CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide; suicidal mental imagery; flash-forwards; intrusions; preventive intervention; eye movement dual task (EMDT)
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:59:53 CEST)
Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns and affect 3-9% of the population worldwide. Despite growing evidence, there are still few effective interventions available to reduce suicide risk. In this article, we describe theoretical models of suicide ideation and behavior and propose to examine the possible effectiveness of a new and innovative preventive strategy. A model of suicidal intrusion (mental imagery related to suicide, also referred to as suicidal flash-forwards) is presented describing one of the assumed mechanisms in the etiology of suicide and the mechanism of therapeutic change. We provide a brief rationale for an Eye Movement Dual Task (EMDT) treatment for suicidal intrusions describing techniques that can be used to target these suicidal mental images and thoughts to reduce overall behavior. Based on the available empirical evidence for the mechanisms of suicidal intrusions, this approach appears to be a promising new treatment to prevent suicidal behavior as it potentially targets one of the linking pins between suicidal ideation and suicidal actions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0211.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: suicidal ideation; adolescent; internet addiction; loneliness
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:59:03 CEST)
The Internet has become an essential tool for adolescents. It is part of their social integration within peers and supports their identity construction. The Internet can also become a source of addiction; especially when used as a coping strategy towards unpleasant life situations. The feeling of loneliness is an emotion present during the adolescence. However, when in excess, it can lead to suicidal ideations. We questioned ourselves on the impact of an excessive use of the Internet by adolescents, with their feeling of loneliness and the risks of suicidal ideations. We attempted to find an answer to this question by performing a literature review. We found one result matching our search criteria’s, which is itself a literature review. We noted the absence of studies with regards to the interaction between the feeling of loneliness, the addiction to the Internet, and the risk of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents. We established a theoretical model which could be used as a lead for future research. We insist on the importance that studies are made in this domain, in order to enable us to establish efficient preventive measure on the risks of suicidal ideations amongst adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Biomarkers; Genetic; Suicidal behavior; Suicide; Mexican; Genomic.
Online: 11 January 2023 (10:34:57 CET)
Suicide is defined as the action of harming oneself with the intention of dying. It is estimated that worldwide one suicide occurs every 40 seconds, making it a major health problem. Studies in families have suggested that suicide has a genetic component, around the world studies have been carried out in search of genetic variants associated with suicidal behavior, these variants could be useful as potential biomarkers to identify people at risk of suicide. In this area in Mexico, some studies of variants in genes related to neurotransmission and other important pathways have been carried out and a possible association of variants located in genes has been suggested: SLC6A4, SAT-1, TPH-2, ANKK1, GSHR, SCARA50, RGS10, STK33, COMT, and FKBP5. This systematic review shows the genetic studies on the Mexican population. This article contributes by compiling the existing information on genetic variants and genes associated with suicidal behavior, said variants in the future could be used as potential biomarkers to identify people at risk of suicide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: TRYCATs; MDD; MDE; Suicidal behavior; Kynurenine pathway
Online: 11 January 2022 (10:39:25 CET)
Kynurenine or tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway contributes to the pathophysiology of major depression disorder (MDD) and major depressive episodes (MDE) in bipolar disorder and suicidal behaviors. The consequences of the overactivation of this pathway large reduced tryptophan (TRP) levels in peripheral blood and the CNS and increased levels of neurotoxic TRYCATs including kynurenine (KYN), 3-hydroxy kynurenine (3HK), quinolinic acid (QA), xanthurenic acid (XA), and picolinic acid (PA). However, other TRYCATs are protective, such as kynurenic acid (KA) and anthranilic acid (AA). Inflammation and cell-mediated immune activation along with oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) may stimulate the first and rate-limiting enzyme of this pathway, namely indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Therefore, during depression, balancing neuroprotective versus neurotoxic TRYCATs and balancing activation of the immune response system (IRS) versus the compensatory immune response system is crucial for achieving better treatment outcomes. Furthermore, targeting the causes of TRYCAT pathway activation (immune activation and O&NS) is probably the most effective strategy to treat depression. In the present review, we aim to provide a comprehensive explanation of the impact of TRYCATs in terms of pathophysiology and treatment of MDD and MDE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: coronavirus; pandemic; population survey; suicidal behavior; suicide
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:56:01 CET)
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of suicide thoughts and -attempts during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak and examine factors associated with suicide thoughts in the general Norwegian population. A sample of 4527 adults living in Norway were recruited via social media. Data related to suicide thoughts and attempts, mental health variables, pandemic-related concerns and sociodemographic variables were collected. Associations with suicide thoughts were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. In the sample, 3.6 % reported suicide thoughts during the last month, while 0.2 % had attempted to commit suicide during the same period. Lower age (OR: 0.66, p < 0.001), daily alcohol use (OR: 3.29, p < 0.001), being in the risk group for COVID-19 complications (OR: 2.38, p < 0.01), and having economic concerns related to the pandemic (OR: 2.51, p < 0.001) were associated with having suicide thoughts. In addition to known risk factors, the study suggests that aspects specific to COVID-19 may be important for suicidal behaviors during the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: aggression; cholesterol; impulsivity; lipids; neurobiology; suicide; suicidal behavior
Online: 31 May 2020 (17:44:27 CEST)
Previous incidental findings of an increase of suicidal risk among subjects with low cholesterol levels have drawn attention to the role of lipids in suicidal behavior. To date, multiple lines of evidence acquired from clinical studies have confirmed an association between low cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior, but the involvement of dimensional traits including impulsivity and aggression in this association remains elusive. In this narrative review, we aimed to address and synthesize the literature regarding the involvement of lipids in the neurobiology of suicidal behavior and its underlying psychological substrates, impulsivity and aggression. An electronic database search was performed using different combinations of relevant keywords. Both preclinical and clinical studies matching the scope of this article were reviewed and filtered through an inspection of the abstracts to recruit the most suitable articles that contributed essential and substantial findings to the literature. Although subject characteristics and study designs vary across studies, current research has demonstrated that impulsivity and aggression might have shared neurobiologic substrates involved in altered serotonergic neurotransmission. Despite the association between low serum lipid levels and suicidal behavior being well documented, the involvement of lipid subtypes in the pathophysiology of impulsive and aggressive traits remains elusive. Further work is warranted to recognize the roles of lipids in neuronal membrane functions and serotonin metabolism, promote a greater appreciation of identifying biomarkers that could be used to determine at-risk individuals, and develop potential interventions to disrupt the pathogenesis of behavioral phenotypes of suicide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Negative life events; Suicidal ideation; Suicidalogy; Adolescents; Gender difference
Online: 4 March 2021 (15:56:04 CET)
Background: We attempted to find if there were gender differences in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents, then analyze the relationship between different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation among these young students. Methods: Based on the data from 6 middle-schools and 3 universities in 3 cities of Western China, the gender difference in different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation and their related factors were investigated and analyzed in the study. Results: Gender differences were found during different types of Negative life events and Suicidal ideation; Negative life events could predict the intensity of Suicidal ideation by gender, to some specific types. Conclusions: Negative life events were proved to be risk factors of adolescents’ Suicidal ideation regardless of different gender stereotypes, but the specific classification of negative life events which had significant impact on adolescents’ Suicidal ideation also indicated significant gender divisions. For males, negative life events of punishment and adaptation had a significant and boosting impact on their Suicidal ideation, the higher the scores of punishment and adaptation negative life events had, the greater intensity of male adolescents were to have Suicidal ideation. Thus, the above two types of negative life events may be the main stressors predicting male adolescents' Suicidal ideation; For females, in addition to punishment, other types of negative life events all had significant impacts on their Suicidal ideation, which can be treated as the main stressors to trigger female adolescents' Suicidal ideation; Additionally, parents’ marital status of remarriage and divorce were proved to be significant indicators to adolescents’ Suicidal ideation, the age variable was proved to be strongly correlated with Suicidal ideation among female adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: suicide; suicidal behaviour; risk of suicide; suicide prevention; health professionals
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:32:19 CEST)
OBJETIVE: This study analyses the views of four groups of healthcare professionals who may play a role in the management of suicidal behaviour. The goal was to identify key factors for suicide prevention in different areas of the healthcare system. METHODOLOGY: Qualitative research was conducted using focus groups made up of different healthcare professionals who participated in the identification, management and prevention of suicidal behaviour. Professionals included were primary care physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists and emergency physicians. RESULTS: ‘Suicide’ was amongst the most relevant terms that came up in discussions most of the times it appeared associated with words such as ‘risk’, ‘danger’ or ‘harm’. In the analysis by categories, the four groups of professionals agreed that interventions in at-risk behaviours are first in importance. Prevention was the second main concern with greater significance among psychiatrists. DISCUSSION: Primary care professionals claim for more time to address patients at risk for suicide and an easier access to and communication with the mental health network. Emergency care professionals have a lack of awareness of their role in the detection of risk for suicide in patients who seek attention at emergency care facilities for reasons of general somatic issues. Mental health care professionals are in high demand in case of self-harm but they would like to receive specific training in dealing with g suicidal behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Suicidal ideation; suicide plans; suicide attempts; middle school students; Sierra Leone
Online: 17 November 2020 (12:25:51 CET)
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle school students in Sierra Leone. Method: Data from 2,798 adolescents (15 years of median age) that responded to the cross-sectional “2017 Sierra Leone Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)” were analysed. Results: The prevalence of past 12-month suicidal ideation was 14.2%, suicide plans 16.0%, and suicide attempts 19.1%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, worry-induced sleep disturbance (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 1.84, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 1.32-2.57), bullied (AOR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.77-4.74), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50), and leisure-time sedentary behaviour (AOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.18-4.98) were associated with suicidal ideation. Bullied (AOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.46-3.95) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.51-4.09) were associated with suicide plans in the past 12 months. No close friends (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.46-4.72) loneliness (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08-2.66), bullied (AOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.66-3.28), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25-7.13) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.25) were positively and school attendance (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.92) negatively associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Almost one in five students had made suicide attempts in the past 12 months and several associated variables were discovered that can assist in designing interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: depression; acculturation stress; social connectedness; international students, university students, ASSIS, suicidal ideation
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:52:30 CET)
(1) This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depression and its correlation with acculturative Stress and Social Connectedness among domestic and overseas students in Japan International University. (2) Methods: A Web-based survey was distributed among students of International University, which resulted in 263 responses. On the survey together with socio-demographic data, a nine-item tool from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), was used to measure the prevalence of Depression and its relationship with socio-demographic data, Social Connectedness Scale was used to measure Social Connectedness, and Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS) was used to measured acculturative stress. (3) Results: Depression was significantly high in international and domestic students (37.81% and 29.85% respectively). English language proficiency and students age (20 years old) showed a significant correlation with depression among domestic students (β=-1.63, p=0.038 and β=2.24, p=0.048). Stay length (third year) also displayed a significant correlation with depression among international students (β=1.08, p=0.032). Among international and domestic students statistically significant positive correlation between depression and acculturative stress, negative associations of social connectedness with depression and acculturative stress were also found. Suicidal or self-hurting ideation thoughts are found among around 20% of all students. (4) Conclusions: These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of depression among students of International University, and overseas students are more affected. Depression, Acculturation stress and Social Connectedness show statistically strong intercorrelation, which highlights the need of host University to recognise the role of Acculturation and Social Connectedness in the development of Depression among students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Meaning in life; Perceived burdensomeness; Thwarted belongingness; Spanish adolescents; non-suicidal self-injuries
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:36:30 CEST)
Background: Adolescence is a developmental stage when there is a high risk of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). There is recent interest in the study of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensome as variables associated with the frequency of NSSI in adolescents. Meaning in life (MIL) could be negatively associated with thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensome. To date, no studies have analyzed whether thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness could be associated with the frequency of NSSI in adolescents. On the other hand, no studies have analyzed the buffering role of MIL in the association between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness and the frequency of NSSI. Aims: a) to test whether thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are associated with NSSI frequency; b) to test whether MIL moderates the association between thwarted belongingness and NSSI frequency; and c) to test whether MIL moderates the association between perceived burdensomeness and NSSI frequency. Method: The sample consisted of N = 1531 participants between 12 and 18 years old from Spain. The participants filled out the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury, Purpose-In-Life Test-Adolescents Version, and Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire. Moderation analysis were performed. Results: Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness were positively associated with the frequency of NSSI in Spanish adolescents. MIL was a moderating variable between thwarted belongingness and the frequency of NSSI, and between perceived burdensomeness and the frequency of NSSI. Conclusion: Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness could be a risk factor for NSSI and MIL could be a protective factor against NSSI, and adding these variables to current descriptive theories of NSSI in adolescents would allow us to improve the assessment and treatment protocols for adolescents with NSSI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0210.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Attempted; Suicide; Mental Disorders; Nursing; Preventive Health Services; Risk Factors; Social Determinants of Health; Suicidal Ideation; Suicide
Online: 9 October 2020 (15:49:51 CEST)
(1) Aims: To analyse the relationship between demographic and clinical characteristics and particular kinds of suicidal behaviour and its relationship with a nurse-led suicide prevention program. (2) Methods: A 5-year cross-sectional study design. Study performed in the region of Osona (Catalonia) during 2013-2017. Suicidal behaviour was classified as suicidal ideation, interrupted self-directed violence, suicide attempt and completed suicide. (3) Results: The sample included 753 patients ─ of whom 53 died by suicide─ and encompassed 931 suicidal behaviour episodes. Men represented 38.4% of the sample but 81.1% of deaths by suicide. Mental disorders were associated with suicidal behaviour in 75.4% of the sample. 66.4% of the individuals were engaged in the nurse-led Suicidal Behaviour Case Management Program, of which 0.8% (n=4) died by suicide. (4) Conclusion: The main risk factors were female sex for suicidal behaviour, and male sex and older age for suicide. Mental disorders, widowhood and retirement were also associated with suicide. A high proportion of patients was engaged to the nurse-led suicide prevention program with a low proportion of suicides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.