REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0138.v1
Subject: Keywords: Quality of Service; Cloud Computing; Virtualization; Data Accessibility; Challenges
Online: 10 December 2019 (15:45:46 CET)
Quality of Service (QoS) has a significant role in the provision of resources within service oriented distributed systems. In Quality of Service, cloud computing creates new challenges for improvements using the concept of virtualization. Currently, Cloud Computing is very emerging technology in every field of data storage and resource distribution over the network. Considering this new emerging technology, for the ease of data accessibility, price, resource use, restoration, response time and number of constraints the quality performance measures need to be upgraded. The paper highlights the research gap in providing a solution to achieve a Quality of Services in Cloud Computing. We also review the issues and challenges arising in cloud computing to guarantee quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0031.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: airline service quality, fuzzy theory, FMADM, fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy ANP
Online: 6 November 2017 (05:07:02 CET)
A hybrid fuzzy MADM method is proposed in this paper for evaluating airline service quality. Fuzzy set theory is used since it helps in measuring the ambiguity of concepts associated with human being’s subjective judgment. After reviewing service quality evaluation models especially in airline industry, SSQAI model was adopted as a construct for evaluating airline service quality in Iran. Fuzzy DEMATEL was applied to determine the degree of influence and impact of criteria on each other and extract cause and effect relations between them that helped in ranking criteria based on degree of relationship. Then, ANP network map was constructed based on the relation map generated from Fuzzy DEMATEL analysis. Fuzzy ANP approach assisted in prioritizing criteria based on the need for improvement and enabled in a more accurate measurement in decision making process taking the advantage of using linguistic variables. Fuzzy DEMATEL results demonstrates that expertise, Problem-solving, and conduct has the most influence on other factors and in opposite Valence, Waiting Time, Comfort are the factors which get the most impact from other factors and according to Fuzzy ANP analysis Valence, Convenience, Problem-solving, and Safety&Security are the factors with most priorities that need improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Quality of Experience; Quality of Service; QoE evaluation video on demand; Quality of Service; QoS correlation; subjective testing
Online: 11 December 2019 (04:46:57 CET)
In addition to the traditional QoS metrics of delay, delay jitter, and packet loss probability (PLP), Quality of Experience (QoE) is now widely accepted as a numerical proxy for actual user experience. The literature has reported many mathematical mappings between QoE and QoS. These QoS parameters are measured by the network providers using sampling. There are some papers studying sampling errors in QoS measurements; however there is no account of propagation of these sampling errors to QoE evaluation. In this paper, we used industrially acquired measurements of PLP and jitter to evaluate the sampling errors and correlation in measurements. Focussing on Video-on-demand (VoD) applications, we use subjective testing and regression to map QoE metrics onto PLP and jitter. The resulting mathematical functions of QoE and theory of error propagation was used to evaluate the propagated error in QoE, and this error was represented as confidence interval. Using the guidelines of UK government for sampling, our results indicate that confidence intervals around estimated QoE in a busy hour can be between MOS=1 to MOS=5 at targeted operating point of QoS parameters. These results are a new perspective on QoE evaluation, and are of great significance to all organisations that need to estimate the QoE VoD applications precisely.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: service quality; Kano; TRIZ; catering industrial; mobile catering car; TOPSIS
Online: 2 November 2020 (09:57:33 CET)
This purpose of the study presented in this article is to comparing different service quality measurements between Kano and TRIZ that plays the critical roles in the catering industrial. Data collected from a DINESERV questionnaire comprises service-quality standards to increase customer satisfaction of mobile dining car. Finally, the TRIZ is standardized measure designed to improve the idealization of strategy for selecting the most appropriate service quality model. In addition, the preferences of more than one decision maker are internally aggregated into the TOPSIS procedure. All these things provide several important theoretical and practical implications for developing a successful mobile catering app.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0181.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Service Quality; E-Supply Chain Management; Customer Satisfaction; online shopping
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:33:13 CET)
The purposes of this study are to introduce the concept of Service Quality (SQ) in E-Supply Chain Management (E-SCM) and its impact on increasing Customer Satisfaction (CS) and provide insightful enhancements to the literature. In addition, the paper also examines the influence of SQ of E-SCM on CS in online shopping. After a comprehensive literature review, four key factors for measuring the E-Supply Chain (Process Control, Interaction with Supplier, Management Support, and Focus on Customers), four key factors for measuring CS (Informing Customers, Attention to Customers’ Needs, Staff Performance Accuracy, and Easy Access to Services), and four factors for measuring the quality of identification services (Assurance, Accountability, Tangibility and Reliability) were selected. The proposed conceptual model was then presented. This model was validated by data collected through a survey of 150 respondents in order to identify customer satisfaction, including that of customers of online websites in Iran. The sample data was analyzed using SPSS21, after which the interrelationships between the model and factors were examined based on the Partial Least Square-Structural (PLS). Model fit indices were then calculated for the dataset. The proposed model was validated using factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. The results indicated that E-SCM has a direct impact on CS. The effect of SQ was also confirmed. A positive and significant relationship was identified between E-SCM and CS, E-SCM and SQ, as well as SQ and CS (P> 0.05). The first limitation was to convince respondents to cooperate with the researchers. The second one was the lack of research-related background due to the subject being relatively new. This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first empirical analysis on the CS assessment of SQ of E-Supply Chain in online shopping. This important link to online shopping has rarely been explored. It is expected that by filling this gap, this study will help in strengthening online shopping, which needs a change in the marketing area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0637.v1
Subject: Keywords: Mean Opinion Score (MOS); Quality of Experience (QoE); bandwidth; bandwidth cost; Quality of Service (QoS)
Online: 30 October 2020 (12:55:01 CET)
Quality of Service (QoS) metrics deal with network quantities, e.g. latency and loss, whereas Quality of Experience (QoE) provides a proxy metric for end-user experience. Many papers in the literature have proposed mappings between various QoS metrics and QoE. This paper goes further in providing analysis for QoE versus bandwidth cost. We measure QoE using the widely accepted Mean Opinion Score (MOS) rating. Our results naturally show that increasing bandwidth increases MOS. However, we extend this understanding by providing analysis for internet access scenarios, using TCP, and varying the number of TCP sources multiplexed together. For these target scenarios our analysis indicates what MOS increase you get by further expenditure on bandwidth. We anticipate that this will be of considerable value to commercial organizations responsible for bandwidth purchase and allocation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: airline service quality; passenger satisfaction; non-parametric analysis; Type-2 Fuzzy Set; Fuzzy TOPSIS
Online: 22 September 2017 (16:34:11 CEST)
This paper focuses on evaluating airline service quality from the perspective of passengers view. Until now a lot of researches has performed in airline service quality evaluation in the world but a little research has been conducted in Iran, yet. In this research a framework for measuring airline service quality in Iran is proposed. After reviewing airline service quality criteria, SSQAI model was selected because of its comprehensiveness in covering airline service quality dimensions. SSQAI questionnaire items were redesigned to adopt with Iranian airlines requirements and environmental circumstances in the Iran's economic and cultural context. This study includes fuzzy decision-making theory, considering the possible fuzzy subjective judgment of the evaluators during airline service quality evaluation. Fuzzy TOPSIS have been applied for ranking airlines service quality performances. Three major Iranian airlines which have the most passenger transfer volumes in domestic and foreign flights, were chosen for evaluation in this research. Results demonstrated Mahan airline has got the best service quality performance rank in gaining passengers' satisfaction with delivery of high quality services to its passengers, among the three major Iranian airlines. IranAir and Aseman airlines placed in the second and third rank, respectively, according to passenger's evaluation.Statistical analysis have been used in analyzing passenger responses. Due to abnormality of data, Non-parametric tests were applied. To demonstrate airline ranks in every criterion separately, Friedman test was performed. Variance analysis and Tukey test were applied to study the influence of increasing in age and educational level of passengers' on degree of their satisfaction from airline's service quality. Results showed that age has not significant relation with passenger satisfaction of airlines, however increasing in educational level demonstrated a negative impact on passengers' satisfaction from airline's service quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: citizen satisfaction; public service; one-stop service; one-stop service agency
Online: 13 November 2019 (15:53:45 CET)
The present study explained factors influencing citizen satisfaction service in the Investment and One-Stop Service Agency of Tanah Bumbu Regency. In particular, this research analyses the level of citizen satisfaction and the extent to which Awareness, Rules, Organizational, Income, Skill-Ability, and Service Facility Factor influence Citizen Satisfaction. This study uses a mixed methodology with a sequential explanatory strategy. Using the incidental sampling with Slovin's Formula to calculate the number of samples is 93 respondents. The quantitative data were analyzed by the SmartPLS 3.0 program. The findings showed that the level of citizen satisfaction is included in the category "Satisfied". Furthermore, the variable of Citizen Satisfaction is influenced by variables of Awareness, Rules, Organizational, Income, Skill-Ability dan Service Facility Factor for 70,5%. Whereas Awareness, Rules, Organizational, and Skill-Ability Factor has a significant influence on Citizen Satisfaction. Besides, Income and Service Facility Factor do not have a significant influence on Citizen Satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Smart service systems, Service systems, Service Science, Port Supply Chain Management
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:17:51 CEST)
This paper proposes a re-conceptualization of the port supply chain as a smart service system, according to the theory of the Service science. Starting from a short literature review about the port supply chain approach and the Service science, a new comprehensive framework is provided to better understand the seaport dynamics and the creation of competitive port supply chains. The methodology used is the case study approach. The authors examined the port of Salerno (Italy), and re-conceptualized it as a smart port service systems. Both theoretical and practical implications are provided to enrich the literature about the port supply chain and to support the port operators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0016.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: keyword 1; Hapkido 2; Service Quality 3; Quality on Exercise Continuation 4; Recommendation Intentions
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:37:51 CET)
This research analyzed the impact of quality of service as perceived by Hapkido students on their exercise continuation and recommendation intentions. It also identified the measures to reduce the rate of student dropout, strengthen competitiveness, and create more efficient marketing strategies for consumer patterns that are rapidly diversifying Hapkido. A questionnaire survey method was conducted with 300 middle and high school students aged 14–19 years having Hapkido training of three months to two years in Incheon and Bucheon during March–April 2019. Frequency, factor, reliability, correlation, and standard multiple regression analyses were conducted on the surveyed data. The conclusions are as follows. First, considering the impact of service quality on exercise continuation intention, service quality positively affects reliability, personification, and perceptual openness; in terms of possibility, it positively affects typicality, personification, and perceptual openness; and in terms of reinforcement, it positively affects reliability and perceptual openness. Second, examining the impact of service quality on recommendation intention positively affects reliability, personification, and perceptual openness. Third, exercise continuation intention positively affects recommendation intention.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Vacant trip; Cruising Taxis service; ride sourcing service
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:25:49 CEST)
With increasing availability of alternative mobility options for city transportation system, it is necessary to better understand how emerging mobility are impacting the travel demand and consumer-social surplus. However, few study has been conducted to evaluate the social welfare effects of the range of vacant trip in mobility oriented development(MOD) mode. This paper identified the vacant trip and loading rate evaluation model under mobility oriented development mode. recommended solutions to enhance the effective operation of the different mobility services under numerical illustrations, which can offer some beneficial guidance and theoretic basis to the efficiency of MOD in planning and management aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0545.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Vacant trip; Cruising Taxis service; ride sourcing service
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:43:24 CET)
With increasing availability of alternative mobility options for city transportation system, it is necessary to better understand how emerging mobility are impacting the travel demand and consumer-social surplus. However, few study has been conducted to evaluate the social welfare effects of the range of vacant trip in mobility oriented development(MOD) mode. This paper identified the vacant trip and loading rate evaluation model under mobility oriented development mode. recommended solutions to enhance the effective operation of the different mobility services under numerical illustrations, which can offer some beneficial guidance and theoretic basis to the efficiency of MOD in planning and management aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0276.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cloud computing; service-oriented architecture; SOA; cloud-native; serverless; microservice; container; unikernel; distributed cloud; P2P; service-to-service; service-mesh
Online: 16 July 2018 (10:57:39 CEST)
This paper presents a review of cloud application architectures and its evolution. It reports observations being made during the course of a research project that tackled the problem to transfer cloud applications between different cloud infrastructures. As a side effect we learned a lot about commonalities and differences from plenty of different cloud applications which might be of value for cloud software engineers and architects. Throughout the course of the research project we analyzed industrial cloud standards, performed systematic mapping studies of cloud-native application related research papers, performed action research activities in cloud engineering projects, modeled a cloud application reference model, and performed software and domain specific language engineering activities. Two major (and sometimes overlooked) trends can be identified. First, cloud computing and its related application architecture evolution can be seen as a steady process to optimize resource utilization in cloud computing. Second, this resource utilization improvements resulted over time in an architectural evolution how cloud applications are being build and deployed. A shift from monolithic servce-oriented architectures (SOA), via independently deployable microservices towards so called serverless architectures is observable. Especially serverless architectures are more decentralized and distributed, and make more intentional use of independently provided services. In other words, a decentralizing trend in cloud application architectures is observable that emphasizes decentralized architectures known from former peer-to-peer based approaches. That is astonishing because with the rise of cloud computing (and its centralized service provisioning concept) the research interest in peer-to-peer based approaches (and its decentralizing philosophy) decreased. But this seems to change. Cloud computing could head into future of more decentralized and more meshed services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability; digital transformation; suitable for aging; service ecological theory; health service
Online: 6 May 2022 (07:45:20 CEST)
The ageing transformation of digital health services faces issues of how to distinguish influencing factors, redesign services, and effectively promote measures and policies. In this study, in-depth interviews are conducted and grounded theory applied to open coding, main axis coding, and selective coding to form concepts and categories. Trajectory equifinality modeling clarified the evolution logic of digital transformation. Based on the theory of service ecology, a digital health service ageing model is constructed from the "macro-medium-micro" stages and includes governance, service, and technology transformation paths. The macro stage relies on organizational elements to promote the institutionalization of management and guide the transformation of governance for value realization, including the construction of three categories: mechanism, indemnification, and decision-making. The meso stage relies on service elements to promote service design and realize service transformation suitable for aging design, including the construction of three categories: organization, resources, and processes. The micro stage relies on technical elements to practice experiencing humanization, including the construction of three categories: target, methods, and evaluation. These results deepen the understanding of the main behaviors and roles of macro-organizational, meso-service, and micro-technical elements in digital transformation practice and have positive significance for health administrative agencies to implement action strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0468.v1
Online: 28 June 2018 (12:28:37 CEST)
This research was focused on Public Service of departmental auction state officers of Makassar . It aimed to determine the state officers’ performance who passed departmental auction that had been assessed based on competence, and integrity in particular, the ability to provide and develop good service to the community at the 9 Local Government Work Unit (SKPD) Makassar, namely the Regional Revenue Board of Makassar City, the Land Board of Makassar City, the Office of Investment and Integrated One Stop Service of Makassar City and the Department of Population and Civil Registration of Makassar City, Ujung Pandang District Office, Makassar District , Rappocini District , Bontoala District , and Panakkukang District . The 9 SKPD were chosen purposively from 53 SKPD within the Makassar City Administration by considering the representation of SKPD of the Agency and the Department as well as the representation of the district Institution located in the northern, middle and southern part of Makassar City. Interviews and observation data were collected by 3 interviewers and narrated as facts and elaborated by the research team with qualitative and normative studies. The result of the research shown that the state officers’ performance in Makassar city administration area had been able to develop good service to the society at 9 Local Government Work Unit (SKPD) of Makassar City. However, it was necessary to improve the quality of human relations especially for the leading position of all SKPD so that the communication can be better served to the citizens. System reward dan punishment need to be upgraded and enforced as a trigger of employees’ motivation in work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0210.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: ecosystem disservice; ecosystem service cycle; natural capital; built capital; beneficiaries; interactions; ecosystem service flow
Online: 12 January 2021 (08:34:09 CET)
To sustain water-dependent economic and socio-ecological systems, natural capital and its interactions with other capitals is gaining attention, but a clear understanding of how to manage natural capital sustainably and how to make decisions relevant to water-related ecosystem services is yet to be achieved. In this study, we extended the framing of water-related ecosystem service flows as a cycle, integrating water quantity and quality and capturing the flows of ecosystem services (i.e., green phase) and ecosystem disservices (i.e., red phase), and connecting natural capital, built capital, and beneficiaries. We applied this framework to the Jiulong River watershed in China, using hydrological models to model water quantity and quality based on historical observations and experimental data. Our results showed that, during the green phase, the interactions of natural capital and built capital significantly improved water quality in downstream areas with higher flows. During the red phase, built capital reduced ecosystem disservices by ~10% while natural capital further reduced it by over one half. Our framework can provide information for natural capital management, eco-compensation, and pollutant management relevant to water-related ecosystem services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0071.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: personalized recommendation service; usage behavior; KOSEN
Online: 7 April 2019 (12:42:30 CEST)
Background: We conducted research on the newly developed personalized recommendation service (PRS) of the global network of Korean scientists and engineers (KOSEN) in order to explore the information usage behavior and importance of the PRS used by Korean scientists and engineers. Methods: In order to understand information usage behavior, we gathered data from 513 survey results and analyzed them in terms of information usage behavior and the corresponding importance in each of the service quality areas. Results: We analyzed the 321 outcomes that indicated non-use of the PRS in order to understand the underlying reason(s); we employed 192 results that demonstrated the use of functionality to examine information usage behavior and importance. They found that the predominant motive for non-use of the service resulted from the respondents not knowing how to use it. According to demographic characteristics, the usage behavior of the PRS showed a difference regarding the purpose of using the service in the categories of gender and major field of study. Furthermore, users were concerned with various components of the PRS such as ease of use, design, relevance of content, user support, and interactivity. Conclusions: We suggest reinforcing user education degree and promotion to enhance the PRS. Since users were concerned with ease of use, design, relevance, user support, and interactivity, we recommend these as major points for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0520.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Service innovation; Design value; Value measurement
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:31:06 CEST)
1) Background: In service business areas, design enhances the customer experience through the elements which anticipate specific emotional responses of customers. Many service companies are keen to develop and examine design elements from the customer perspective. Furthermore, recently, having considered the significance of customers’ emotional responses by design elements, categorising design elements into manageable dimensions can facilitate the evaluation of design elements. However, design elements and dimensions of design value are not defined in the current service marketing literature, and companies need a measurement tool and managerial guideline to their innovative value creation and compelling service delivery. For these reasons, this research aims to categorise the design value dimensions and propose the managerial implication for the innovative use of design; 2) Methods: This study used the mixed methodology; two stages of interviews and SEM (Structural Equation Modelling); 3) Results: Interview analyses facilitate the identification of design elements in the service delivery process. SEM results underpin the relevance of the categorised design elements and their impact on customer loyalty by comparing different groups (country and time elapsed from experience); and 4) Conclusions: Findings are the fundamentals of developing measuring tool for design and trigger future studies for conceptualising intangible assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: pre-service teacher education; teacher evaluation; pre-service physical education teacher; class demonstration; teaching behavior analysis
Online: 9 January 2023 (03:09:08 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the level of skill in observing teaching competency in pre-service physical education (PE) teachers and provide basic data to cultivate teaching competency. A total of 21 third-year pre-service PE teachers were selected as participants. The study derived descriptive statistics to analyze the participants’ observation skills regarding teaching competency in different class stages using evaluation results of class demonstrations by pre-service teachers. Mann–Whitney U test was conducted to verify the statistical significance of the evaluation between in-service and pre-service teachers. Compared with in-service teachers, pre-service teachers reported high agreement with intuitive teaching behaviors. However, pre-service teachers indicated low agreement with skills that required complex teaching behaviors depending on various situations. Based on theories by Schon (1983), pre-service teachers showed high “knowledge for practice” and low “knowledge in practice.” Thus, pre-service education must balance practical knowledge and theory rather than focus on theory-based education. This study provided directions for pre-service teacher education to enhance the competency of pre-service teachers for leading and analyzing classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: community care; integrated care; mental health; service users and relatives’ interventions; service users and relatives’ interaction
Online: 14 September 2022 (16:27:56 CEST)
Relatives play an important role in mental health service users’ care. Interventions directed either at service users or their relatives may influence the other person as well. The project Activa’t per la salut mental (Get active for mental health) consisted of a series of four interventions addressed at people diagnosed with mental disorders and their relatives to help them in their recovery process, increasing their agency and quality of life. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the interaction of the participation of service users on their relatives’ outcomes and vice versa. The impact of the project was evaluated within an RCT. The treatment group had access to all the circuit interventions while the control group received treatment as usual and could only access one of the interventions. All participants were evaluated at baseline, six months, and twelve months after the end of the first intervention. Service users were evaluated with the Stages of recovery questionnaire, and relatives with the Family Burden Interview Schedule II and the Duke-UNC-11 questionnaires. The interaction between service users and their relatives was analysed by means of correlational analyses within the intervention group. Service users baseline characteristics influenced in the level of participation of relatives and vice versa. The results also indicated an interaction between service users’ recovery score changes on the change of care burden of relatives. Service users’ participation levels interacted with the decrease of relatives’ burden. These results can be extremely helpful in fostering interactive benefits in future projects addressing the wellbeing of mental health service users and their relatives. Future studies could use specific designs to explore the directionality of the causality of these effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0027.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: service systems; service process; analytical and simulation model; request; transact; dynamic priority; limited and unlimited buffer
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:09:52 CET)
In Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture, Priority Service System (PSS) plays a vital responsibility to provide Quality-of-Service (QoS) for the applications based on networks. Priority queuing systems has always been a subject of interest for analytical modelling and evaluating the performance. However, previous works have mainly focused on performing priority queuing under range dependent traffics, namely Short Range Dependent (SRD) or Long Range Dependent (LRD). Recent studies revealed that realistic traffic demonstrates a heterogeneous nature for the modern networks that provide multiple services. In this paper, the results of analytical and simulation models of dynamic priority service systems is reviewed to study the heterogeneous traffic impact on designing and performance of the systems based on networks. In this paper, the results of analytical and simulation models of dynamic priority service systems is reviewed to investigate the impact of heterogeneous traffic on the design and performance of network-based systems. Here, the time of presence of requests in limited and unlimited buffer system is restricted. If the restriction is violated, the requests will be lost. The results of experiments conducted on both models are compared and it is identified that they differ in the allowable limit (2-9) %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: robot cloud; cognition as a service; cognitive robots; sentential cognitive system; cloud service; human–robot interaction
Online: 14 October 2019 (06:26:52 CEST)
Cloud robotics is becoming an alternative to support advanced services of robots with low computing power as network technology advances. Recently, fog robotics has gained attention since the approach has merit relieving latency and security issues over the conventional cloud robotics. In this paper, a Function-as-a-Service based Fog Robotic (FaaS-FR) for cognitive robots is proposed. The model distributes the cognitive functions according to the computational power, latency and security with a public robot cloud and fog robot server. During the experiment with a Raspberry Pi as an edge, the proposed FaaS-FR model shows efficient and practical performance in the proper distribution of the computational work of the cognitive system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Gini coefficient; online health community; medical service delivery; Lorenz curve; inequality of health service; differential Effect
Online: 20 May 2019 (03:13:23 CEST)
Inequality of health service for different specialty categories not only occurs in different areas inequality of health service for different specialty categories in the world, but also happens in the online service platform. In the online health community (OHC), health service was often of inequality for different specialty categories, including both online views and medical consultation for offline registered service. Moreover, how the factor city-level impacts the inequality of health service in OHC is still unknown. We designed a causal inference study with data on distributions of serviced patients and online views in over 100 distinct specialty categories on one largest OHC in China. To derive the causal effect of the city-levels (two levels inducing 1 and 0) on the Gini coefficient, we matched the focus cases in cities of rich healthcare resources with the potential control cities. For the Gini coefficient of serviced patients in over 100 specialty categories, the average treatment effect of level-1 cities is 0.470, which is 0.029 higher than that of the matched group. Similarly, for the Gini coefficient of online views, the average treatment effect of Level-1 cities is 0.573, which is 0.016 higher than that of the matched group. For each of the specialty categories, we also estimated the average treatment effect the specialty category’s Gini coefficient ( ) with the balanced covariates. The results support the argument that the total Gini coefficient of all the doctors in OHC shows that the inequality of health service is still very serious. This study contributes to the development of the theoretically grounded understanding of the causal effect of city-level on the inequality of health service in an online to offline healthcare service setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: reflective evaluation tool; pre-service teacher education; teaching competency; pre-service phys-ical education teacher; Delphi survey
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:44:37 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to develop a reflective evaluation tool that can enhance the teaching competency of pre-service physical education teachers. A Delphi survey was conducted to modify the questions based on the evaluation tool for the teaching competency of physical education teachers, and each evaluation standard based on teaching competency was developed. The evaluation tool consisted of 46 questions for class preparation (the creation of the learning environment), the introduction (routine activities, learning goals, and task presentation), development (class strategy, observation and interaction, and the maintenance of the learning environment), and conclusion (routine activities, summary, and closure). It was designed to increase the accuracy of evaluation by developing evaluation criteria for each question. An evaluation tool including quantitative and qualitative methods for use in pre-service physical education teacher education was developed. The significance of this study was the development of an effective evaluation tool that can evaluate the core teaching behaviors in the field of physical education. This evaluation tool should be used as a learning tool that includes planning, operation, evaluation, and seeking improvement measures through reflective activities. If pre-service teacher education institutions apply this evaluation tool in their teacher training programs, it would be a great chance to learn how to develop and sustain teaching abilities and effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0243.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: internet of things (IoT); low-power wide area network (LPWAN); mixed integer linear programming (milp); lorawan; lora simulator (lorasim); open-source; optimization; quality-of-service (qos); data extraction rate; packet collision rate; energy consumption; energy efficiency; network performance; protocol overhead; performance evaluation; performance improvement
Online: 6 November 2019 (03:57:34 CET)
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) enable a growing number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications with large geographical coverage, low bit-rate, and long lifetime requirements. LoRa (Long Range) is a well-known LPWAN technology that uses a proprietary Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) physical layer, while the upper layers are defined by an open standard - LoRaWAN. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS) of LoRa networks by fine-tuning specific radio parameters. Through a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem formulation, we find optimal settings for the Spreading Factor (SF) and Carrier Frequency (CF) radio parameters, considering the network traffic specifications as a whole, to improve the Data Extraction Rate (DER) and to reduce the packet collision rate and the energy consumption in LoRa networks. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is demonstrated by simulations, using LoRaSim for different network scales. In relation to the traditional LoRa radio parameter assignment policies, our solution leads to an average increase of 6% in DER, and a number of collisions 13 times smaller. In comparison to networks with dynamic radio parameter assignment policies, there is an increase of 5%, 2.8%, and 2% of DER, and a number of collisions 11, 7.8 and 2.5 times smaller than equal-distribution, Tiurlikova's (SoTa), and random distribution, respectively. Regarding the network energy consumption metric, the proposed optimization obtained an average consumption similar to Tiurlikova's, and 2.8 times lower than the equal-distribution and random dynamic allocation policies. Furthermore, we approach the practical aspects of how to implement and integrate the optimization mechanism proposed in LoRa, guaranteeing backward compatibility with the standard protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: mangrove; ecosystem service; landscape; livelihood; income structure
Online: 26 January 2023 (17:16:00 CET)
Mangrove ecosystems play an important role in local livelihoods in coastal regions of tropical and subtropical countries. However, in recent years urbanisation has changed the income structure of residents near mangroves. Different landscapes provide different job opportunities; thus, analysis of regional landscape patterns is important for understanding income structures. In this study, surveys on the income structure and landscape patterns of the surrounding areas of three mangrove sites were conducted in the Hau and Hoang Mai River estuaries in Nghe An Province, North-Central Vietnam. The results revealed that both natural and socio-economic landscape components affected income structure. The major occupations in the study area were agriculture, including husbandry, sea fishing, and trading. Land morphology and river type were the major factors influencing the income from agriculture, while coastline morphology primarily affected income from sea fishing. Community-based trading was carried out in the study area; thus, the population inside each administrative unit was a significant factor increasing income, while the retail market size in an area had significant negative effects, potentially due to the increasing number of competitors. Our study aimed to evaluate mangrove ecosystem importance for local livelihoods in relation to landscape patterns, and the results contribute to urban planning based on the conservation and sustainable use of mangrove ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:40:53 CET)
The article presents an original method to assess the sustainability of concrete. The method uses three parameters, namely: performance, lifetime and environmental impact, to calculate a sustainability index. The originality and the simplicity of the proposed method presented in the article consists in the fact that by applying the relation to determine the sustainability index, the first two factors service life and performance are constant. This approach is possible in the context of the new proposals to specify the durability of structural concrete in EN 1992 and EN 206. That allows classification of concrete according to its performance, through Environmental action Resistance Classes (ERC). For this purpose, specific experimental methods were used in order to determine the performance of concrete exposed to carbonation. The concretes were prepared with two cement types with additions (CEM II / A-S and CEM II / A-M (S-LL)). Based on the carbonation resistance classes (the first constant - the performance) and exposure classes, the thickness of the concrete cover layer was determined to ensure a certain service lifetime (second constant - the service lifetime). Finally, the global warming potential was calculated for each composition, consequently allowing the users of the method, to select the compositions with the lowest impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:12:23 CET)
This article presents a method to assess the sustainability of concrete based on three elements: service life, performance and environmental impact. The method proposes - to achieve similar performance and service life times, regardless of the component materials used, so that the sustainability assessment ultimately depends on the environmental impact criterion. To this end, specific experimental methods are used to determine the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength and carbonation resistance for concrete cast with two blended cement types. The procedure needed to classify the concrete through carbonation resistance is detailed, in relationship with the performance obtained for compressive strength. The obtained results highlight the concrete formulations to be used to ensure similar performances regardless of the cement type used. In conclusion, the simplicity in the application of the method, which is closely related to the performance approach on concrete durability in the revision proposals of the European standards, is highlighted. The method is also a useful tool to encourage the widespread use in concrete formulation of blended cements with low environmental impact, without reducing the performance or service life time of the constructions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mobility as a Service (MaaS); future envision
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:07:04 CET)
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is an innovative transport concept, anticipated to provide travelers with different kinds of travel services, more sustainable than a private car, in a simpler, packaged way. It combines different transport modes to offer a tailored mobility package, like a monthly mobile phone contract. The rapid development of intelligent transportation system and the shared economy has speeded up the development of MaaS in these years. In this paper, we aim at classifying the existing research on MaaS and the characteristics of MaaS into different categories, in order to answer the following questions after reviewing the existing literature: What is MaaS? Who are the main actors in MaaS? How can MaaS be implemented? Why should it be implemented? Where will MaaS end up in this wave of disruption? When we talk about MaaS, what are we focusing on? What is the future leading frequency of MaaS? Finally, based on the existing literature, we envision the leading future of MaaS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0711.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: service robot; navigation; people detection; obstacle avoidance
Online: 30 November 2020 (09:11:57 CET)
This paper describes the development of a laser-based people detection and obstacle avoidance algorithm for a differential-drive robot, which is used for transporting materials along a reference path in hospital domains. Detecting humans from laser data is an important functionality for the safety of navigation in the shared workspace with people. Nevertheless, traditional methods normally utilize machine learning techniques on hand-crafted geometrical features extracted from individual clusters. Moreover, the datasets used to train the models are usually small and need to manually label every laser scan, increasing the difficulty and cost of deploying people detection algorithms in new environments. To tackle these problems, (1) we propose a novel deep learning-based method, which uses the deep neural network in a sliding window fashion to effectively classify every single point of a laser scan. (2) To increase the speed of inference without losing performance, we use a jump distance clustering method to decrease the number of points needed to be evaluated. (3) To reduce the workload of labeling data, we also propose an approach to automatically annotate datasets collected in real scenarios. In general, the proposed approach runs in real-time, performs much better than traditional methods, and can be straightforwardly extended to 3D laser data. Secondly, conventional pure reactive obstacle avoidance algorithms can produce inefficient and oscillatory behaviors in dynamic environments, making pedestrians confused and possibly leading to dangerous reactions. To improve the legibility and naturalness of obstacle avoidance in human crowded environments, we introduce a sampling-based local path planner, similar to the method used in autonomous driving cars. The key idea is to avoid obstacles by switching lanes. We also adopt a simple rule to decrease the number of unnecessary deviations from the reference path. Experiments carried out in real-world environments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: obesity; breast screening; mammograms; health service utilization;
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:10:11 CET)
Obesity in Australia is rapidly rising, and is a major public health concern. Obesity increases risk of breast cancer and worse associated outcomes, yet breast screening participation rates in Australia are suboptimal and can be lower in higher risk, obese women. This study qualitatively explored barriers to breast screening participation in obese women in Australia. In-depth interviews (n=29), were conducted with obese women (BMI 30) and key health stakeholders. A disconnect between stakeholders’ and women’s perceptions was found. For women, low knowledge around a heightened need to screen existed, they reported limited desire to prioritize personal health needs, reluctance to screen due to poor body image and prior negative mammographic experiences due to issues with weight. Stakeholders perceived few issues in screening obese women beyond equipment limitations, and health and safety issues. Overall, weight was a taboo topic among our interviewees, indicating that a lack of discourse around this issue may be putting obese women at increased risk of breast cancer morbidity and mortality. Consideration of breast screening policy in obese women is warranted. Targeted health promotion on increased breast cancer risk in obese women is required as is a need to address body image issues and encourage screening participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: land use preference; ecosystem service; natural conservation
Online: 23 November 2016 (18:08:51 CET)
This paper aims to build up a preference function to evaluate the public benefits of the type of agricultural farming, biodiversity, water provisions, land use type, ecotourism modes, and a monetary attribute (environmental trust fund and willingness to contribute) associated with an ecosystem service and land use program in a forest park. This study used the choice experiments to build a random utility model, analyze the average preference for the above land use attributes based on the conditional logit and used a latent class model to test the resident’s heterogeneous preferences for land use planning in the forest park. We also estimated the welfare derived from various land use programs. The empirical result had shown that: (1) increasing organic farming area, maintaining the status quo of species biodiversity, increasing the surface water provision, increasing the area of custom flora, increasing the wetland area, and setting up an integrated framework for ecotourism increase the public’s preference for the land use program; (2) we found that farmer and non-farmer haven’t the same land use preferences; (3) the ecotourism development program incorporating biodiversity, organic farming, ethnobotany, and wetland area with integrated ecotourism are more preferred than other land use program scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: telemedicine; COVID-19; telehealth; health service lines; pandemic
Online: 20 August 2020 (04:10:27 CEST)
Background – The profound impact of COVID-19 on the U.S. healthcare industry cannot be overstated. Telemedicine utilization exploded virtually overnight as healthcare systems, hospitals, and clinical practices rushed to implement this delivery model to ensure accessibility and continuity of patient care access across myriad service lines and dimensions. Objective – The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine the measures that were implemented to accommodate community and individual patient needs not only to afford access to critical services, but to also maintain safety standards for affected parties. Methods – Boolean operators were crafted with the expressed intent of identifying articles within multiple database domains germane to our chosen topic. Results – 52,206 articles were captured from a general search query and subsequently distilled to 44 through group consensus based on pertinence to our basic research question. The four health service lines identified encountered similar, surmountable obstacles in their care delivery models, but adapted accordingly to the respective needs of their patient populations. Conclusion – This review showcased the healthcare industry’s ability to rapidly acclimate and change due to the pervasive spread of COVID-19 throughout the U.S. Although imperfect, unique responses were developed within telemedicine platforms to broadly and effectively mitigate disruptions in care and treatment modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0125.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multigranulation; separability relationships; service level of the road
Online: 14 January 2019 (07:16:39 CET)
Multigranulation is a new approach to the Rough Set Theory, where several separability relationships are used to obtain different granulations of the universe. The Multigranulation starts from the existence of different contexts or subsets of features to characterize the objects of the universe. In this paper, a method for the generation of contexts from the construction of similarity relations is proposed.The proposed solution was evaluated in an international database using the KNN classifier. It was also applied in the solution of a real problem in Civil Engineering specifically in Traffic Engineering, the contexts generated from the proposal used to determine the features of higher incidence in the service level of the road. The results achieved both in the international database and in the proposed application demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0245.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: R; Open data; API; Statistics; DSS; Web service.
Online: 11 October 2018 (17:17:15 CEST)
We present a methodology to enable users to interact with statistical information owned by an institution and stored in a cloud infrastructure. Mainly based on R, this approach was developed following the open-data philosophy. Also, since we use R, the implementation is mainly based on open-source software. R gives several advantages from the point of view of data management and acquisition, as it becomes a common framework that can be used to structure the processes involved in any statistical operation. This simplifies the access to the data and enable to use all the power of R in the cloud information. This methodology was applied successfully to develop a tool to manage the data of the Centre d’Estudis d’Opinió, but it can be applied to other institutions to enable open access to its data. The infrastructure also was deployed to a cloud infrastructure, to assure the scalability and a 24/7 access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0554.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: intelligent service robot; robotic context query; context ontology
Online: 31 August 2018 (16:12:54 CEST)
Service robots operating in indoor environments should recognize dynamic changes from sensors, such as RGB-D camera, and recall the past context. Therefore, we propose a context query-processing framework, comprising spatio-temporal robotic context query language (ST-RCQL) and spatio-temporal robotic context query-processing system (ST-RCQP), for service robots. We designed them based on the spatio-temporal context ontology. ST-RCQL can query not only the current context knowledge but also the past. In addition, ST-RCQL includes a variety of time operators and time constants, and thus queries can be written very efficiently. The ST-RCQP is a query-processing system equipped with a perception handler, working memory, and backward reasoner for real-time query-processing. Moreover, ST-RCQP accelerates query-processing speed by building a spatio-temporal index in the working memory, where percepts are stored. Through various qualitative and quantitative experiments, we demonstrate the high efficiency and performance of the proposed context query-processing framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0220.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: innovation; service innovation; healthcare; chronic diseases; SD Logic
Online: 30 March 2017 (17:10:41 CEST)
In service economy, scholars and practitioners focus on the development and the appliance of innovative services. The importance of service innovation is rising in many sectors and among different organizations. Several disciplines (e.g. marketing, management, operations research, etc.) focus on this innovation, a concept widely used, but with different definitions. In this paper, service innovation has been analyzed according to SD Logic and a service ecosystem perspective. Literature still call for a deeper understanding of how new or renewed resources’ combination affect the shaping of service ecosystems. To contribute to fill this gap, the study explores the practices that different actors, internal and external to a healthcare service ecosystem, enact to co-create value in novel ways that is service innovation. The paper is structured as follows. In the next section, the main academic contributions on service research have been reviewed, focusing on healthcare service innovation. Follows, the research method and the discussion of research findings. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications have been detailed and an agenda for future research suggested. The paper offers interesting insights to develop new or renewed practices that foster the reshaping and maintaining of a healthcare service ecosystem. Some recommendations are included to support managers in the development of service innovation strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0281.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Optical networks; software-defined networks; fifth-generation wireless network(5G); network service orchestrators; customer- specific requirements; Quality of service, flexibility.
Online: 19 July 2022 (07:44:11 CEST)
Optical networks offer a wide range of benefits to the telecommunication sector world- wide with its provision of higher bandwidth which leads to faster data speed, longer transmission distance, and improved latency. Currently, the complexity associated with advancements in optical networks poses problems to network flexibility, reliability, and quality of service. Over the years, many reviews and proposals have been implemented by several literatures to provide solutions for optical networks using software-defined networks and network service orchestrators. This paper reviews the significant challenges in current optical network applications, the various solutions rendered by software-defined networks as well as network service orchestration, the impediments, and gaps in these software – defined networks. This paper will go a step further to look into the various improvements and implementations of software-defined networks tailored to solve specific optical network problems. This paper further proposes a flexible orchestration architecture for software-defined networks for solving flexibility and scalability problems in optical networks. This proposal uses Open Network System (ONOS) SDN controller, leveraging on dockerisation as well as kubernetes clusterisation and orchestration. This solution presents a more flexible, reliable, customable, and higher quality of service which is an improvement upon current solutions in literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:04:32 CET)
Background: Mental health difficulties during teenage years e are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service.Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision. The findings have implications for changing the way services are organized and operated. Healthcare policy and services could support user-led model design that incorporates the access and use enablers and removes the barriers to rural mental health support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0190.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cloud computing; data storage; users; service provider; software; hardware
Online: 13 July 2022 (04:52:59 CEST)
The popularity of cloud computing is growing owing to its large data storage capacity and high computation power. It provides online, on-demand, scalable application solution, removes hardware and software barriers for non-specialist, rapidly integrates and deploys desired and necessary facilities, supports quick upgrading and addition of features. Users get benefitted with the selection of the appropriate cloud computing platform for their projects. Here, our paper provides a comprehensive overview of the services provided to the users by the most common cloud computing service providers. This paper could be used as a reference while selecting the best service provider based on the requirements of the projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0345.v1
Subject: Keywords: endometriosis; qualitative research; gynaecology; infertility; illness experience; health service
Online: 20 September 2021 (16:14:24 CEST)
Background: Endometriosis affects between 1% to 10% of women worldwide; it is associated with a significant burden on the woman, her relationships, productivity, mental health, family and society. Aim:To contribute to the current understanding of the impact of endometriosis on women’s lives by integrating qualitative research findings to explore the illness experiences of women living with endometriosis. Study design:Synthesis of qualitative data using Britten’s meta-ethnography.Methods:Six bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycINFO) and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed papers published in English language from inception of until August 6th 2021. Results: Fifteen studies were included in the data synthesis. The review included a total of 354 women from fourteen countries (including South Africa, Iran, England, Australia and United States of America), of age range 16-78 years. Subjects represented diverse ethnicities, cultures and native languages distributed across socioeconomic classes. Representation of all stages of endometriosis was included.Findings incorporate the following nine categories into a conceptual model: disease symptoms; health services experience; isolation and limited social participation; limited physical functioning; a coterie of emotions; sex and intimate relationships; infertility; work life and education; coping strategies and support. Diagnostic delays, persistent symptoms, healthcare costs and inadequate education to patients about the disease; all intersect into a web of struggles and incoherence for patients. Conclusion:Women with endometriosis living in various countries report similar illness experiences; although gender roles, culture and socio-economic status may act as mediating factors that shape an individual’s illness experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Customer Service Experience; Multichannel Retailing; Customer Journeys; Customer Equity
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:25:58 CET)
Spectacular shifts have been led to by The COVID-19 crisis in consumer behavior. Retailers will have to work hard to meet ever-evolving customer service experience with respect to the ways in which it may be differently affected by offline or online transactions in order to win and stay relevant. We suggest an integrative framework and construct customer service experience hypotheses, based on its antecedents and consequences that will contribute to academic study as well as managerial implications. The hypotheses are tested by a simultaneous equation model employing two data sets of the retail industry's offline and online customers. In this study, 571 samples of these businesses, 319 and 252 respondents from offline and online retail channels, respectively, were collected by means of an online web survey of consumers. The results show that the impact of consequences and antecedents of CSX differs based on the media utilized. The integrative framework of CSX in its online medium is far more effective than its explanatory power offline. The outcomes are reasonably counterintuitive in so far as they demonstrate that while most elements of CSX where a service is selected offline is the same in terms of customer loyalty and value equity, the emotional element related to the service provider is higher when the service is selected offline rather than online. These outcomes indicate that, contrary to popular fears, the online medium enables firms to develop a loyal customer foundation. These findings offer perceptivity into how an online channel could be used to better complement the offline channel, contributing towards new knowledge and understanding on CSX and how it may be utilized for managerial decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0518.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mobile phones; health promotions; short message service; health students
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:53:53 CET)
Students are regarded as frequent users of mobile phones which has proven to be a convenient and acceptable method to promote healthy lifestyle. Students usually engage in relatively high levels of risky behavior and make unhealthy lifestyle choices, a study that investigates how health students access health information is necessary. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study which was undertaken among third-year nursing students from three nurses training institutions in Ghana. A total of 270 students participated in the study. Most of the respondents who were currently subscribers of the health messages reported that they usually received health information on reproductive health issues, nutrition, and practicing safe sex. Most of the health students revealed that they needed more information on safe sex, diet, managing weight, and stress management. The results also show that health students are likely to remember and share short messages with friends. The findings serve as an ‘eye-opener’ for health educators and mobile service providers concerning factors that should be taken into consideration when framing health text messages that will attract health students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Government; Citizen; Service Delivery; Integrated Statistical Management; Registration; Information
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:48:14 CET)
Statistical management policy and system plays significant role in development of any nation as it guides the planner to analyze the gaps, design programs and allocate budget in efficient manner. Globally, design and usage of statistical management system varies relying on country specific ability and resources availability. Government of Nepal has been managing database in individual as well as thematic manner. Policy wise, thematic database is in operation based on Statistics Act 1958 and individual database is in operation based on Birth, Death and Other Personal Related Events Registration Act 1976. Though civil registration related policies have been either updated or newly formed, sectoral statistic management related policy has not been updated since its first promulgation period (1958). With no policy supporting the consolidated statistical management system, government as well as non-government agencies has been investing millions of dollars annually to collect, compile and analyze individual related data and fulfill their respective objectives. It has forced the government services and performance to be paper-based, time-consuming and tedious thus creating dis-trust among citizen each passing day. Though, formulation of legal instrument promoted digital movement and mandated shift towards e-government modality, the process has been low. Theoretically, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) state the need of having advanced and efficient technology to be in place in current setting to improve governance, efficiency, accountability, transparency and trust. Also, the same theory state the requirement of strong willingness and motivation from the users (government, non-government and citizen) to adopt the technology based policy and system. As the integrated statistical management policy emphasizes on technology-based system or digital system, the perspectives of Technology Acceptance Model also termed as Information System Theory aid in understanding the context, conceptualizing and addressing the needs with an establishment and implementation of digital system or technology based system. This policy paper applied the Technology Acceptance Model (TAP) to examine the underlying opportunities and challenges associated with an integrated statistical management policy. With existing gaps in existing policy, system and practice alongside an overview of opportunities and challenges, this paper recommends the need of stand-alone integrated statistical management policy to consolidate sectoral as well as civil related information through single system based on recommended policy.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: mental health; health service research; burnout; public health; physicians
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:43:43 CEST)
This observational study was ordered by the Medical Practitioners’ Chamber in Warsaw. The objective of the study was to evaluate the health status of physicians in relation to their occupational duties. Professional burnout was considered relative to different features of personality. This study was initially carried out from 2005–2008, but further analysis of burnout and personality was carried out from 2017–2018. The research tools were anonymous, validated questionnaires. The sample size was based on the size of the population— the registry of the Regional Chamber of Medical Practitioners— and literature on burnout prevalence. The respondents’ work places were randomly selected from the Mazovian District register. The test on burnout was completed by 378 respondents, while 62 subjects completed a personality test. Results showed that burnout syndrome was an occupational problem for healthcare workers. Professional burnout affected as many as 42% of respondents(n = 158). It affected two age groups in particular: physicians up to 31 years old and individuals aged 41-50. Moreover, neuroticism was found to be significantly related to burnout syndrome. In conclusion, burnout syndrome is common among medical practitioners, and neuroticism may be correlated with burnout syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0661.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: national parks; ecosystem service value; natural infrastructure; natural capital
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:11:30 CET)
The annual budget for the United States National Park Service was roughly three billion dollars in 2016. This is distributed amongst 405 National Parks, 23 national scenic and historic trails, and 60 wild and scenic rivers. Entrance fees and concessions generate millions of dollars in income for the National Park Service; however, this metric fails to account for the total value of the National Parks. In failing to consider the value of the ecosystem services provided by the National Parks we fail to quantify and appreciate the contributions our parks make to society. This oversight allows us to continue to underfund a valuable part of our natural capital and consequently damage our supporting environment, national heritage, monetary economy, and many of our diverse cultures. We explore a simple benefits transfer valuation of the United States national parks using National Land Cover Data from 2011 and ecosystem service values determined by Costanza (et al). This produces an estimate suggesting the parks provide $84 billion / year in ecosystem service value. If the natural infrastructure 'asset' that is our national park system had a budget comparable to a piece of commercial real estate of this value, the annual budget of the National Park Service would be roughly an order of magnitude larger at something closer to $30 billion rather than $3 billion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: appropriate technology, crowdfunding, UTAUT model, technology service acceptance factor
Online: 2 April 2018 (16:45:08 CEST)
The R&D and propagation of sustainable appropriate technology requires the provision of stable funding. Crowdfunding is a form of funding whereby small sums of investments or contributions are collected from among the general public and used to finance the development of goods or services. This method has been in use widely in arts and culture fields, and presents a useful alternative means for funding appropriate technology projects. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing the backers who participate in appropriate technology projects through crowdfunding platforms, analyzing the relationships between these factors, and thereby establishing the usefulness of crowdfunding as a viable new alternative. The analysis results indicate that key factors influencing user intention to crowdfund appropriate technology projects include social influence, effort expectancy, and perceived trust. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, performance expectancy was not found to have a significant effect. This reflects the fact that, compared to the crowdfunding conducted for other purposes, crowdfunding for appropriate technology is closer in nature to donations. These findings indicate that for funding to be successful, aggressive online exposure using the SNS of backers should be pursued from the early stages of funding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: active ageing; social participation; mobility; assistive technologies; service delivery
Online: 23 August 2016 (14:53:52 CEST)
Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to take an active part in society without discrimination and to enjoy an independent and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this as a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: “Is assistive technology (AT) for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance?”. From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes), aged 45-97, mean 67.02 +/- 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS), the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM) and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03). Most participants showed positive impact of AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53) and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73). All subscales and P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow these participants up for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on participation in society, one of the domains of the Active Ageing Index, a new analytical tool to help policy makers in developing policies for active and healthy ageing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cloud Client (CC); Cloud computing; Cloud Service Provider (CSP); Security; Service Level Agreement (SLA); Privacy-Preserving Model (PPM); Third-party auditor (TPA)
Online: 23 September 2021 (15:55:08 CEST)
Cloud computing has become a prominent technology due to its important utility service; this service concentrates on outsourcing data to organizations and individual consumers. Cloud computing has considerably changed the manner in which individuals or organizations store, retrieve, and organize their personal information. Despite the manifest development in cloud computing, there are still some concerns regarding the level of security and issues related to adopting cloud computing that prevent users from fully trusting this useful technology. Hence, for the sake of reinforcing the trust between Cloud Clients (CC) and Cloud Service Providers (CSP), as well as safeguarding the CC’s data in the cloud, several security paradigms of cloud computing based on a Third-Party Auditor (TPA) have been introduced. The TPA, as a trusted party, is responsible for checking the integrity of the CC’s data and all the critical information associated with it. However, the TPA could become an adversary and could aim to deteriorate the privacy of the CC’s data by playing a malicious role. In this paper, we present the state-of-art of cloud computing’s privacy-preserving models (PPM) based on a TPA. Three TPA factors of paramount significance have been discussed: TPA involvement, security requirements, and security threats caused by vulnerabilities. Moreover, TPA’s privacy preserving models have been comprehensively analyzed and categorized into different classes with an emphasis on their dynamicity. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the models and present our recommendations for their improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0143.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Industry 4.0; XaaS; SemSOA; business process optimization; scalable cloud service deployment; process service plan just-in-time adaptation; BPMN partial fault tolerance
Online: 22 November 2018 (05:29:31 CET)
A new requirement for the manufacturing companies in Industry 4.0 is to be flexible with respect to changes in demands, requiring them to react rapidly and efficiently on the production capacities. Together with the trend to use Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), this requirement induces a need for agile collaboration among supply chain partners, but also between different divisions or branches of the same company. In order to address this collaboration challenge, we~propose a novel pragmatic approach for the process analysis, implementation and execution. This~is achieved through sets of semantic annotations of business process models encoded into BPMN 2.0 extensions. Building blocks for such manufacturing processes are the individual available services, which are also semantically annotated according to the Everything-as-a-Service (XaaS) principles and stored into a common marketplace. The optimization of such manufacturing processes combines pattern-based semantic composition of services with their non-functional aspects. This is achieved by means of Quality-of-Service (QoS)-based Constraint Optimization Problem (COP) solving, resulting in an automatic implementation of service-based manufacturing processes. The produced solution is mapped back to the BPMN 2.0 standard formalism by means of the introduced extension elements, fully detailing the enactable optimal process service plan produced. This approach allows enacting a process instance, using just-in-time service leasing, allocation of resources and dynamic replanning in the case of failures. This proposition provides the best compromise between external visibility, control and flexibility. In this way, it provides an optimal approach for business process models' implementation, with a full service-oriented taste, by implementing user-defined QoS metrics, just-in-time execution and basic dynamic repairing capabilities. This paper presents the described approach and the technical architecture and depicts one initial industrial application in the manufacturing domain of aluminum forging for bicycle hull body forming, where the advantages stemming from the main capabilities of this approach are sketched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0204.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Ecosystem service values; Land cover change; Proximate causes; Underlying causes
Online: 12 December 2022 (13:21:24 CET)
Land use/cover (LULC) change is one of the most important environmental phenomena that have affected the earths’ systems and its ecosystem services. Hence, this study was conducted with the main objective of assessing LULC change, its drivers andimpactson ecosystem services in Jimma Rare district for the year 1974–2019. In order to understand the spatial and temporal changes of LULC and its drivers four satellite images for the year1974, 1991, 2005 and 2019 were obtained and respondent interviews, focus group discussions (FGD) and field observations were employed. Moreover, the ecosystem service value coefficients developed at a global level were used to assess the impacts of LULC on ecosystem service provision of the study area. The results of the study revealed that grass land and forest land decreased from 4518.87ha (13.09%) to 902.42ha (2.61%) and 3287.79ha (9.52%) to 2506.63ha (7.26%) from 1974-2019 respectively. Similarly, wetland declined from1182.08ha (3.42%) to 562.37ha (1.63%) in the stated period.The greatest expansion of cultivated land and settlement area occurred during the year 1974-1991. Agricultural expansion, deforestation, overgrazing and expansion of rural and urban settlement were among the major proximate causes. Likewise, the major underlying drivers of LULC dynamics include population increase, the presence of weak policy and institutions, poverty and lack of awareness were identified by respondents and focus group discussants. The total natural capital value reduced from 662.75 (million $/ha/yr) to 577.03 (million $/ha/yr) in the study period indicating the impacts of LULC on ecosystem services. From this study, it is possible to conclude that Jimma Rare District has experienced a significant change in LULC and ecosystem service values over the past 45 years. Hence, appropriate policy packages of land use are required to curb the negative impacts of such changes in the study district in the provision of the required services for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Tarim river; ecological service function value; river ecosystem; evaluation indicators
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:33:56 CEST)
The estimation of ecological service system value of water resources in Tarim river basin is of great significance for resource allocation management and ecological protection. However, there is still no unified and complete evaluation method for ecological service system value of inland river in China. Based on the perspective of the whole value chain, the study classifies its ecological service functions, and divides 11 sub-categories into 4 categories (supply, regulation, culture and support) as evaluation indicators to carry out quantitative evaluation. The results showed that the total value of ecological service system in Tarim river basin in 2018 was 4156.5247×108 Yuan, and the value of regulating function, cultural function, supporting function and supply function were successively from high to low, which were as follows: 2565.6825×108 Yuan, 1009.5471×108 Yuan, 884.0770×108 Yuan, 20.3350×108 Yuan, among which the value of regulation function is dominant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: innovation service; pricing model; multiobjective problem; genetic algorithm; negotiating strategies
Online: 19 August 2020 (10:26:06 CEST)
Service pricing is a bottleneck in the development of innovation services, as it is the issue of most concern between the suppliers and demanders. In this paper, a negotiation pricing model that is based on the multiobjective genetic algorithm is developed for innovation service pricing. Regarding the service pricing process as a multiobjective problem, the objective functions, which include the service price, service efficiency, and service quality, for suppliers and demanders are constructed. As the solution of a multiobjective problem is typically a series of alternatives, another negotiation process is necessary for determining the final decision. A learning strategy is adopted during the negotiation process to simulate reality. Finally, the model is implemented for an innovation service transaction, the objective of which is to identify the optimal price plan. The results demonstrate that the model can provide quantitative decision support for the pricing of an innovation service and ultimately yield a win-win result for both the supplier and demander of the innovation service. Furthermore, the influence of the parameters during the negotiation process is analyzed in detail. The effects of the learning strategy on accelerating the negotiation process, as well as the chosen of reasonable parameters are given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: antiretroviral therapy; differentiated service delivery; retention; suppression; Africa; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2020 (09:53:46 CEST)
Introduction: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV are being scaled up in the expectation that they will improve the quality and efficiency of treatment delivery and reduce costs while maintaining at least equivalent clinical outcomes. Even this minimum requirement of equivalent clinical outcomes is poorly documented for most models and settings, however. We reviewed the recent literature on DSD models to describe what is known about clinical outcomes. Methods: We conducted a rapid systematic review of peer-reviewed publications in PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science and major international conference abstracts that reported outcomes of DSD models for the provision of ART in sub-Saharan Africa from January 1, 2016 to September 12, 2019. Sources reporting standard clinical HIV treatment metrics, primarily retention in care and viral load suppression, were reviewed and categorized by DSD model and source quality assessed. Results and Discussion: Twenty-nine papers and abstracts describing 37 DSD models and reporting 52 discrete outcomes met search inclusion criteria. Of the 37 models, 7 (19%) were facility-based individual models, 12 (32%) out-of-facility based individual models, 5 (14%) client-led groups, and 13 (35%) healthcare worker-led groups. Retention was reported for 73% of the models and viral suppression for 57%. Where a comparison with conventional care was provided, retention in most DSD models was within 5% of that for conventional care; where no comparison was provided, retention generally exceeded 80%. For viral suppression, all those with a comparison to conventional care reported a small increase in suppression in the DSD model; reported suppression exceeded 90% in 11/21 models. Analysis was limited by the extensive heterogeneity of study designs, outcomes, models, and populations. Most sources did not provide comparisons with conventional care, and metrics for assessing outcomes varied widely and were in many cases poorly defined. Conclusion: Existing evidence on the clinical outcomes of DSD models for HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is limited in both quantity and quality but suggests that retention in care and viral suppression are roughly equivalent to those in conventional models of care.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: chloride penetration; pore water; electrical resistivity; service life; concrete durability
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:11:10 CET)
Since electrical resistivity of concrete can be measured in a more rapid and simple way than chloride diffusivity, it should be primarily regular quality control of the electrical resistivity of concrete which provides the basis for indirect of quality control of concrete durability during the concrete construction. If this is realized, the electrical resistivity of concrete can be a crucial parameter to establish maintenance strategy for marine concrete structures. Electrical resistivity of concrete is important to estimate two processes involved in corrosion of reinforcement: initiation (chloride penetration) and propagation (corrosion rate). The resistivity of concrete structure exposed to chloride indicates the risk of early corrosion damage, because a low resistivity is related to rapid chloride penetration and to high corrosion rate. Concrete resistivity is a geometry-independent material property that describes the electrical resistance, which is the ratio between applied voltage and resulting current in a unit cell. The current is carried by ions dissolved in the pore liquid. While some data exist on the relationship between moisture content on electrical resistivity of concrete, very little research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of chloride on the conduction of electricity through concrete. The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the effect of pore water and chloride content on surface electrical resistivity measurement of concrete. It was obvious that chloride content had influenced the resistivity of concrete and the relationship showed a linear function. That is, concrete with chloride ions had a comparatively lower resistivity. Chloride can lead to underestimate the electrical resistivity of concrete. Conclusively, this paper suggested the quantitative solution to depict the electrical resistivity of concrete with various chloride contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: agency theory； property rights； transaction costs； efficiency； public service sector
Online: 27 June 2017 (08:22:37 CEST)
The past few decades have been characterized by a growing body of profit-seeking public service areas with the understanding that profit-seeking organizations will deliver public services more efficiently than government can. These sectors include, but are not limited to, health care, corrections and education. Governments have created quasi markets to attract private providers of services in these sectors, with varying results. Organizational economics has provided the primary explanation for quasi markets, but questions about the sought-for efficiencies actually realized through these markets persist. We integrate resource dependence theory and organizational economics to provide a more comprehensive explanation of the persistence of quasi markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0027.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: customer complaint process improvement; customer complaint service; big data analysis
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:38:33 CEST)
With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply-demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector-transportation company-passenger supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: family planning service and COVID-19; maternal; Neonatal and child health service and COVID-19; sexual behaviour and COVID-19; SARSCOVID-2 and family planning
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:39:05 CEST)
Introduction: Since its discovery in late 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARSCOVID-2) that causes COVID-19 has spread fast, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to designate the disease a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020.The epidemic has profoundly altered the preexisting global sexual and reproductive health landscape .The virus’s load has put ordinary services in jeopardy and harmed other health priorities. This encompasses both the provision and the supply of contraceptives, sexual health, new born and maternal health services. This Scoping review therefore mapped the availability evidence on the impact and effects of the COVID-19 disease outbreak on sexual and reproductive health. Methods: The methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley guided this scoping review. A literature search was conducted from the following databases: Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and AJOL. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist were used to document the review process. The Strobe critical review checklist was used to determine the quality of the included studies. Results:19 studies were reviewed, out of which 4 were cross sectional studies, 1 was an observational study, 1 was a descriptive analytical study and the rest were qualitative studies .Majority of the studies showed evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service, maternal and child services, and three studies reported on COVID-19 and sexual behaviour. Five of the nineteen included studies reported on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service. Conclusion: This scoping review has granted the assessment of the impact of novel SARS-CoV-2 on Sexual and reproductive health services with regards to sexual behaviour, family planning and maternal, neonatal and child health. From the 18 articles identified and reviewed, the overall responses stipulated a significant reduction in client’s utilization of services due to challenges experiences in service implementation such as stock outs. In addition, low demand for reproductive health services by clients due to restrictions imposed on the movements of people to curb the spread of the virus. It is therefore important that Governments and relevant stakeholders in Maternal and Sexual Reproductive Health prioritize development of policies and practices that protect women from the impacts of the pandemic. Furthermore, regular audits to detect trends in MSRH are necessary to inform on going mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Decentralization; National Health Service; Regional Health Administration; Primary Health Care; Portugal
Online: 11 July 2022 (03:46:45 CEST)
The Portuguese health system has a universal, public, general National Health Service (NHS), tending towards free healthcare access. Created in 1979, this delivery model developed from the integration and complementarity between the different response levels (primary, hospital, continuing, and palliative care). However, over these 40 years, the initially centralized system underwent a decentralization process with the creation of Regional Health Administrations in the five mainland administrative regions. Since then, the entire NHS has settled around this new organization. The most recent step started in 2018 with decentralizing primary health care skills to 190 municipalities. This paper presents the various critical issues involved in the latest gradual decentralization process in health, intending to bring services closer to the citizens, and more focused on their needs. The article identifies and discusses the implications of this experience based on the steps foreseen in the already published legal texts.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Ecotourism; Sustainability; Island Tourism; Penghu National Scenic Area; Tourist Service System
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:45:47 CET)
In order to increase the number of tourism in ecotourism, enhance the ecotourism attractions. It is essential to construct the ecotourism service system for the Penghu National Scenic Area because the ecology system is sensitive and frangible. This study adopts the Fuzzy Delphi method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to establish an index framework of ecotourism service system of Penghu National Scenic Area. The results indicated that there are 4 dimensions which include 21 factors service attributes are identified as the service system for traveling. The findings are concluded as follows:(1)the security management capability is the main principle for ecotourism service system;(2)the ecological diversity is fundamental for the marine environment and the core resource for ecotourism;(3)the transportation capacity and environmental quality need to improve; (4)the marine environmental resources is the most important item for sound ecotourism development; (5)the enhancement of the operation willingness of local communities can promote ecotourism development;(6)the natural resources should be protected to provide an ideal recreational environment for ecotourism;(7)the development of ecotourism needs to support local conservation to achieve sustainability. The perspectives of sustainability and service system are involved to support the value of this study, which can continuously sustain Penghu archipelago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: accessibility; food service facilities; grocery retailers; city logistics; last-mile delivery
Online: 8 February 2020 (05:48:17 CET)
Access to food systems is essential to sustain urban life. In this paper, we discuss the differences concerning accessibility levels to food systems among potential consumers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The goal was to characterize spatial mismatches regarding food opportunities and identify suitable areas for sustainable food mile solutions, such as non-motorized home delivery and purchase trips. For this, we have spatially related: (i) the population concentration; (ii) the income of households; and (iii) accessibility measures considering both the spatial structure of food retailers and the distance between households and stores, considering the food mile. We have then used spatial statistics and spatial analysis methods to determine the spatial pattern of variables and the cumulative opportunity measure for households. There is great spatial differentiation regarding the accessibility levels of food retailers and the results can be considered to support the development of policy and land use regulation that can stimulate non-motorized and collaborative delivery as an effective last-mile solution.
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: value co-creation; National Health Insurance; My Health Bank; Service Ecosystem
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:55:28 CET)
Objective: Taiwan Government’s organizations have endeavored to promote the applications of big data and open data. The “My Health Bank” is one of the measures promoted by the National Health Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare. This study proposes the perspective of the “value co-creation” with the attempt to extend the concept of service ecosystem and apply it on the platform of My Health Bank to examine whether people (patients, families, and caregivers) can promote their health literacy? Method: This cross-sectional study, with people that have registered at “My Health Bank” as subjects. Complying with the inclusion criteria, 401 questionnaires were delivered, with 391 valid ones, excluding those incompletely and inaccurately filled. Result: That the affecting factors of the co-creation of values: age, education level, annual income, and platform operation show to be significant ( p＜0.05); and gender, occupation, and resource exchange do not reach the significant level (p＞0.1). Conclusion: We found My Health Bank changed the inertia of “value creation” in the traditional medical value, it allows the traditional medical and healthcare industry to expose to the impacts of the mega trend of the internet, the transformation of the platform in a necessary trend.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: service-learning methodology; environmental sciences; higher education; sustainable development goals; rubric
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:07:55 CET)
The Bologna Process and the European Higher Education area require the application of new active methodologies in the classroom that place the student at the center of his or her learning process. In the present work we analyze the application of a Service-Learning methodology in the context of a Final Degree Dissertation (FDD) in the degree in Environmental Sciences at the University of Extremadura (Spain). The project deals with an isolated Kichwa community in Ecuador and involves the development of alternative science education materials for the capacitation of in-service science teachers. This paper evaluates how an FDD carried out according to self-learning (SL) principles can help in the acquisition of so-called soft skills and how these can be focused in the promotion of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) knowledge and achievement. To this end, a qualitative study of the experience and a deep evaluation, followed by a final reflection, were carried out. According to the preliminary results, we can conclude that Higher Education should include SDGs in its teaching praxis and could do this successfully using the SL methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0337.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Web API; SPARQL; micro-service; Data Integration; Linked Data; REST; Biodiversity
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:59:31 CET)
In recent years, Web APIs have become a de facto standard for exchanging machine-readable data on the Web. Despite this success though, they often fail in making resource descriptions interoperable due to the fact that they rely on proprietary vocabularies that lack formal semantics. The Linked Data principles similarly seek the massive publication of data on the Web, yet with the specific goal of ensuring semantic interoperability. Given their complementary goals, it is commonly admitted that cross-fertilization could stem from the automatic combination of Linked Data and Web APIs. Towards this goal, in this paper we leverage the micro-service architectural principles to define a SPARQL Micro-Service architecture, aimed at querying Web APIs using SPARQL. A SPARQL micro-service is a lightweight SPARQL endpoint that provides access to a small, resource-centric, virtual graph. In this context, we argue that full SPARQL Query expressiveness can be supported efficiently without jeopardizing servers availability. Furthermore, we demonstrate how this architecture can be used to dynamically assign dereferenceable URIs to Web API resources that do not have URIs beforehand, thus literally ``bringing'' Web APIs into the Web of Data. We believe that the emergence of an ecosystem of SPARQL micro-services published by independent providers would enable Linked Data-based applications to easily glean pieces of data from a wealth of distributed, scalable and reliable services. We describe a working prototype implementation and we finally illustrate the use of SPARQL micro-services in the context of two real-life use cases related to the biodiversity domain, developed in collaboration with the French National Museum of Natural History.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: mobile manipulation; shared autonomy; assitive robotics; grasping multiple objects; service robotics
Online: 8 October 2018 (10:52:44 CEST)
In recent years, autonomous robots have proven capable of solving tasks in complex environments. In particular, robot manipulations in activities of daily living (ADL) for service robots have been in wide use. However, manipulations such as loading a dishwasher or folding laundry are difficult to automate robustly. In addition, manipulations of grasping multiple objects in domestic environments present difficulty. To perform those applications better, we developed robotic systems based on shared autonomy by combining the cognitive skills of a human operator with autonomous robot behaviors. In this work, we present techniques for integration of a shared autonomy system for assistive mobile manipulation and new strategies to support users in the domestic environment. We demonstrate that the robot can grasp multiple objects with random size at known and unknown table heights. Specifically, we developed three strategies for manipulation. From experimental results, we observed that the first strategy has the highest success rate (70% for random objects) up to 70 cm table height. Two other strategies perform better for 80 cm to 100 cm table height. The success rate of the second and third strategies shows an average 63.3% and 73.3%, respectively, for grasping random objects. We also demonstrated these strategies using two intuitive interfaces, a visual interface in rviz and a voice user interface with speech recognition, which are suitable for elderly people. In addition, the robot can select strategies automatically in random scenarios, which make the robot intelligent and able to make decisions independently in the environment. We obtained interesting results showing that the robot adapts to the environmental variation automatically. After these experimental demonstrations, our robot shows the capabilities for employment in domestic environments to perform actual tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0405.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: drinking water; lead; Pb; flush; exposure prevention; intervention; lead service line
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:39:42 CEST)
Flushing tap water is often promoted as a simple and low cost approach to reducing water lead exposures. This study evaluated lead reduction when prevailing flush guidelines (30 seconds-2 minutes) are implemented in a city compliant with lead-associated water regulations (New Orleans, LA). Water samples (n=1,497) collected from a convenience sample of 376 residential sites (2015-2017) were analyzed for lead in samples collected: at 1) first draw (n=375), and after incremental flushes of 2) 30-45 seconds (n=375), 3) 2.5-3 minutes (n=373), and 4) 5.5-6 minutes (n=218). There was no significant reduction when compared to the first draw lead level, until the 6 minute flush (p<0.05); but most sites (52%) still had detectable lead (≥1 ppb) after 6 minutes. Older homes (pre-1950) and low occupancy sites had significantly higher WLLs (p<0.05).Each sample type had health-based standard exceedances at over 50% of sites sampled (max: 58 ppb). While flushing is an effective short-term approach to remediate high lead, prevailing flush recommendations are an inconsistently effective exposure prevention measure that can often inadvertently increase exposures. Public health messages should be modified to ensure appropriate application of flushing for specific cities, while acknowledging its short-comings and practical limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0400.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: illegal taxi; door to door service; local public transport; traffic congestion
Online: 28 May 2018 (11:05:42 CEST)
The impact of an unlicensed low-cost taxi in Bangladesh is very severe, especially in municipal cities. Day by day the numbers of unlicensed low-cost taxi are increasing by jumping up and creating pressure on traffic and transportation system. The aim of this study is to find out the causes of increasing illegal taxi and the extent of this vehicle in the municipalities of Bangladesh. Pabna municipality is used as a case study due to the more activeness of illegal taxi then the other municipalities. To achieve the objectives, the researcher used a qualitative approach to acquire more depth about the problems. Besides a direct observation of the study area, an open-ended questionnaire survey and HIS survey were conducted. The illegal low-cost taxi is very active it was analyzed through the field survey. A statistical model was developed to understand the actual causes of increasing illegal low-cost taxi, where ten predicted hypotheses (age, education level, marital status and family member support of illegal drivers, and the variable of commuter satisfaction e.g. safety, comfort, continuous service, affordability of service, reliability of service and driver behavior) were tested. The model was run through the multiple regression analyses technique in SPSS and the result proved that education level of illegal low-cost taxi drivers, and the commuter satisfaction variable (safety and comfort) had a positive and significant effect of increasing illegal low-cost taxi in the study area. However other variable had no significant effect in case of increasing illegal low-cost taxi. Besides the safety and comfort, steady job for the operators, provision of continuous, individual and door to door service system are the main reasons for increasing the illegal low-cost taxi in the study area. Finally, the researcher concludes with the requirement of some necessary action from the responsible authority on vehicular regulation for the improvement of the local public transport system in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: e-health, computer network traffic sampling, multimedia transmission, quality of service.
Online: 2 February 2018 (16:15:31 CET)
Electronic-health applications rely on large computer networks to facilitate patients' information access and to communicate various types of medical data. To examine the effectiveness of these networks, the traffic parameters need to be analysed. Due to quantity of the information carrying packets, examining each packet's transmission parameters individually is not practical, especially when a real time operation is needed. Sampling allows a subset of packets that accurately represents the original traffic to be formed. In this study an adaptive sampling method based on regression and fuzzy inference system was developed. It dynamically updates the number of packets sampled by responding to the traffic variations. Its performance was found to be superior to the conventional non-adaptive sampling methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0087.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: public sports service; new urbanization; development dynamic relationship; interaction mechanism; optimal path
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:19:08 CEST)
In the new period, the state has made every effort to promote the new urbanization of public sports service. Entropy method, coupled coordination model, cold hot spot analysis is used to explore the dynamic relationship between public sports services and the development of new urbanization in China from 2008 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The development of the internal subsystem of public sports service is not balanced, the sports financial investment system grows rapidly, but the development of professional sports talent team is slow. (2) The imbalance of regional development cannot be ignored, and the public sports service level shows a decreasing gradient from east to west. (3) The regional development features are different. The eastern region is dominated by the coordinated development of sports public service and urbanization, while the central region is mainly in the type of public sports service lag, while the western region has multiple complex characteristics of low-level coordination and public sports service lag. Therefore, it is proposed that the construction of modern public sports service system should be investigated in the context of the development of new urbanization. It should be promoted from the following aspects: promoting the extension of public sports service to rural areas, engendering the "citizen's right" of sports health to the migrant population, conforming to the trend of mass sports intelligence, developing green sports and revitalizing idle sports assets in cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0294.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Residential electricity distribution; PLS-SEM; CB-SEM; quality of service; customer satisfaction
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:14:14 CET)
The main objective of this study is to apply structural equation modeling with partial least squares and based on covariance to assess the satisfaction of residential electricity consumers. The methodology used compares the results of both structural equation models to indicate the model that best fits the problem of measuring the satisfaction of residential consumers of electricity concessionaires and licensees. The sample used in the survey contained questionnaire responses from 86.175 individuals considering the period from 2014 to 2018. The constructs evaluated were satisfaction, quality, value, loyalty, and trust. Confidence interval analysis shows that all weights are significant, demonstrating the importance of all the indicators that represent the constructs. The trust, quality, and value constructs can explain 74.4% of the variability of the satisfaction construct, so the explanatory capacity of this relationship is considered substantial. Finally, the evaluation of the performance of the service provided by the electric energy concessionaires/licensees, measured by customer satisfaction, allows for the continuous improvement of services and meeting, even if minimally, the expectations of its consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0163.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Service Computing; Internet of Things; Situation Response; Services in Internet of Things
Online: 6 August 2021 (13:12:33 CEST)
A large number of smart devices (things) are being deployed with the swift development of Inter- net of Things (IOT). These devices, owned by different organizations, have a wide variety of services to offer over the web. During a natural disaster or emergency (i.e., a situation), for example, relevant IOT services can be found and put to use. However, appropriate service matching methods are required to find the relevant services. Organizations that manage situation responses and organizations that provide IOT services are likely to be independent of each other, and therefore it is difficult for them to adopt a common ontological model to facilitate the service matching. Moreover, there exists a large conceptual gap between the domain of discourse for situations and the domain of discourse for services, which cannot be adequately bridged by existing techniques. In this paper, we address these issues and propose a new method, WikiServe, to identify IOT services that are functionally relevant to a given situation. Using concepts (terms) from situation and service descriptions, WikiServe employs Wikipedia as a knowledge source to bridge the conceptual gap between situation and service descriptions and match functionally relevant IOT services for a situation. It uses situation terms to retrieve situation related articles from Wikipedia. Then it creates a ranked list of services for the situation using the weighted occurrences of service terms in weighted situation articles. WikiServe performs better than a commonly used baseline method in terms of Precision, Recall and F measure for service matching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sharing economy; sharing workers; human resource management practices; service performance; work engagement
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:39:44 CEST)
Based on the Organizational Support Theory, this study examines the relationship between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers by demonstrating the mediation role of work engagement. We tested this theoretical model using an in-person interview questionnaire survey of 318 downwind drivers. Results showed that: (1) the main effect of human resource management practices of sharing workers on service performance was significant; (2) work engagement played a prominent mediation role between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers; (3) the mediation role of employee vigor between the platform incentives and the performance of employee services was significant; (4) employee dedication had an obvious and indirectly positive mediating effect between sharing workers' dimensions of human resource management practice and their service performance; (5) employee absorption on the mediation role between the various dimensions of the sharing human resources management practices (platform support, platform incentives and platform constraints) and employee service performance was significant. This study has important value for the study on human resource management practices in the context of sharing economy, and provides practical enlightenment for employee management of the sharing economy platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automatic Voice Query Service; Automatic Speech Recognition; Multi-Accented Mandarin Speech Recognition
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:55:53 CET)
Automatic Voice Query Service can extremely reduce the artificial cost, which could improve the response efficiency for users. The automatic speech recognition (ASR) is one of the important component in AVQS. However, many dialect areas in China make the AVQS have to response the multi-accented Mandarin users by single acoustic model in ASR. This problem severely limits the accuracy of ASR for multi-accented speech in the AVQS. In this paper, a new framework for AVQS is proposed to improve the accuracy of response. Firstly, the fusion feature including iVector and filterbank acoustic features is used to train the Transformer-CTC model. Secondly, the transformer-CTC model is used to construct the end-to-end ASR. Finally, key words matching algorithm for AVQS based on fuzzy mathematic theory is proposed to further improve the accuracy of response. The results show that the final accuracy in our proposed framework for AVQS arrives at 91.5%. The proposed framework for AVQS can satisfy the service requirement of different areas in mainland of China. This research has a great significance for exploring the application value of artificial intelligence in the real scene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: service accessibility; dementia knowledge; affordability; carer role strain; self-criticism; negative emotions
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:15:14 CET)
Because of an often complicated and difficult-to-access care system, help-seeking for people with suspected dementia can be stressful. Difficulty in help-seeking may contribute to carer burden, in addition to other known stressors in dementia care. This study examined the relationship between perceived help-seeking difficulty and carer burden, and the barriers contributing to perceived difficulty. We interviewed 110 carers accessing a community-based dementia assessment service for suspected dementia of a family member for their perceived difficulty, delays, and barriers in help-seeking, and carers burden in terms of role strain, self-criticism, and negative emotions. Linear regression models showed that perceived help-seeking difficulty is associated with carer self-criticism, while carer role strain and negative emotions are associated with symptom severity of the person with dementia but not help-seeking difficulty. Inadequate knowledge about symptoms, service accessibility, and affordability together explained more than half of the variance in perceived help-seeking difficulty (Nagelkerke R2 = .56). Public awareness about symptoms, support in navigating service, and financial support may reduce perceived difficulty in help-seeking, which in turn may reduce carer self-criticism during the early course of illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0754.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: attitudes; depression; developing countries; medical education; mental health; psychosis; service users; stigma
Online: 30 December 2020 (14:12:49 CET)
This study evaluated the impact of didactic videos and service user testimonial videos on mental illness stigma among medical students. Two randomized controlled trials were conducted in Nepal. Study 1 examined stigma reduction for depression. Study 2 examined depression and psychosis. Participants were Nepali medical students (Study 1:n=94, Study 2:¬n=213) randomized to three conditions: a didactic video based on the mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP), a service user video about living with mental illness, or a control condition with no videos. In Study 1, videos only addressed depression. In Study 2, videos addressed depression and psychosis. In Study 1, both didactic and service user videos reduced stigma compared to the control (F2,91=6.37, p=0.003). In Study 2 (depression and psychosis), there were no differences among the three arms (F2,210=2.07, p=0.13). When comparing Study 1 and 2, there was greater stigma reduction in the service user video arm with only depression versus service user videos with depression and psychosis (t(31)=-3.04, p=0.005). In summary, didactic and service user videos were associated with decreased stigma when content addressed only depression. However, no stigma reduction was seen when including depression and psychosis. This calls for different strategies based on types of mental illnesses. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03231761
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0042.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Reputation; Android; application; sentiment analysis; reviews; security service; NLP; Google Play; polarity
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:49:51 CEST)
To keep its business reliable, Google is concerned to ensure quality of apps on the store. One crucial aspect concerning quality is security. Security is achieved through Google Play protect and anti-malware solutions. However, they are not totally efficient since they rely on application features and application execution threads. Google provides additional elements to enable consumers to collectively evaluate applications providing their experiences via reviews or showing their satisfaction through rating. The latter is more informal and hides details of rating whereas the former is textually expressive but requires further processing to understand opinions behind. Literature lacks approaches which mine reviews through sentiment analysis to extract useful information to improve security aspects of provided applications. This work goes in this direction and in a fine-grained way, investigates in terms of confidentiality, integrity, availability and authentication (CIAA). While assuming that reviews are reliable and not fake, the proposed approach determines review polarities based on CIAA-related keywords. We rely on the popular classifier Naive Bayes to classify reviews into positive, negative and neutral sentiment. We then provide an aggregation model to fusion different polarities to obtain application global and CIAA reputations. Quantitative experiments have been conducted on 13 applications including e-banking, live messaging and anti-malware apps with a total of 1050 security-related reviews and 7.835.322 functionality-related reviews. Results show that 23% of applications (03 apps) have a reputation greater than 0.5 with an accent on integrity, authentication and availability, while the remaining 77% has a polarity under 0.5. Developers should make lot of efforts in security while developing codes and that more efforts should be made to improve confidentiality reputation. Results also show that applications with good functionality-related reputation generally offer bad security-related reputation. This situation means that even if the number of security reviews is low, it does not mean that security aspect is not a consumer preoccupation. Unlike, developers put much more time to test whether applications works without errors even if they include possible security vulnerabilities. A quantitative comparison against well-known rating systems reveals effectiveness and robustness of CIAA-RepDroid to repute apps in terms of security. CIAA-RepDroid can be associated to existing rating solutions to recommend developers exact CIAA aspects to improve within source codes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0332.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: reputation; Android; application; sentiment analysis; comments; security service; NLP; Google Play; polarity
Online: 23 March 2020 (04:22:23 CET)
Comments are exploited by product vendors to measure satisfaction of consumers. With the advent of Natural Language Processing (NLP), comments on Google Play can be processed to extract knowledge on applications such as their reputation. Proposals in that direction are either informal or interested merely on functionality. Unlike, this work aims to determine reputation of Android applications in terms of confidentiality, integrity, availability and authentication (CIAA). This work proposes a model of assessing app reputation relying on sentiment analysis and text analysis of comments. While assuming that comments are reliable, we collect Google Play applications subject to comments which include security keywords. An in-depth analysis of keywords based on Naive Bayes classification is made to provide polarity of any comment. Based on comment polarity, reputation is evaluated for the whole application. Experiments made on real applications including dozens to billions of comments, reveal that developers lack to make efforts to guarantee CIAA services. A fine-grained analysis shows that not security reputed applications can be reputed in specific CIAA services. Results also show that applications with negative security polarities display in general positive functional polarities. This result suggests that security checking should include careful comment analysis to improve security of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: startup failure; competency approach; Critical Incident Technique; Information seeking; Customer service orientation
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:37:41 CET)
Purpose: There is limited research on the reasons behind startup failure, and none of the available studies use a competency approach. In this study we applied Spencer’s competency model to identify the competencies in startups which, according to their CEOs, contributed to failure. Methodology: Three coders analyzed the stories of 50 startup failures published online using modified Critical Incident Technique. Findings: Two salient competencies were identified playing a fundamental role in startup failures if missing: Information seeking and Customer service orientation. A network pattern of 9 more prevalent competency deficits was created: Technical/professional/managerial expertise, Analytical thinking, Flexibility, Self-control, Concern for order, quality and accuracy, Interpersonal understanding, Self-confidence, Team leadership and Teamwork and cooperation. Besides startup-specific behavior descriptions were added to Spencer’s competencies. Research implications: Competency approach and Critical Incident Technique method proved to be feasible to identify competency deficits in failed startups. Practical implications: The identified competency deficits offer relevant focus areas for the assessment and development of startup teams. Originality: The study provided research evidence to describe the competency deficits of startup teams that are connected to their failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Speech/Music Classification; Enhanced Voice Service, Long Short-Term Memory, Big Data
Online: 5 November 2018 (17:02:36 CET)
Speech/music classification that facilitates optimized signal processing from classification results has been extensively adapted as an essential part of various electronics applications, such as multi-rate audio codecs, automatic speech recognition, and multimedia document indexing. In this paper, a new technique to improve the robustness of speech/music classifier for 3GPP enhanced voice service (EVS) using long short-term memory (LSTM) is proposed. For effective speech/music classification, feature vectors implemented with the LSTM are chosen from the features of the EVS. Experiments show that LSTM-based speech/music classification produces better results than conventional EVS under a variety of conditions and types of speech/music data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Aordable Care Act, Flexible Spending Accounts, Insurance Coverage, Multiple Service Plans
Online: 29 June 2018 (16:10:38 CEST)
Motivated by the theoretical model of health insurance choice with Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs) presented in Cardon 2012, this study investigates the determinants of optional coverage (SSP) and flexible spending accounts (FSA) enrollment, among the privately insured in post-affordable-care-act (ACA) USA. To this end, we rely on semi-parametric bi-variate probit methods, along with a pooled cross-section of the 2015-2016 National Health Interview Surveys. As predicted by the theoretical model, we find that SSP and FSA are complement health solutions with a positive correlation. Our results emphasize that the most important trigger factors influencing the joint probability of SSP and FSA adoption include not only insurance premium cost, but also age, education, marital status, number of work hours, region of residency, citizenship status, and annual health expenditure level. We find that controlling for these latter factors, health status is not significant especially for FSA adoption. In addition, despite the fact that the relative frequency of individuals with FSA rises with increasing levels of medical expenditure, ACA restrictions on FSA tax exclusion to an annual adjusted maximum of $2600 (in 2017 $s) seems to adversely burden individuals with greater medical expenditure, thereby reducing their likelihood of FSA enrollment in post-ACA USA. Understanding these factors is very crucial to US health care market's stakeholders, including insurance companies, firms looking to design their health insurance offerings, but also policy-makers interested in providing new tailored health solutions for reducing health risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Fishermen; Lake Ziway; Small scale irrigation users; Socioeconomic benefit; Wetland ecosystem service
Online: 22 July 2016 (16:02:46 CEST)
ABSTRACT This study focused for socio-economic benefit of Western shoreline of Lake Ziway ecosystem. The data collected from two woredas they are Adami Tulu Jidu Kombolch (ATJK) and Dugda woreda of fishermen and small scale irrigation users. Lake Ziway great importance food and water for both groups of respondents and additionally sources of raw material, energy, cultivation, organic fertilizers, genetic and medicinal plants. Lake Ziway also has a major economic benefit for both groups of respondents. The sampled fishermen cached mean amount of 2,524Kg per year with minimum and maximum amount of fish 504Kg and 16,800Kg per year respectively and with this fish catching they got average income of 51,398 Birr ($2,570) per year with range of 7,200 Birr ($360) and 288,000 Birr ($14,400) per year. As like of fishermen small scale irrigation also got economic benefit with their production of cereal crops, fruits and vegetables. They produce in average 13.47Quintal of cereal crop and 69.56Quintal of fruits and vegetables per year and they got average income of 7,727 Birr ($386) and with range of 13,714 Birr ($686) per year respectively. this incurred that wetland ecosystem has a lot of socio-economic benefit for the people live near by specially for developing countries like Ethiopia they are more dependent on natural ecosystem like of Lake Ziway. Because of its high importance, we have to protect and conserve and use sustainably of Lake Ziway and similar wetland ecosystems. Key Words: Wetland ecosystem service; Lake Ziway; Socioeconomic benefit; Fishermen; Small scale irrigation users
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0083.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ecosystem services; Natural resource management; Natural capital; Ecosystem service provisioning; Cost-benefit ratio
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:27:39 CET)
Natural capital is the wealth of nations that give them the economic status they represent. Worldwide, vulnerable people depend on natural capital for employment, salaries, wealth, and livelihoods and, in turn, determine the developmental index of the nation to which they belong. The availability of ecological services is crucial for clean water and air, food and fodder, and agricultural development. In this short commentary, we have tried to sum up the ideas and discussions over natural capital's role in ascribing economic status to countries. We have discussed how the prosperity of humans is intertwined with the services ecosystems provide and how poor natural resource management (NRM) has adversely cost human well-being. The paper concludes that to ensure the current and future human well-being, an in-depth understanding of the services ecosystems provide, is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; infrastructure planning; town & city planning; municipal & public service engineering; smart city
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:32:10 CEST)
With the continuous emergence and application of new technologies, the construction of smart cities has entered the practical promotion period. Since 2012, the pilot construction of smart city has been promoted by the government in China. On the basis of these practical experiences, this paper presents an overview of the latest technologies and applications for smart city construction in China and demonstrates that smart city strategy needs to be implemented according to local conditions, adhering to the people-oriented concept and using scientific and effective top-level design and planning. The construction of smart city is comprehensive system engineering, including the integration of geographic information sharing service platform, full-cycle management and control system of urban planning, construction and social management, as well as intelligent business information management system of gardening, water conservancy, environmental protection and other industries and departments. The information system (GIS), satellite remote sensing (SRS), global navigation satellite system (GNSS), Internet of things, mobile applications, cloud computing, visualization technology ware used to promote urban construction and sustainable development, and to meet the needs of future smart city development. Results show that centralized management is very important for the construction of smart city. The government plays a major role in the construction of smart city, which will be conducive to the development of new technologies and the effective use of smart city construction resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: fault location; service restoration; particle swam optimization; microgrid; power flow; short-circuit fault
Online: 12 September 2019 (03:59:27 CEST)
This work aims to develop an integrated fault location and restoration approach for microgrids (MGs). This work contains two parts. Part I presents the fault location algorithm, and Part II shows the restoration algorithm. The proposed algorithms are implemented by particle swarm optimization (PSO). The fault location algorithm is based on network connection matrices, which are the modifications of bus-injection to branch-current and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices, to form the new system topology. The backward/forward sweep approach is used for the prefault power flow analysis. After the occurrence of fault, the voltage variation at each bus is calculated by using the Zbus modification algorithm to modify Zbus. Subsequently, the voltage error matrix is computed to search for the fault section by using PSO. After the allocation of the fault section, the multi-objective function is implemented by PSO for optimal restoration with its constraints. Finally, the IEEE 37-bus test system connected to distributed generations is utilized as the sample system for a series simulation and analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the proposed optimal algorithm can effectively solve the fault location and restoration problem in MGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: academic entrepreneurship; TTOs; full service KTOs; academic entrepreneurship in Bangladesh; patents in Bangladesh
Online: 14 August 2019 (03:13:18 CEST)
Academic entrepreneurship focuses on commercialization of research. Even though it is practiced worldwide for decades, Bangladesh is a newcomer in this segment. In Bangladesh only 2 Universities have Technology Transfer Offices or TTOs which are established with the sole focus of commercialization of researches of the students and the faculty members of the Universities. This article focuses on worldwide practices of technology transfer and academic entrepreneurial activities and also explores the opportunities and challenges of such entrepreneurs through detail investigation of the existing body of knowledge. Apart from exploring the problems and prospect of academic entrepreneurship in Bangladesh, this article also introduces the concept of Full-Service Knowledge Transfer Office (KTO), which existing literatures do not offer. The authors believe that by establishing such KTOs as a self-sustaining body, it is possible for an academic entrepreneur to stimulate, support and sustain their activities in Bangladesh. The concept of full service KTOs can also become models for other nations, specially the developing ones, to establish and nurture a culture of academic entrepreneurship.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Cloud manufacturing, Computer Numerical Control (CNC), Control as a Service, Cyber-physical system
Online: 28 May 2019 (10:25:13 CEST)
Cloud-based CNC is an emerging paradigm of Industry 4.0 where computer numerical control (CNC) functionalities are moved to the cloud and provided to manufacturing machines as a service. Among many benefits, C-CNC allows manufacturing machines to leverage advanced control algorithms running on cloud computers to boost their performance at low cost, without need for major hardware upgrades. However, a fundamental challenge of C-CNC is how to guarantee safety and reliability of machine control given variable Internet quality of service, especially on public Internet networks. We propose a three-tier redundant architecture to address this challenge. We then prototype tier one of the architecture on a 3D printer successfully controlled via C-CNC over public Internet connections, and discuss follow-on research opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0237.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: internet of things (IoT); security; quality of service; energy; cognitive packet network; SerIoT
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:25:34 CEST)
SerIoT is a Research and Innovation Project funded by the European Commission to demonstrate secure networks for the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper presents an overview of the design for smart and secure network infrastructures for the IoT, based on Software Defined Networks (SDN), named the SerCPN system, whose main component is a smart SDN-Controller with online cognitive security surveillance and reporting, which establishes and dynamically modifies paths that enhance security for IoT devices and end users, and offers a high quality of service (QoS) with required security constraints. This online cognitive surveillance and path management is based on the Cognitive Packet Network (CPN) principle and uses Random Neural Networks (RNN) for decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Product Service System (PSS); Servitization; Productization; Symbiosis; Enterprise Management; Conceptual Framework; Strategic Change
Online: 16 February 2018 (18:09:13 CET)
To remain competitive in the current market, an enterprise must differentiate itself based on higher value propositions. For this purpose, since improving the product or service performance can reach some limits, one potential solution is to move towards new combinations of products and services. This evolution, called servitization, leads to the generation of Product-Service Systems (PSS). Servitization requires not only a clear understanding of enterprise core business but also a clear vision on the prevailing trends and challenges of PSS development from both business and technological points of view. In addition, the evolution path should be aligned with the enterprise strategy. This paper first highlights the notion of symbiotic PSS where Product Systems and Service Systems, and their stakeholders, interoperate seamlessly based on a win-win approach. Then it proposes a PSS Conceptual Framework (PSS-CF) which can be applied in the early stages of servitization to increase the understating of PSS dimensions and to facilitate the prioritization of the servitization investments. The framework dimensions were discussed in several iterations, from both academic and industrial points of view, in the frame of a European research project. Moreover, the applicability of the framework was studied in four different industrial Use-Cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: product service system (pss); servitization; productization; conceptual model; conceptualization; enterprise management; strategic change
Online: 11 February 2018 (04:16:52 CET)
Servitization or productization, indicating evolution from product to service economy or vice-versa, can be considered as a successful strategy to gain competitiveness based on novel combination of products and services. To decrease the risks of servitization and to support the sustainable development of its main outcome, being Product Service System (PSS), it is required not only to have a clear and common understanding of the core business and processes but also to share the same definitions on (PSS) concepts as the main outcome of servitization. For this purpose, managers could be supported by abstract models with a limited number and high ratio of known concepts in the early stages of PSS development. Through an extensive literature review on this subject, followed by a structured conceptualization approach and discussions with domain experts, this paper proposes a Conceptual Model (PSS-CM). To validate the results, PSS-CM and its elements were discussed in several iterations, from both academic and industrial points of view, in the frame of a European research project. In the frame of this project, a case study was also performed to illustrate the instantiation of PSS-CM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0162.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Internet of Things; IoTivity; HEMS; HAN; Cloud; Backend-as-a-Service; RTOS; Contiki-OS
Online: 9 November 2021 (09:22:51 CET)
In developing countries today, population growth and the penetration of higher standard of living appliances in homes has resulted in a rapidly increasing residential load. In South Africa, the recent rolling blackouts and electricity price increase only highlighted this reality calling for sustainable measures to reduce the overall consumption and peak load. The dawn of the smart grid concept, embedded systems and ICTs have paved the way to novel HEMS design. In this regard, the Internet of Things (IoT), an enabler for smart and efficient energy management systems is seeing increasing attention for optimizing HEMS design and mitigate its deployment cost constraints. In this work, we propose an IoT platform for residential energy management applications focusing on interoperability, low-cost, technology availability and scalability. We focus on the backend complexities of IoT Home Area Networks (HAN) using the OCF IoTivity-Lite middleware. To augment the quality, servicing and reduce cost and complexities, this work leverages open-source Cloud technologies from Back4App as BaaS to provide consumer and Utilities with a data communication platform within an experimental study illustrating time and space agnostic “mind-changing” energy feedback, Demand Response Management (DRM) and appliance operation control via a HEM App via an Android smartphone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0419.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: analytic hierarchy process; call setup success rate; mobile network; quality of service; six sigma
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:29:36 CEST)
Call set up success rate (CSSR) in a mobile network is an important quality parameter, which directly influences overall key performance indicators (KPIs) of the network service providers. Network KPIs especially the CSSR is the fraction of the attempts to make a call that result in a successful connection to the dialled number. Nevertheless, all call attempts do not end with a connection to the dialled number. In this research, six sigma methodology is applied to improve the call quality of a legacy mobile network and subsequently to boost comprehensive CSSR of a telecom service provider. This research elucidates an empirical study of improving overall CSSR by employing DMAIC methodology consisting of five stages, e.g. Define, Measure, Analysis, Improve and Control. In addition, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique is used for determining the vital causes out of all the identified network parameters affecting overall CSSR. Furthermore, the identified vital parameters are being upgraded in order to improve the overall CSSR and finally the system achieved a higher CSSR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: System Dynamics, Overseas Warehouse, Cross-border E-commerce, Logistics Service Quality, Healthcare Supplies Export
Online: 2 July 2021 (11:13:54 CEST)
The novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic is still raging around the world. Therefore, during the period of a global pandemic, maintaining the normal circulation of medicine and health fields is the key to fight against the epidemic. This paper based on relevant data such as the export volume of cross-border e-commerce in Hangzhou, China from 2015 to 2019, the article uses system dynamics modeling to explore the impact of overseas warehouse services on cross-border e-commerce export transactions. Studies have shown that the introduction of overseas warehouses has significantly improved customer satisfaction and improved the quality of cross-border logistics services, which has a positive impact on cross-border e-commerce export transactions. Through sensitivity analysis, it can be seen that under the same conditions, the efficiency of customs clearance has the greatest impact on overseas warehouse services. Therefore, when allocating various investments in overseas warehouses, you can favor the customs clearance process to enhance the competitiveness of the cross-border e-commerce market and provide a feasible experience for healthcare supplies export from cross-border e-commerce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: expectancy disconfirmation theory; customer satisfaction; e-commerce personalized service; recommendation system; deep neural network
Online: 2 January 2020 (05:34:39 CET)
With the development of information technology and the popularization of mobile devices, collecting various types of customer data such as purchase history or behavior patterns became possible. As the customer data being accumulated, there is a growing demand for personalized recommendation services that provide customized services to customers. Currently, global e-commerce companies offer personalized recommendation services to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. However, previous research on recommendation systems has consistently raised the issue that the accuracy of recommendation algorithms does not necessarily lead to the satisfaction of recommended service users. It also claims that customers are highly satisfied when the recommendation system recommends diverse items to them. In this study, we want to identify the factors that determine customer satisfaction when using the recommendation system which provides personalized services. To this end, we developed a recommendation system based on Deep Neural Networks (DNN) and measured the accuracy of recommendation service, the diversity of recommended items and customer satisfaction with the recommendation service. The experimental results of is the study showed that both recommendation system accuracy and diversity would have a positive effect on customer satisfaction. These results can further improve customer satisfaction with the recommendation system and promote the sustainable development of e-commerce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0117.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: telecommunication networks, wireless networks, service levels, resource allocation, optimization problem, decomposition methods, Lagrange duality
Online: 7 May 2018 (14:45:40 CEST)
We consider a general problem of optimal allocation of limited resources in a wireless telecommunication network. The users are divided into several different groups (or classes), which correspond to different levels of service. The network manager must satisfy these different users requirements. This approach leads to a convex optimization problem with balance and capacity constraints. We present several decomposition type methods to find a solution of this problem, which exploit its special features. We suggest to apply first the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the total capacity constraint, which gives the one-dimensional dual problem. However, calculation of the value of the dual cost function requires solution of several optimization problems. Our methods differ in approaches of solution of these auxiliary problems. We compare the performance of the suggested methods on several series of test problems. They show rather satisfactory convergence. Nevertheless, proper decomposition technique enhance the convergence essentially.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: body expression; self-concept; pre-service training; physical activity; physical education; COVID-19 pandemic; emotions
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:23:17 CET)
Body Expression (BE) has been defined in the past decades as a discipline within Physical Education (PE) with very particular characteristics and a strong emotional component. In this study, a programme of this discipline was applied to university Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) students from six consecutive academic years: three prior to and three during the pandemic. A pre-post design was used to determine how the BE programme affected the university students' self-concept (SC). To do so, a questionnaire with a multidimensional approach to this construct was administered, whose dimensions were closely related to the BE programme's characteristics. The results revealed significant improvements in the final SC, compared to the initial SC. Men reported lower SC values than women before the programme implementation, but higher at the end. Therefore, the change was larger in men, so the programme may have had an equalising effect between groups. It was also verified that the pandemic had particularly affected women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Value co-creation; Shared decision making; Stakeholder theory; Service-dominant logic; Co-created decision making
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:19:01 CEST)
Rare diseases are characterized by a wide diversity of signs and symptoms and vary not only from disease to disease, but also from person to person, and living with a disease leads patients to peculiar experiences and treatments, without limits of time and space, as they extend to various environments and relationships of their lives. The objective of this study is the theoretical interaction between Value Co-creation (VC) and the Stakeholder Theory (ST) with the Shared Decision Making (SDM) health care theory. It is configured as a multiparadigmatic proposal by enabling the analysis of multiple perspectives of different stakeholders in health care. Thus, Co-created Decision Making (CDM) emerges in a logic dominated by service, with emphasis on intangible aspects and the interactivity of the relationships. It goes beyond the clinical office and the doctor-patient relationships, as studied in SDM, extending to all environments and interactions that add value to the patient's treatment. It was concluded that the essence of this new theory proposed here is neither in patient-centered care nor in patient self-care, but in co-created relationships with and between stakeholders in both directions, including non-health care environments that are important to the patient, such as relationships with friends, family, other patients with the same disease, social media, public policies, and the practice of pleasurable activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Voltage Regulation (VR); Distributed Generation (DG); Renewable Energy Sources (RES); Voltage Regulation (VR); Ancillary Service
Online: 28 April 2022 (08:36:36 CEST)
Voltage Stability & Control, is very crucial compared to other Power System (PS) Quality and Stability issues. Long-Vertical-Power-Flows in Conventional Grids, causes voltage drops which in turn causes huge power losses, especially in the Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) Distribution Networks. Such technical losses in abysmally-planned weak distribution networks, lead to substantial loss of revenues to the utility grid. Apart from classic Voltage Regulation (VR) techniques, with the rise of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES), Horizontal-Power-Flows can be introduced in the network, through various Smart Grid techniques. Coupling such sources, near load centers shall mitigate long flows from expensive conventional sources at times of huge demands, improving feeders’ Voltage Profile. This Ancillary Service of Voltage Support from DG RESs shall thereby alleviate revenue losses caused by long-power-flows in weak distribution grids. For a developing country like Pakistan, loss of revenue from an already expensive utility gives huge blow to the economy. So, a similar technique for voltage support is proposed for an 11-kV feeder, which faces similar problem, and the results are remarkable. The technique is implemented using OpenDSS Tool by modelling 3MWp PV Penetration along with some future storage.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: pricing services; value-pricing services; services Nash Equilibrium; value co-creation; service science; services metrology
Online: 17 April 2021 (08:51:58 CEST)
We present a normative methodology, for value-pricing B2B services, using a Nash Equilibrium mechanism. Value is fundamental to any service, yet it has defied a definition. The literature is conspicuously silent on how to define value, but abounds in richly descriptive characterizations. To overcome this deficit, we focus on the financial economics of service-value. We formulate an axiomatic definition and a differential equation that embodies the idea of service-value. We specify a set of value axioms and multidisciplinary postulates that coherently form our service-value constructs. Value-pricing is challenging. It is natural that providers desire a high price and customers want a low price. Realistically, both will agree on a win-win price. To uncover this price, we specify an algorithm to reveal the Nash Equilibrium. Once agreed, it validates providers’ and customers’ commitments, and payment obligations. Service value is cocreated by both provider and customer. For a reciprocal process, its treatment is remarkably asymmetric favoring the customer. We argue that one-sided descriptions of value-in-use and value-proposition are limiting mental models. We propose the additional ideas of value-from-use and value-supposition to strengthen the conceptual symmetry of cocreation. Our work reveals a critical gap in service science, metrology. Metrology, the science of measurements, is absent from service-science. Service-value is silent on the questions of quantities, units, scales, measurement principles and instruments. We argue for a call to action for Service Metrology. We sketch a roadmap of actionable suggestions to get started.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Elderly with dementia; needs; utilization; essential care service package; long-term care system; health policy
Online: 1 February 2021 (11:24:37 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) remain a public health challenge in developing counties. We developed a needs-based essential care service package (ECSP) for care planning of persons living with dementia (PLWD) using a cross-sectional survey among PLWD in institutions in six cities in China (n= 1,299). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with caregivers of PLWD by trained staff between 2018 and 2019. Care service needs and utilization by the level of cognitive impairment were summarized. The average age of PLWD was 80.7 years. 76% of participants had severe cognitive impairment. The needs-based ECSP with 30 service items would be sufficient in supporting care services of PLWD in China, of which seven items are core care. The selection plan for ECSP at different levels is designed as “General Care Services + Selective Care Services”, in which service items for low-, mid-and high-level care for PLWD are 7+3, 7+6, and 7+10, respectively. The findings provide the first large-scale data on service needs and utilization of PLWD in mainland China. The ECSP for PLWD advanced in the paper was a practicable and effective quantitative management means. It is deserved to application in a large scale.