saudi Arabia Majmaah City, most solar projects are in dry regions, where the dusty weather reduces solar cell efficiency. Therefore, combining these two properties and applying an anti-reflective and superhydrophobic coating will increase solar cell efficiency by 20%. Solar cells' crystal structure results are substituted with layers or new materials to balance environmental impact and toxic nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0022.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: direct laser processing; femtosecond laser pulses; superhydrophobic textures; analyte enrichment; plasmonic nanostructures; SERS; medical drugs
Online: 3 December 2019 (11:19:55 CET)
We report an easy-to-implement device for SERS-based detection of various analytes dissolved in water droplets at trace concentrations. The device combines an analyte-enrichment system and SERS-active sensor site, both produced via inexpensive and high-performance direct fs-laser printing. Fabricated on a surface of water-repellent polytetrafluoroethylene substrate as an arrangement of micropillars, the analyte-enrichment system supports evaporating water droplet in the Cassie-Baxter superhydrophobic state, thus ensuring delivery of the dissolved analyte molecules towards the hydrophilic SERS-active site. The efficient pre-concentration of the analyte onto the sensor site based on densely-arranged spiky plasmonic nanotextures results in its subsequent label-free identification by means of SERS spectroscopy. Using the proposed device, we demonstrate reliable SERS-based fingerprinting of various analytes, including common organic dyes and medical drugs at ppb concentrations. The proposed device is believed to find applications in various areas, including label-free environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, and forensics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0154.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs); xerogel; functionalization; superhydrophobic coatings; contact wetting angle; electrophysical properties; conductivity
Online: 16 January 2019 (07:33:21 CET)
The creation of hydrophobic, antifreeze and self-cleaning coatings is currently being pursued by many industrial sectors. The potential applications include the production of liquid and gas separators and filters, new materials, optical and microelectronic devices, and textiles and clothing. These coatings will also have wide application in the construction and automobile industries, shipping, and energy and agricultural sectors. The article proposes a simple approach to the creation of superhydrophobic and antifreeze coatings, by applying powder from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) to the sample surface. This method enables combination of the necessary factors: low surface energy, micro–nano-roughness and hierarchical multi-scale. The authors investigated the dependence of the wetting angle of such a surface on the time, type and degree of functionalization. The electrophysical properties of modified MW-CNTs were studied over wide frequency and temperature ranges. This method of obtaining hydrophobic coatings differs from currently available methods in that it is simpler to prepare, is of lower cost and has less environmental impact. The proposed approach can be used to create superhydrophobic coatings that have the additional function of removing static charge and therefore reducing surface heating, and which can be used in the field of energetics for protection against the freezing of wind turbine blades and aircraft surfaces.