ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0521.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Reionization; Warm Dark Matter; sterile neutrinos; escape fraction;
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:55:37 CET)
In this paper we investigate how the Reionization process is affected by early galaxy formation in different cosmological scenarios. We use a semi-analytic model with suppressed initial power spectra to obtain the UV Luminosity Function in thermal Warm Dark Matter and sterile neutrino cosmologies. We retrace the ionization history of intergalactic medium with hot stellar emission only, exploiting fixed and variable photons escape fraction models ( fesc). For each cosmology, we find an upper limit to fixed fesc, which guarantees the completion of the process at z <6.7. The analysis is tested with two limit hypothesis on high-z ionized hydrogen volume fraction, comparing our predictions with observational results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0106.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: sterile aggregates; remediation of waste water; peat; biochar
Online: 8 March 2019 (08:57:21 CET)
This paper investigates an alternative use of sterile aggregate materials which may arise from various construction applications in conjunction with other low-cost mineral raw materials to remediate the acid mine drainage phenomenon. This study is based on the combination of unprocessed mineral raw materials as well as on the basic concept of the cyclic economy where the conversion of a waste into a raw material for another application can be achieved. In this way, the value of mineral raw materials can be prolonged for as long as possible, waste generation and exploitation of natural resources are minimized and resources are kept as far as possible within the existing economy. In this study, an electrically continuous flow driven forced device proposed and demonstrated for the remediation of waste water in lab-scale by using certain mixes of mineral raw materials (serpentinite, andesite, magnesite, peat and biochar). Our results focus on the impact of the studied mineral raw materials and especially on their synergy on the water purification potential under continuous water flow operation. Using the proposed 7-day experimental electrically continuous flow driven forced device with the certain mixes of mineral raw materials, the increase of pH values from 3.00 to 6.82 as well as significant removal of Fe, Cu and Zn was achieved.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: gut microbiota; macrophages; TLR mimicry; immunoepigenetics; metabolism; sterile inflammation
Online: 17 January 2019 (03:05:26 CET)
Perturbation in the microbial population/colony index has harmful consequences on human health. Both biological and social factors influence the composition of the gut microbiota and promote gastric diseases. Changes in the gut microbiota manifest in disease progression owing to epigenetic modification in host which influences differentiation and function of immune cells adversely. Uncontrolled use of antibiotics; chemotherapeutic drugs and change in the diet pattern usually contribute to the changes in the colony index of sensitive strains known to release microbial content in the tissue micromillieu. Ligands released from dying microbes induce TLR mimicry on interaction with TLR abnormally which skew hypoxia and sterile inflammation contributing to severity of disease like IBD autoimmunity and cancer. Various modalities/interventions practiced across the globe and future strategies for microbiota based therapeutic approaches with special emphasis on tumor and inflammatory diseases are reviewed here. Therefore the major aim and scope of this manuscript is to both discuss various modalities/interventions across the globe and to design future microbiota based therapeutic approaches for mitigating the burden with special emphasis on tumor and Inflammatory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0182.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: sterile insect technique; Aedes aegypti; suppression study; irradiation; vector control
Online: 6 April 2021 (15:27:55 CEST)
Dengue virus infections are a serious public health problem worldwide. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue in Cuba. Since there is no vaccine or specific treatment, the control efforts are directed to reduce mosquito populations. The indiscriminate use of pesticides can lead to increase insecticide resistance as well as adverse effects on human health. The sterile insect technique is a species-specific and environmental friendly method of insect control based on the release of large numbers of sterile males. The success of this technique in sustainable control of agricultural pests has encouraged its evaluation for mosquito control. Here, we describe an open field trial to evaluate the effect of the release of irradiated males on a wild population of Aedes aegypti. The case-control study was performed in a suburb of Havana, and compared the mosquito population before and after the intervention, in both control and treated areas. The wild population was monitored by an ovitrap network, recording frequency and density of eggs as well as their hatch rate. A significant induced sterility was observed in the field population, compared to the control. The ovitrap index and the mean eggs/ trap declined dramatically after an expected lag period of twelve and five weeks, respectively. For the last three weeks, no egg was collected in the treated area, evidencing a significant suppression of the wild population. We conclude that the sterile males released competed successfully, and induced enough sterility to suppress the local Aedes aegypti population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0492.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Leishmania; Vaccine; T-cell Epitopes; Hamster; IFN-γ epitope; Sterile Immunity
Online: 25 August 2021 (12:34:26 CEST)
Visceral Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting 12 million people annually. Even in the second decade of the 21st century, it has remained without an effective vaccine for human use. In the current study, we have designed three multiepitope vaccine candidates by the selection of multiple IFN-γ inducing MHC-I and MHC-II binder T-cell specific epitopes from 3 previously identified antigen genes of Leishmania donovani from our lab, by immune-informatic approach using IFNepiotpe, NET-MHC-1 and NET MHC-2 webservers. We have tested the protective potential of these three multiepitope proteins as vaccine in a hamster model of visceral leishmaniasis. The immunization data revealed that the vaccine candidates induced a very high level of Th-1 biased protective immune response in-vivo in a hamster model of experimental visceral Leishmaniasis, with one of the candidates inducing a sterile immunity. The vaccinated animals displayed highly activated monocyte macrophages with the capability of clearing intracellular parasites due to increased respiratory burst. Additionally, these proteins induced activation of polyfunctional T cells secreting INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 in ex-vivo stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, further supporting the protective nature of designed candidates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0236.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Insect Biotechnology; molecular entomology; pest management; Sterile Insect Technique; sperm storage; transgenesis; Tribolium castaneum
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:02:52 CEST)
Sperm marking represents a valuable monitoring tool for genetic pest control strategies such as the Sterile Insect Technique, but also provides a key tool for reproductive biology studies. Sperm-marked lines can be generated by introducing transgenes that mediate the expression of fluorescent proteins during spermatogenesis. Homozygous lines established by transgenesis approaches are going through a genetic bottleneck that can lead to reduced fitness. Transgenic SIT approaches have mostly focused on Dipteran and Lepidopteran pests so far. With this study, we provide sperm-marked lines for the Coleopteran pest model organism, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, based on the β2-tubulin promoter/enhancer driving red (DsRed) or green (EGFP) fluorescence. The obtained lines are reasonably competitive and were thus used for studies on reproductive biology confriming the phenomenon of ‘last male sperm precedence’ and that the spermathecae are deployed for long term sperm storage enabling the use of sperm from first matings even after secondary matings for a long period of time. The homozygosity and competiveness of the lines will enable future studies to analyze the controlled process of sperm movement into the long time storage organ as part of a post-mating cryptic female choice mechanism of this extremely promiscuous species.