ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0066.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: biomass yield; carbon storage; growth pattern; poplar; short-rotation coppices; seasonal trends
Online: 3 May 2018 (11:10:21 CEST)
It is required to manage sustainable Short-Rotation Coppices (SRCs) as an important role on carbon sink and bioenergy output, because most of SRCs were established in reclaimed land in South Korea. However, during the last three years, growth pattern of the SRCs was remarkably changed with soil condition. This study aimed to identify the sustainability of SRCs on carbon storage, biomass and fuel pellet production, monitoring the neighboring vegetation of SRCs by land-use exchange, physiological change of poplar on seasonal trend, and to evaluate whether poplar is suitable for making wood pellets. The calculated biomass yield per area of poplar grown was 103.07 Mg per total area (55.6 ha), and volumes of carbon dioxide absorption was estimated to be 330 Mg CO2. Wood pellet quality based on the criteria scored third grade, indicating that poplar is suitable for manufacturing fuel pellets. Moreover, monitoring of the flora distribution in SRCs revealed changes in species composition. As halophyte was increased during drought, soil organic matter, net growth and total chlorophyll of poplar were significantly decreased. These findings indicated that photosynthesis and growth pattern of SRCs may be negatively affected by microclimate and will provide valuable information for effective management of SRCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: achondroplasia; hypochondroplasia; dwarfism; short-limb; short stature; FGFR3; skeletal dysplasia; genetic condition; extensive limb lengthening
Online: 12 May 2021 (11:22:56 CEST)
Extensive limb lengthening (ELL) was completed in 75 patients: 66 achondroplasia and 9 hypochondroplasia. The average lengthening was 27cm for achondroplasia (12-40cm) and 17cm for hypochondroplasia (range 10-25cm). There were 48 females and 27 males. Lengthening was done either by 2-segment (14 patients; both tibias and/or both femurs) or by serial 4-segment lengthenings (64 patients; both femurs and tibias same time). Most patients also had bilateral humeral lengthening. Lengthenings were either juvenile-onset (31), adolescent-onset (38) or adult-onset (6). The average age at final follow-up was 26 years old (range 17-43 years). There were few permanent sequelae of complications. The most serious was one paraparesis. All patients returned to activities of normal living and only one was made worse by the surgery (paraparesis). This is the first study to show that ELL can lead to increase of height into the normal height range. Previous studies showed mean increases of height of up to 20cm, while this study consistently showed an average increase of 30 cm (range 15-40cm) for juvenile-onset and increase of 26cm (range 15-30cm) for adolescent-onset. This results in lower normal height at skeletal maturity for males and females. The adult-onset had a mean increase of 16.8 (range 12-22cm). This long-term follow-up study shows ELL can be done safely even with large lengthenings and that 4-segment lengthening may offer advantages over 2-segment lengthening. While the majority of cases were performed using external fixation, implantable limb lengthening promises to be an excellent alternative and perhaps an improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0345.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Born-Jordan, quantization, short time propagator
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:59:09 CEST)
We have shown in previous work that the equivalence of the Heisenberg and Schrödinger pictures of quantum mechanics requires the use of the Born and Jordan quantization rules. In the present work we give further evidence that the Born--Jordan rule is the correct quantization scheme for quantum mechanics. For this purpose we use correct short-time approximations to the action functional, initially due to Makri and Miller, and show that these lead to the desired quantization of the classical Hamiltonian.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HPLC; NSAIDs; Isocratic; Short column; Drug mixture
Online: 9 July 2021 (15:23:57 CEST)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which block the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin, have been used for pain relief. We have developed a method to separate a mixture of three NSAIDs, such as aspirin, paracetamol, and naproxen, using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). An isocratic mobile phase consisting of acidic water and acetonitrile was selected to run at a low flow rate, such as 0.8 mL/min. The mixture of three NSAIDs was injected at a low volume into a C18 column that was 150 mm in length and characterized using a UV detector at 230 nm. We identified three peaks in the chromatogram indicating the three compounds. The elution time of the peaks was less than 10 minutes. To identify multiple peaks on the isocratic flow using a short column, further studies are required regarding the proposed method to generate microfluidic devices for nanoLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: load forecast; short term; probabilistic; Gaussian processes
Online: 4 April 2019 (16:01:54 CEST)
We provide a comprehensive framework for forecasting five minute load using Gaussian processes with a positive definite kernel specifically designed for load forecasts. Gaussian processes are probabilistic, enabling us to draw samples from a posterior distribution and provide rigorous uncertainty estimates to complement the point forecast, an important benefit for forecast consumers. As part of the modeling process, we discuss various methods for dimension reduction and explore their use in effectively incorporating weather data to the load forecast. We provide guidance for every step of the modeling process, from model construction through optimization and model combination. We provide results on data from the PJMISO for various periods in 2018. The process is transparent, mathematically motivated, and reproducible. The resulting model provides a probability density of five-minute forecasts for 24 hours.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0451.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: economic agroforestry zone; Salix spp.; Populus spp.; Alnus spp.; short rotation coppice (SRC); short rotation forestry (SRF); energy wood.
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:26:58 CET)
The main goal of the review is to provide a summary and an assessment of the potential of fast-growing tree species for suitable transformation of agroforestry areas for biomass production in the Baltic Sea region. The article summarizes the research on the management process of agroforestry zones by establishing short rotation plantations with tree species Salix spp., Populus spp., Alnus spp. and looks at the perspectives of planning of these zones as biomass producers. Short rotation forestry (SRF) with a combination of species and a rotation time of 15 to 30 years, depending on the species used, is the most suitable approach for management of these agroforestry zones. Willows (Salix spp.) and poplars (Populus spp.) are suitable for short rotation coppice (SRC), as these tree species can be harvested at much shorter intervals, respectively, 1–5 and 4–10 years, facilitating their use in agricultural systems. In Alnus spp. short rotation plantation the life cycle for energy wood production is assumed to be 15-30 years. The black alder plantations in agroforestry zones are used for sawnwood and firewood production, with a rotation span of 20–40 years. Calculated economic agroforestry zone repayment period is about 10-15 years, if costs and prices as in 2021 are used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: prebiotics; polyols; short chain fatty acids, Headspace Analysis
Online: 9 January 2020 (04:44:49 CET)
This pilot study of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668 grown in media with and without polyols (erythritol) measured the resultant metabolites, including the short chain fatty acids by using head space analysis. Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing no polyols or either erythritol or xylitol and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) was grown aerobically. After 48 hours of growth the supernatant were harvested and centrifuged to pellet bacteria. Supernatants were removed from bacterial pellets then submitted for Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) analysis with an Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, CA 95051) system configured from three components, a 5973 mass selective detector, a 6890N gas chromatographer, and a 7697A headspace sampler. Streptococcus mutans growing in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose but containing no polyols produced the following short chain fatty acids: methyl isovalerate, acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, ethyl butaric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid. When the Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing erythritol was used as media for this Streptococcus mutans strain, the following were produced: ethanol, acetoin, and acetic acid. Our results would suggest that constituents of the media may affect the bacterial metabolite production.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind power forecasting; short-term prediction; hybrid deep learning; wind farm; long short term memory; gated recurrent network and convolutional layers
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:59 CEST)
Accurate forecasting of wind power generation plays a key role in improving the operation and management of a power system network and thereby its reliability and security. However, predicting wind power is complex due to the existence of high non-linearity in wind speed that eventually relies on prevailing weather conditions. In this paper, a novel hybrid deep learning model is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of very short-term wind power generation for the Bodangora Wind Farm located in New South Wales, Australia. The hybrid model consists of convolutional layers, gated recurrent unit (GRU) layers and a fully connected neural network. The convolutional layers have the ability to automatically learn complex features from raw data while the GRU layers are capable of directly learning multiple parallel sequences of input data. The data sets of five-minute intervals from the wind farm are used in case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model against other advanced existing models, including long short-term memory (LSTM), GRU, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector machine (SVM), which are tuned to optimise outcome. It is observed that the hybrid deep learning model exhibits superior performance over other forecasting models to improve the accuracy of wind power forecasting, numerically, up to 1.59 per cent in mean absolute error, 3.73 per cent in root mean square error and 8.13 per cent in mean absolute percentage error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Short fiber-reinforced composite; Random fields; Plasticity; Numerical simulation
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:11:54 CEST)
For the numerical simulation of components made of short fiber-reinforced composites the correct prediction of the deformation including the elastic and plastic behavior and its spatial distribution is essential. When using purely deterministic modeling approaches the information of the probabilistic microstructure is not included in the simulation process. One possible approach for the integration of stochastic information is the use of random fields. In this study numerical simulations of tensile test specimens are conducted utilizing a finite deformation elastic-ideal plastic material model. A selection of the material parameters covering the elastic and plastic domain are represented by cross-correlated second-order Gaussian random fields to incorporate the probabilistic nature of the material parameters. To validate the modeling approach tensile tests until failure are carried out experimentally, that confirm the assumption of spatially distributed material behavior in both the elastic and plastic domain. Since the correlation lengths of the random fields cannot be determined by pure analytic treatments, additionally numerical simulations are performed for different values of the correlation length. The numerical simulations endorse the influence of the correlation length on the overall behavior. For a correlation length of 5mm a good conformity with the experimental results is obtained. Therefore, it is concluded, that the presented modeling approach is suitable to predict the elastic and plastic deformation of a set of tensile test specimens made of short fiber-reinforced composite sufficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0518.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mobile phones; health promotions; short message service; health students
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:53:53 CET)
Students are regarded as frequent users of mobile phones which has proven to be a convenient and acceptable method to promote healthy lifestyle. Students usually engage in relatively high levels of risky behavior and make unhealthy lifestyle choices, a study that investigates how health students access health information is necessary. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study which was undertaken among third-year nursing students from three nurses training institutions in Ghana. A total of 270 students participated in the study. Most of the respondents who were currently subscribers of the health messages reported that they usually received health information on reproductive health issues, nutrition, and practicing safe sex. Most of the health students revealed that they needed more information on safe sex, diet, managing weight, and stress management. The results also show that health students are likely to remember and share short messages with friends. The findings serve as an ‘eye-opener’ for health educators and mobile service providers concerning factors that should be taken into consideration when framing health text messages that will attract health students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0183.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: ARDL; Inflation; Interest; Long-run; RGDPPC; Short-run; Unemployment
Online: 16 October 2019 (09:40:00 CEST)
Research background: Relationship between inflation rate, unemployment rate, interest rate and real gross domestic product per capita in Nigeria. However, there seems to be a short-run or long-run relationship among the macroeconomic variables.Purpose: This study investigated the impact of the inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate on real gross domestic product per capita (RGDPPC) (proxy for economic growth) and proffered recommendations towards enhancing economic growth and to reduce the distasteful effects of inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate in Nigeria in this present time economic challenges.Research methodology: This study applied a linear dynamic model Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling technique to analyze the short-run dynamics and long-run relationship of the economic growth in Nigeria over the sample period between 1984 and 2017 using annual secondary data extracted from World Bank Development Indicators Report (last updated January 2019).Results: The empirical results showed that there was long-run relationship between inflation rate, unemployment rate and interest rate on real gross domestic product per capita (proxy for economic growth) in Nigeria. The result further revealed that only unemployment rate had a significant positive impact on real gross domestic product per capita in the long-run and inflation rate had a significant negative impact on real gross domestic product per capita in the short-run.Novelty: Therefore, the study concluded that unemployment rate and inflation rate proved to have significant impacts on economic growth in the long-run and short-run respectively. Formulation of policies to reduce unemployment through the adoption of labour concentrated technique of production, entrepreneurship development and policy to keep the inflation rate at single digit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0321.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Intra–Seasonal rain fall characteristics; Short rains; WRF Model
Online: 30 August 2019 (09:57:58 CEST)
Rainfall is a major climate parameter whose variation in space and time influences activities in different weather sensitive sectors such as agriculture, transport, and energy among others. Therefore, accurately forecasting rainfall is of paramount importance to the development of these sectors. In this regard, this study sought to contribute to quantitative forecasting of rainfall over Eastern Uganda through assessing the Weather Research and Forecasting model’s ability to simulate the intra–seasonal characteristics of the September to December rain season. These were: onset and cessation dates; wet days and lengths of the wet spells. The data used in the study included daily ground rainfall observations and lateral and boundary conditions data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis at 1 0 horizontal resolution and at a temporal resolution of 6 hours for the entire study period were used to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The study considered four weather synoptic weather stations namely; Jinja, Serere, Soroti and Tororo. The results show that the WRF model generally simulated fewer wet days at each station except for Tororo. Also, the WRF model simulated earlier onset and cessation dates of the rainfall season and overestimated the length of the wet spells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0210.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: fructose; intestinal microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; metabolic profiling
Online: 23 January 2018 (05:31:27 CET)
Increased sugar intake is implicated in Type-2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. Mechanisms by which glucose and fructose components promote these conditions are unclear. We hypothesize that alterations in intestinal metabolite and microbiota profiles specific to each monosaccharide are involved. Two groups of six adult C57BL/6 mice were fed for 10-weeks with a diet where either glucose or fructose was the sole carbohydrate component (G and F, respectively). A third group was fed with normal chow (N). Fecal metabolites were profiled every 2-weeks by 1H NMR and microbial composition was analysed by real-time PCR (qPCR). Glucose tolerance was also periodically assessed. N, G and F mice had similar weight gains and glucose tolerance. Multivariate analysis of NMR profiles indicated that F mice were separated from both N and G, with decreased butyrate and glutamate and increased fructose, succinate, taurine, tyrosine and xylose. Compared to N and G, F mice showed a shift in microbe populations from gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. to gram-negative Enterobacteria species. Substitution of normal chow carbohydrate mixture by either pure glucose or fructose for 10 weeks did not alter adiposity or glucose tolerance. However, F G and N mice generated distinctive fecal metabolite signatures with incomplete fructose absorption as a dominant feature of F mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0437.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deep neural network; long short-term memory; suspended sediment; discharge
Online: 16 December 2022 (08:08:08 CET)
The dynamics of suspended sediment involves inherent non-linearity and complexity as a result of the presence of both spatial variability of the basin characteristics and temporal climatic patterns. As a result of this complexity, the conventional sediment rating curve (SRC) and other empirical methods produce inaccurate predictions. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have emerged as one of the advanced modeling techniques capable of addressing inherent non-linearity in hydrological processes over the last few decades. DNN algorithms are used to perform predictive analysis and investigate the interdependencies among the most pivotal water quantity and quality parameters i.e., discharge, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and turbidity. In this study, the Long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm of DNNs is used to model the discharge-suspended sediment relationship for the Stony Clove Creek. The simulations were run using primary data on discharge, SSC and turbidity. For the development of the DNN models and examining the effects of input vectors, combinations of different input vectors (namely discharge, and SSC) for the current and previous days are considered. Furthermore, a suitable modelling approach with an appropriate model input structure is suggested based on model performance indices for the training and testing phases. The performance of developed models is assessed using statistical indices such as root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination (R2). Statistically, the performance of DNN-based models in simulating the daily SSC performed well with observed sediment concentration series data. The study demonstrates the suitability of the DNN approach for simulation and estimation of daily SSC, opening up new research avenues for applying hybrid soft computing models in hydrology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0278.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Long Short-Term Memory; time series forecasting; commodities; technical analysis
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:00:55 CET)
This article presents the implementation of a model to estimate the future price of commodities in the Brazilian market from time series of short-term technical evaluation. For this, data from two databases were used, one referring to the foreign market (opening values, maximum, minimum, closing, closing adjustment and volume) and the other, from the Brazilian market (the price of the day), considering commodities, sugar, cotton, corn, soybean and wheat. Subsequently, the technical indicators were calculated from the TA-Lib technical analysis library. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied, records with low correlation were removed, and then the database was consolidated. From the pre-processed data, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks were used to perform data prediction at the one and three day interval. These models were evaluated using the mean square error (MSE), obtaining results between 0.00010 and 0.00037 on test data one day ahead, and from 0.00017 to 0.00042 three days ahead. However, based on the results obtained, it was observed that the developed model obtained a promising forecasting performance for all the commodities evaluated. As a main contribution, there is the consolidation of databases that can be used in future scientific research. Furthermore, based on its interpretation, it can assist in decision making regarding the buying and selling of commodities to increase financial gains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0170.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: neuron; astrocyte; network; short-term memory; spatial frequency; computational biology
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:04:31 CEST)
Working memory refers to the capability of the nervous system to selectively retain short-term memories in an active state. The long-standing viewpoint is that neurons play an indispensable role and working memory is encoded by synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, some recent studies have shown that calcium signaling assists the memory processes and the working memory might be affected by the astrocyte density. Over the last few decades, growing evidence has also revealed that astrocytes exhibit diverse coverage of synapses which are considered to participate in neuronal activities. However, very little effort has yet been made to attempt to shed light on the potential correlations between these observations. Hence, in this article we will leverage a computational neuron-astrocyte model to study the short-term memory performance subject to various astrocytic coverage and we will demonstrate that the short-term memory is susceptible to this factor. Our model may also provide plausible hypotheses for the various sizes of calcium events as they are reckoned to be correlated with the astrocytic coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0026.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Cefotaxime; S. haemolyticus; neonates; sub-MIC; biofilms; short-term evolution
Online: 1 September 2021 (14:39:54 CEST)
Critical care of neonates involves substantial usage of antibiotics and exposure to multidrug resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogens. These pathogens are often exposed to sub-MIC doses of antibiotics which might result in a range of physiological effects. Therefore, to understand the outcome of sub-inhibitory dosage of antibiotics on Staphylococcus populations, nasal swab specimens were collected from 34 neonates admitted to the Sick Newborn Care Unit between 2017-2018, a total of 41 non-repetitive isolates were included in this study. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the prevalent species (58.54%) with high non-susceptibility to cefotaxime (CTX) (79.16%), gentamicin (87.50%), and meropenem (54.17%). Biofilm forming abilities of S. haemolyticus isolates in the presence of sub-optimal CTX (30μg/mL), the predominantly prescribed β-lactam antibiotic, were then determined by crystal violet assays and extracellular DNA (eDNA) quantitation. CTX was found to significantly enhance biofilm production among the non-susceptible isolates (p-valueWilcoxin test- 0.000008) with increase in eDNA levels (p-valueWilcoxin test- 0.000004). Additionally, no changes in non-susceptibility were observed among populations of two MDR isolates, JNM56C1 and JNM60C2 after >500 generations of growth in the absence of antibiotic selection in vitro. These findings demonstrate that sub-MIC concentration of CTX induces biofilm formation and short-term non-exposure to antibiotics does not alter non-susceptibility among S. haemolyticus isolates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0252.v1
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:03:06 CEST)
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have made a huge impact in the field of machine learning by providing unbeatable humanlike performance to solve real-world problems such as image processing and natural language processing (NLP). Convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) are two typical architectures that are widely used to solve such problems. Time sequence-dependent problems are generally very challenging, and RNN architectures have made an enormous improvement in a wide range of machine learning problems with sequential input involved. In this paper, different types of RNN architectures are compared. Special focus is put on two well-known gated-RNN’s Long Term Short Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU). We evaluated these models on the task of force estimation system in pouring. In this study, four different models including multi-layers LSTM, multi-layers GRU, single-layer LSTM and single-layer GRU) were created and trained. The result suggests that multi-layer GRU outperformed other three models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0765.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ribosome biogenesis; rRNA processing; RNase MRP; long/short 5.8S rRNA
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:54:07 CEST)
Processing of the RNA polymerase I pre-rRNA transcript into the mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25S rRNAs requires removing the “spacer” sequences. The canonical pathway for the removal of the ITS1 spacer, located between 18S and 5.8S rRNAs in the primary transcript, involves cleavages at the 3’ end of 18S rRNA and at two sites inside ITS1. The process generates a long and a short 5.8S rRNA that differ in the number of ITS1 nucleotides retained at the 5.8S 5’ end. Here we document a novel pathway that generates the long 5.8S for ITS1 while bypassing cleavage within ITS1. It entails a single endonuclease cut at the 3’-end of 18S rRNA followed by exonuclease Xrn1 degradation of ITS1. Mutations in RNase MRP increase the accumulation of long relative to short 5.8S rRNA; traditionally this is attributed to a decreased rate of RNase MRP cleavage at its target in ITS1, called A3. In contrast, we report here that the MRP induced switch between long and short 5.8S rRNA formation occurs even when the A3 site is deleted. Based on this and our published data, we propose that the switch may depend on RNase MRP processing RNA molecules other than pre-rRNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0310.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Variola major; phylogeographical analysis; long-term calibrations; short- term calibrations
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:21:34 CET)
In order to reconstruct the origin and pathways of variola virus (VARV) dispersion, we analyzed 47 VARV isolates available in public databases and their SNPs. The mean substitution rate of the whole genomes was 9.41x10-6 (95%HPD:8.5-11.3x10-6) substitutions/site/year. The time of the tree root was estimated to be a mean 68 years (95%HPD:60.5–75.9). The phylogeographical analysis showed that the Far East and India were the most probable locations of the tree root and of the inner nodes, respectively, whereas for the outer nodes it corresponded to the sampling locations. The Bayesian Skyline plot showed that the effective number of infections started to grow exponentially in 1915-1920, peaked in the 1940s, and then decreased to zero. Our results suggests that the VARV major strains circulating between 1940s-1970s probably shared a common ancestor originated in the Far East; subsequently moved to India, which became the center of its dispersion to eastern and southern Africa, and then to central Africa and the Middle East, probably following the movements of people between south-eastern Asia and the other places with a common colonial history. These findings may help to explain the controversial reconstructions of the history of VARV obtained using long- and short- term calibrations.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: zebrafish; Danio rerio; sperm motility; fertilization; short-term storage; extender
Online: 27 November 2020 (10:11:39 CET)
The zebrafish Danio rerio is suitable to study gametes as a model organism. There were > 70% of zebrafish spermatozoa activated, because they were contaminated with urine or excrement. The movement of spermatozoon in water was propagated along the flagellum at 16 s after sperm activation, then damped from the end of the flagellum for 35 s and fully disappear at 61 s after activation. For artificial fertilization, milt must be added to an extender, which stops the movement of sperm and keeps the sperm motionless until fertilization. E400 was shown to be the most suitable extender as it allows to store sperm for fertilization for 6 to 12 h at 0-2oC. Sperm motility decreased only to 36% at 12 h post stripping (HPS) for E400 extender and to 19% for Kurokura extender. To achieve an optimal level of fertilization and hatching, a test tube with a well-defined amount of 6,000,000 spermatozoa in E400 extender per 100 eggs and 100 µl of activation solution has proved to be more successful than using a Petri dish. The highest fertilization and hatching rates reached 80% and 40-60%, respectively, with milt stored for 1.5 h in E400 extender at 0-2oC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: short stature; type 2 diabetes; end-stage renal disease; mortality
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:12:15 CET)
Short stature has been associated with increased various disease and all-cause death, but no reliable data exist the association between height and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in diabetic patients. We investigated the relationship between short stature, development of ESRD, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. This study analyzed clinical data using the National Health Insurance Database in Korea. Height was stratified by five groups according to age and sex. Risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. During a 6.9-year follow-up period, 220,457 subjects (8.4%) died and 28,704 subjects (1.1%) started dialysis. Short stature significantly increased the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality in the overall cohort analysis. In multivariable analysis, hazard ratios (HR) for development of ESRD comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of adult height were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83–0.89). All-cause mortality also decreased with highest height compared to patients with lowest height after fully adjusting for confounding variables (HR 0.79, 95% CI, 0.78–0.81). Adult height had an inverse relationship with newly diagnosed ESRD and all-cause in both males and females. Short stature is strongly associated with an increased risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Short video; Sentiment Analysis; Feature; 3D Dense Net; 3D Residual Network
Online: 7 December 2022 (11:57:32 CET)
In recent years, with the development of social media, people are more and more inclined to upload text, pictures and videos on the platform to express their personal emotions, thus the number of short videos is increasing and becoming the first choice for people to socialize. Unlike the traditional way, people can convey their personal emotions and opinions through media other than words, such as video images, etc. for external information. Therefore, the expression and analysis of emotions is not only through text, but also through the analysis of emotional needs in images and videos, and the research scholars have customized products for individual users. Compared with pure text content, video information can more intuitively express users' happiness, anger and sorrow, thus short video-related applications have gained more and more popularity among Internet users in recent years. However, not all short videos on social networking sites can accurately express users' emotions, and related text information can more accurately assist sentiment analysis and thus improve accuracy. However, short video sentiment analysis based on video frame images is inaccurate in some scenarios, such as when expressing tears of joy, the sentiment expressed by the user's facial expression and voice are different, which will cause errors in the analysis of sentiment. As a result, researchers began to consider multimodal sentiment analysis to reduce the impact of the above scenarios on short video sentiment analysis. This paper focuses on proposing a sentiment analysis method for short videos. We first propose a residual attention model to make full use of the information in audio to classify the emotions contained in them. Then the text information in the dataset is classified by feature extraction. The key to extract features from text information is not only to retain the semantic information of the text, but also to explore the potential emotional information in the text, so as to ensure the integrity of the text information features. The experiments show that the sentiment analysis model proposed in this paper is more superior than the baselines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; Ultrasonic measurements; Long Short-Term Memory; Industrial Digital technologies
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:31:43 CET)
Beer fermentation is typically monitored by periodic sampling and off-line analysis. In-line sensors would remove the need for time-consuming manual operation and provide real-time evaluation of the fermenting media. This work uses a low-cost ultrasonic sensor combined with machine learning to predict the alcohol concentration during beer fermentation. The highest accuracy model (R2=0.952, MAE=0.265, MSE=0.136) used a transmission-based ultrasonic sensing technique along with the measured temperature. However, the second most accurate model (R2=0.948, MAE=0.283, MSE=0.146) used a reflection-based technique without the temperature. Both the reflection-based technique and the omission of the temperature data are novel to this research and demonstrate the potential for a non-invasive sensor to monitor beer fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: BFRP square tube; Concrete short column; Axial compression test; Simulation analysis
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:19:39 CEST)
Axial compression tests were carried out on 6 square steel tube confined concrete short columns and 6 BFRP square pipe confined concrete axial compression tests. The concrete strength grades were C30, C40, and C50. The test results show that the failure modes of steel pipe and BFRP pipe are obviously different, and the BFRP pipe undergoes brittle failure. Compared with the short columns of concrete confined by BFRP pipes, the ultimate bearing capacity of axial compression is increased by -76.46%, -76.01%, and -73.06%, and the ultimate displacements are -79.20%, -80.78%, -71.71%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: BFRP square tube; Concrete short column; Axial compression test; Simulation analysis
Online: 8 September 2020 (11:29:11 CEST)
Axial compression tests were carried out on 6 square steel tube confined concrete short columns and 6 BFRP square pipe confined concrete axial compression tests. The concrete strength grades were C30, C40, and C50. The test results show that the failure modes of steel pipe and BFRP pipe are obviously different, and the BFRP pipe undergoes brittle failure. Compared with the short columns of concrete confined by BFRP pipes, the ultimate bearing capacity of axial compression is increased by -76.46%, -76.01%, and -73.06%, and the ultimate displacements are -79.20%, -80.78%, -71.71%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Integrative review; Short-term Calorie Reduction; Fasting; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Calorie Restriction
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:41:11 CEST)
Recent preclinical studies have shown the potential benefits of short-term calorie reduction (SCR) on cancer treatment. In this integrative review, we aimed to identify and synthesize current evidence regarding the feasibility, process, and effects of SCR in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched for original research articles using various combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms. Among the 311 articles identified, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the reviewed studies was small randomized controlled trials or cohort study with fair quality. The results suggest that SCR is safe and feasible. SCR is typically arranged around the chemotherapy with the duration ranging from 24 to 96 hours. Most studies examined the protective effects of SCR on normal cells during chemotherapy. The evidence supports that SCR had the potential to enhance both physical and psychological wellbeing of patients during chemotherapy. SCR is a cost-effective intervention with great potential. Future well-controlled studies with sufficient sample sizes are needed to examine the full and long-term effects of SCR and its mechanism of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0155.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Long short-term memory; Brain dynamics; Data-driven modeling; Complex systems
Online: 18 September 2019 (13:05:22 CEST)
Modeling brain dynamics to better understand and control complex behaviors underlying various cognitive brain functions are of interests to engineers, mathematicians, and physicists from the last several decades. With a motivation of developing computationally efficient models of brain dynamics to use in designing control-theoretic neurostimulation strategies, we have developed a novel data-driven approach in a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network architecture to predict the temporal dynamics of complex systems over an extended long time-horizon in future. In contrast to recent LSTM-based dynamical modeling approaches that make use of multi-layer perceptrons or linear combination layers as output layers, our architecture uses a single fully connected output layer and reversed-order sequence-to-sequence mapping to improve short time-horizon prediction accuracy and to make multi-timestep predictions of dynamical behaviors. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in reconstructing the regular spiking to bursting dynamics exhibited by an experimentally-validated 9-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley model of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Through simulations, we show that our LSTM neural network can predict the multi-time scale temporal dynamics underlying various spiking patterns with reasonable accuracy. Moreover, our results show that the predictions improve with increasing predictive time-horizon in the multi-timestep deep LSTM neural network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: ballistocardiography; seismocardiography; ultra-short heart rate variability; stress evaluation; smartphone; accelerometers
Online: 3 July 2019 (10:49:55 CEST)
Body acceleration due the heartbeat-induced reaction forces can be measured as smartphone accelerometer (m-ACC) signals. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using m-ACC to detect changes induced by stress by ultra-short heart rate variability (USV) indices (SDNN and RMSSD). Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited; m-ACC was recorded while in supine position, during spontaneous breathing (REST) and during one minute of mental stress (MS) induced by arithmetic serial subtraction task, simultaneous with conventional ECG. Beat occurrences were extracted from both ECG and m-ACC and used to compute USV indices using 60, 30 and 10s durations, both for REST and MS. A feasibility of 93.8% in the beat-to-beat m-ACC heart rate series extraction was reached. In both ECG and m-ACC series, compared to REST, in MS the mean beat duration was reduced by 15% and RMSSD decreased by 38%. These results show that short term recordings (up to 10 sec) of cardiac activity using smartphone’s accelerometers are able to capture the decrease in parasympathetic tone, in agreement with the induced stimulus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010007.v1
Subject: Keywords: quantum mechanics; EEG; short term memory; astrocytes; neocortical dynamics; vector potential
Online: 11 December 2018 (00:00:00 CET)
Background: Previous papers have developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) fit to short-term memory and EEG data. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) has been developed to perform fits to such nonlinear stochastic systems. An N-dimensional path-integral algorithm for quantum systems, qPATHINT, has been developed from classical PATHINT. Both fold short-time propagators (distributions or wave functions) over long times. Previous papers applied qPATHINT to two systems, in neocortical interactions and financial options. Objective: In this paper the quantum path-integral for Calcium ions is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Using fits of this SMNI model to EEG data, including these effects, will help determine if this is a reasonable approach. Method: Methods of mathematical-physics for optimization and for path integrals in classical and quantum spaces are used for this project. Studies using supercomputer resources tested various dimensions for their scaling limits. In this paper the quantum path-integral is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Results: The mathematical-physics and computer parts of the study are successful, in that there is modest improvement of cost/objective functions used to fit EEG data using these models. Conclusions: This project points to directions for more detailed calculations using more EEG data and qPATHINT at each time slice to propagate quantum calcium waves, synchronized with PATHINT propagation of classical SMNI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0026.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: agavins; prebiotics; microbiota; overweight; body weight loss; short chain fatty acids
Online: 25 July 2017 (04:52:34 CEST)
Agavins consumption has lead to accelerate body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated to body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high fat (HF5) diet for 5 weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10), five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t-test, P < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t-test, P < 0.05). After diet shifted, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increase its diversity and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio as well as higher SCFA levels (P < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced extent of diversity and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins, opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Deep neural network; long short-term memory; water quality; discharge; stream-water
Online: 6 February 2023 (07:59:07 CET)
Multivariate predictive analysis of the Stream-Water (SW) parameters (discharge, water level, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and specific conductance) is a pivotal task in the field of water resource management during the era of rapid climate change. The highly dynamic and evolving nature of the meteorological and climatic features have a significant impact on the temporal distribution of the SW variables in recent days making the SW variables forecasting even more complicated for diversified water-related issues. To predict the SW variables, various physics-based numerical models are used using numerous hydrologic parameters. Extensive lab-based investigation and calibration are required to reduce the uncertainty involved in those parameters. However, in the age of data-informed analysis and prediction, several deep learning algorithms showed satisfactory performance in dealing with sequential data. In this research, a comprehensive Explorative Data Analysis (EDA) and feature engineering were performed to prepare the dataset to obtain the best performance of the predictive model. Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network regression model is trained using over several years of daily data to predict the SW variables up to one week ahead of time (lead time) with satisfactory performance. The performance of the proposed model is found highly adequate through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors, and a set of error matrices. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyperparameter tuning. This model can be transferred to other locations with proper feature engineering and optimization to perform univariate predictive analysis and potentially be used to perform real-time SW variables prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0502.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: working memory; STDP; short-term plasticity; spiking neural network; flexible cluster formation
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:32:08 CET)
Working memory (WM) is a brain system for short-term storage and manipulation of information and plays an important role in complex cognitive tasks. In the synaptic theory of WM memorized elements are stored in the form of short-term potentiated connections in a sample population of neurons. In this paper, we show that such populations can be formed due to the mechanisms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) – the phase dependence associated with the ratio of the pulse times of the interacting neurons. We propose a WM model considering two types of plasticity: short-term plasticity and STDP. We have shown formation of neuronal clusters encoding items in the WM model, that can be formed by external stimulation of a group of neurons due to the mechanisms of STDP and hold and reactivated by short-term plasticity mechanisms. The dynamic formation of neuronal clusters instead of pre-formed clusters gives additional flexibility to the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0043.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Commodities; Long Short-Term Memory; Machine Learning; Neural Networks; Prediction; Technical analysis
Online: 5 October 2022 (13:39:16 CEST)
This paper presents the development and implementation of a machine learning model to estimate the future price of commodities in the Brazilian market from technical analysis indicators. For this, two databases were obtained regarding the commodities sugar, cotton, corn, soybean and wheat, which were submitted to the steps of data cleaning, pre-processing and subdivision. From the pre-processed data, recurrent neural networks of the long short-term memory type were used to perform the prediction of data in the interval of 1 and 3 days ahead. These models were evaluated using mean squared error, obtaining an accuracy between 0.00010 and 0.00037 on the test data for 1 day ahead and 0.00015 to 0.00041 for 3 days ahead. However, based on the results obtained, it can be stated that the developed model obtained a good prediction performance for all commodities evaluated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0712.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: dietary fibers; short chain fatty acid; gut microbiota; colorectal cancer prevention; epigenetics
Online: 29 March 2021 (22:22:00 CEST)
Dietary factors play an important role in shaping the gut microbiome which, in turn, regulates the molecular events in colonic mucosa. The composition and resulting metabolism of the gut microbiome have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Diets low in dietary fibers and phytomolecules as well as other lifestyle-related factors may predispose to CRC. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the predominance of microbes, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, can predispose the colonic mucosa to malignant transformation. Dietary and lifestyle modifications have been demonstrated to restrict the growth of potentially harmful opportunistic organisms. In this study, we aim to present evidence regarding the relationship of dietary factors to the gut microbiome and development of CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: return reversals; exchange-traded funds (ETFs); attention hypothesis; disagreement hypothesis; short selling
Online: 27 May 2019 (09:53:03 CEST)
We find that the overnight returns of Korean exchange-traded index funds (ETFs) are significantly positive, whereas the subsequent intraday returns are negative. These intraday return reversals are caused by relatively higher opening prices than the closing prices. In the Korean ETF market, where institutional investors are dominant participants, the return reversals are not explained by the attention hypothesis as in Berkman et al. . Hence, we investigate whether the disagreement hypothesis can explain return reversals. Under the disagreement situations between positive and negative traders at the open, positive traders can have a positive influence on the ETF prices by increasing their investments. However, negative traders, who give up investments due to limited short selling opportunities in the ETF market, have no effects on the prices. Comparing ETF markets with KOSPI 200 Futures where there are no restrictions on short selling, we find that short selling constraints are significant factors for the return reversals. This implies that disagreement among the investors can cause return reversals even in the markets without noise traders. Using unique Korean market data, we conclude that return reversals cannot be completely explained by the attention hypothesis, and that disagreement among investors is also a significant factor for the return reversals. This study contributes to the existing literature by showing that the attention hypothesis does not explain return reversals in the ETF market completely, and suggesting the disagreement hypothesis as an alternative.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: precipitation downscaling; convolutional neural networks; long short term memory networks; hydrological simulation
Online: 2 April 2019 (12:37:11 CEST)
Precipitation downscaling is widely employed for enhancing the resolution and accuracy of precipitation products from general circulation models (GCMs). In this study, we propose a novel statistical downscaling method to foster GCMs’ precipitation prediction resolution and accuracy for monsoon region. We develop a deep neural network composed of convolution and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent module to estimate precipitation based on well-resolved atmospheric dynamical fields. The proposed model is compared against GCM precipitation product and classical downscaling methods in the Xiangjiang River Basin in South China. Results show considerable improvement compared to the ECMWF-Interim reanalysis precipitation. Also, the model outperforms benchmark downscaling approaches, including 1) quantile mapping, 2) support vector machine, and 3) convolutional neural network. To test the robustness of the model and its applicability in practical forecast, we apply the trained network for precipitation prediction forced by retrospective forecasts from ECMWF model. Compared to ECMWF precipitation forecast, our model makes better use of the resolved dynamical field for more accurate precipitation prediction at lead time from 1 day up to 2 weeks. This superiority decreases along forecast lead time, as GCM’s skill in predicting atmospheric dynamics being diminished by the chaotic effect. At last, we build a distributed hydrological model and force it with different sources of precipitation inputs. Hydrological simulation forced with the neural network precipitation estimation shows significant advantage over simulation forced with the original ERA-Interim precipitation (with NSE value increases from 0.06 to 0.64), and the performance is just slightly worse than the observed precipitation forced simulation (NSE=0.82). This further proves the value of the proposed downscaling method, and suggests its potential for hydrological forecasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Speech/Music Classification; Enhanced Voice Service, Long Short-Term Memory, Big Data
Online: 5 November 2018 (17:02:36 CET)
Speech/music classification that facilitates optimized signal processing from classification results has been extensively adapted as an essential part of various electronics applications, such as multi-rate audio codecs, automatic speech recognition, and multimedia document indexing. In this paper, a new technique to improve the robustness of speech/music classifier for 3GPP enhanced voice service (EVS) using long short-term memory (LSTM) is proposed. For effective speech/music classification, feature vectors implemented with the LSTM are chosen from the features of the EVS. Experiments show that LSTM-based speech/music classification produces better results than conventional EVS under a variety of conditions and types of speech/music data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0140.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Left ventricular ejection fraction; Left ventricle segmentation; Convolutional long short-term memory; Echocardiography
Online: 10 March 2022 (04:19:30 CET)
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. A key factor in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease is left ventricular functional evaluation. Left ventricular (LV) systolic function is evaluated by measuring the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using echocardiography data. Therefore, quick and accurate left ventricle segmentation is important for estimating the LVEF. However, it is difficult to accurately segment the left ventricle due to changes in the shape and area of the left ventricle during cardiac cycles. In this study, we proposed a framework that considers changes in the shape and area of the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle by applying the convolutional long short-term memory (CLSTM) approach. In addition, we evaluated the left ventricular segmentation and multidimensional quantification of the proposed system in comparison to manual and automated segmentation methods. In addition, to assess the validity of CLSTM, the values of multi-dimensional quantification metrics were compared and analyzed using graphs and Bland–Altman plots on a frame-by-frame basis. We demonstrated that the CLSTM method effectively segments the left ventricle by considering the LV activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LV segmentation based on our framework may be utilized to accurately estimate LVEF values.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Short-term trading; mean reversion; VIX; SPY; linear stochastic process; MACD; Bollinger Bands
Online: 29 July 2021 (16:24:34 CEST)
One of the key challenges of stock trading is the stock prices follow a random walk process, which is a special case of a stochastic process, and are highly sensitive to new information. A random walk process is difficult to predict in the short-term. Many linear process models that are being used to predict financial time series are structural models that provide an important decision boundary, albeit not adequately considering the correlation or causal effect of market sentiment on stock prices. This research seeks to increase the predictive capability of linear process models using the SPDR S\&P 500 ETF (SPY) and the CBOE Volatility (VIX) Index as a proxy for market sentiment. Three econometric models are considered to forecast SPY prices: (i) Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), (ii) Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH), and (iii) Vector Autoregression (VAR). These models are integrated into two technical indicators, Bollinger Bands and Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD), focusing on forecast performance. The profitability of various algorithmic trading strategies is compared based on a combination of these two indicators. This research finds that linear process models that incorporate the VIX Index do not improve the performance of algorithmic trading strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0269.v1
Subject: Keywords: Travel Time Prediction; Deep Learning; Long Short Term Memory Networks; transit; temporal correlation
Online: 9 April 2021 (15:04:06 CEST)
This study introduces a comparative analysis of two deep learning (multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP-NN) and the long short term memory networks (LSTMN)) models for transit travel time prediction. The two models were trained and tested using one-year worth of data for a bus route in Blacksburg, Virginia. In this study, the travel time was predicted between each two successive stations to all the model to be extended to include bus dwell times. Additionally, two additional models were developed for each category (MLP of LSTM): one for only segments including controlled intersections (controlled segments) and another for segments with no control devices along them (uncontrolled segments). The results show that the LSTM models outperform the MLP models with a RMSE of 17.69 sec compared to 18.81 sec. When splitting the data into controlled and uncontrolled segments, the RMSE values reduced to 17.33 sec for the controlled segments and 4.28 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the LSTM model. Whereas, the RMSE values were 19.39 sec for the controlled segments and 4.67 sec for the uncontrolled segments when applying the MLP model. These results demonstrate that the uncertainty in traffic conditions introduced by traffic control devices has a significant impact on travel time predictions. Nonetheless, the results demonstrate that the LSTMN is a promising tool that can has the ability to account for the temporal correlation within the data. The developed models are also promising tools for reasonable travel time predictions in transit applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric arc furnace; Arc short circuit; transient power quality; transient voltage; voltage sag
Online: 20 January 2021 (14:24:47 CET)
Three-phase AC electric arc furnace (EAF) is a typical non-linear load, causing many power quality problems. Most of the researches on the voltage problems of EAF mainly focus on the voltage fluctuation, and less on the transient voltage problems caused by EAF short circuit and open circuit. In this paper, the relationship between voltage and current of EAF is obtained by combining hyperbolic function and exponential function, then the white noise and chaotic circuit are added to establish the EAF model which is suitable for the study of voltage fluctuation and transient voltage. This paper analyzes the causes of the transient voltage problem of the EAF, calculates the short-circuit current, reactive impact and the influence on voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) in the three-phase short-circuit of the EAF, and compares the calculation results with the simulation results to prove the accuracy of this model. The results show that the reactive impact of three-phase short circuit is about twice as much as that of normal operation of EAF, resulting in about 30% voltage sag at the PCC, which is very unfavorable to the power grid. This paper provides reference for transient power quality evaluation and dynamic reactive power compensation of EAF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0046.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Glioblastoma; master regulators; upstream analysis; IGFBP2; FRA-1; FOSL1; short term survivors; transcription factors
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:58:18 CET)
Only two percent of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients respond to standard care and survive beyond 36 months (long-term survivors, LTS) while the majority survive less than 12 months (short-term survivors, STS). To understand the mechanism leading to poor survival, we analyzed publicly available datasets of 113 STS and 58 LTS. This analysis revealed 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that characterize aggressive tumor growth and may be responsible for the poor prognosis. These genes belong largely to the GO-categories “epithelial to mesenchymal transition” and “response to hypoxia”. In this paper we applied upstream analysis approach which involves state-of-art promoter analysis and network analysis of the dysregulated genes potentially responsible for short survival in GBM. Binding sites for transcription factors associated with GBM pathology like NANOG, NF-κB, REST, FRA-1, PPARG and seven others were found enriched in the promoters of the dysregulated genes. We reconstructed the gene regulatory network with several positive feedback loops controlled by five master regulators – IGFBP2, VEGFA, VEGF165, PDGFA, AEBP1 and OSMR which can be proposed as biomarkers and as therapeutic targets for enhancing GBM prognosis. Critical analysis of this gene regulatory network gives insights on mechanism of gene regulation by IGFBP2 via several transcription factors including the key molecule of GBM tumor invasiveness and progression, FRA-1. All the observations are validated in independent cohorts and their impact on overall survival is studied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0351.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Conventional method; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Sequence; Genome editing; RNA Interference; TALEN
Online: 23 March 2020 (10:23:45 CET)
Conventional plant breeding has contributed enormously towards feeding the world and has played crucial roles in the development of modern society. The conventional method creates variation by transferring genes between or within the species. In general, these methods are more expensive and takes more time, to overcome these limitations, new technology is required. Genome editing is a powerful tool for biotechnology applications, with the capacity to alter the function of any gene. With the availability of gene information for the majority of the traits, genome editing emerged as a potential to create a new variation with the introduction of any transgene. The important genome editing tools used nowadays are ZFNs, TALEN, Pentatricopeptide repeats protein, adenine base editor, RNA interference, and CRISPR/Cas9. These tools have opened a new era for crop improvement. Due to the complex genetic architecture of most traits, it is challenging to edit genes controlling them. To overcome these challenges, genome editing provides a broader perspective. Among the above-mentioned tools, CRISPR/Cas9 is the most powerful tool for gene editing. These technologies are being used to create abiotic and biotic resistance crop varieties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: residual compressive strength; steel; finite element analysis; short tubular steel column; local corrosion
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:17:19 CET)
Corrosion is considered as one of the main factors in the structural performance deterioration of steel members. In this study, experimental and numerical methods were used to assess the reduction in compressive strength of short tubular steel columns with local corrosion damage. The corrosion damage was varied with different depths (0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 4.5, and 6 mm), height (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, and 180 mm), circumference (0, 90, 180, 270, and 360°), and location along the column. A parametric numerical study was performed to establish a correlation between the residual compressive strength and the severity of corrosion damage. The results showed that as the corrosion depth, height and circumference increased, the compressive strength decreased linearly. As for the corrosion height, the residual compressive strength became constant after decreasing linearly when the corrosion height was greater than the half-wavelength of buckling of the short columns. An equation is presented to evaluate the residual compressive strength of short columns with local corrosion wherein the volume of the corrosion damage was used as a reduction factor in calculating the compressive strength. The percentage error using the presented equation was found to be within 11.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: fault location; service restoration; particle swam optimization; microgrid; power flow; short-circuit fault
Online: 12 September 2019 (03:59:27 CEST)
This work aims to develop an integrated fault location and restoration approach for microgrids (MGs). This work contains two parts. Part I presents the fault location algorithm, and Part II shows the restoration algorithm. The proposed algorithms are implemented by particle swarm optimization (PSO). The fault location algorithm is based on network connection matrices, which are the modifications of bus-injection to branch-current and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices, to form the new system topology. The backward/forward sweep approach is used for the prefault power flow analysis. After the occurrence of fault, the voltage variation at each bus is calculated by using the Zbus modification algorithm to modify Zbus. Subsequently, the voltage error matrix is computed to search for the fault section by using PSO. After the allocation of the fault section, the multi-objective function is implemented by PSO for optimal restoration with its constraints. Finally, the IEEE 37-bus test system connected to distributed generations is utilized as the sample system for a series simulation and analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the proposed optimal algorithm can effectively solve the fault location and restoration problem in MGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0312.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: light-matter interaction, ultra-short laser pulses, high-pressure/density conditions, phase transitions
Online: 17 July 2018 (14:57:31 CEST)
It was demonstrated during the past decade that ultra-short intense laser pulse tightly focused deep inside a transparent dielectric generates the energy density in excess of several MJ/cm$^3$. Such energy concentration with extremely high heating and quenching rates leads to unusual solid-plasma-solid transformation paths overcoming kinetic barriers to formation of previously unknown high-pressure material phases, which are preserved in the surrounding pristine crystal. These results were obtained with the pulse of Gaussian shape in space and in time. Recently it was shown that the Bessel-shaped pulse could transform much larger amount of a material and allegedly create even higher energy density than that was achieved with the Gaussian (GB) pulses. Here we present a succinct review of previous results and discuss the possible routes for achieving higher energy density employing the Bessel beams (BB) and take advantage of its unique properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0033.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Signal Processing; Fourier Series; State Observer; Short Time Fourier Transform; Time-Frequency Analysis
Online: 26 April 2018 (07:53:32 CEST)
The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT) of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1) the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2) the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3) the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4) the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 2014-12-01 to 2018-01-08 and (5) the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: convex programming; wind power, hydropower; risk mitigation; CVaR; short-run marginal cost curve
Online: 23 April 2018 (17:35:32 CEST)
This study analyses the short-run hydro generation scheduling for the wind power differences from the contracted schedule. The approach for construction of the joint short-run marginal cost curve for the hydro-wind coordinated generation is proposed and applied on the real example. This joint short-run marginal cost (SRMC) curve is important for its participation in the energy markets and for economic feasibility assessment of such coordination. The approach credibly describes the short-run marginal costs which this coordination bears in “real life”. The approach is based on the duality framework of a convex programming and as a novelty combines the shadow price of risk mitigation capability and the water shadow price. The proposed approach is formulated as a stochastic linear program and tested on the case of the Vinodol hydropower system and the wind farm Vrataruša in Croatia. The result of the case study is a family of 24 joint short-run marginal cost curves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Very short term load forecasting; VSTLF; Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; extreme gradient boosting, energy consumption; ARIMA; time series prediction.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:17:35 CET)
Commercial buildings are a significant consumer of energy worldwide. Logistics facilities, and specifically warehouses, are a common building type yet under-researched in the demand-side energy forecasting literature. Warehouses have an idiosyncratic profile when compared to other commercial and industrial buildings with a significant reliance on a small number of energy systems. As such, warehouse owners and operators are increasingly entering in to energy performance contracts with energy service companies (ESCOs) to minimise environmental impact, reduce costs, and improve competitiveness. ESCOs and warehouse owners and operators require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. This paper explores the performance of three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVR), Random Forest, and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)), three deep learning models (Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)), and a classical time series model, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) for predicting daily energy consumption. The dataset comprises 8,040 records generated over an 11-month period from January to November 2020 from a non-refrigerated logistics facility located in Ireland. The grid search method was used to identify the best configurations for each model. The proposed XGBoost models outperform other models for both very short load forecasting (VSTLF) and short term load forecasting (STLF); the ARIMA model performed the worst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ARIMA; convolutional neural network; Kalman filter; passenger flow; transportation; short-term prediction; stochastic model
Online: 10 October 2022 (03:05:34 CEST)
The passenger prediction flow is very significant to transportation sustainability. This is due to some chaos of traffic jams encountered by the road users during their movement to the offices, schools, or markets at earlier of the days and during closing periods. This problem is peculiar to the transportation system of the Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria. However, the prevailing technique of passenger flow estimation is non-parametric which depends on the fixed planning and is easily affected by noise. In this research, we proposed the development of a hybrid intelligent passenger frequency prediction model using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) linear model, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and Kalman Filter Algorithm (KFA). The passengers’ frequency of arrival at the bus terminals is obtained and enumerated through the closed-circuit television (CCTV) and demonstrated using the Markovian Queueing Systems Model (MQSM). The ARIMA model was used for learning and prediction and compared the result with the combined techniques of using CNN-KFA. The autocorrelation coefficient functions (ACF) and partial autocorrelation coefficient functions (PACF) are used to examine the stationary data with different features. The performance of the models was analyzed and evaluated in describing the short-term passenger flow frequency at each terminal using the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Squared Error (MSE) values. The CNN-Kalman-filter model was fitted into the short-term series and the MAPE values are below 10%. The Mean Square Error (MSE) shows that the CNN-Kalman Filter model has the overall best performance with 83.33% of the time better than the ARIMA model and provides high accuracy in forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electrical Power Grids; Fault Forecasting; Long Short-Term Memory; Time Series Forecasting; Wavelet Transform
Online: 3 October 2022 (10:36:14 CEST)
The electric power distribution utility is responsible for providing energy to consumers in a continuous and stable way, failures in the electrical power system reduce the reliability indexes of the grid, directly harming its performance. For this reason, there is a need for failure prediction to reestablish power in the shortest possible time. Considering an evaluation of the number of failures over time, this paper proposes to perform a failure prediction during the first year of the pandemic in Brazil (2020) to verify the feasibility of using time series forecasting models for fault prediction. The Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model will be evaluated to obtain a forecast result that can be used by the electric power utility to organize the maintenance teams. The Wavelet transform shows to be promising in improving the predictive ability of the LSTM, making the Wavelet LSTM model suitable for the study at hand. The results show that the proposed approach has better results regarding the evaluation of the error in prediction and has robustness when a statistical analysis is performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0391.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Cu-Pb; Fe-Si alloys; modelling; surface tension; viscosity; molar volume; short-range ordering
Online: 26 January 2022 (03:44:15 CET)
Among the thermophysical properties, the surface / interfacial tension, viscosity and density / molar volume of liquid alloys are the key properties for the modelling of microstructural evolution during solidification. Therefore, only reliable input data can yield accurate predictions preventing the error propagation in numerical simulations of solidification related processes. Due to experimental difficulties related to reactivity of metallic melts at high temperatures, the measured data are often unreliable or even lacking. The application of containerless processing techniques either leads to a significant improvement of the accuracy or makes the measurement possible at all. On the other side, accurate model predicted property values could be used to compensate the missing data; otherwise, the experimental data are useful for the validation of theoretical models. The choice of models is particularly important for the surface, transport and structural properties of liquid alloys representing the two limiting cases of mixing, i.e. ordered and phase separating alloy systems. To this aim, the thermophysical properties of the Fe-Si and Cu-Pb systems were analysed and the connections with the peculiarities of their mixing behaviours are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0569.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: visual short-term memory; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; visual memory precision; serial memory effects
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:43:33 CEST)
We investigated the role of the human medio-temporal complex (hMT+) in the memory encoding and storage of a sequence of four coherently moving RDKs by applying repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during an early or late phase of the retention interval. Moreover, in a second experiment we also tested whether disrupting the functional integrity of hMT+ during the early phase impaired the precision of the encoded motion directions. Overall, results showed that both recognition accuracy and precision were worse in middle serial positions, suggesting the occurrence of primacy and recency effects. We found that rTMS delivered during the early (but not the late) phase of the retention interval was able to impair not only recognition of RDKs, but also the precision of the retained motion direction. However, such impairment occurred only for RDKs presented in middle positions along the presented sequence, where performance was already closer to chance level. Altogether these findings suggest an involvement of hMT+ in the memory encoding of visual motion direction. Given that both position sequence and rTMS modulated not only recognition but also precision of the stored information, these findings are in support of a model of visual short-term memory with a variable resolution of each stored item, consistent with the assigned amount of memory resources, and that such item-specific memory resolution is supported by the functional integrity of area hMT+.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Computational fluid dynamic; Long short term memory; Vortex bladeless wind turbine; Prediction; Correlation matrix.
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:38:21 CEST)
Energy harvesting from wind turbines has been explored by researchers for more than a century from conventional turbines up to the latest bladeless turbines. Amongst these bladeless turbines, vortex bladeless wind turbine (VBT) harvests energy from oscillation of a turbine body. Due to the novelty of this science and the widespread researches around the world, one of the most important issues is to optimize and predict produced power. To enhance the produced output electrical power of VBT, the fluid-solid interactions (FSI) were analyzed to collect a dataset for predicting procedure. Long short-term memory (LSTM) method has been used to predict the produced power of VBT from the collected data. The reason of choosing LSTM from various artificial neural network methods is that the parameters of VBT study are all time- dependent and the LSTM is one of the most accruable algorithms for predicting time series data. In order to find the relationship between the parameter and the variables used in this research, a correlation matrix was presented. According to the value of 0.3 for the root mean square error (RMSE), a comparative analysis between the simulation results and its prediction shows that the LSTM method is very accurate for these types of research. Furthermore, the LSTM method has significantly reduced the computation time so that the prediction time of desired values has been reduced from an average of 2 and a half hours to two minutes. Also, one of the most important achievements of this study is to suggest a mathematical relation of VBT output power which helps to extend it in a different size of VBT with a high range of parameter variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0141.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: WRF model; 3D-Var data assimilation; radar data; short-range prediction; heavy precipitation event
Online: 4 June 2021 (12:54:12 CEST)
During the night between 9 and 10 September 2017, multiple flash floods associated to a heavy-precipitation event affected the town of Livorno, located in Tuscany, Italy. Accumulated precipitation exceeding 200 mm in two hours, associated with a return period higher than 200 years, caused all the largest streams of the Livorno municipality to flood several areas of the town. We used the limited-area Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, in a convection-permitting setup, to reconstruct the extreme event leading to the flash floods. We evaluated possible forecasting improvements emerging from the assimilation of local ground stations and X- and S-band radar data into the WRF, using the configuration operational at the meteorological center of Tuscany region (LaMMA) at the time of the event. Simulations were verified against weather station observations, through an innovative method aimed at disentangling the positioning and intensity errors of precipitation forecasts. By providing more accurate descriptions of the low-level flow and a better assessment of the atmospheric water vapour, the results demonstrate that assimilating radar data improved the quantitative precipitation forecasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0302.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Searaser; Flow-3D; Prediction; Long short term memory; deep neural network; Root mean error.
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:51:25 CEST)
Accurate forecasts of ocean waves energy can not only reduce costs for investment but it is also essential for management and operation of electrical power. This paper presents an innovative approach based on the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to predict the power generation of an economical wave energy converter named “Searaser”. The data for analyzing is provided by collecting the experimental data from another study and the exerted data from numerical simulation of searaser. The simulation is done with Flow-3D software which has high capability in analyzing the fluid solid interactions. The lack of relation between wind speed and output power in previous studies needs to be investigated in this field. Therefore, in this study the wind speed and output power are related with a LSTM method. Moreover, it can be inferred that the LSTM Network is able to predict power in terms of height more accurately and faster than the numerical solution in a field of predicting. The network output figures show a great agreement and the root mean square is 0.49 in the mean value related to the accuracy of LSTM method. Furthermore, the mathematical relation between the generated power and wave height was introduced by curve fitting of the power function to the result of LSTM method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Neural Networks; Long-Short Term Model; Water demand; Forecasting; Sustainable development goals; Water Goal.
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:17:30 CET)
Climate change has become the greatest threat to the survival of world and its ecosystem. With the irreversible impact on the ecosystem, problems like rise in sea level, food-insecurity, natural resources scarcity, seasonal disorders have increased over the past few years. Among these problems, the issue of water scarcity due to the lack of water resources and global warming has plagued several nations. Owing to the rising concerns over water scarcity United Nations (UN) has acknowledged water as a primary resource to the development of societies under the ‘Water Goal’ of the sustainable development goals. As the changing climate and intermittent availability of water resources pose major challenges to forecast demand, especially in countries like the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which has one of the highest per capita residential water consumption rates in the world. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose an accurate water demand forecasting technique that incorporates all significant factors to predict the future water demands of the UAE. The forecasting model used is the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), with the factors considered are mean temperature, mean rainfall, relative humidity, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and population growth. The LSTM model predicts the water demand forecasting in the UAE showing that the future demand will decrease from 1821 million m3 in 2018 to 1809.9 million m3 in 2027.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: retinoic acid; retinol; retinaldehyde; short-chain dehydrogenase; vitamin a; retinol dehydrogenase; retinaldehyde reductase; embryogenesis
Online: 16 December 2019 (07:18:46 CET)
The concentration of all-trans-retinoic acid, the bioactive derivative of vitamin A, is critically important for the optimal performance of numerous physiological processes. Either too little or too much of retinoic acid in developing or adult tissues is equally harmful. All-trans-retinoic acid is produced by the irreversible oxidation of all-trans-retinaldehyde. Thus, the concentration of retinaldehyde as the immediate precursor of retinoic acid has to be tightly controlled. However, the enzymes that produce all-trans-retinaldehyde for retinoic acid biosynthesis and the mechanisms responsible for the control of retinaldehyde levels have not yet been fully defined. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the identities of physiologically relevant retinol dehydrogenases, their enzymatic properties and tissue distribution, and to discuss potential mechanisms for the regulation of the flux from retinol to retinaldehyde.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0613.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: tempeh; lactic acid bacteria; short chain fatty acids; metabolic syndrome; high fat diet; feces
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:37:51 CEST)
The increased consumption of high fat-containing foods has been linked to the prevalence of obesity and abnormal metabolic syndromes. Rhizopus oligosporus, a fungus in the family Mucoraceae, is widely used as a starter for homemade tempeh. Although R. oligosporus can prevent the growth of other microorganisms, it grows well with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum can produce β-glucosidase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucoside isoflavones into aglycones (with greater bioavailability). Therefore, the development of a soybean-based functional food by the co-inoculation of R. oligosporus and L. plantarum is a promising approach to increase the bioactivity of tempeh. In this study, the ameliorative effect of L. plantarum in soy tempeh on abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemic rats was evaluated. The co-incubation of L. plantarum with R. oligosporus during soy tempeh fermentation reduced the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HbA1c, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and low-density lipoprotein contents and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein content in HFD rats. It also increased the LAB counts as well as the bile acid, cholesterol, triglyceride, and short-chain fatty acid contents in the feces of HFD rats. Our results suggested that the modulation of serum glucose and lipid levels by LAB occurs via alterations in the internal microbiota, leading to the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and promotion of lipolysis. Tempeh, produced with both L. plantarum and R. oligosporus, may be a beneficial dietary supplement for individuals with abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: finite element method (FEM); damage detection; surface rust; ultrasonic testing; short-time Fourier transform
Online: 10 July 2018 (11:22:00 CEST)
Detection of early stage corrosion on slender steel members is crucial for preventing buckling failures of steel structures. An active photoacoustic fiber optic sensors (FOS) system has been reported for early stage steel corrosion detection of steel plates and rebars using surface ultrasonic waves. The objective of this paper is to investigate the surface corrosion/rust detection problem on steel rods using numerically simulated surface ultrasonic waves. The finite element method (FEM) is applied in simulating the propagation of ultrasonic waves on steel rod models. Transmission mode of damage detection is adopted, in which one source (transmitter) and one sensor (receiver) are considered. In this research, radial displacements at the receiver were simulated and analyzed by short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for detecting, locating, and quantifying a surface rust located between the transmitter and the receiver. From our time domain and frequency domain analyses, it is found that the presence, location, and dimensions (length, width, and depth) of surface rust can be estimated by ultrasonic waves propagating through the surface rust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0019.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Clustering; Forecasting; Hierarchical Time-Series; Individual Electrical Consumers; Scalable; Short Term; Smart Meters; Wavelets
Online: 2 July 2018 (17:43:29 CEST)
Smart grids require flexible data driven forecasting methods. We propose clustering tools for bottom-up short-term load forecasting. We focus on individual consumption data analysis which plays a major role for energy management and electricity load forecasting. The two first sections are dedicated to the industrial context and a review of individual electrical data analysis. We are interested in hierarchical time-series for bottom-up forecasting. The idea is to disaggregate the signal in such a way that the sum of disaggregated forecasts improves the direct prediction. The 3-steps strategy defines numerous super-consumers by curve clustering, builds a hierarchy of partitions and selects the best one minimizing a forecast criterion. Using a nonparametric model to handle forecasting, and wavelets to define various notions of similarity between load curves, this disaggregation strategy applied to French individual consumers leads to a gain of 16\% in forecast accuracy. We then explore the upscaling capacity of this strategy facing massive data and implement proposals using R, the free software environment for statistical computing. The proposed solutions to make the algorithm scalable combines data storage, parallel computing and double clustering step to define the super-consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0097.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep learning; automatic modulation classification; classifier fusion; convolutional neural network; long short-term memory
Online: 11 January 2018 (04:47:00 CET)
Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC). It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition, which remains challenging for traditional methods due to the complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF) method to solve the problem in a unified framework. The contributions include: 1) The convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) are combined by two different ways without prior knowledge involved; 2) A large database, including eleven types of single-carrier modulation signals with various noises as well as a fading channel, is collected with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) based on a real geographical environment; and 3) Experimental results demonstrate that HDMF is super capable of copping with the AMC problem, and achieves much better performance when compared with the independent network. The source code and the database will be publically available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0237.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Software reliability; deep learning; long short-term memory; project similarity and clustering; cross-project prediction
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:33:39 CEST)
Software reliability is an important characteristic for ensuring the qualities of software products. Predicting the potential number of bugs from the beginning of a development project allows practitioners to make the appropriate decisions regarding testing activities. In the initial development phases, applying traditional software reliability growth models (SRGMs) with limited past data does not always provide reliable prediction result for decision making. To overcome this, herein we propose a new software reliability modeling method called deep cross-project software reliability growth model (DC-SRGM). DC-SRGM is a cross-project prediction method that uses features of previous projects’ data through project similarity. Specifically, the proposed method applies cluster-based project selection for training data source and modeling by a deep learning method. Experiments involving 15 real datasets from a company and 11 open source software datasets show that DC-SRGM can more precisely describe the reliability of ongoing development projects than existing traditional SRGMs and the LSTM model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0324.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: De-novo Genome Assembly; Short Read Genome Assembly; Long Read Genome Assembly; Hybrid Genome Assembly
Online: 28 June 2020 (08:56:09 CEST)
Despite advances in algorithms and computational platforms, de-novo genome assembly remains a challenging process. Due to the constant innovation in sequencing technologies (Sanger, SOLiD, Illumina, 454, PacBio and Oxford Nanopore), genome assembly has evolved to respond to the changes in input data type. This paper includes a broad and comparative review of the most recent short-read, long-read and hybrid assembly techniques. In this review, we provide (1) an algorithmic description of the important processes in the workflow that introduces fundamental concepts and improvements; (2) a review of existing software that explains possible options for genome assembly; and (3) a comparison of the accuracy and the performance of existing methods executed on the same computer using the same processing capabilities and using the same set of real and synthetic datasets. Such evaluation allows a fair and precise comparison of accuracy in all aspects. As a result, this paper identifies both the strengths and weaknesses of each method. This comparative review is unique in providing a detailed comparison of a broad spectrum of cutting-edge algorithms and methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: mitochondrial dysfunction; idebenone; short-chain quinone; metabolic stability; HepG2 cell culture; reverse-phase liquid chromatography
Online: 5 December 2019 (03:56:02 CET)
Short chain quinones (SCQs) have been identified as potential drug candidates against mitochondrial dysfunction, which is largely dependent on their reversible redox characteristics of the active quinone core. We recently synthesized a SCQ library of > 148 naphthoquinone derivatives and identified 16 compounds with enhanced cytoprotection compared to the clinically used benzoquinone idebenone. One of the major drawbacks of idebenone is its high metabolic conversion in the liver, which significantly restricts is therapeutic activity. Therefore, this study assessed the metabolic stability of the 16 identified naphthoquinone derivatives 1-16 using hepatocarcinoma cells in combination with an optimized reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) method. Most of the derivatives showed significantly better stability than idebenone over 6 hours (p < 0.001). By extending the side-chain of SCQs, increased stability for some compounds was observed. Metabolic conversion from the derivative 3 to 5 and reduced idebenone metabolism in the presence of 5 were also observed. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of naphthoquinone-based SCQs and provide essential insights for future drug design, prodrug therapy and polytherapy, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0254.v1
Subject: Keywords: cation-disordered Li-excess cathodes; short range ordering; local distorting; theoretic capacity; order-disorder strength
Online: 22 September 2019 (15:32:13 CEST)
The search for new materials that could improve the energy density of Li-ion batteries (LIB) is one of today’s most challenging issues. Recently, cation-disordered lithium-excess metal oxides have emerged as a promising new class of cathode materials for LIB, due to their high reversible capacities and nice structural stability. However, a full structural model of the Li-transition metal (TM) sharing sublattice and the origin of short range ordering (SRO) of cation ions requires further investigation. In this work, we put forward a Monte Carlo strategy of building a cation-disordered rocksalt material supercell model. The cation ions of Li1.0Ti0.5Ni0.5O2 (LTNO) are placed at the FCC sublattice sites with the constraint of Pauling’s electroneutrality rule, instead of a random way. This constraint causes the Li-Ti and Ni-Ni clustering (the cation short range ordering). Based on this model, we discussed the relationship between the short range ordering, the local distorting, the theoretic capacity and the order-disorder strengths. A unified understanding of these factors in cation-disordered materials may enable a better design of disordered-electrode materials with high capacity and high energy density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0124.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Trypanosomatidae; Kraken taxonomic assignment tool; Bowtie2 fast short reads aligner; Ancient DNA; Parasitome; Co-infection
Online: 6 July 2018 (16:58:45 CEST)
Proper species identification from ancient DNA samples is a difficult task that sheds light on the evolutionary history of pathogenic microorganisms. The field of palaeomicrobiology has undoubtedly benefited from the advent of untargeted metagenomic approaches that use next-generation sequencing methodologies. Nevertheless, assigning ancient DNA at the species level is a challenging process. Recently, the gut microbiome analysis of three pre-Columbian Andean mummies (Santiago-Rodriguez et al. 2016) has called into question the identification of Leishmania in South America. Here, the metagenomic data filed in MG-RAST (Metagenomics RAST server) were used for a further attempt to identify members of the Trypanosomatidae family infecting these ancient remains. For this purpose, we used two metagenomic analysis tools. In the first step, data were analysed using the ultrafast metagenomic sequence classifier, based on exact alignment of k-mers (Kraken). In the second step, we used Bowtie2, an ultrafast and memory-efficient tool for aligning sequencing reads to long reference sequences. We then compared the output results. These approaches highlight some interesting findings on potential infections by human pathogenic trypanosomatids in these three pre-Columbian mummies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: short tunnel small flap; glaucoma drainage device implantation; tube exposure; STSF; Ahmed glaucoma valve; AGV
Online: 15 June 2018 (09:40:16 CEST)
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of graft-free short tunnel small flap (STSF) technique with that of scleral patch graft (SPG) in Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Participants: Eighty-eyes of eighty patients with medically uncontrolled glaucoma including 41 in STSF and 39 eyes in SPG. Methods: Patients were enrolled and assigned randomly to STSF or SPG. Main Outcome Measures: tube exposure, Intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), surgical complications, and success rate ( defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) >5 mmHg, ≤21 mmHg, and IOP reduction ≥20% from baseline at two consecutive visits after three months, no reoperation for glaucoma). Results: only one case in SPG developed tube exposure at 1-year follow-up. The cumulative probability of success during the first year of follow-up was 70% in the STSF and 65% in SPG (P = 0.36). IOP decreased significantly from 29.6 ± 8.6 mmHg at baseline to 16.4 ± 3.6 mmHg at the final follow-up in STSF (p = 0.001). The corresponding numbers for SPG were 30.9 ± 11.2 and 15.8 ± 4.7, respectively (p = 0.001). The final IOP was comparable between both groups (p = 0.65). Mean ± standard deviation of the number of glaucoma medications was 1.8 ± 0.9 in STSF and 1.6 ± 0.9 in SPG at final follow-up (P = 0.32). Postoperative complications developed in 8 patients (19%) in STSF and 9 patients (23%) in SPG (P = 0.81). Conclusions: STSF and SPG techniques had comparable complication rate at one-year follow-up. Both techniques were comparable in terms of success rate, postoperative IOP, and glaucoma medications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: compensation techniques; dynamic voltage restore; harmonic distortion; power quality; short circuit; voltage sag; voltage swell
Online: 28 February 2018 (05:35:56 CET)
Power quality is a major concern in electrical power systems. The power quality disturbances such as sags, swells, harmonic distortion and other interruptions have impact on the electrical devices and machines and in severe cases can cause serious damages. Therefore it is required to recognize and compensate all types of disturbances at an earliest to ensure normal and efficient operation of the power system. To solve these problems, many types of power devices are used. At the present time, one of those devices, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is the most efficient and effective device used in power distribution system. In this paper, design and modeling of a new structure of multifunctional DVR for voltage correction is presented. The performance of the device under different conditions such as voltage swell, voltage sag due to symmetrical and unsymmetrical short circuit, starting of motors, and voltage distortion are described. Simulation result shows the superior capability of proposed DVR to improve power quality under different operating conditions. The proposed new DVR controller is able to detect the voltage disturbances and control the converter to inject appropriate voltages independently for each phase and compensate to load voltage through three single- phase transformers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0461.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Diuretic hormone; sleep, feeding; metabolism; ion transport peptide; tachykinin; short neuropeptide F; insulin-like peptide; neuromodulation
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:23:22 CET)
Leucokinins (LKs) constitute a family of neuropeptides identified in numerous insects and many other invertebrates. The LKs act on G-protein coupled receptors that display only distant relations to other known receptors. In adult Drosophila, 26 neurons/neurosecretory cells of three main types express LK. The four brain interneurons are of two types, and these are implicated in several important functions in the fly’s behavior and physiology, including feeding, sleep-metabolism interactions, state-dependent memory formation, as well as modulation of gustatory sensitivity and nociception. The 22 neurosecretory cells (ABLKs) of the abdominal neuromeres coexpress LK and a diuretic hormone (DH44), and together these regulate water and ion homeostasis and associated stress, as well as food intake. In Drosophila larvae, LK neurons modulate locomotion, escape responses, and aspects of ecdysis behavior. A set of lateral neurosecretory cells, ALKs, in the brain express LK in larvae, but inconsistently so in adults. These ALKs coexpress three other neuropeptides and regulate water and ion homeostasis, feeding and drinking, but the specific role of LK is not yet known. This review summarizes Drosophila data on embryonic lineages of LK neurons, functional roles of individual LK neuron types, interactions with other peptidergic systems, and orchestrating functions of LK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0784.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; flow cytometry; gastrointestinal health; peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); probiotic; short chain fatty acid
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:46:43 CET)
Probiotics make up a large and growing segment of the commercial market of dietary supplements and are touted as offering a variety of human health benefits. Some of the purported positive impacts of probiotics include, but are not limited to, stabilization of the gut microbiota, prevention of gastrointestinal disorders and modulation of the host immune system. Current research suggests that the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics are strain specific and vary in mode of action. Here, we examined the immunomodulatory properties of Bacillus subtilis strain DE111 in a healthy human population. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled four-week intervention, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at basal levels pre- and post-treatment as well as in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We observed an anti-inflammatory effect of B. subtilis, manifested as a decrease in immune cell populations within the basal state along with an increase in anti-inflammatory immune cells in response to LPS stimulation. Overall gastrointestinal health, microbiota, and circulating and fecal markers of inflammation and gut barrier function were largely unaffected by DE111 treatment. These data suggest that the novel probiotic B. subtilis DE111 may have clinical applications in modulating immune homeostasis via anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0315.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Intrusion Detection Systems; Anomaly detection; Sequential analysis; Random Forest; Multi-Layer Perceptron; Long-Short Term Memory
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:36:58 CET)
With the latest advances in information and communication technologies, greater amounts of sensitive user and corporate information are constantly shared across the network making it susceptible to an attack that can compromise data confidentiality, integrity and availability. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are important security mechanisms that can perform a timely detection of malicious events through the inspection of network traffic or host-based logs. Throughout the years, many machine learning techniques have proven to be successful at conducting anomaly detection but only a few considered the sequential nature of data. This work proposes a sequential approach and evaluates the performance of a Random Forest (RF), a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and a Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) on the CIDDS-001 dataset. The resulting performance measures of this particular approach are compared with the ones obtained from a more traditional one, that only considers individual flow information, in order to determine which methodology best suits the concerned scenario. The experimental outcomes lead to believe that anomaly detection can be better addressed from a sequential perspective and that the LSTM is a very reliable model for acquiring sequential patterns in network traffic data, achieving an accuracy of 99.94% and a f1-score of 91.66%.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: arm motion recognition; micro-doppler signature; time series analysis; dynamic time warping; long short-term memory
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:42:44 CET)
Hand and arm gesture recognition using radio frequency (RF) sensing modality proves valuable in man-machine interface and smart environment. In this paper, we use time series analysis method for accurately measuring the similarity of the micro-Doppler (MD) signatures between the training and test data, thus providing improved gesture classification. We characterize the MD signatures by the maximum instantaneous Doppler frequencies depicted in the spectrograms. In particular, we apply the dynamic time warping (DTW) method and compare its performance with that of the long short-term memory (LSTM) network. Both methods take into account the values as well as the temporal evolution and trends of time series data. It is shown that the DTW method achieves high gesture classification rates and is robust to time misalignment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lactobacilli; bifidobacilli; arthritis; inflammatory bowel; microbiome; metabolomics; aryl hydrocarbon reductase; adenosine; histamine; short chain fatty acid
Online: 20 September 2018 (05:12:00 CEST)
Probiotics have been used to ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms since ancient times. Over the past 40 years, probiotics have been shown to exert major effects on the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction is clearly linked to gut microbes, their polysaccharide antigens, and key metabolites produced by these bacteria. At least four metabolic pathways have been implicated in mechanistic studies of probiotics, based on carefully studied animal models. Microbial-immune system crosstalk has been linked to short chain fatty acid production and signaling, tryptophan metabolism and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors, nucleoside signaling in the gut, and activation of the intestinal histamine-2 receptor. Several randomized controlled trials have now shown that microbial modification by probiotics may improve gastrointestinal symptoms and multi-organ inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and multiple sclerosis. Future work will need to carefully assess safety issues, selection of optimal strains and combinations, and attempts to prolong the duration of colonization of beneficial microbes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: concrete dams; prediction model; empirical modal decomposition method; wavelet threshold; sparrow search algorithm; long short-term memory
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:32:08 CEST)
The deformation monitoring information of concrete dams contains some high-frequency com-ponents, and the high-frequency components are strongly nonlinear, which reduces the accuracy of dam deformation prediction. In order to solve such problems, this paper proposes a concrete dam deformation monitoring model based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) combined with wavelet threshold noise reduction and sparrow search algorithm (SSA) optimization of long short-term memory network (LSTM). The model uses EMD combined with wavelet threshold to decompose and denoise the measured deformation data. On this basis, the LSTM model based on SSA optimization is used to mine the nonlinear function relationship between the reconstructed monitoring data and various influencing factors. The example analysis shows that the model has good calculation speed, fitting and prediction accuracy and it can effectively mine the date char-acteristics inherent in the measured deformation, and reduce the influence of noise components on the modeling accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0238.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: neural networks; satellite images; class imbalance; feature attribution; lightning prediction; nowcasting; short-term forecasts; machine learning; meteorology
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:48:59 CEST)
While thunderstorms can pose severe risks to property and life, forecasting remains challenging, even at short lead times, as these often arise in meta-stable atmospheric conditions. In this paper, we examine the question of how well we could perform short-term (up to 180min) forecasts using exclusively multi-spectral satellite images and past lighting events as data. We employ representation learning based on deep convolutional neural networks in an “end-to-end” fashion. Here, a crucial problem is handling the imbalance of the positive and negative classes appropriately in order to be able to obtain predictive results (which is not addressed by many previous machine-learning-based approaches). The resulting network outperforms previous methods based on physically-based features and optical flow methods (similar to operational prediction models) and generalizes across different years. A closer examination of the classifier performance over time and under masking of input data indicates that the learned model actually draws most information from structures in the visible spectrum, with infrared imaging sustaining some classification performance during the night.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0098.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Cell proliferation; congenital heart disease; embryonic lethality; folliculogenesis; neuropsychological profile; prolonged cell cycle; short stature; Turner syndrome
Online: 3 March 2022 (04:27:26 CET)
Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder that is caused by a missing or structurally ab-normal second sex chromosome. Subjects with TS are at an increased risk of developing intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, short stature, congenital heart diseases, infertility, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (stroke and myocardial infarction). The underlying pathogenetic mechanism of TS is unknown. The assumption that X chromosome-linked gene haploinsufficiency is associated with the TS phenotype is questioned since such genes have not been identified. Thus, other pathogenic mechanisms have been suggested to explain this phenotype. Morphogenesis encompasses a series of events that includes cell division, the production of migratory precursors and their progeny, differentiation, programmed cell death, and integration into organs and systems. The precise control of the growth and differentiation of cells is essential for normal development. The cell cycle frequency and the number of proliferating cells are essential in cell growth. 45,X cells have a failure to proliferate at a normal rate, leading to a decreased cell number in a given tissue during organogenesis. A convergence of data indicates an association between a prolonged cell cycle and the phenotypical features in Turner syndrome. This review aims to examine old and new findings concerning the relationship between a prolonged cell cycle and TS phenotype. These studies reveal a diversity of phenotypic features in TS that could be explained by reduced cell proliferation. The implications of this hypothesis for our understanding of the TS phenotype and its pathogenesis are discussed. It is not surprising that 45,X monosomy leads to cellular growth pathway dysregulation with profound deleterious effects on both embryonic and later stages of development. The prolonged cell cycle could represent the beginning of the pathogenesis of TS, leading to a series of phenotypic consequences in embryonic/fetal, neonatal, pediatric, adolescence, and adulthood life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) power forecast; multiple PV forecasting; short-term PV forecasting; motion estimation; optical flow; smart grid
Online: 10 February 2022 (02:22:32 CET)
The power-generation capacity of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power systems is increasing. As output power forecasting is required by electricity market participants and utility operators for the stable operation of power systems, several methods have been proposed using physical and statistical approaches for various time ranges. A short-term (30 min ahead) forecasting method has been previously proposed by our laboratory for geographically distributed PV systems using motion estimation. This study focuses on an important parameter for estimating the proposed motion and optimizing the parameter. This parameter is important because it is associated with the smoothness of the vector field, which is the result of motion estimation and influences the forecasting accuracy. In the periods with drastic power output changes, the evaluation was conducted on 101 PV systems located within a circle of 15-km radius in the Kanto region of Japan. The results indicate that the absolute mean error of the proposed method with the optimized parameter is 10.3%, whereas that of the persistent prediction method is 23.7%. Therefore, the proposed method is effective in forecasting for periods when PV output changes drastically in a short time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0049.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: long short-term memory; minimum message length; time series; neural network; deep learning; Bayesian statistics; probabilistic modeling
Online: 12 October 2021 (11:41:30 CEST)
We investigate the power of time series analysis based on a variety of information-theoretic approaches from statistics (AIC, BIC) and machine learning (Minimum Message Length) - and we then compare their efficacy with traditional time series model and with hybrids involving deep learning. More specifically, we develop AIC, BIC and Minimum Message Length (MML) ARMA (autoregressive moving average) time series models - with this Bayesian information-theoretic MML ARMA modelling already being new work. We then study deep learning based algorithms in time series forecasting, using Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), and we then combine this with the ARMA modelling to produce a hybrid ARMA-LSTM prediction. Part of the purpose of the use of LSTM is to seek capture any hidden information in the residuals left from the traditional ARMA model. We show that MML not only outperforms earlier statistical approaches to ARMA modelling, but we further show that the hybrid MML ARMA-LSTM models outperform both ARMA models and LSTM models.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: amyloid-β; endotoxin; short chain fatty acids; clasmatodendrosis; cytokines; neurovascular unit; vagus nerve; Toll-like Receptor 4
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:22:47 CEST)
Much evidence has accumulated over the past decade in favor of a significant association between dysbiosis, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Presently, the pathogenetic mechanisms triggered by molecules produced by the altered microbiota, also responsible for the onset and evolution of Alzheimer Disease will be described. Our attention will be focused on the role of astrocytes and microglia. Numerous studies have progressively demonstrated how these glial cells are important to ensure an adequate environment for neuronal activity in healthy conditions. Furthermore, it is becoming evident how both cell types can mediate the onset of neuroinflammation and lead to neurodegeneration when subjected to pathological stimuli. Based on this information, the role of major microbiota products in shifting the activation profiles of astrocytes and microglia from a healthy to a diseased state will be discussed focussing on Alzheimer Disease pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: lightweight aggregate concrete; reinforced concrete; flexural elements; curvature; short-term loading; tension stiffening; constitutive model; numerical modelling.
Online: 22 November 2019 (08:28:04 CET)
In the present trend of constructing taller and longer structures, the application of lightweight aggregate concrete is becoming an increasing important advanced solution in the modern construction industry. In engineering practice, the analysis of lightweight concrete elements is performed using the same algorithms used for normal concrete elements. As an alternative to traditional engineering methods, nonlinear numerical algorithms based on constitutive material models may be used. The paper presents a comparative analysis of curvature calculations for flexural lightweight concrete elements, incorporating analytical code methods EN 1992-1 and ACI 318-14, as well as a numerical analysis using the constitutive model of cracked tensile lightweight concrete recently proposed by the authors. To evaluate the adequacy of the theoretical predictions, experimental data of 51 lightweight concrete beams tested during five different programmes were collected. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results showed that the most accurate predictions are obtained using numerical analysis and the constitutive model proposed by the authors. In the future, the latter algorithm can be used as a reliable tool for improving the design standard methods or numerical modelling of lightweight concrete elements subjected to short-term loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0505.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: Italian, readability, GULPEASE, literature, statistics, characters, words, sentences, punctuation marks, short−term memory, word interval, time interval
Online: 20 November 2018 (15:32:11 CET)
Statistics of languages are calculated by counting characters, words, sentences, word rankings. Some of these random variables are also the main “ingredients” of classical readability formulae. Revisiting the readability formula of Italian, known as GULPEASE, shows that of the two terms that determine the readability index G – the semantic index G_C, proportional to the number of characters per word, and the syntactic index G_F, proportional to the reciprocal of the number of words per sentence −, G_F is dominant because G_C is, in practice, constant for any author throughout seven centuries of Italian Literature. Each author can modulate the length of sentences more freely than he can do with the length of words, and in different ways from author to author. For any author, any couple of text variables can be modelled by a linear relationship y=mx, but with different slope m from author to author, except for the relationship between characters and words, which is unique for all. The most important relationship found in the paper is, in author’s opinion, that between the short−term memory capacity, described by Miller’s “7∓2 law”, and the word interval, a new random variable defined as the average number of words between two successive punctuation marks. The word interval can be converted into a time interval through the average reading speed. The word interval is spread in the same of Miller’s law, and the time interval is spread in the same range of short−term memory response times. The connection between the word interval (and time interval) and short−term memory appears, at least empirically, justified and natural, and should further investigated. Technical and scientific writings (papers, essays etc.) ask more to their readers. A preliminary investigation of these texts shows clear differences: words are on the average longer, the readability index G is lower, word and time intervals are longer. Future work done on ancient languages, such as Greek or Latin, could bring us a flavor of the short term−memory features of these ancient readers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0224.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multilabel; ensemble; incorporating multiple clustering centers; gated recurrent neural networks; temporal convolutional neural networks; long short-term memory
Online: 17 October 2022 (04:06:31 CEST)
Multilabel learning goes beyond standard supervised learning models by associating a sample with more than one class label. Among the many techniques developed in the last decade to handle multilabel learning best approaches are those harnessing the power of ensembles and deep learners. This work proposes merging both methods by combining a set of gated recurrent units, temporal convolutional neural networks, and long short-term memory networks trained with variants of the Adam optimization approach. We examine many Adam variants, each fundamentally based on the difference between present and past gradients, with step size adjusted for each parameter. We also combine Incorporating Multiple Clustering Centers and a bootstrap-aggregated decision trees ensemble, which is shown to further boost classification performance. In addition, we provide an ablation study for assessing the performance improvement that each module of our ensemble produces. Multiple experiments on a large set of datasets representing a wide variety of multilabel tasks demonstrate the robustness of our best ensemble, which is shown to outperform the state-of-the-art. The MATLAB code for generating the best ensembles in the experimental section will be made available at https://github.com/LorisNanni.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: lightweight aggregate concrete; reinforced concrete; slab; bridge girder; curvature; short-term loading; tension stiffening; constitutive model; numerical modelling.
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:33:27 CET)
In the modern construction industry, lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) is often used in the production of load-bearing structural members. LWAC can be up to 40% lighter by volume in comparison to normal strength concrete. On the other hand, the lack of adequate numerical models often limits the practical application of innovative building materials, such as lightweight concrete, in real projects. This trend is due to the uncertainties in design standard methods and calculation errors, the level of which is generally unacceptable to civil engineers in terms of safety and reliability. In the present paper, a comparative numerical deformation analysis of a full-scale bridge deck slab and girder has been carried out. Using the physical model proposed by the authors and the finite element software ATENA, the deformations of full–scale lightweight and traditional reinforced concrete elements under short-term effects of permanent and variable loads was compared. Depending on the safety and serviceability limit requirements, it was found that the amount of longitudinal reinforcement in lightweight reinforced concrete elements can be reduced compared to normal reinforced concrete elements with the same parameters. The results of the numerical analysis show that the deformation analysis model proposed by the authors can be a reliable tool for the design of lightweight concrete flexural members by selecting the optimum geometrical and reinforcement parameters limited by the stiffness condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: deep learning; time series prediction; long short-term memory; recurrent neural network; maximum correlation kurtosis deconvolution; cuckoo search.
Online: 22 November 2021 (10:55:00 CET)
This paper realizes early bearing fault warning through bearing fault time series prediction, and proposes a bearing fault time series prediction model based on optimized maximum correlation kurtosis deconvolution (MCKD) and long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network to ensure bearings operation reliability. The model is based on lifecycle vibration signal of the bearing, to begin, the cuckoo search (CS) is utilized to optimize the parameter filter length L and deconvolution period T of MCKD, taking into account the influence and periodicity of the bearing time series, the fault impact component of the optimized MCKD deconvolution time series is improved. Then select the LSTM learning rate α depending on deconvolution time series. Finally, the dataset obtained through various preprocessing approaches are used to train and predict the LSTM model. The average prediction accuracy of the optimized MCKD-LSTM model is 26 percent higher than that of the original time series, proving the efficiency of this method, and the prediction results track the real fault data well, according to the XI'AN JIAOTONG University XJTU-SY bearing dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0547.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wireless sensor network; compressive sensing; short word-length; sensor tracking; delta modulation; sigma-delta modulation; communication energy efficiency.
Online: 30 August 2021 (14:24:44 CEST)
This work combines compressive sensing and short word-length techniques to achieve localization and target tracking in wireless sensor networks with energy-efficient communication between the network anchors and the fusion center. Gradient descent localization is performed using time-of-arrival (TOA) data which are indicative of the distance between anchors and the target thereby achieving range-based localization. The short word-length techniques considered are delta modulation and sigma-delta modulation. The energy efficiency is due to the reduction of the data volume transmitted from anchors to the fusion center by employing any of the two delta modulation variants with compressive sensing techniques. Delta modulation allows the transmission of one bit per TOA sample. The communication energy efficiency is increased by RⱮ, R≥1, where R is the sample reduction ratio of compressive sensing and Ɱ is the number of bits originally present in a TOA-sample word. It is found that the localization system involving sigma-delta modulation has a superior performance to that using delta-modulation or pure compressive sampling alone, in terms of both energy efficiency and localization error in the presence of TOA measurement noise, owing to the noise shaping property of sigma-delta modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0478.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: allophane; adsorption; precipitation; interface processes; environment; heavy metals; nano-structure; short-range order aluminosilicate; wastewater treatment; aqueous geochemistry
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:39:12 CEST)
The capacity and the mechanism of the adsorption of aqueous barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) by Ecuadorian (NatAllo) and synthetic (SynAllo-1 and SynAllo-2) allophanes were studied as a function of contact time, pH and metal ion concentration using kinetic and equilibrium experiments. The mineralogy, nano-structure and chemical composition of the allophanes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific surface area analyses. The evolution of adsorption fitted to a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics, where equilibrium between aqueous metal ions and allophane was reached within < 10 min. The metal ion removal efficiencies varied from 0.7 to 99.7 % at pH 4.0 to 8.5. At equilibrium, the adsorption behavior is better described by the Langmuir model than by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model, yielding sorption capacities of 10.6, 17.2 and 38.6 mg/g for Ba^(2+), 12.4, 19.3 and 29.0 mg/g for HCoO_2^-, 7.2, 15.9 and 34.4 mg/g for Sr^(2+) and 20.9, 26.9 and 36.9 mg/g for Zn^(2+), respectively, by NatAllo, SynAllo-2 and SynAllo-1. The uptake mechanism is based on a physical adsorption process. Allophane holds great potential to remove aqueous metal ions and could be used instead of zeolites, montmorillonite, carbonates and phosphates for wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: electricity price forecasting; deep learning; gated recurrent units; long short term memory; artificial intelligence, turkish day-ahead market
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:38:27 CEST)
Accurate electricity price forecasting has become a substantial requirement since the liberalization of the electricity markets. Due to the challenging nature of the electricity prices, which includes high volatility, sharp price spikes and seasonality, various types of electricity price forecasting models still compete and can not outperform each other consistently. Neural Networks have been successfully used in machine learning problems and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have been proposed to address time-dependent learning problems. In particular, Long Short Term Memory and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) are tailor-made for time series price estimation. In this paper, we propose to use Gated Recurrent Units as a new technique for electricity price forecasting. We have trained a variety of algorithms with rolling 3-year window and compared the results with the RNNs. In our experiments, 3-layered GRUs outperformed all other neural network structures and state of the art statistical techniques in a statistically significant manner in the Turkish day-ahead market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Fiber-reinforced composite post; Short-glass fiber reinforced composite; Endodontically-treated teeth; Intra-radicular adhesion; Push-out bond strength
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:08:24 CET)
: This study was aimed at assessing adaptation and bonding of discontinuous (short) glass fiber-reinforced composite to intraradicular dentin EverX Flow (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), when used as intracanal composite filling and anchorage instead of traditional fiber posts. (2) Methods: Seventy intact extracted human teeth were endodontically treated and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10), depending on the materials used in the post space. In Group 1, a 2-bottle universal adhesive G2 Bond Universal + EverX Flow were tested. In group 2, a single-component universal adhesive G-Premio Bond + EverX Flow were used. In groups 3 and 4 the same materials are tested, but after cleaning of the canal walls with 17% EDTA and final irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl Ultrasound Activated. In the last three Groups (5-7) traditional prefabricated GC Fiber Posts 1.6 mm silanized with G-Multi Primer for 1 minute are cemented with a dual-cured composite resin cement (GradiaCore), after ultrasonic irrigation in the groups 6 and 7. In each group, 1 mm-thick slices from each sample (n=10) were cut for light microscope and SEM inspection for study materials adaption to the dentin and for measuring push-out strength of post / cemement material to the dentin / prefabricated post. These results were statistically analyzed: as the data distribution was not normal, the Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance by Ranks had to be applied. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Push-out forces varied between 6.66-8.37 MPa. No statistically significant differences were recorded among the groups. Microscopic examination showed that ultrasonic irri-gation increased adaptation of the materials to the dentin surface. There was a trend of higher bond strength among the tested groups when EverX Flow was used. Also, the type of failure was more often cohesive when ultrasonic irrigation and two-step adhesive system were used. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it may be concluded that when EverX Flow was used for intracanal anchorage in the post-endodontic recon-struction, similar push-out retentive forces and strength to those of traditional fiber posts cemented with particulate filler resin composite cements were achieved. Although further studies are necessary, EverX Flow represents an effective alternative to traditional fiber post adhesion in particular when used in combination with the two-step adhesive system and ultrasonic activation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: short stature; growth hormone deficiency; insulin-like growth factor-1; growth hormone stimulation tests; neurosecretory dysfunction; final height; retesting
Online: 4 January 2022 (18:05:06 CET)
According to current guidelines, growth hormone (GH) therapy is strongly recommended in children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD) in order to accelerate growth rate and attain normal adult height. The diagnosis of GHD requires demonstration of decreased GH secretion in stimulation tests, below the established threshold value. Currently, GHD in children is classified as secondary insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Most of children diagnosed with isolated GHD presents with normal GH secretion at the attainment of near-final height or even in mid-puberty. The most important clinical problems, related to the diagnosis of isolated GHD in children and to optimal duration of rhGH therapy include: arbitrary definition of subnormal GH peak in stimulation tests, disregarding factors influencing GH secretion, insufficient diagnostic accuracy and poor reproducibility of GH stimulation tests, discrepancies between spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion, clinical entity of neurosecretory dysfunction, discrepancies between IGF-1 concentrations and results of GH stimulation tests, significance of IGF-1 deficiency for the diagnosis of GHD, a need for validation IGF-1 reference ranges. Many of these issues have remained unresolved for 25 years or even longer. It seems that finding solutions to them should optimize diagnostics and therapy of children with short stature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0255.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Hormonal contraception; Long acting reversible contraceptives; Quality of life; Short acting reversible contraceptives; Sexual arousal and desire; Sexual behavior
Online: 15 December 2021 (11:17:31 CET)
Among the components of a healthy life, sexuality is an essential part, contributing not only to psychophysical well-being, but also to the social well-being of women and, consequently to their quality of life. A poorly investigated standpoint is the acceptability of a contraceptive method, not only in terms of tolerability and metabolic neutrality, but also concerning the impact that it can have on sexual life. In this context, we will provide an overview of the different methods of contraception and their effects on female sexuality from the biological changes, to organic, social, and psychological factors, which can all shape sexuality.A MEDLINE/PUBMED review of the literature between 2010 and 2021 was conducted using the following key words/phrases: hormonal contraception, contraceptives, female sexual function, libido, sexual arousal and desire, and sexual pain. Recent studies have supported the effects of contraceptives on women’s sexuality, describing a variety of positive and negative events on several domains of the sexual function (desire, arous-al, orgasm, pain, enjoyment). However, satisfaction with sexual activity depends on factors that extend beyond sexual functioning alone. A more holistic approach is needed to better under-stand the multitude of factors linked to women’s sexuality and contraception. Contraceptive counselling must necessarily consider these important elements since they are closely related to good compliance.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: virtual sensor; automotive control; active suspension; vehicle state estimation; neural networks; deep learning; long-short term memory; sequence regression
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:42:07 CEST)
With the automotive industry moving towards automated driving, sensing is increasingly important in enabling technology. The virtual sensors allow data fusion from various vehicle sensors and provide a prediction for measurement that is hard or too expensive to measure in another way or in the case of demand on continuous detection. In this paper, virtual sensing is discussed for the case of vehicle suspension control, where information about the relative velocity of the unsprung mass for each vehicle corner is required. The corresponding goal can be identified as a regression task with multi-input sequence input. The hypothesis is that the state-of-art method of Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (BiLSMT) can solve it. In this paper, a virtual sensor has been proposed and developed by training a neural network model. The simulations have been performed using an experimentally validated full vehicle model in IPG Carmaker. Simulations provided the reference data which was used for Neural Network (NN) training. The extensive dataset covering 26 scenarios has been used to obtain training, validation and testing data. The Bayesian Search was used to select the best neural network structure using root mean square error as a metric. The best network is made of 167 BiLSTM, 256 fully connected hidden units and 4 output units. Error histograms and spectral analysis of the predicted signal compared to the reference signal are presented. The results demonstrate the good applicability of neural network-based virtual sensors to estimate vehicle unsprung mass relative velocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart water grid; advanced metering infrastructure; short-term water demand forecasting; end-use level; on-site sodium hypochlorite generator
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:20:08 CEST)
It is crucial to forecast the water demand accurately for supplying water efficiently and stably in a water supply system. In particular, accurately forecasting short-term water demand helps in saving energy and reducing operating costs. With the introduction of the Smart Water Grid (SWG) in a water supply system, the amount of water consumption is obtained in real time through an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) sensor, which can be used for forecasting the short-term water demand. The models widely used for water demand forecasting include the autoregressive integrated moving average, radial basis function-artificial neural network, quantitative multi-model predictor plus, and long short-term memory. However, there is a lack of research on assessing the performance of models and forecasting the short-term water demand by applying the data on the amount of water consumption by purpose and the pipe diameter of an end-use level of the SWG demonstration plant in each demand forecasting model. Therefore, in this study, the short-term water demand was forecasted for each model using the data collected from the AMI, and the performance of each model was assessed. The Smart Water Grid Research Group installed ultrasonic-wave-type AMI sensors in the block 112 located in YeongJong Island, Incheon, and the actual data used for operating the SWG demonstration plant were adopted. The performance of the model was assessed by using the residual, root mean square error (RMSE), normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) as indices. The water demand forecast was slightly underestimated in models that employed the assessment results based on the RMSE and NRMSE. Furthermore, the forecasting accuracy was low for the NSE due to a large number of negative values; the correlation between the observed and forecasted values of the PCC was not high, and it was difficult to forecast the peak amount of water consumption. Therefore, as the short-term water demand forecasting models using only time and the amount of water consumption have limitations in reflecting the characteristics of consumers, a water supply system can be managed more precisely if other factors (weather, customer behavior, etc.) influencing the water demand are applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0461.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Dead pericarps; salinity; short episodes of high temperature; stress response; reproductive phase; seed abortion; Phyohormones; Climate change; Brassica juncea
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:48:15 CET)
Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of abiotic stresses that lead to loss of crop yield. We investigated the effect of salinity (S), short episodes of high temperature (HS) and combination of S+HS at the reproductive phase on dead pericarps properties and yield of the crop plant Brassica juncea. Three intervals of HS resulted in massive seed abortion; seeds from salt-treated plants germinated poorly. Pericarp extracts of salt-treated plants reduced seed germination of B. juncea; all pericarp extracts completely inhibited seed germination of tomato and Arabidopsis; removal of pericarp extracts restored seed germination. HS reduced all metabolites accumulated in dead pericarps, except for upregulation of isomaltose and cellobiose. Salt induced alteration in metabolite levels including increase in proline, reduction in TCA intermediates and changes in phytohormone levels. Proteome analysis revealed hundreds of proteins stored in dead pericarps whose levels and composition were altered under salt stress. The integration of metabolic and proteomic data showed that changes in metabolites were highly correlated with changes in proteins involved in their biosynthetic pathways. Thus, besides providing a physical shield for seed/embryo protection dead pericarps store beneficial substances whose levels, composition and biological function are altered under stress, further highlighting the elaborated function of dead organs enclosing embryos in seed biology and ecology. The detrimental effect of HS on crop production might have implications for global food security in the face of climate change.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: lying posture tracking; traditional machine learning; ensemble classification; deep neural network models; long short-term memory sequence classification model
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:57:42 CEST)
Automated lying-posture tracking is important in preventing bed-related disorders such as pressure injuries, sleep apnea, and lower-back pain. Prior research studied in-bed lying posture tracking using sensors of different modalities (e.g., accelerometer and pressure sensors). However, there remain significant gaps in research about how to design efficient in-bed lying posture tracking systems. These gaps can be articulated through several research questions as follows. First, can we design a single-sensor, pervasive, and inexpensive system that can accurately detect lying postures? Second, what computational models are most effective in the accurate detection of lying postures? Finally, what physical configuration of the sensor system is most effective for lying posture tracking? To answer these important research questions, in this article, we propose a comprehensive approach to design a sensor system that uses a single accelerometer along with machine learning algorithms for in-bed lying posture classification. We design two categories of machine learning algorithms based on deep learning and traditional classification with handcrafted features to detect lying postures. We also investigate what wearing sites are most effective in accurate detection of lying postures. We extensively evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms on nine different body locations and four human lying postures using two datasets. Our results show that a system with a single accelerometer can be used with either deep learning or traditional classifiers to accurately detect lying postures. The best models in our approach achieve an F-Score that ranges from 95.2% to 97.8% with a coefficient of variation from 0.03 to 0.05. The results also identify the thighs and chest as the most salient body sites for lying posture tracking. Our findings in this article suggest that because accelerometers are ubiquitous and inexpensive sensors, they can be a viable source of information for pervasive monitoring of in-bed postures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0171.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: protein functional domains; short linear motifs; coronaviruses; COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; virus outbreak
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:54:17 CEST)
Although phylogenetic analysis shows coronaviruses (CoV) share similar genome sequences, CoVs encode different number of proteins (5 to 14), which has implication on viral pathogenicity and infection. Here, we aimed to identify (in-silico) the similarities between different members of coronavirus family. The analysis included 50 coronavirus proteomes, including SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), to find the variation of the number of protein functional motifs and domain in each coronavirus. For this role, we used the experimentally validated domain (motif) that known to be crucial for viral infection. Although human CoVs are classified within one genus, we found variations among them. SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV encode different type of domains, which has implications on the molecular interactions triggered by each virus within human cells. Secondly, we used functional motifs to reconstruct the potential molecular pathways or interactions triggered by SARS-CoV-2 proteins within human cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: short-term load forecasting; radial basis function neural network; support vector regression; particle swarm optimization; adaptive annealing learning algorithm
Online: 29 September 2016 (12:22:20 CEST)
A reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of short-term load forecasting (STLF) in this article. The proposed model integrates radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), support vector regression (SVR), and adaptive annealing learning algorithm (AALA). In the proposed methodology, firstly, the initial structure of RBFNN is determined by using SVR. Then, an AALA with time-varying learning rates is used to optimize the initial parameters of SVR-RBFNN (AALA-SVR-RBFNN). In order to overcome the stagnation for searching optimal RBFNN, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to simultaneously find promising learning rates in AALA. Finally, the short-term load demands are predicted by using the optimal RBFNN. The performance of the proposed methodology is verified on the actual load dataset from Taiwan Power Company (TPC). Simulation results reveal that the proposed AALA-SVR-RBFNN can achieve a better load forecasting precision as compared to various RBFNNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous vehicles (A.V.); Anomaly Detection (A.D.); Deep Learning (DL), Symmetry; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); False Data Injection (FDI) Attacks
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:14:45 CEST)
Nowadays, technological advancement has transformed traditional vehicles into Au-tonomous Vehicles (A.V.s). In addition, in our daily lives, A.V.s play an important role since they are considered an essential component of smart cities. A.V. is an intelligent vehicle capable of main-taining safe driving by avoiding crashes caused by drivers. Unlike traditional vehicles, which are fully controlled and operated by humans, A.V.s collect information about the outside environment using sensors to ensure safe navigation. Furthermore, A.V.s reduce environmental impact because they usually use electricity to operate instead of fossil fuel, thus decreasing the greenhouse gasses. However, A.V.s could be threatened by cyberattacks, posing risks to human life. For example, re-searchers reported that Wi-Fi technology could be vulnerable to cyberattacks through Tesla and BMW AVs. Therefore, more research is needed to detect cyberattacks targeting the components of A.V.s to mitigate their negative consequences. This research will contribute to the security of A.V.s by detecting cyberattacks at the early stages. First, we inject False Data Injection (FDI) attacks into an A.V. simulation-based system developed by MathWorks. Inc. Second, we collect the dataset generated from the simulation model after integrating the cyberattack. Third, we implement an intelligent symmetrical anomaly detection method to identify FDI attacks targeting the control system of the A.V. through a compromised sensor. We use long short-term memory (LSTM) deep networks to detect FDI attacks in the early stage to ensure the stability of the operation of A.V.s. Our method classifies the collected dataset into two classifications: normal and anomaly data. The ex-perimental result shows that our proposed model's accuracy is 99.95%. To this end, the proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art models in the same study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: masonry; composite; short fibers; natural hydraulic lime; sisal; three-point bending test; fracture energy; strengthening; preservation; sustainability; carbon foot print
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:31:59 CEST)
The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of a new composite material for the conservation and development of the vast historical and architectural heritage that is particularly vulnerable to environmental and seismic actions. The new composite consists of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) -based mortar, reinforced by sisal short fibers randomly oriented in the mortar matrix. The NHL-based mortar ensures the chemical-physical compatibility with the original feature of the historical masonry structures (mostly in stone and clay) aiming to pursue both the effectiveness and durability of the intervention. The use of vegetable fibers (i.e. the sisal one) is an exciting challenge for the construction industry since they require a lower degree of industrialization for their processing, and therefore, their costs are also low, as compared to the most common synthetic/metal fibers. Beams of sisal-composite sizing 160x40x40 mm3 with a central notch are tested in three-point bending, aiming to evaluate both their bending strength and fracture energy. Also, tensile tests and compressive tests were performed on the composite samples, while water retention test and slump test were performed on the fresh mix. Finally, the tensile tests on the Sisal strand were carried out to evaluate the tensile strength of both strand and wire. A final comparison with unreinforced mortar specimens shows that the proposed composite ensures great workability and good performances in term of ductility and strength and it can be considered a promising alternative to the classic fiber-reinforcing systems.