ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1579.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: vocal tract; singer formant; finite element method; isoparametric element
Online: 22 September 2023 (13:08:34 CEST)
In order to examine the impact of geometric configuration of the human vocal tract on the redistribution of acoustic energy in the frequency spectrum, it is necessary to assemble computation models, which facilitate simple modification of the model’s geometric characteristics. This article describes how the human vocal tract model was constructed using so-called super-elements using the improved reduced system method. The mentioned procedure allows using such a model for demanding optimization calculations, for which the model is modified on the super-element level. Furthermore, the article presents an alternative approach, in which an isoparametric element of a higher degree polynomial was derived. Both approaches were compared and used to find the geometric configuration of the human vocal tract amplifying acoustic energy values on the frequency spectrum to around 3kHz.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0325.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: speciesism; intuition; evolutionary debunking arguments; experimental philosophy; species-egalitarianism; conservation; singer; williams; kagan; jacquet
Online: 29 September 2019 (06:07:31 CEST)
This article argues for five correctives to the current ethical debate about speciesism, and proposes normative, conceptual, methodological and experimental avenues to move this debate forward. Firstly, it clarifies the Principle of Equal Consideration of Interests and points out limitations of its scope. Secondly, it disambiguates between ‘favouritist’ and ‘species-relative’ views about moral treatment. Thirdly, it argues that not all moral intuitions about speciesism should be given equal weight. Fourthly, it emphasizes the importance of empirical research to corroborate statements about ‘folk speciesism’. Fifthly, it disambiguates between the moral significance of species and the moral status of their individual members. For each of these issues, it is shown that they have either been overlooked, or been given inapt treatment, in recent contributions to the debate. Building on the correctives, new directions are proposed for ethical inquiry into the moral relevance of species and species membership.