ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0470.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; carotenoids; natural pigments; spirulina powder; C-phycocyanin; antioxidant activity
Online: 25 July 2018 (06:19:11 CEST)
Arthrospira platensis is the widely available source of spirulina and contains distinctive natural pigments including carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). In this study, the major carotenoid and C-PC contents were determined in seven commercially available spirulina powder products and laboratory-prepared A. platensis trichomes (AP-1) by an LC-DAD method and a UV-Visible spectrometry, respectively. The correlation of these two pigment content levels with Hunter color coordinates and antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The L* value failed to show a significant correlation with pigment content, but a positive correlation was observed between a* values and the contents of total carotenoid and C-PC. As b* values decreased, the total carotenoid and C-PC contents increased. AP-1 exhibited the highest content of total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and C-PC, and antioxidant activities among the samples. This observation could be related to degradation of these pigments during the mass production process. The carotenoid profiles suggested that the commercial spirulina powders originated from two different sources, A. platensis and A. maxima. Total carotenoid and C-PC content exhibited positive significant correlations with antioxidant activities measured by DPPH and ABTS assays. These results provide a strong scientific foundation for the establishment of standards for the commercial distribution of quality spirulina products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0006.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Spirulina platensis; silver nanoparticles; gold nanoparticles; spirulina growth; biochemical composition; cell ultrastructure
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:42:43 CET)
Silver and gold nanoparticles are a promising tool for medical and industrial application, therefore, their ecotoxicity should be carefully examined. The effect of silver (12 nm) and gold (4.7) nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol on Spirulina platensis biomass growth and biochemical composition was investigated. The spirulina cultivation medium was supplemented with nanoparticles in concentration range 0.025-0.5 µM. Given concentrations stimulated spirulina biomass growth, while content of proteins, carbohydrates and auxiliary pigments was affected insignificantly by presence of nanoparticles in cultivation medium. The pronounced effect of gold nanoparticles at concentration 0.5 µM on the lipids content was observed. TEM images demonstrate that nanoparticles penetrate inside the cell, resulting in ultrastructural changes in cells.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Spirulina; boosting effect; impedance analysis; commercial starter cultures; SLAB; rheological analysis
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:43:49 CET)
Arthrospira platensis, commercially known as Spirulina, is a fresh-water cyanobacterium that is gaining even more attention in the last years due to its high biological and nutritional value. For this reason, it has been employed in several food applications, to obtain or enhance functional and technological properties of cheese, yogurt, bread, cookies or pasta. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential boosting effect of two different concentrations (0.25% and 0.50%) of Arthrospira platensis on the fermentation capability of several starter LAB strains, 1 probiotic and 4 commercial mix culture. These strains were used to ferment three different substrates and their fermentation behaviors were evaluated by impedance analyses together with rheological and color measurements. It was demonstrated that the booster effect took place, but it was variable and dependent not only on the strain or mix culture used, but also on the substrate and Arthrospira platensis concentration. Also, rheological and color modifications were found to be dependent of these factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0644.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), Spirulina, Hydroprocessing, Hydrotreating, Upgrading, Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), Fractional distillation, Drop-in biofuels, Nitrogen distribution
Online: 27 October 2018 (21:20:47 CEST)
To obtain drop-in fuel properties from non-feed biomass, we herein report the catalytic hydrotreatment of microalgae biocrude, produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina. Our contribution focuses on the effect of temperature, initial H2 pressure, and residence time on the removal of heteroatoms (O and N). In contrast to common hydrotreating experimental protocols at batch scale, we devised a set of two-level factorial experiments and studied the most influential parameters affecting the removal of heteroatoms. It was found that up to 350 °C, the degree of deoxygenation (de-O) is mainly driven by temperature, whereas the degree of denitrogenation (de-N) also relies on initial H2 pressure and temperature-pressure interaction.Based on this, complete deoxygenation was obtained at mild operating conditions (350 °C), reaching a concurrent 47 % denitrogenation. Moreover, three optimized experiments are reported with 100 % removal of oxygen. In addition, the analysis by GC-MS and Sim-Dis gives insight to the fuel quality. The distribution of heteroatom N in lower (<340 °C) and higher (>340 °C) fractional cuts is studied by a fractional distillation unit following ASTM D-1160. Final results show that 63-68 % of nitrogen is concentrated in higher fractional cuts.