ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: robust optimization; uncertainty; point estimation method; equality constraints; parameter correlation
Online: 7 September 2018 (06:04:43 CEST)
Model-based design has received considerable attention in biological and chemical industries over the last two decades. However, the parameter uncertainties of first-principle models are critical in model-based design and have led to the development of robustification concepts. Various strategies were introduced to solve the robust optimization problem. Most approaches suffer from either unreasonable computational expense or low approximation accuracy. Moreover, they are not rigorous and do not consider robust optimization problems where parameter correlation and equality constraints exist. In this work, we propose a highly efficient framework for solving robust optimization problems with the so-called point estimation method (PEM). The PEM has a fair trade-off between computation expense and approximation accuracy and can be easily extended to problems of parameter correlations. From a statistical point of view, moment-based methods are used to approximate robust inequality and equality constraints. We also suggest employing the information from global sensitivity analysis to further simplify robust optimization problems with a large number of uncertain parameters. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed framework with two case studies where one is to design a heating/cooling profile for the essential part of a continuous production process and the other is to optimize the feeding profile for a fed-batch reactor of the penicillin fermentation process. The results reveal that the proposed approach can be used successfully for complex (bio)chemical problems in model-based design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0696.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Archaeological Data Science; Artificial Intelligence; Unsupervised Learning; Generative Adversarial Networks; Robust Statistics.
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:43:36 CET)
The fossil record is notorious for being incomplete and distorted, frequently conditioning the type of knowledge that can be extracted from it. In many cases, this often leads to issues when performing complex statistical analyses, such as classification tasks, predictive modelling, and variance analyses, such as those used in Geometric Morphometrics. Here different Generative Adversarial Network architectures are experimented with, testing the effects of sample size and domain dimensionality on model performance. For model evaluation, robust statistical methods were used. Each of the algorithms were observed to produce realistic data. Generative Adversarial Networks using different loss functions produced multidimensional synthetic data significantly equivalent to the original training data. Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks were not as successful. The methods proposed are likely to reduce the impact of sample size and bias on a number of statistical learning applications. While Generative Adversarial Networks are not the solution to all sample-size related issues, combined with other pre-processing steps these limitations may be overcome. This presents a valuable means of augmenting geometric morphometric datasets for greater predictive visualization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0076.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: big data; machine learning; regularization; data quality; robust learning framework
Online: 17 October 2017 (03:47:41 CEST)
The concept of ‘big data’ has been widely discussed, and its value has been illuminated throughout a variety of domains. To quickly mine potential values and alleviate the ever-increasing volume of information, machine learning is playing an increasingly important role and faces more challenges than ever. Because few studies exist regarding how to modify machine learning techniques to accommodate big data environments, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the evolution of big data, the foundations of machine learning, and the bottlenecks and trends of machine learning in the big data era. More specifically, based on learning principals, we discuss regularization to enhance generalization. The challenges of quality in big data are reduced to the curse of dimensionality, class imbalances, concept drift and label noise, and the underlying reasons and mainstream methodologies to address these challenges are introduced. Learning model development has been driven by domain specifics, dataset complexities, and the presence or absence of human involvement. In this paper, we propose a robust learning paradigm by aggregating the aforementioned factors. Over the next few decades, we believe that these perspectives will lead to novel ideas and encourage more studies aimed at incorporating knowledge and establishing data-driven learning systems that involve both data quality considerations and human interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: deep neural network; deep learning controller; nonlinear plant; adaptive inverse control; robust control; autoencoder; computational complexity; sensor control
Online: 20 July 2022 (13:44:39 CEST)
An adaptive deep neural network is used in an inverse system identification setting to approximate the inverse of a nonlinear plant with the aim of constituting the plant controller by copying to the latter the weights and architecture of the converging deep neural network. This deep learning (DL) approach to the adaptive inverse control (AIC) problem is shown to outperform adaptive filtering techniques and algorithms normally used in adaptive control, especially when the plant is nonlinear. The deeper the controller the better the inverse function approximation, provided that the nonlinear plant have an inverse and that this inverse can be approximated. Simulation results prove the feasibility of this DL-based adaptive inverse control scheme. The DL-based AIC system is robust to parameter change of the nonlinear plant in that, under such change, the plant output reassumes the value of the reference signal considerably faster than with the adaptive filter counterpart of the deep neural network. Settling times and rise times of the step response are shown to improve in the DL-based AIC system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0499.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Cybersecurity; artificial intelligence; machine learning; cyber data analytics; intelligent decision-making; adversarial attacks; robust secured systems; industry 4.0 applications.
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:53:56 CET)
Due to the rising dependency on digital technology, cybersecurity has emerged as a more prominent field of research and application that typically focuses on securing devices, networks, systems, data and other resources from various cyber-attacks, threats, risks, damages, or unauthorized access. Artificial Intelligence (AI), also referred to as a crucial technology of the current Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR), could be the key to intelligently dealing with these cyber issues. Various forms of AI methodologies, such as analytical, functional, interactive, textual as well as visual AI can be employed to get the desired cyber solutions according to their computational capabilities. However, the dynamic nature and complexity of real-world situations and data gathered from various cyber sources make it challenging nowadays to build an effective AI-based security model. Moreover, defending robustly against adversarial attacks is still an open question in the area. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive view on "Cybersecurity Intelligence and Robustness", emphasizing multi-aspects AI-based modeling and adversarial learning that could lead to addressing diverse issues in various cyber applications areas such as detecting malware or intrusions, zero-day attacks, phishing, data breach, cyberbullying and other cybercrimes. Thus the eventual security modeling process could be automated, intelligent, and robust compared to traditional security systems. We also emphasize and draw attention to the future aspects of cybersecurity intelligence and robustness along with the research direction within the context of our study. Overall, our goal is not only to explore AI-based modeling and pertinent methodologies but also to focus on the resulting model's applicability for securing our digital systems and society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0075.v3
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: azithromycin; HPLC; robust; isocratic; drug stability; degradation products
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:08:52 CET)
A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as mobile phase comprising of acetonitrile-0.1M KH2PO4 pH 6.5-0.1M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59% v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase XTerra® (250 mm× 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range 50-150% (r2=0.997). The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.02% (20 µg) and 0.078% (78 µg) respectively with a 100.7% recovery of azithromycin. Degradation products of azithromycin in acidic and oxidative environments at 37 °C were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient and thus the method is fit for the purpose of drug stability confirmation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0201.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Optimal control; Robust protocol; Ion Cyclotron Resonance
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:57:59 CEST)
We study the application of Optimal Control Theory to Ion Cyclotron Resonance. We test the validity and the efficiency of this approach for the robust excitation of an ensemble of ions with a wide range of cyclotron frequencies. Optimal analytical solutions are derived in the case without any pulse constraint. A gradient-based numerical optimization algorithm is proposed to take into account limitation in the control intensity. The efficiency of optimal pulses is investigated as a function of control time, maximum amplitude and range of excited frequencies. A comparison with adiabatic and SWIFT pulses is done. On the basis of recent results in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, this study highlights the potential usefulness of optimal control in Ion Cyclotron Resonance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0528.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Robust Optimization; Optimization Under Uncertainty; Robustness; Stochastic
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:04:54 CET)
A Robust Optimization framework with original concepts and fundamentals also admitting a fusion of ideals from relative regret models and static robust optimization, containing conservatism concepts is disclosed. The algorithm uses a fine-tune strategy to tune the model so the robustness and a target ideality can be mutually achieved with a specified risk. The framework comprises original concepts, a mathematical approach and an algorithm. The statistical treatment of the data with the original concepts from the framework make it able to make short, middle or long-term decision-making setting. The framework has high tractability since the algorithm forces the creation of a setting that makes a robust optimization with the specified risk. The framework can be applied in linear and nonlinear mathematical models since that the objective function is monotonic in the domain of the active convex region. Several examples are solved to best understand the framework and all results demonstrated high tractability and performance. There is a wide range of applications. Along all the text, there is a profound discussion about its philosophy, objective, original concepts, fields of application, statistical and probabilistic fundamentals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: H infinity; μ –synthesis; robust control theory
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:39:01 CEST)
In this paper, the design and analysis of coupled tank water level control system is done using robust control theory. The main aim of this work is to improve level controlling mechanisms in industries and household areas. In this paper, H ∞ and μ –synthesis controllers are designed to improve the level control system. The coupled tank water level control system is designed using the proposed controller’s comparison and tested for tracking a reference level signals (step, sine wave and random) and simulation results have been analyzed successfully. Finally the comparative simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed coupled tank water level control system with H ∞ controller for improving the tracking mechanism performance of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: H∞ Loop Shaping; Robust Pole Placement; Windshield
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:31:28 CEST)
Vehicle windshield wiper system increases the driving safety by contributing a clear shot viewing to the driver. In this paper, modelling, designing and simulation of a vehicle windshield wiper system with robust control theory is done successfully. H∞ loop shaping and robust pole placement controllers are used to improve the wiping speed by tracking a reference speed signals. The reference speed signals used in this paper are step and sine wave signals. Comparison of the H∞ loop shaping and robust pole placement controllers based on the two reference signals is done and convincing results have been obtained. Finally the comparative results prove the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ Loop Shaping controller to improve the wiping mechanism for the given two reference signals.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: textile reinforced composite; shape memory alloy; robust stability
Online: 22 December 2019 (01:56:09 CET)
This paper develops the mathematical modeling and deflection control of a textile-reinforced composite integrated with shape memory actuators. The model of the system is derived using identification method and unstructured uncertainty approach. Based on this model and robust stability analysis a robust proportional-integral controller is designed for controlling the deflection of the composite. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with a classical one through experimental analysis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0196.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; Vertical Take Off and Landing; Robust Control; Hybrid Propulsion of Aerial Vehicles; Sliding Mode Control; Robust Control
Online: 11 January 2023 (09:55:40 CET)
Object of this work is the design and the simulation of a hybrid UAV with VTOL capabilities that has been designed for landing on naval moving platforms. The work is focused on the innovative propulsion layout adopted on the UAV. Authors discuss how adopted low level control strategies can exploit the innovative features of the proposed system assuring a good rejection of transversal wind disturbances. Particular attention is dedicated to low level modelling and control of the system emphasizing how choices regarding low level actuation and control should improve performances and robustness of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0348.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: robust codes; bent-functions; spline-wavelet decomposition; error detection
Online: 18 August 2022 (11:07:32 CEST)
The paper investigates new robust code constructions based on bent functions and spline–wavelet transformation. Implementation of bent functions in codes construction increases the probability of error detection in the data channel and cryptographic devices. Meanwhile, use of spline–wavelets theory for constructing the codes gives the possibility to increase system security from the actions of an attacker. Presented constructions combines spline–wavelets functions and bent functions. Developed robust codes, compared to existing ones, have a higher parameter of maximum error masking probability. Illustrated codes are ensuring the security of transmitted information. Some of the granted constructions were implemented on FPGA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: μ –synthesis; linear quadratic regulator; optimal control; robust control
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:22:32 CEST)
In this paper, an electromechanical mass lifter system is designed, analyzed and compare using optimal and robust control theories. LQR and μ -synthesis controllers are used to improve the lift displacement by comparison method for tracking the desired step and sinusoidal wave signals input. Finally, the comparison simulation result prove the effectiveness of the electromechanical mass lifter system with μ -synthesis controller for improving the rise time, percentage overshoot, settling time and peak value of tracking the desired step displacement signal and improving the peak value for tracking the desired sinusoidal displacement signal with a good performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: magnetic levitation; multiple sclerosis; diagnostics; robust machine learning; pattern recognition
Online: 10 November 2022 (03:16:37 CET)
The emerging advancements in separation and classification of various biological matters (e.g., living cells and proteins) using magnetic levitation (MagLev) technology have proven to be effective for improving disease diagnostics. MagLev technique has the capacity to detect and separate useful diagnostic biomarkers from biocomplex environments (e.g., blood and plasma), minimizing the unpleasant daunting task of sample preparations and labeling procedures. Here, we demonstrate the capability of this technique combined with image analysis and machine learning approaches for discriminating the various types of multiple sclerosis (MS) as an important model disease. To arrive at a systematic expert system, we combined robust statistical analysis with machine learning to (1) detect and remove outliers from the raw MagLev image datasets; then (2) process the images and output a low dimensional representation of massive data without losing the main statistical features; and finally (3) predict the MS clinical disease type (Relapsing-Remitting, Primary–Progressive, or Secondary–Progressive) using a classifier. This is expected to improve MS diagnostics since the current practices rely solely on clinical observation and central nervous system imaging, making management approaches are often reactional and inefficient. Thus, there is a need to identify the disease type early on. MagLev is expected to improve MS diagnostics, thereby aiding in prognosis and guiding adequate treatment choices before the patient exhibits signs of permanent neurological deficits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0091.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Robust PCA, RPCA, PCP, IALM, Noise Reduction, Pulsed Thermography, CFRP
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:26:47 CEST)
Pulsed thermography is a commonly used non-destructive testing method, and is increasingly studied for advanced materials such as carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) evaluation. Different processing approaches are proposed to detect and characterize anomalies that may be generated in structures during the manufacturing cycle or service period. In this study, we used a type of matrix decomposition using Robust-PCA via Inexact-ALM in our experiment. We investigate this method as a pre-and post-processing method on thermal data acquired by pulsed thermography. We employed state-of-the-art methods, i.e., PCT, PPT, and PLST, as the main process. The results indicate that pre-processing on thermal data can elevate the defect detectability while post-processing, in some cases, can deteriorate the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: robust control; preview control; repetitive control; controller design; uncertain systems
Online: 20 November 2018 (12:30:14 CET)
A robust guaranteed cost preview repetitive controller is proposed for a class of polytopic uncertain discrete-time systems. In order to improve the tracking performance, the repetitive controller combined with preview compensator is inserted in the forward channel. By using the L-order forward difference operator, an augmented dynamic system is constructed. Then, the guaranteed cost preview repetitive control problem is transformed into the guaranteed cost control problem for the augmented dynamic system. For given performance index, the sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for the closed-loop system is derived by combining parameter-dependent Lyapunov function method with linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques. By incorporating the controller obtained into the original system, the guaranteed-cost preview repetitive controller is derived. A numerical example is also included to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: residential electricity consumption; income; piecewise linear model; China; robust tests
Online: 14 October 2016 (09:53:13 CEST)
There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption during the economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—are important to the sustainable development of electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995-2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions.” Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the conservatism of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. And government should emphasize electricity conservation in industrial sector rather than in residential sector.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: alliance route network; network design; hub-and-spoke network; robust model.
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:35:45 CET)
This paper addresses the alliance route network design problem considering uncertainty of unit transportation cost. An alliance route network is constructed based on the hub-and-spoke (HS) network , in which airlines can achieve inter-area passenger transport through their international gateways. The design problem is formulated with a robust model containing a set of uncertain cost parameters. The model is established based on the three-subscript model of the HS network. A case study collected from real-world data is used to test the proposed model. The results show that the robust solution can reduce the impact of cost uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0556.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: claims reserving; contemporaneous correlations; outliers; robust MM-estimators; seemingly unrelated regression
Online: 30 July 2018 (04:43:55 CEST)
The chain ladder method is a popular technique to estimate the future reserves needed to handle claims that are not fully settled. Since the predictions of the aggregate portfolio (consisting of different subportfolios) in general differ from the sum of the predictions of the subportfolios, a general multivariate chain ladder (GMCL) method has already been proposed. However, the GMCL method is based on the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) technique which makes it very sensitive to outliers. To address this issue a robust alternative is introduced which estimates the SUR parameters in a more outlier resistant way. With the robust methodology it is possible to detect which claims have an abnormally large influence on the reserve estimates. We introduce a simulation design to generate artificial multivariate run-off triangles based on the GMCL model and illustrate the importance of taking into account contemporaneous correlations and structural connections between the run-off triangles. By adding contamination to these artificial datasets, the sensitivity of the traditional GMCL method and the good performance of the robust GMCL method is shown. From the analysis of a portfolio from practice it is clear that the robust GMCL method can provide better insight in the structure of the data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: solenoid; robust control theory; H infinity mixed-sensitivity; Mixed H 2 /H∞
Online: 9 June 2020 (06:24:15 CEST)
In this paper, a solenoid based linearly movable armature system is designed using robust control theory in order to improve the performance of the system. Reference track method is the best performance analysis for position control systems. Among the robust controllers, H infinity mixed-sensitivity and Mixed H 2 /H∞ with Regional Pole Placement Controllers are used to improve the performance of the system. Comparison of the proposed controllers for tracking a reference displacement signals (step and sine wave) and a promising simulation result have been obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban resilience, flood resilience programme, robust evaluation, subjective resilience, Senegal, Africa, BACI
Online: 11 June 2018 (16:52:35 CEST)
In the last decade, sub-Saharan African countries have taken various measures to plan for and adapt to floods in order to reduce exposure and its impacts on human health, livelihoods and infrastructure. Measuring the effects of such initiatives on social resilience is challenging as it requires to combine multiple variables and indicators that embrace thematic, spatial and temporal dimensions inherent to the resilience thinking and concept. In this research, we apply a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) evaluation to empirically measure the impacts of the “Live with Water” (LWW) project on suburban households in Dakar, Senegal. We developed a resilience index that combines anticipatory, adaptive and absorptive capacity – considered as structural dimensions – with the concept of transformative capacity – considered as a temporal reconfiguration of the first three dimensions. Our finding let us estimate that the project increased the absorptive and the anticipatory capacities by 10.61% and 4.61%, respectively. However, adaptive capacity remained unchanged. This may be explained by the fact that the programme was more successful in building drainage and physical infrastructures, rather than improving multi-level organisations and strategies to cope with existing flood events. Further flood resilience program should better combine engineering approaches with institutional change and livelihood support to poor urban dwellers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0517.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Robust Design, Taguchi Method, Product Design, Manufacturing Systems, Quality Engineering, Quality Loss Function.
Online: 25 August 2022 (08:36:39 CEST)
One of the main technological and economic challenges for an engineer is designing high-quality products in manufacturing processes. Most of these processes involve a large number of variables included the setting of controllable (design) and uncontrollable (noise) variables. Robust Design (RD) method uses a collection of mathematical and statistical tools to study a large number of variables in the process with a minimum value of computational cost. Robust design method tries to make high-quality products according to customers’ viewpoints with an acceptable profit margin. This paper aims to provide a brief up-to-date review of the latest development of RD method particularly applied in manufacturing systems. The basic concepts of the quality loss function, orthogonal array, and crossed array design are explained. According to robust design approach, two classifications are presented, first for different types of factors, and second for different types of data. This classification plays an important role in determining the number of necessity replications for experiments and choose the best method for analyzing data. In addition, the combination of RD method with some other optimization methods applied in designing and optimizing of processes are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: electrothermal micromirror; robust control; bimorph actuator modeling; active tilting rejection; Fourier transform spectrometer
Online: 10 November 2017 (10:39:02 CET)
Incorporating linear-scanning MEMS micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and PID closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with an FWHM spectral linewidth of 96 cm-1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0106.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: robust diffusion estimation; self-adjusting step-size; non-Gaussian noise; wireless sensor networks
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:38:25 CET)
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), each sensor node can estimate the global parameter from the local data in distributed manner. This paper proposed a robust diffusion estimation algorithm based on minimum error entropy criterion with self-adjusting step-size, which are referred to as diffusion MEE-SAS (DMEE-SAS) algorithm. The DMEE-SAS algorithm has fast speed of convergence and is robust against non-Gaussian noise in the measurements. The detailed performance analysis of the DMEE-SAS algorithm is performed. By combining the DMEE-SAS with diffusion minimum error entropy (DMEE) algorithms, an Improving DMEE-SAS algorithm is proposed, in non-stationary environment where tracking is very important. The Improving DMEE-SAS algorithm can avoid insensitivity of the DMEE-SAS algorithm due to the small effective step-size near the optimal estimator, and obtain a fast convergence speed. Numerical simulations are given to verify the effectiveness and advantages of these proposed algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Robust Supervision, Bond Graph model, External model, Desalination unit, Reverse osmosis, Linear Fractional Transformation.
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:03:53 CET)
This article aims to solve the problem of robust supervision of a reverse osmosis desalination system (RO-DS) with two models, external model and bond graph model. The structure of an industrial system from the point of view of the external model operates according to several modes of operation (degraded and normal). For this external model, we cannot locate the faults since we are talking about a global operation of the system. The possible solution for the development of research was to use the multidisciplinary model called bond graph. This model by its graphic nature and using a unified language makes it possible to model the industrial system element by element from where it helps the user not only to detect the faults but also to locate them when they appear in the system. The results suggest that the use of the bond graph model for alarm 02 is a reverse osmosis error (RO1); these phenomena are readable on the bond graph model and can be quantified by equations. The equation of the model of this reverse osmosis (RO1) is found in the residual equations (r5, r6 and r7), so that these residues will be sensitive to this rupture. The possible solution during research development was to use the bond graph model to supplement information with physical knowledge and to locate faults. This article also describes the operating safety (by minimizing false alarms and non-detections as well as delays in fault detection) of the desalination system by using the bond graph model described in Linear Fractional Transformation (LFT) form for enable it to manage the robust supervision of a desalination system. An approach based on (LFT-BG) is developed to monitor tank leakage (Cu) and reverse osmosis (RO1 and RO2) faults or valve level (V1 and V2) closures and membrane clogging reverse osmosis (Rm1 and Rm2) that can occur in the reverse osmosis desalination system (RO-DS).
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: flexible robot arm; robust-adaptive control, sliding mode variable structure control; actuator dynamics; zero dynamics
Online: 15 September 2021 (10:22:41 CEST)
Modelling errors, robust stabilization/tracking problems under parameter and model uncertainties complicate the control of the flexible underactuated systems. Chattering-free sliding-mode based input-output control law realizes robustness against the structured and unstructured uncertainties in the system dynamics and avoids excitation of unmodeled dynamics. The main purpose is to propose a robust adaptive solution for stabilizing and tracking direct-drive (DD) flexible robot arms under parameter and model uncertainties, as well as external disturbances. A lightweight robot arm subject to external and internal dynamic effects was taken into consideration. The challenges are compensating actuator dynamics with the inverter switching effects and torque ripples, stabilizing the zero dynamics under parameter/model uncertainties and disturbances while precisely track the predefined reference position. The precise control of this kind of system demands an accurate system model and knowledge of all sources that excite unmodeled dynamics. For this purpose, equations of motion for a flexible robot arm were derived and formulated for the large motion via Lagrange’s method. The goals were determined to achieve high-speed, precise position control, and satisfied accuracy by compensating the unwanted torque ripple and friction that degrades performance through an adaptive robust control approach. The actuator dynamics and their effect on the torque output were investigated due to the transmitted torque to the load side. The high-performance goals, precision&robustness issues, and stability concerns were satisfied by using robust-adaptive input-output linearization-based control law combining chattering-free sliding mode control (SMC) while avoiding the excitation of unmodeled dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Agreement analysis; Bland-Altman method; Clinical tolerance limits; Limits of agreement; Nonparametric approach; Robust method
Online: 16 August 2021 (13:53:22 CEST)
Clinical agreement between two quantitative measurements on a group of subjects is generally assessed with the help of the Bland-Altman (B-A) limits. The interpretation regarding agreement is based on whether B-A limits are within the pre-specified clinical tolerance. Thus, clinical tolerance limits are necessary for this method. We argue in this communication that such limits of clinical tolerance can be directly used for assessing agreement and plead that this nonparametric approach is simple and robust to the distribution pattern and outliers. Such direct use of clinical tolerance limits has more flexibility, and it is more effective in assessing the extent of agreement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: gas turbine engine; performance model; gas path analysis; robust estimation; identification; fuzzy set; membership function
Online: 2 December 2019 (02:54:00 CET)
Gas Path Analysis and matching turbine engine models to experimental data are inverse problems of mathematical modelling which are characterized by parametric uncertainty. This results from the fact that the number of measured parameters is significantly lower than the number of components’ performance parameters needed to describe the real engine. In these conditions, even small measurement errors can result in a high variation of results, and obtained efficiency, loss factors etc. can appear out of the physical range. The current methods of engine model identification have developed considerably to provide stable, precise and physically adequate solutions. Presented in this work is an estimation method of engine components’ parameters based on multi-criteria identification which provides stable estimations of parameters and their confidence intervals with the known measurement errors. A priori information about the engine, its parameters and performance is used directly in the regularised identification procedure. The mathematical basis for this approach is the fuzzy sets theory. Forming objective functions and scalar convolutions synthesis of these functions is used to estimate gas-path components’ parameters. A comparison of the proposed approach with traditional methods showed that its main advantage is high stability of estimation in the parametric uncertainty conditions. Regularization reduces scattering, excludes incorrect solutions which do not correspond to a priori assumptions, and also helps to implement the Gas Path Analysis at the limited number of measured parameters. The method can be used for matching thermodynamic models to experimental data, Gas Path Analysis and also adapting dynamic models for the needs of the engine control system.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0370.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Covid-19 outbreak; SARS-Cov-2 coronavirus; reproduction numbers; deterministic SEIR models; parameter determination; robust methods
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:40:43 CEST)
We discuss the generation of various reproduction ratios or numbers to monitor the outbreak of Covid-19 or other epidemics and examine the effects of intervention/relaxation measures. A detailed SEIR algorithm is described for their computation, with applications given to the current Covid-19 outbreak in several countries in America (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, US) and Europe (France, Italy, Spain and UK). The corresponding matlab script, complete and ready to use, is provided for free downloading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: robust principal component analysis; video separation; compressive measurements; prior information; optical flow; motion estimation; motion compensation
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:19:49 CEST)
In the context of video background-foreground separation, we propose a compressive online Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) with optical flow that separates recursively a sequence of video frames into foreground (sparse) and background (low-rank) components. This separation method can process per video frame from a small set of measurements, in contrast to conventional batch-based RPCA, which processes the full data. The proposed method also leverages multiple prior information by incorporating previously separated background and foreground frames in an n-l1 minimization problem. Moreover, optical flow is utilized to estimate motions between the previous foreground frames and then compensate the motions to achieve higher quality prior foregrounds for improving the separation. Our method is tested on several video sequences in different scenarios for online background-foreground separation given compressive measurements. The visual and quantitative results show that the proposed method outperforms other existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: physical layer security; semi-infinite programming; amplify-and-forward two-way relay; imperfect CSI; robust optimization
Online: 31 July 2017 (08:59:04 CEST)
This paper considers a two-way relay network, where two source nodes exchange messages through several relays in the presence of an eavesdropper, and the channel state information (CSI) of the eavesdropper is imperfectly known. The amplify-and-forward relay protocol is used and the relay beamforming weights are designed. The model is built up to minimize the total relay transmit power while guaranteeing the quality of service at users and preventing the eavesdropper from decoding the signals. Due to the imperfect CSI, a semi-infinite programming problem is obtained. An algorithm is proposed to solve the problem, and the iterative points are updated through the linesearch technique, where the feasibility are preserved during iterations. The optimality property is analyzed. The obtained subproblems are quadratic constrained quadratic programming problems, either with less than $4$ constraints or with only one variable, which are solved optimally. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of the proposed model, and imply that the proposed algorithm is efficient and converges very fast, where more than 85% of the problems are solved optimally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0054.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: product design; design defect; robust statistics; nonparametric statistics; model uncertainty; optimization; liability; tortious product liability; strict product liability
Online: 17 December 2017 (08:48:29 CET)
Statistical modeling lies at the heart of product design and development throughout numerous engineering disciplines, especially since processing large amounts of data has become increasingly ubiquitous. While mathematical statistics provide elegant guidance pertaining to the question of whether or not some particular underlying modeling assumptions are justified and appropriate, when pursuing a more comprehensive assessment of product design and development other considerations often increase in significance. Therefore, we will examine and analyze the tedious interactions and implications of statistical modeling choices and product liability exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to draw attention to and explore some often overlooked or oversimplified dangers and pitfalls that enter the equation when product design heavily relies on statistical modeling. In particular, through a diligent analysis of both statistical and legal aspects we will explore how statistically optimal procedures may yield far from optimal outcomes in terms of product liability when applied to actual real life problems and why suboptimal nonparametric or robust approaches may constitute better alternatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0414.v1
Subject: Keywords: Chattering reduction; discrete-time sliding mode control; magnetic levitation system; multirate output feedback; robust control; sliding mode control (SMC)
Online: 27 October 2021 (13:33:34 CEST)
This paper presents three types of sliding mode controllers for a magnetic levitation system. First, a proportional-integral sliding mode controller (PI-SMC) is designed using a new switching surface and a proportional plus power rate reaching law. The PI-SMC is more robust than a feedback linearization controller in the presence of mismatched uncertainties and outperforms the SMC schemes reported recently in the literature in terms of the convergence rate and settling time. Next, to reduce the chattering phenomenon in the PI-SMC, a state feedback-based discrete-time SMC algorithm is developed. However, the disturbance rejection ability is compromised to some extent. Furthermore, to improve the robustness without compromising the chattering reduction benefits of the discrete-time SMC, mismatched uncertainties like sensor noise and track input disturbance are incorporated in a robust discrete-time SMC design using multirate output feedback (MROF). With this technique, it is possible to realize the effect of a full-state feedback controller without incurring the complexity of a dynamic controller or an additional discrete-time observer. Also, the MROF-based discrete-time SMC strategy can stabilize the magnetic levitation system with excellent dynamic and steady-state performance with superior robustness in the presence of mismatched uncertainties. The stability of the closed-loop system under the proposed controllers is proved by using the Lyapunov stability theory. The simulation results and analytical comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes.