ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0007.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Process Mining; Business Processes; Natural Language Processing; Machine Learning
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:25:25 CEST)
Communication is indispensable for today's lifestyle, and thanks to technology, millions of people can communicate as quickly as possible. The effect of this breakthrough has transformed organizations to the degree that they generate billions of emails daily to facilitate their operations. There is implicit information behind this vast corpus of human-generated content that can be mined and used for their benefit. This paper tries to address the opportunity that email logs can bring to organizations and propose an approach to discover process models by combining supervised text classification and process mining. This framework consists of two main steps, text classification, and process mining. First, Emails will be classified with supervised machine learning, and to mine, the processes fuzzy Miner is used. To further investigate the application of this framework, we also applied this framework over a real-life dataset from a case study organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0227.v1
Subject: Keywords: information; process; process algebra; causal tapestry; process tapestry; transience; contextuality; emergence
Online: 17 December 2019 (10:07:58 CET)
The Process Algebra model has been shown to provide an alternative mathematical framework for non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). It reproduces the wave functions of non-relativistic quantum mechanics to a high degree of accuracy. It posits a fundamental level of finite, discrete events upon which the usual entities of NRQM supervene. It has been suggested that the Process Algebra model provides a true completion of NRQM, free of divergences and paradoxes, with causally local information propagation, contextuality and realism. Arguments in support of these claims have been mathematical. Missing has been an ontology of this fundamental level from which the formalism naturally emerges. In this paper it is argued that information and information flow provides this ontology. Higher level constructs such as energy, momentum, mass, spacetime, are all emergent from this fundamental level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0520.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: malodor analysis; agricultural odor; turbulent dispersion; GC-Olfactometry; GC-O; solid-phase microextraction; SPME; multidimensional gas chromatography; MDGC; process odor; dispersion modeling; transient odor events; rolling unmasking effect; odor-cued grab sampling
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:49:16 CEST)
Downwind odor characteristics can be very different depending upon the size of the upwind point-source, interim topography, and wind conditions. At one extreme, the downwind odor plume from a relatively large, confined animal feeding operation (CAFO), located on a flat open plain and under stable, near-straight-line wind conditions can be rather broad, sustained and predictable relative to a fixed receptor site downwind. In contrast, the plume from a small point-source (e.g., a roof vent stack) located on irregular topography and under rapidly shifting wind conditions can be intermittent and fleeting. These transient odor events can be surprisingly intense and offensive, in spite of their fleeting occurrence and perception. This work reports on efforts to optimize an environmental odor sampling strategy, which is optimized for the challenges of (1) sampling of such transient odor 'spikes' and (2) the prioritization of odors/odorants from multiple, closely co-located point-sources, under such transient event conditions. Protocol refinement has emerged by way of 2 environmental odor assessment projects which have been undertaken on behalf of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The challenge of transient odor events has been mitigated utilizing rapid, odor cued whole-air grab capture sampling into metalized-FEP gas sampling bags, followed by immediate adsorption transfer onto SPME fibers or sorbent tubes for stabilization during the shipment and storage interval between collection and final analysis. Initial results demonstrated approximately 11 fold increases in target odorant yields for 900 mL sorbent tube transfers from 2-3 second 'burst' odor event bag-captures, as compared to equivalent direct collections at the same downwind receptor location but during perceived (stable) odor 'lull' periods. Results-to-date targeting refinement and field trials of this integrated environmental odor assessment strategy are presented. Preliminary application targeting general odor sampling and point-source differentiation utilizing tracer gases is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: speckle photography; in-process measurement; deep rolling process
Online: 7 May 2021 (08:55:13 CEST)
In the concept of the process signature, the relationship between a material load and the modification remaining in the workpiece is used to better understand and optimize manufacturing processes. The basic prerequisite for this is to be able to measure the loads occurring during the machining process in the form of mechanical deformations. Speckle photography is suitable for this in-process measurement task and is already used in a variety of ways for in-plane deformation measurements. The shortcoming of this fast and robust measurement technique based on image correlation techniques is that out-of-plane deformations in the direction of the measurement system cannot be detected and increases the measurement error of in-plane deformations. In this paper, we investigate a method that infers local out-of-plane motions of the workpiece surface from the decorrelation of speckle patterns and is thus able to reconstruct three-dimensional deformation fields. The implementation of the evaluation method enables a fast reconstruction of 3D deformation fields, so that the in-process capability remains given. First measurements in a deep rolling process show that dynamic deformations underneath the die can be captured and demonstrate the suitability of the speckle method for manufacturing process analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0737.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: process trees; Petri nets; workflow nets; process mining
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:37:25 CEST)
Since their introduction, process trees have been frequently used as a process modeling formalism in many process mining algorithms. A process tree is a (mathematical) tree-based model of a process, in which internal vertices represent behavioral control-flow relations and leaves represent process activities. Translation of a process tree into a sound Workflow net is trivial; however, the reverse is not the case. Simultaneously, an algorithm that translates a WF-net into a process tree is of great interest, e.g., the explicit knowledge of the control-flow hierarchy in a WF-net allows one to reason on its behavior more easily. Hence, in this paper, we present such an algorithm, i.e., it detects whether a WF-net corresponds to a process tree, and, if so, constructs it. We prove that, when the algorithm finds a process tree, the language of the process tree is equal to the language of the original WF-net. The experiments conducted show that the algorithm’s corresponding implementation has a quadratic time complexity in the size of the WF-net. Furthermore, the experiments show strong evidence of process tree re-discoverability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0122.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: structured information control net; process mining; process analyzing; structural analysis; behavioral analysis; process rediscovery
Online: 10 February 2020 (09:37:56 CET)
Process (or business process) management systems fulfill defining, executing, monitoring and managing process models deployed on process-aware enterprises. Accordingly, the functional formation of the systems is made up of three subsystems such as modeling subsystem, enacting subsystem and mining subsystem. In recent times, the mining subsystem has been becoming an essential subsystem. Many enterprises have successfully completed the introduction and application of the process automation technology through the modeling subsystem and the enacting subsystem. According as the time has come to the phase of redesigning and reengineering the deployed process models, from now on it is important for the mining subsystem to cooperate with the analyzing subsystem; the essential cooperation capability is to provide seamless integrations between the designing works with the modeling subsystem and the redesigning work with the mining subsystem. In other words, we need to seamlessly integrate the discovery functionality of the mining subsystem and the analyzing functionality of the modeling subsystem. This integrated approach might be suitable very well when those deployed process models discovered by the mining subsystem are complex and very large-scaled, in particular. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach for seamlessly as well as effectively providing the mining and the analyzing functionalities to the redesigning work on very large-scale and massively parallel process models that are discovered from their enactment event logs. The integrated approach especially aims at analyzing not only their structural complexity and correctness but also their animation-based behavioral properness, and becomes concretized to a sophisticated analyzer. The core function of the analyzer is to discover a very large-scale and massively parallel process model from a process log dataset and to validate the structural complexity and the syntactical and behavioral properness of the discovered process model. Finally, this paper writes up the detailed description of the system architecture with its functional integration of process mining and process analyzing. And more precisely, we excogitate a series of functional algorithms for extracting the structural constructs as well as for visualizing the behavioral properness on those discovered very large-scale and massively parallel process models. As experimental validation, we apply the proposed approach and analyzer to a couple of process enactment event log datasets available on the website of the 4TU.Centre for Research Data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: management methods; management; system; technologies; production process; process improvement
Online: 29 June 2022 (10:16:24 CEST)
The contribution deals with the selection of progressive methods and technologies to improve the management of production processes in the industrial area. The first chapter of the contribution summarises the theoretical starting points for the management of production processes and their progressive concepts. Chapter 2 deals with the analysis of the current state of play in the use of methods and technologies in production management and summarise its problem areas. Chapter 3 presents the design of a system for selecting the appropriate method and technology to improve the management of the production process. The system presented is designed from data collection blocks, a benchmark for the performance of industrial enterprises' production processes, and data mining to gain knowledge of the impact of the methods and technologies used on the performance of production processes. The last block of the system allows the presentation of the obtained results, which sets out the recommendation for the choice of progressive method and technology. The system is partially verified in the last chapter of the contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Electrical Resistance Tomography; Visualization; Crystallization process monitoring; process operation
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:20:02 CEST)
In the current research work, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was employed for crystallization process monitoring and visualization. A first-of-its-kind MATLAB-based interactive GUI application “ERT-Vis” is presented. Two case studies involving varied crystallization methods were undertaken. The experiments involving calcium carbonate reactive (precipitative) crystallization for the high conductivity solution-solute media and the cooling crystallization for sucrose crystallization representing the lower conductivity solution-solute combination were designed and performed. The software successfully provided key insights regarding the process progress in both crystallization systems. It could detect and separate the crystal agglomerations in the low as well as high conductivity solutions using visual analytics tools provided. The performance and utility of the software were studied using a software evaluation case study involving domain experts. Participant feedback indicated that ERT-Vis software helps in reconstructing images instantaneously, interactively visualizing, and evaluating the output of the crystallization process monitoring data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0073.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Software Process Analysis, Software Process Improvement, Data Prove-nance
Online: 4 September 2018 (16:30:51 CEST)
Companies have been increasing the amount of data that they collect from their systems and processes, considering the decrease in the cost of memory and storage technologies in recent years. The emergence of technologies such as Big Data, Cloud Computing, E-Science, and the growing complexity of information systems made evident that traceability and provenance are promising approaches. Provenance has been successfully used in complex domains, like health sciences, chemical industries, and scientific computing, considering that these areas require a comprehensive semantic traceability mechanism. Based on these, we investigate the use of provenance in the context of Software Process (SP) and introduce a novel approach based on provenance concepts to model and represent SP data. It addresses SP provenance data capturing, storing, new information inferencing and visualization. The main contribution of our approach is PROV-SwProcess, a provenance model to deal with the specificities of SP and its ability in supporting process managers to deal with vast amounts of execution data during the process analysis and data-driven decision-making. A set of analysis possibilities were derived from this model, using SP goals and questions. A case study was conducted in collaboration with a software development company to instantiate the PROV-SwProcess model (using the proposed approach) with real-word process data. This study showed that 87.5% of the analysis possibilities using real data was correct and can assist in decision-making, while 62.5% of them are not possible to be performed by the process manager using his currently dashboard or process management tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: OLP; Deoxygenation; Absorber columns; Process flowsheet; Process Simulation; Aspen-HYSYS.
Online: 4 January 2022 (14:54:24 CET)
In this work, the deoxygenation of organic liquid products (OLP) obtained by thermal catalytic cracking of palm oil at 450 °C, 1.0 atmosphere, with 10% (wt.) Na2CO3 as catalyst, in multistage countercurrent absorber columns using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as solvent, with Aspen-HYSYS process simulator was systematically investigated. In a previous study, the thermodynamic data basis and EOS modeling necessary to simulate the deoxygenation of OLP has been presented [Molecules 2021, 26, 4382. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144382]. This work address a new flowsheet, consisting of 03 absorber columns, 10 expansions valves, 10 flash drums, 08 heat exchanges, 01 pressure pump, and 02 make-up of CO2, aiming to improve the deacidification of OLP. The simulation was performed at 333 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 17; 350 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 38; 333 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 25. The simulation shows that 81.49% of OLP could be recovered and the concentrations of hydrocarbons in the extracts of absorber-01 and absorber-02 were 96.95 and 92.78% (wt.) in solvent-free basis, while the bottom stream of absorber-03 was enriched in oxygenates compounds with concentrations up to 32.66% (wt.) in solvent-free basis, showing that organic liquid products (OLP) was deacidified and SC-CO2 was able to deacidify OLP and to obtain fractions with lower olefins content. The best deacidifying conditions was obtained at 333 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 17.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0465.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: production system; simulation manufacturing process; simulation model; work in process
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:56:28 CEST)
During the last decades, the production systems have developed different strategies to increase their competitiveness in the global market. In a manufacturing and services systems, Lean Manufacturing has been consolidated through the correct implementation of its tools. The present paper presents a case study developed in a Food Packer company where a Simulation Model was considered as an alternative to reduce the waste time generated by the poor distribution of operations and transportation areas for a product within the factory. As a matter of fact, the company has detected problems on the layout distribution that prevents to fulfill the market demand. In addition, the principal aim was to create a simulation model to test different hypothetical scenarios and alternative designs for the layout distribution without modifying its facilities. Moreover, the implemented methodology was based on classical models of simulation projects and a compendium of the manufacturing systems optimization by simulation process used during the last ten years. Also, a mathematic model supported by the Promodel ® simulation software was developed considering the company characteristics; along with the model development, it was possible to compare the production system performance from the percentage of used locations, the percentage of resources utilization, the number of finished products, and the level of Work in Process (WIP). Finally, the verification and validation stages were performed before running the scenarios in the real production area. The results generated by the implementation of the project represent an increase of 68% in the production capacity and a reduction of 5% in the WIP. In addition, both outcomes are associated with the resources management, which were reassigned to other production areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: manufacturing sustainability; milling process; turning process; energy consumption; power consumption.
Online: 20 August 2018 (14:52:43 CEST)
The system design for Sustainable manufacturing is to consider both ecological and financial constraints. Manufacturing industry demands to advance in sustainable manufacturing by accounting in environment factors in it. All the factors that affect the environment need to be analyzed so that proper amendments or suggestions can be provided. To favour this, Computer aided life cycle inventory model has been presented for CNC milling and turning processes. Based on utilization of resources and stages, whole machining operation time can be divided into three phases named as process (milling or turning), idle and basic times. As parameters are different for evaluating the process times i.e. depth and width of cut in case of milling and initial and final diameters for turning, two different case studies has been presented one for each milling and turning process. Effect of material choice has been studied for different processes. Highly dense and hard materials takes more time in finishing the job due to low cutting speed and feed rates as compared to that of sot materials. In addition, face milling takes more time and consumes more power as compared to peripheral milling due to more retraction time caused by over travel distance and lower vertical transverse speeds than the horizontal transverse speed used in peripheral retraction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Oxygen monitoring; LED; Photoluminescence; Wine production; Fermentation process; Process control.
Online: 1 March 2018 (16:16:37 CET)
The importance of oxygen in the winemaking process is widely known, as it affects the chemical aspects and therefore the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. Hence, it is evident the usefulness of a continuous and real-time measurements of the levels of oxygen in the various stages of the winemaking process, both for monitoring and for control. The WOW project has focused on the design and the development an innovative device for monitoring the oxygen levels in wine. This system is based on the use of an optical fiber to measure the luminescent lifetime variation of a reference metal/porphyrin complex, which decays in presence of oxygen. The developed technology results in a high sensitivity and low cost sensor head that can be employed for measuring the dissolved oxygen levels at several points inside a wine fermentation or aging tank. This system can be complemented with dynamic modeling techniques to provide predictive behavior of the nutrient evolution in space and time given few sampled measuring points for both process monitoring and control purposes. The experimental validation of the technology has been first performed in a controlled laboratory setup to attain calibration and study sensitivity with respect to different photo-luminescent compounds and alcoholic or non-alcoholic solutions, and then in an actual case study during a measurement campaign at a renown Italian winery.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Semisolid casting; RheoMetal process; GISS process; SEED process; production; capability; surface treatment; heat treatment; tool-life; productivity
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:15:22 CEST)
Semisolid casting of Aluminum alloys is growing. For magnesium alloys, Thixomoulding became the dominant process around the world. For aluminium processing, the situation is different as semisolid processing of aluminium is more technically challenging than for magnesium. Today three processes are leading the process implementation, The GISS method, the RheoMetal process and the SEED process. These processes have all strengths and weaknesses and will fit a particular range of applications. The current paper aims at looking at the strengths and weaknesses of the processes to identify product types and niche applications for each process based on current applications and development directions taken for these processes
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: contagion risk; insurance premium; aggregate claims; default-free bond pricing; self-exciting process; Hawkes process; CIR process
Online: 28 August 2019 (04:00:41 CEST)
In this paper, we study a generalised CIR process with externally-exciting and self-exciting jumps, and focus on the distributional properties and applications of this process and its aggregated process. The first and second moments of this jump-diffusion process are used to calculate the insurance premium based on mean-variance principle. The Laplace transform of the aggregated process is derived, and this leads to an application for pricing default-free bonds which could capture the impacts of both exogenous and endogenous shocks. Illustrative numerical examples and comparisons with other models are also provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0003.v1
Subject: Keywords: business workflows; discrete event systems; event logs; configurable process models; configurable process trees; process mining; business processes
Online: 1 September 2017 (17:14:50 CEST)
Configurable process models are frequently used to represent business workflows and other discrete event systems among different branches of large organizations: they unify commonalities shared by all branches and describe their differences, at the same time. The configuration of such models is usually done manually, which is challenging. On the one hand, when the number of configurable nodes in the configurable process model grows, the size of the search space increases exponentially. On the other hand, the person performing the configuration may lack the holistic perspective to make the right choice for all configurable nodes at the same time, since choices influence each other. Nowadays, information systems that support the execution of business processes create event data reflecting how processes are performed. In this article, we propose three strategies (based on exhaustive search, genetic algorithms, and greedy heuristic) that use event data to automatically derive a process model from a configurable process model that better represents the characteristics of the process in a specific branch. These strategies have been implemented in our proposed framework, and tested in both business-like event logs as recorded in a higher educational ERP system, and a real case scenario involving a set of Dutch municipalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0153.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: AHP process; Saaty method; Eigenvalue; Excel program; managerial decision-making process
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:49:42 CEST)
This article describes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method which can be calculated by several methods. The AHP method is essential for the managerial decision-making to recognize which method is efficient for the calculation and to determine the proper order of criteria. In the article there are included methods that can be used in order to calculate the matrix in the AHP process for setting criteria such as Geometric mean, Arithmetic mean, Row sum of the adjusted the Saaty matrix, Reverse sums of the Saaty matrix columns and Row sums of the Saaty matrix. The paper is focused on the accuracy of the methods used. The results show that the most accurate method is the Saaty method, and the second most accurate method is the geometric mean in order to determine the ranking. This method is easier to use when the same order is achieved as in the Saaty method, followed by Geometric mean, which is favourable for fast and easy determination of alternatives using in the AHP process. The survey carried out among managers graduated from Universities and Colleges in Slovakia showed that the respondents considered the Saaty method as the most complex and also the most difficult method and the geometric mean average method the simplest method. 44% of respondents stated that they are capable to use a program to calculate the AHP. 46% of respondents said they had experience with some method related to the managerial decision-making process. 72% of managers regarded as important to manage some method for decision-making in their managerial position.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: evaluation; proximal outcomes; distal outcomes; process research; training process; postgraduate program
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:45:14 CEST)
This contribution illustrates the training evaluation system developed within the Master’s Program in Family and Community Mediation at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan. This is an interim evaluation, which focuses on the training process and which considers fundamental the collaboration with the subjects of the training. The peculiarity of this work concerns the possibility of inserting research within the training process, following a logic of mutual enrichment both in terms of content and learning. The contribution illustrates in detail the outcome and the process evaluation system, defining the perspective, the objectives, and the methodology of implementation. In particular, the outcome evaluation focuses on the distal and proximal outcomes of the training, while the process analysis focuses on the dynamics within the group of participants. Although further evaluations involving different training groups and other training processes are needed, this training evaluation system allows to shed light on both the topic and the context in which training is delivered. The integration between different points of view and several levels of analysis allows the researchers to deepen the individual path of each participant as well as to have feedbacks on the progress of the training group as a whole.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: process design; sustainable development; chemical industry; process industry; megatrends; design tools
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:32:26 CET)
This paper describes the state of the art and future opportunities for process design and sustainable development. In the Introduction the main global megatrends and European Union's response to two of them, the European Green Deal, are presented. The organization of professionals in the field, their conferences and publications support the two topics. A brief analysis of the published documents in the two most popular databases shows that the environmental dimension predominates, followed by an economic one, while the social pillar of sustainable development is undervalued. The main design tools for sustainability are described. As an important practical case, the European chemical and process industries are analyzed and their achievements in sustainable development are highlighted; in particular, their strategies are presented in more detail. The conclusions cover the most urgent future development areas of the process industries, carbon capture with utilization or storage, process analysis, simulation, synthesis and optimization tools; zero waste, circular economy and resource efficiency already play an important role. However, more profound changes are needed in the coming decades, including a shift away from growth with changes in habits, lifestyles and business models. Lifelong education for sustainable development will play a very important role in the growth of democracy and happiness instead of consumerism and neoliberalism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: biofuel; biobutanol; ABE-fermentation; Clostridium; continuous reactor; process model; multi stage process
Online: 20 January 2021 (10:59:00 CET)
The production of butanol, acetone and ethanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum is a biphasic fer-mentation process. In the first phase the carbohydrate substrate is metabolized to acetic and bu-tyric acid, in the following second phase the product spectrum is shifted towards the economi-cally interesting solvents. Here we present a cascade of six continuous stirred tank reactors (CCSTR), which allows performing the time dependent metabolic phases of an ace-tone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) batch fermentation in a spatial domain. Experimental data of steady states under four operating conditions - with variations of the pH in the first bioreactor between 4.3 and 5.6 as well as the total dilution rate between 0.042 1/h and 0.092 1/h - were used to optimize and validate a corresponding mathematical model. Beyond a residence time distribution representation and substrate, biomass and product kinetics this model also includes the differen-tiation of cells between the metabolic states. Model simulations predict a final butanol product concentration of 8.2 g/L and a butanol productivity of 0.75 g/(L h) in the CCSTR operated at a pH in bioreactor 1 of 4.3 and D = 0.092 1/h, while 31 % of the cells are differentiated to the solventogenic state. Aiming at an enrichment of solvent-producing cells, a feedback loop was introduced into the cascade - sending cells from a later state of the process (bioreactor 4) back to an early stage of the process (bioreactor 2). In agreement with the experimental observations, the model accurately predicted an increase of butanol formation rate in bioreactor stages 2 and 3, resulting in an overall butanol productivity of 0.76 g/(L h) for the feedback loop cascade. The here presented CCSTR and the validated model will serve to investigate further ABE fermentation strategies for a controlled metabolic switch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0014.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: atmospheric compensation; Gaussian process; hyperspectral
Online: 1 November 2022 (03:47:57 CET)
Atmospheric correction is the processes of converting radiance measured at a spectral 1 sensor to the reflectance of the materials in a multispectral or hyperspectral image. This is an 2 important step for detecting or identifying the materials present in the pixel spectra. We present 3 two machine learning models for atmospheric correction trained and tested on 100,000 batches of 40 4 reflectance spectra converted to radiance using MODTRAN, so the machine learning model learns 5 the radiative transfer physics from MODTRAN. We created a theoretically interpretable Bayesian 6 Gaussian process model and a deep learning autoencoder treating the atmosphere as noise. We 7 compare both methods for estimating gain in the correction model to the well-know QUAC method 8 of assuming a constant mean endmember reflectance. Prediction of reflectance using the Gaussian 9 process model outperforms the other methods in terms of both accuracy and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0191.v1
Online: 14 February 2020 (09:24:03 CET)
There is a lack of research based on in-depth theoretical and scientific knowledge to understand the visually impaired, and there has been little effort in the application of strategies for early intervention to minimize risk these people might encounter during development.. This study used semi-structured interviews from eight persons with visual impairments who had various experiences with resiliency. Three resilience processes based on life experiences were identified: 1) Experience and Adaptation: “self-awareness of disability” and “adaptation disability and the environment”; 2) Facing the Circumstances: “the exposure to concealment and abuse,” “the suppression of potential,” “denial and abandonment by family,” “poverty and disability,” “exchange and self-regulation,” and “social integration” themes; and 3) the Positive Reinforcement: “self-disclosure and jump-starting life,” “maintenance of a positive thinking,” and “socioeconomic independence.” These findings expand the understanding of the factors common to the resilience process experienced by individuals with visual impairment and highlight the importance of psychological support, family, education, and social support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Arm Prosthesis; Versatile Gripping; Design Process
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:59:58 CEST)
One of the biggest challenges in arm prosthesis design is to resemble normal hand functionality. Some of arm prosthesis try to mimic all hand movement, while other try to produce several main hand grip patterns. We design a Versatile Gripping Technology (VGT) from a basic whippletree mechanism to produce main hand grip patterns in arm prosthesis. VGT development is the result of abstraction, negation, and systemic variation process of existing solution. To validate VGT, we test it to produce six pattern of hand grip from Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure. VGT capable to produce lateral, power, tip, extension, and spherical grip. In other hand, VGT including the thumb movement and it only use one simple shape moving part. Thus, VGT is effective and efficient. With this result, we argue that abstraction, negation, and systemic variation process of existing solution can create a novel solution and it is applicable in another problem or domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Cement; Co-process; Waste; Incineration; Landfill
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:32:38 CEST)
Recently, the amount of waste generated has been rapidly increasing, there have been difficulties disposing of waste in Korea. As a solution to this, treating waste using a cement kiln has suggested, but the environmental and economic effects have not been specifically studied. In this study, the effects of alternative resources, and reducing the social costs(Installation and Operation) associated with waste treatment facilities were analyzed. Through a co-processing method, a reduction of approximately 53kg of CO2 can be realized during the production of one ton of cement, and cost savings of about 3,815 milion USD. Another effect is an extension of the expiration date for landfills by 7.55 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: direct nanoimprint; process design; deep learning
Online: 15 June 2022 (08:49:17 CEST)
A hybrid smart process and material design system for nanoimprinting is proposed, which combines with a learning system based on experimental and numerical simulation results. Instead of carrying out extensive learning experiments for various condition, the simulation learning results are partially complimented where the results can be theoretically predicted by numerical simulation. In other word, the lacking data in experimental learning are complimented by simulation-based learning results. Therefore, the prediction of nanoimprint results under various conditions without experimental learning could be realized even for unknown materials. In this study, material and process design for a low-temperature nanoimprint process using glycerol-containing polyvinyl alcohol are demonstrated. Experimental results under limited conditions are learned to investigate optimum Glycerol concentrations and process temperatures. On the other hand, simulation-based learning is used to predict the dependence on press pressure and shape parameters. The prediction results for unknown Glycerol concentrations agreed well with the follow-up experiments.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: fraud audit; process mining; visual analytics
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:19:01 CET)
Among the knowledge areas in which process mining has had an impact, the audit domain is particularly striking. Traditionally, audits seek evidence in a data sample that allows to make inferences about a population. Mistakes are usually committed when generalizing the results and anomalies, therefore, appear in unprocessed sets. However, there are some efforts to address these limitations using process mining-based approaches for fraud detection. To the best of our knowledge, no fraud audit method exists that combines process mining techniques and visual analytics to identify relevant patterns. This paper presents a fraud audit approach based on the combination of process mining techniques and visual analytics. The main advantages are: (i) a method is included that guides the use of the visual capabilities of process mining to detect fraud data patterns during an audit; (ii) the approach can be generalized to any business domain; (iii) well-known process mining techniques are used (Dotted Chart, Trace Alignment, Fuzzy Miner…). The techniques were selected by a group of experts and were extended to enable filtering for contextual analysis, to handle levels of process abstraction, and to facilitate implementation in the area of fraud audits. Based on the proposed approach, we developed a software solution that is currently being used in the financial sector as well as in the telecommunications and hospitality sector. Finally, for demonstration purposes, we present a real hotel management use case in which we detected suspected fraud behaviors, thus validating the effectiveness of the approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0581.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Optoklik; Robotic Process Automation; RPA; scripting
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:34:05 CET)
Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is a fast growing field inside Business Process Automation (BPA). RPA deals with software robots that use human application interface to do some repetitive tasks like starting programs, filling the forms, clicking on buttons etc. Some RPA software tools like Blue Prism, Rapise and UiPath became popular during last years but there are still some problems with them starting with their high price and difficulties to adapt to the real use cases. On the other hand, Optoklik is a relatively small RPA tool developed to be highly adaptable to the real cases and still easy to use. This paper presents the main functions of Optoklik and discusses its usage in automation of different actions that use human application interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Chitosan; Process safety; NuDIST; CAPE; Shrimp
Online: 9 July 2020 (07:49:29 CEST)
Nowadays, inherently safer designs are considered as key priorities to prevent or mitigate serious incidents with devastating consequences. The need for process safety assessment during early design phases has motivated the development of several contributions related to computer-aided assessment methodologies in order to measure the inherent safety of chemical processes. In this work, the large-scale production of chitosan from shrimp wastes was evaluated from process safety point of view using the numerical descriptive inherent safety technique (NuDIST).To this end, simulation of the chitosan production was performed using Aspen Plus ® to obtain extended mass and energy balances. The assessment of all the chemicals involved within the process was carried out for the following safety parameters: explosivity (EXP), flammability (FL) and toxicity (TOX). The safety assessment of the process included the parameters of temperature (T), pressure (P) and heat of reaction (HR). The maximum chemical safety score was estimated in 171.01 with ethanol as main contributor to the parameter of explosivity and flammability. The score associated with operating data was calculated in 209.30 and heat of reaction reported to be the most affecting parameter. The NuDIST score was estimated in 380.30. This NuDIST value revealed the low hazards associated with the handling of substances such as shrimp wastes, chitosan and water, as well as the non-extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In general, the large-scale production of chitosan from shrimp shells showed to be an inherently safe alternative of waste valorization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0373.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: habitual entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial process; novice entrepreneurs
Online: 17 October 2018 (06:07:08 CEST)
Habitual entrepreneurs became an important group of entrepreneurs who make a large contribution to the process of wealth creation. Previous studies have indicated that habitual entrepreneurship is a widespread phenomenon. It highlights the need to focus on the habitual entrepreneurs to understand the dynamic aspect of entrepreneurship. The aim of the article is to present the results of preliminary research on the relationships of entrepreneurial behavior of novice entrepreneurs and habitual entrepreneurs, in particular their motivation and impact on the entrepreneurial process. Research were conducted on a sample of 373 small innovative enterprises in the fourth quarter of 2017. The scale of habitual entrepreneurs in the examined sample is 32.44% and is comparable with research carried out in other countries. Survey results reveal that habitual entrepreneurs have greater tendency to create opportunities (introduction new products or services) than novice entrepreneurs. Habitual entrepreneurs also have higher development rate (increase of turnover) and larger share in the international market than novice entrepreneurs. The article also contains indications for further research into the phenomenon of multiple entrepreneurship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0177.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: morphological indices; urban climate; planning process
Online: 9 August 2018 (06:21:33 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to analyze urban form through the mapping of morphological indices, namely impervious surface fraction, building density, verticality, height/width ratio, roughness length, and porosity, to support urban planning in the city of João Pessoa, PB, in northeastern Brazil. The application of this study identifies and calculates such significant indices for the city's urban space from a Geographic Information System (GIS) model. The spatial indices play notable roles in climate at different scales, developing guidelines to maximize environmental quality, promote improvements to thermal comfort, minimize the urban heat island in the city of João Pessoa, and provide relevant data (considering microclimate aspects), guiding decisions related to the planning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: intermediate heat treatment; boron; fabrication process
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:36:45 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the cold drawing workability of two kinds of modified 9Cr-2W steel containing different contents of boron and nitrogen, depending on the temperature and time of normalizing and tempering treatments. Using ring compression tests at room temperature, the effect of intermediate heat treatment condition on workability was investigated. It was found that the prior austenite grain size can be changed by the austenite transformation, and the grain size increases with increasing temperature during normalizing heat treatment. Alloy B and Alloy N showed different patterns after normalizing heat treatment. Alloy N had higher stress than Alloy B, and the reduction in alloy N increased, while the reduction in alloy B decreased. Alloy B showed a larger number of initially formed cracks and a larger average crack length than Alloy N. Crack length and number increased proportionally in Alloy B as the stress increased. Alloy B had lower crack resistance than Alloy N due to boron segregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Bioreactor, Taguchi, Prodigiosin, Serratia, Process Development
Online: 3 July 2017 (17:13:27 CEST)
One of the major steps toward the industrialization of microbial product(s) is to optimize the cultivation conditions at the large scale bioreactor and successfully control the microbial behavior within large scale production environment. Statistical Design of Experiment was proven to optimize a vast number of microbial processes to achieve robustness and explore possible interactions among the variables. In this research, Taguchi Orthogonal Array was applied to optimize the cultivation condition of a newly isolated Prodigiosin-producing marine bacterial strain, Serratia AM8887, at bioreactor level. Two steps fermentation process was applied; as the productivity was scaled up from shake flask level to a bench top bioreactor (5L) and subsequently to an in-situ sterilization bioreactor system (20L) leading to a yield of 7g/L compared to 100mg/L prior to optimization confirming that; applying Taguchi experimental design is a reliable and good positive option for the optimization of biotechnological processes.. The produced pigment was purified and the chemical structure was revealed by means of Spectrophotometric, Maas Spectrum (MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy analysis. The biological activity including antibacterial, antioxidants and cytotoxicity to cancer cells line of the pigment were explored. The pigment showed very characteristic features that could helpful in food, pharmaceuticals and/or textile industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: process improvement; ewe’s cheese; systemic design
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:34:54 CET)
The research reported on this paper was aimed at improving the overall efficiency of a PDO certified artisanal cheese production process. Being a PDO certified foodstuff by the EU, it is considered to have properties and qualities determined by the geographical environment in which is made, with its production taking place in a specific and determined geographical location, in this case the Serra da Estrela region. In that sense, the authors conducted a mapping according to a systemic perspective of the processes involved in the context of manufacturing and distribution of certified Serra da Estrela cheese. Numerous methods were used throughout the process, such as a systemic design analysis, and techniques derived from ethnographic methods, which led to the collection of data in the field and consequently provided the immersion of the researcher in genuine work situations. Critical points were identified and emphasized in the systemic map with the purpose of encouraging initiatives to address and overcome the gaps and inefficiencies detected. The systemic design analysis triggered the development of design work. Observations following an ethnographic approach identified ergonomic risks in cheese making during the process of cutting excess chips, fostering the emergence of musculoskeletal disorders at the wrist. A tool that fits best to the task at hand was developed. A prototype of the new tool enabled collecting feedback from use in the work context, in order to inform product development. The domains of agricultural production and microbiology, considering the specific microorganisms developed trough the ripening process of the cheese, turned out to be aspects of high importance for the issue under focus, contributing to a broader understanding of the ripening process and its risks, simultaneously improving the efficiency and success of cheese production. If it were not for the systemic analysis, which served as a link between the boundaries of distinct domains such as the risk of microorganism contamination, ergonomics, energy efficiency, legislation and regulation policies, transportation challenges and economic viability, approached throughout the research. Simultaneously creating bridges between them, the various problems might not have been detected in the first place, as they are usually addressed in specialized disciplines, predetermined by the restrictions of each specific area of knowledge. As a consequence of the development of this research, which was based on an analysis that sought to establish possible connections between various disciplines and tried to constantly maintain a holistic perspective, making new connections and observing the issues from a new angle, apart from the already established methodologies. All this allowed to lay out the seeds for the development of a plan to tackle the critical points identified by the systemic analysis reported in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: entrepreneurial sustainability strategy; system thinking; business process management; process improvements; innovation in higher education; sustainable organizational performance
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:44:40 CET)
The sustainable development of our world has gain particular attention of a wide range of decisional factors, civil society, business sector, and scientific community, seeing that the prosperity of people and society is possible with the aid of sustained and inclusive economic growth of all countries and regions. Educational environment has a decisive impact on changes in the way that societies are coping with national, regional, and global challenges and opportunities brought by sustainable development. Looking at the implications of HE on the progress of society, the paper addressed the lack of HE institutional capacity to integrate the principles and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning. The scope of research problem was bounded on the capability of HEI as organization and school to act as entrepreneurial university by combining the scope of its responsibility within the value chain through a practical and effective mechanism needed to align the strategy with sustainable development goals (SDGs). Embarking on the path of SDGs requires HEI to design, launch, implement, and customize specific processes architectures to govern the advance of sustainability approach. The authors applied the process scoping diagram to capture and conceptualize the educational model needed to guide the HEI through the process of change to embrace sustainability into organizational culture and daily operations. It has been used the SIPOC method (Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer) with Visio software tool to articulate processes relationships embedded in the educational model of HEI. The benefits relied on the organized view of the work processes needed to be performed to incorporate SDGs into the strategy of any entrepreneurial HEI. Finally, the authors shared their views on the scalability of the model which may be customized and harmonized in accordance with different HE circumstances and priorities. Implementing the proposed educational model requires long-term institutional commitment, transparency, continuous performance improvement, and communicating the strategy for SDGs and its achievements to wider stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0186.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: neural; brain; structure; function; process; cell expression
Online: 18 October 2022 (02:37:36 CEST)
This paper describes some neural representations that may be helpful for realising intelligence in the human brain. The ideas come from the author's own cognitive model, where a number of algorithms have been developed over time. Through developing and trying to implement the architecture, ideas like separating the data from the function have become architecturally appropriate and there have been several opportunities to make the system more orthogonal. Similarly for the human brain, neural structures may work in-sync with the neural functions, or may be slightly separate from them. Each section discusses one of the neural assemblies with a potential functional result, that cover ideas such as timing or scheduling, inherent intelligence and neural binding. Another aspect of self-representation or expression is interesting and may help the brain to realise higher-level functionality based on these lower-level processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0138.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: API; clickstream; cloud applications; process mining; scripting
Online: 15 April 2022 (07:37:06 CEST)
Background: Process mining (PM) exploits event logs to obtain meaningful information about the processes that produced them. As the number of applications developed on cloud infrastructures is increasing, it becomes important to study and discover their underlying processes. However, many current PM technologies face challenges in dealing with complex and large event logs from cloud applications, especially when they have little structure (e.g., clickstreams). Methods: Using Design Science Research, this paper introduces a new method, called Cloud Pattern API – Process Mining (CPA-PM), that enables discovering and analyzing cloud-based application processes using PM in a way that addresses many of these challenges. CPA-PM exploits a new application programming interface (API), with an R implementation, for creating repeatable scripts that preprocess event logs collected from such applications. Results: Applying CPA-PM to a case with real and evolving event logs related to the trial process of a Software-as-a-Service cloud application led to useful analyses and insights, with reusable scripts. Conclusion: CPA-PM helps producing executable scripts for filtering event logs from clickstream and cloud-based applications, where the scripts can be used in pipelines while minimizing the need for error-prone and time-consuming manual filtering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0259.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Blockchain technology; Process authenticity; Tokens; Anchors; Oracles
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:54:39 CEST)
In the last four years, the evolution and adoption of blockchain and, more generally, distributed ledger systems have shown the affirmation of many concepts and models with significant differences in system governance and suitable applications. This work aims to update the critical analysis of blockchain technologies carried out by our previous contribution to this journal, extending the focus to distributed ledger components and systems. Starting from the topical concept of decentralization, we introduce concepts and building blocks currently adopted in the available systems centering on their functional aspects and impact on possible applications. We present some conceptual framing tools helpful in the application context, and we will propose the concept of process authenticity, which we will discuss through two use cases: blockchain document dematerialization and e-voting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0006.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: semantics; process cycle; subjectivity; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 1 September 2021 (11:24:31 CEST)
The paper describes a model of subjective goal-oriented semantics extending standard "view-from-nowhere" approach. Generalization is achieved by using a spherical vector structure essentially supplementing the classical bit with circular dimension, organizing contexts according to their subjective causal ordering. This structure, known in quantum theory as qubit, is shown to be universal representation of contextual-situated meaning at the core of human cognition. Subjective semantic dimension, inferred from fundamental oscillation dynamics, is discretized to six process-stage prototypes expressed in common language. Predicted process-semantic map of natural language terms is confirmed by the open-source word2vec data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0464.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Remittances; democrac; election process; Bangladesh; labour migrants
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:41:25 CEST)
This paper examines how remittances contribute to the democratisation process in Bangladesh. The endogeneity issue between remittances and democracy is tackled by employing the Structural VAR (SVAR) approach. It is found that while remittances respond to innovations in the macro-political variables, remittances also have important impact on these variables. Our results build a synergy between two opposing findings in the politics literature where on one hand remittances flows stabilise autocracies, while on the other hand they foster the prospect for democratisation. In particular, we demonstrate that a shock in remittances flows will have a negative but transitory impact on democracy. Initially there will be a bout of autocratic episodes which will be eventually eliminated and democracy will be restored to its original level in three to five years. However, using an alternative measure for democracy with the aid of principal-component analysis, we find that after the fifth year following a shock in remittances flows, a small but positive permanent effect on democracy is observable that do not revert to zero at end of the ten period horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: discrete-impulse energy; hydromechanic; process; milk products
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:52:37 CET)
The basis of the discrete-impulse energy supply (DIES) concept is the efficient use of supplied energy. The references describe in detail the general principles of DIES, examine the energy and thermodynamic aspects and the main mechanisms of intensification that can be initiated on the basis of this principle. DIES mechanisms conveniently can be divided into hard and soft ones. The former should be used to stimulate hydromechanical processes, and the latter to accelerate the processes of phase heat and mass transfer, or for the purpose of intensive mixing of multicomponent media. The authors have studied the possibility of using DIES to intensify the hydromechanical processes, in particular emulsification of milk fat (homogenization of milk, preparation of spreads), processing of cream cheese masses. Objects of research were whole non-homogenized milk, fat emulsions, cream cheese mass. In order to evaluate the efficiency of milk homogenization the homogenization coefficient change was studied, which was determined by centrifugation method as the most affordable and accurate one. Emulsions were evaluated according to the degree of destabilization, resistance and dispersion of the fat phase. The rheological characteristics of cheese masses were evaluated by the effective viscosity change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0412.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Process; ontological category; life concept; essential feature
Online: 16 November 2020 (10:49:11 CET)
Although increasing knowledge about biological systems has advanced exponentially in recent decades, it is surprising to realize that the very definition of Life keeps presenting theoretical challenges. Even if several lines of reasoning seek to identify the essence of life phenomenon, most of these thoughts contain fundamental problem in their basic conceptual structure. Most concepts fail to identify necessary and sufficient features to define life. Here, we analyzed the main conceptual framework regarding theoretical aspects supporting life concepts, such as (i) the physical, (ii) the cellular and (iii) the molecular approaches. Based on ontological analysis, we propose that Life should not be positioned under the ontological category of Matter. Yet, life should be better understood under the top-level ontology of “Process”. Exercising an epistemological approach, we propose that the essential characteristic pervading each and every living being is the presence of organic codes. Therefore, we explore theories in biosemiotics in order to propose a clear concept of life as a macrocode composed by multiple inter-related coding layers. Therefore, we suggest a clear distinction between the concept of life and living beings, a distinction that is not evident in theoretical terms. From the proposed concept, we suggest that the evolutionary process is a fundamental characteristic for life’s maintenance but not to its definition. The current proposition opens a fertile field of debate in astrobiology, biosemiotics and robotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Thermo-Fluidic Process; Inkjet Printing; Feedback Control
Online: 24 March 2020 (08:30:10 CET)
This paper introduces a closed-loop control strategy for maintaining consistency of ink temperature in commercial Drop on Demand (DoD) inkjet printing. No additional sensors or additional actuators are installed in the printhead while achieving the consistency in ink temperature. To this end, this paper presents a novel in situ sensing-actuation policy at every individual ink-nozzle, where the jetting mechanism has three distinct roles. It is used for jetting liquid droplet onto the print media based on the print-job. It is used as a softsensor to estimate the real-time liquid temperature of the jetting nozzle. While not jetting liquid, it is used as a heating actuator to minimize the gradient of liquid temperature among jetting nozzles. The soft-sensing based in situ controller is implemented in an experimentally validated digital twin that models the thermo-fluidic processes of the printhead. The digital twin is scalable and flexible to incorporate an arbitrary number of inknozzles, making the control strategy applicable for future designs of the printhead.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: rotorcraft; machine learning; Gaussian process; flight simulation
Online: 31 July 2019 (04:55:48 CEST)
Physical-law based models are widely utilized in the aerospace industry. One such use is to provide flight dynamics models for use in flight simulators. For human-in-the-loop use, such simulators must run in real-time. Due to the complex physics of rotorcraft flight, to meet this real-time requirement, simplifications to the underlying physics sometimes have to be applied to the model, leading to model response errors in the predictions compared to the real vehicle. This study investigated whether a machine-learning technique could be employed to provide rotorcraft dynamic response predictions, with the ultimate aim of this model taking over when the physics-based model's accuracy degrades. In the current work, a machine-learning technique was employed to train a model to predict the dynamic response of a rotorcraft. Machine learning was facilitated using a Gaussian Process (GP) non-linear autoregressive model, which predicted the on-axis pitch rate, roll rate, yaw rate and heave responses of a Bo105 rotorcraft. A variational sparse GP model was then developed to reduce the computational cost of implementing the approach on large data sets. It was found that both of the GP models were able to provide accurate on-axis response predictions, particularly when the input contained all four control inceptors and one lagged on-axis response term. The predictions made showed improvement compared to a corresponding physics-based model. The reduction of training data to one-third (rotational axes) or one-half (heave axis) resulted in only minor degradation of the GP model predictions.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: peatland; Central Spain; anthropogenic process; genesis; evolution
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:17:09 CET)
This paper constitutes a first advance in the paleoenvironmental study of a small group of peatland ecosystems, of reduced size, located in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula (Puebla de Don Rodrigo, Ciudad Real, Spain). It represents a singular enclave, because these ecosystems are home to the southern-most peatlands in Europe, located at the lowest altitude in Spain, and are unique to the region of Castilla-La Mancha. They form ecosystems similar to the peat bogs of northern Europe, but in a Mediterranean climate. The analysis is followed of sample collection and data collection from documentary, textual, and cartographic sources drawn up since the 16th century up until the present day. The scientific analyses that were performed and the documentation that was consulted point to the hypothesis that these peatlands are the result of a long process of historical modification of the landscape in which anthropogenic activity has played a leading role, triggering a series of processes on the hillslopes that are culminating in the exhumation of the waterlogged areas, thereby establishing a recent genesis of these ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0202.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: CaCO3 polymorphs; sulphate; ageing process; aragonite; gypsum
Online: 21 February 2019 (10:45:12 CET)
In this work we aim to experimentally study the nucleation and growth of CaCO3 phases precipitated from supersaturated aqueous solutions in the presence of varying concentrations of sulphate oxyanion. The experiments were conducted under pH conditions close to neutral (7.6) and considering a wide range of initial (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratios (0 to ~ 68) in the aqueous solution. We paid special attention to the evolution of the precipitates during ageing within a time framework of 14 days. The mineralogy, morphology and composition of the precipitates were studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDX microanalysis. The concentration of sulphate ions in the reacted aqueous solution was study by ICPs. The experimental results show that the mineral composition of the precipitate recovered in each run varied with the (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratio in the parental solution, which influences the mineral evolution of the precipitates during ageing. We observe that high concentrations of sulphate in the aqueous solution stabilize the vaterite precipitates and inhibit calcite formation. Furthermore, aragonite never precipitates directly form the solution and it is only formed via a dissolution-precipitation process in solutions with high (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratio after long reaction times. Finally, gypsum only precipitates after long ageing in those aqueous solutions with the highest concentration of sulphate. The reaction pathways during ageing, the morphology of the calcite crystals and the composition of vaterite and calcite are discussed considering both, kinetic and thermodynamic factors. These results show a considerably more complex behavior of the system than that observed in experiments conducted under higher pHs and supersaturation levels and lower (SO42-)/(CO32-) ratios in the aqueous phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0169.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: fungicides; dissipation; winemaking process; anthocyanins; antioxidant activity.
Online: 13 December 2018 (14:42:28 CET)
The effect of fungicides on fermentation is of paramount importance to control the quality and safety of wines. In this work, the quality (oenological parameters, color, phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and fungicide residues) of wines from Monastrell grapes fortified with iprovalicarb, mepanipyrim and tetraconazole fungicides was evaluated. Along of the winemaking process, initial residues of mepanipyrim and tetraconazole were removed in more than a 90 % while dissipation of iprovalicarb was around 73 %. Significant statistical differences were found in presence of iprovalicarb and mepanipyrim residues especially at the highest concentration assayed. For both fungicides, an increase of the volatile acidity (between 4 and 8.6 times), the lactic acid content (between 8.6 and 20.5 times), the percentage of polymeric anthocyanins (between 1.3 and 1.7 times) and also a slight increase of the total phenolic index and the total anthocyanins content determined by spectrophotometry was observed. On the contrary, the total monomeric anthocyanins content decreased about 16.3 and 28.6 % in presence of iprovalicarb and mepanipyrim, respectively. These results could be related with the addition of SO2 to the grape must and a higher development of acetic acid or lactic bacteria in presence of these fungicides. The color of the final wines was also different in comparison with the control, with a higher yellow component, color intensity, tonality and hue angle, because of pH changes in the medium. Tetraconazole fermentations had a more similar trend to the control wine, probably due to the lower concentration of this fungicide in the grape must at the initial time. No effects on the antioxidant activity was observed for anyone of the target fungicides. A multivariate statistical analysis was done to view interrelationships between different variables (color and anthocyanins profile). The obtained model allowed to separate wines according to the fungicide treatment applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0672.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: linear model predictive control; process control; stability
Online: 29 October 2018 (10:57:05 CET)
The goal of this contribution is an application of the Linear General Model Predictive Control (LGMPC). In this paper, stability of the LGMPC is proven by means of a demonstration of a Theorem stating a sufficient and constructive condition. This condition can be applied for calculating the weight matrices of the cost function in the optimisation problem in LGMPC. Lower bounds conditions are found for one of these matrices and then a system with saturation is taken into consideration. The conditions could be interpreted and discussions through physical aspects. The obtained results were tested by means of computer simulations and an example with a recover water process is considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0541.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: anaerobic process; biogas; coffee wastewater; digester construction
Online: 31 August 2018 (05:47:42 CEST)
Wet coffee processing methods will produce wastewater containing organic matter. The high content of organic matter can be utilized as biogas through the anaerobic process. Anaerobic digesters construction can affect removal process of wastewater pollution and biogas quantity. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of digester construction between conventional digester, CSTR and UASB producing biogas from coffee wastewater. The conventional digester worked without temperature control system as control, a UASB digester, and CSTR digester worked with temperature control system. Biomass volume was about 5 L with 35 days incubation time. Temperature and pH for UASB and CSTR were set within the range 30 – 35oC and pH 6.0 – 8.0. Based on the feeding variations, UASB has a stable performance with 83.57 ml/day of average biogas production. It has also highest remediation efficiency of COD, BOD and C/N with 85.00±0.34 %, 84.40%± 5.66 and 97.78± 0.57.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Ethanol; corn; dry-grind process; bolt-on process; corn fiber; soaking in aqueous ammonia pretreatment; cellulase; cellulosic ethanol.
Online: 5 September 2018 (01:40:11 CEST)
Corn fiber is a co-product of commercial ethanol dry-grind plants, which is processed into distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and used as animal feed, yet it holds high potential to be used as feedstock for additional ethanol production. Due to the tight structural make-up of corn fiber, a pretreatment step is necessary to make the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers in the solid fibrous matrix more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes. A pretreatment process was developed in which whole corn kernels were soaked in aqueous solutions of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 wt% ammonia at 105oC for 24 h. The pretreated corn then was subjected to a conventional mashing procedure and subsequently ethanol fermentation using a commercial strain of natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae with addition of a commercial cellulase. Pretreatment of the corn with 7.5 wt% ammonia solution plus cellulase addition gave highest ethanol production, which improved the yield in fermentation using 25 wt% solid from 334 g ethanol/kg corn obtained in the control (no pretreatment and no cellulase addition) to 379 g ethanol/kg corn (a 14% increase). The process developed can potentially be implemented in existing dry-grind ethanol facilities as a “bolt-on” process for additional ethanol production from corn fiber, and this additional ethanol can then qualify as “cellulosic ethanol” by the EPA’s Renewable Fuels Standard and thereby receive RINS (Renewable Identification Numbers).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: submerged arc; heat resistant steel; square waveform welding; aggregate quality index; bay area; melting efficiency; process; model; process map
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:46:10 CET)
The demand for efficient processes through a comprehensive understanding and optimization of welding conditions continues to grow in the manufacturing industry. This study involves heat-resistant 2.25 Cr-1 Mo V-groove steel welding using the square-waveform alternating cur-rent. Experiments were conducted to build the relationship between input variables—such as current, frequency, electrode negativity ratio, and welding speed—and process performance, such as penetration, bay area, deposition rate, melting efficiency, percentage dilution, flux–wire ratio, and heat input. The process was analyzed in light of the defect-free high-deposition weld groove weld, the sensitivity to process parameters, and the optimization and development of the process map. The study proposes an innovative approach to reducing the cost and time of optimizing the one-pass-each-layer V-groove welding process using bead-on-plate welds. Square waveform welding creates a metallurgical notch in the form of a bay at the fusion boundary that can be minimized by selecting appropriate welding conditions. The square waveform submerged arc welding is more sensitive towards changes in current and welding speed than the frequency and electrode negativity ratio; however, the electrode negativity ratio and frequency are minor but helpful parameters to achieve optimal results. The proximity of the planned and experimental results to within 3% confirms the validity of the proposed approach. The investigation shows that 90% of the maximum deposition rate is possible for one-pass-each-layer V-groove welds within heat input and weld width constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0102.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Oxygen generator; Carbon dioxide; Sabatier process; Mars; Moon
Online: 9 January 2023 (08:16:30 CET)
In the near future, the next generation of space travel will be revealed and people are going to live on multiple planets. As a result, because having enough oxygen for human survival is mandatory, in this research article, we are going to find out an appropriate method for producing oxygen on another planet by considering the accessible resources and their limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Management; Improvement; System; Production process; Technologies; management methods
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:22:28 CEST)
Managers are often faced with the task of improving the management of the production 17process in order to maintain the sustainability of production efficiency in a highly competitive en-18vironment. The submitted contribution deals with the design of a system that will support them in 19the selection of progressive methods and technologies in order to improve the management of pro-20duction processes. Managers often follow new trends in this issue, but it is not easy to work on the 21knowledge that proven progressive technologies can bring them higher efficiency. The presented system is based on the use of knowledge of existing solutions of manufacturers of automotive components, where companies solve similar problems in production management. The mix of methods and technologies used in the management of production processes brings companies different results in the achieved efficiency. The proposed system for supporting the selection of the production management method and technology is designed from blocks of data collection, benchmarking of the performance of production processes of industrial enterprises, and further from data mining technology to obtain knowledge about the effect on efficiency from already implemented technologies. The last blocks help to examine the differences in the implementation of the same methods and technologies and allow to present the obtained results to the manager in the form of recommendations for choosing a suitable progressive method and technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0248.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Random fields; warped Gaussian Process; Spatial field reconstruction
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:39:35 CEST)
A class of models for non-Gaussian spatial random fields is explored for spatial field reconstruction in environmental and sensor network monitoring. The family of models explored utilises a class of transformation functions known as the Tukey g-and-h transformations to create a family of warped spatial Gaussian process models which can support various desirable features such as flexible marginal distributions, which can be skewed, leptokurtic and/or heavy-tailed. The resulting model is widely applicable in a range of spatial field reconstruction applications. To utilise the model in applications in practice, it is important to carefully characterise the statistical properties of the Tukey g-and-h random fields. In this work, we both study the properties of the resulting warped Gaussian processes as well as using the characterising statistical properties of the warped processes to obtain flexible spatial field reconstructions. In this regard, we derive five different estimators for various important quantities often considered in spatial field reconstruction problems. These include the multi-point Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) estimators; the multiple point Maximum A-Posteriori (MAP) estimators; an efficient class of multiple-point linear estimators based on the Spatial-Best Linear Unbiased (S-BLUE) estimators; and two multi-point threshold exceedance based estimators, namely the Spatial Regional and Level Exceedance estimators. Simulation results and real data examples show the benefits of using the Tukey g-and-h transformation as opposed to standard Gaussian spatial random fields in a real data application for environmental monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0110.v1
Online: 7 June 2020 (16:42:16 CEST)
Perovskite based solar cells have achieved tremendous progress reaching record efficiency in the past 5 years. Numerous new processes and chemistry have been reported and contribute to the perovskite rapid progress. Continuous efficiency improvements are still necessary for perovskite solar cells, and an exploratory data analysis on devices performance over multiple studies could boost the technology development. Such analysis could identify patterns or provide insights that are not obvious in a single study. Here we present a high quality dataset containing only independently certified Pb-based perovskite solar cells summarizing their efficiency, relevant I-V metrics, manufacturing processes and materials used. Analysis over the dataset provides insights on how aperture size, perovskite deposition methods and materials used in each functional layer affect the final solar cell efficiency and I-V metrics. Future directions are also suggested for efficiency improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0396.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: production process design; design for manufacturability; fuzzy logic
Online: 27 March 2020 (13:01:50 CET)
The paper presents design methodology for the production process of a new product from the point of view of the assembly operations technology criterion (Design for Assembly - DFA) in the conditions of high-volume production. Mentioned are DFA methods and techniques used in the implementation of a new product. Author presents a new method to assess design for manufacturability based on fuzzy variables based on fuzzy variables. An example was given to illustrate the proposed course of action
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: ceramic membrane; combination process; microfiltration; optimization; recovery efficiency
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:58:04 CET)
The aim of this study is to evaluate the optimal conditions of membrane filtration process. Both laboratory test and pilot-scale test were conducted to examine a treated water on blending water. The water sample were prepared by blending a raw water and the effluent water filtered through an organic membrane. The optimal efficiency in the treatment of water quality at the lab-scale test was generated under conditions of flux at 2.0 m3/m2∙day, the blending ratio of 4:1, and the optimal dosage of coagulant at 20 ppm. The pilot-scale test resulted in that the optimal efficiency was obtained under conditions of flux at 2.0 m3/m2∙day and the blending ratio of 6.0:1. However, the different results between lab-scale and pilot-scale tests on the optimal dosage of coagulant implied that it is difficult to achieve the stable condition of process operation at the low level of coagulant. In summary, the results indicated that, in the combination process of organic membrane and ceramic membrane, the recovery efficiency was achieved above the level of 98.4 %. Compared to 92.1 % in a single organic membrane process, the combination process is 6.3 % more efficient than the single one. This combination process of water treatment lead to stable recovery rates by the optimal input of dosage, less pollution load to water, and a stabilized filtration system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0065.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: simulation; binomial distribution; Poisson distribution; stochastic process; modelling
Online: 8 January 2020 (07:43:23 CET)
This study has developed a Matlab application for simulating statistical models project (SMp) probabilistic distributions that are similar to binomial and Poisson, which were created by mathematical procedures. The simulated distributions are graphically compared with these popular distributions. The application allows to obtain many probabilistic distributions, and shows the trend (τ ) for n trials with success probability p, i.e. the maximum probability as τ=np. While the Poisson distribution PD(x;µ) is a unique probabilistic distribution, where PD=0 in x=+∞, the application simulates many SMp(x;µ,Xmax) distributions, where µ is the Poisson parameter and value of x with generally the maximum probability, and Xmax is the upper limit of x with SMp(x;µ,Xmax) ≥ 0 and limit of the stochastic region of a random discrete variable. It is shown that by simulation via, one can get many and better probabilistic distributions than by mathematical one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0014.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: simulation; binomial distribution; poison distribution; stochastic process; modelling
Online: 2 January 2020 (05:19:27 CET)
This study has developed a Matlab application for simulating statistical models project (SMp) probabilistic distributions that are similar to binomial and Poisson, which were created by mathematical procedures. The simulated distributions are graphically compared with these legendary distributions. The application allows to obtain many probabilistic distributions, and shows the trend (τ ) for n trials with success probability p, i.e. the maximum probability as τ=np. While the Poisson distribution PD(x;µ) is a unique probabilistic distribution, where PD=0 in x=+∞, the application simulates many SMp(x;µ,Xmax) distributions, where µ is the Poisson parameter and value of x with generally the maximum probability, and Xmax is upper limit of x with SMp(x;µ,Xmax) ≥ 0 and limit of the stochastic region of the random discrete variable X. It is shown that by simulation via, one can get many and better probabilistic distributions than by mathematical one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: chaotic advection; microfluidics; micromixer; numerical simulation; process intensification
Online: 15 December 2019 (15:31:48 CET)
In the present paper four passive micromixers designs (G1, G2, G3 and G4) inspired on distillation columns trays were proposed. The devices performance was assessed by numerical simulations. The mixing performance was investigated for a Reynolds number range from 0.01 to 100 and channel height of 200 µm, 500 µm and 1000 µm for oil/ethanol flow. G1 and G4 designs provided high mixing index (> 0.975). The G1 device achieved superior mixing performance with a moderate pressure drop (about 0.5 MPa) due to the induced flow recirculation pattern for a relative high flow rate of 0.21 L/min, highlighting the potential use of such microdevice for scale-up and numbering-up of microdevices in modular chemical plant processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Acoustic emissions, fracture process, failure prediction, q-statistics
Online: 9 January 2019 (16:35:10 CET)
In this paper we present experimental results concerning Acoustic Emission (AE) recorded during cyclic compression tests on two different kinds of brittle building materials, namely concrete and basalt. The AE inter-event times were investigated through a non-extensive statistical mechanics analysis which shows that their decumulative probability distributions follow q-exponential laws. The entropic index q and the relaxation parameter q 1=Tq, obtained by fitting the experimental data, exhibit systematic changes during the various stages of the failure process, namely (q; Tq) linearly align. The Tq = 0 point corresponds to the macroscopic breakdown of the material. The slope, including its sign, of the linear alignment appears to depend on the chemical and mechanical properties of the sample. These results provide an insight on the warning signs of the incipient failure of building materials and could therefore be used in monitoring the health of existing structures such as buildings and bridges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0567.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: solution process; thin films; composite material; dielectric constant
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:48:45 CEST)
In this study is reported the optical, structural and dielectric properties of Poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films membranes with embedded ZnO nanoparticles (PVA/ZnO) obtained by solution casting method at low temperature of deposition. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra showed the characteristics peaks, which correspond to O-H and Zn-O bonds present in the hybrid material. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the presence of ZnO structure into the films. The composite material showed low absorbance and a wide band gap energy from 5.6 to 5.9 eV. The surface morphology for the thin films of PVA/ZnO was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The dielectric properties of the nanocomposites were measured from low to high frequencies, the results showed a high dielectric constant (ε) in the order of 104 at low frequency and values from ε ≈ 2000 to 100 in the range of 1KHz-1MHz respectively, the properties of PVA/ZnO such as the high permittivity and the low temperature of processing make it a suitable material for potential applications in the development of flexible electronic devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0251.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Geological process, geological materials, trace elements, environmental health
Online: 15 June 2018 (11:47:52 CEST)
Inadequate data linking geology and health in Developing Countries contributes immensely to the challenges to identify sources and causes of many of the emerging diseases. Deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements generally impact human and animal health. The review of the geology of Ghana suggests the presence of oxides and sulphide minerals that are released into the natural environment during the geological process of weathering which introduce both essential and, potentially harmful elements. Of great concern is the fact that majority of the Ghanaian population eat locally cultivated food and expect to be nourished from the diet. Furthermore, archived reports on Ghana rural drinking water indicates most of the aquifers are enriched in As and F while deficient in Mg. Medical geology, the emerging discipline that attempts to address the environmental health issues emanating from geological processes is known in developed nations but not much of its activities are recognized in Ghana. This review has identified the concentrations of a number of elements in different geological settings and have linked these concentrations with health issues. There is therefore a need for medical geologists to work together with other disciplines to devise preventive as well as mitigative techniques in addressing many geology related health issues in Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0004.v1
Online: 1 September 2017 (18:01:32 CEST)
Museums and Science Centres are informal education environments that intend to engage the visitors with their exhibits. We present an efficient design process that allows an improved working relationship between museum practitioners, exhibition designers, and visitors. We present the principles and a graphical representation based on the Engagement Profile from previous work. Elements of the design process are evaluated using a learning game at the science centre Engineerium. The evaluation is based on a study with over five hundred visitors to the science centre.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Nanochannel; Molecular Dynamics Method; Nanoparticle, Argon; Boiling Process
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:37:40 CEST)
In this paper, the boiling flow inside a nanochannel with 700000 argon particle has been simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This approach has been employed to analysis the superheated flow and its heat transfer pattern as well. For all simulations an external thrust force varying from 1 PN to 12 PN is exerted on inlet nanoparticles along the channel to have the forced annular boiling flow. Computations reveal that saturation condition and superheat degree have significant impacts on the liquid-vapor interface. Furthermore, because of the major influence of surface tension throughout a nanochannel, the x-velocity of liquid film and vapor core has not considerable fluctuations and stay smooth. All provided results show the behaviors completely similar to the available outcomes in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0388.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: alumina; Bayer process; bauxite; seeded precipitation; coarse gibbsite; agglomeration.
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:56:02 CET)
The addition of active seed for increasing the precipitation rate leads to the formation of fine Al(OH)3 particles that complicates separation of solid from the mother liquor. In this study, the enhanced precipitation of coarse Al(OH)3 from sodium aluminate solution using active agglomerated seed was investigated. Aluminum salt (Al2(SO4)3) were used for active agglomerated seed precipitation at the initial of the process. About 50% of precipitation rate was obtained when these agglomerates were used as a seed in the amount of 20 g L–1 at 25 °C within 10 h. The agglomerated active seed and precipitate samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM images showed that agglomerates consist of flake-like particles that can be stick together by bayerite (β-Al(OH)3) acting as a binder. The precipitation temperature above 35 °C and the high concentration of free alkali (αk > 3) lead to the agglomerates refinement that can be associated with the bayerite dissolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Hydrodynamic model; marine and coastal tourism; analysis hierarchy process
Online: 7 December 2022 (14:47:31 CET)
Poso regency, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, has a coastal area that has marine tourism potential to be developed. It is expected that marine tourism can bring socio-economic impact to the com-munity. This research was conducted with the objective of assessing the suitability of the area to be developed as a marine and coastal tourism site to provide benefits to the coastal community. Hydrodynamic model will be used in this research as coastal area mapping. As an approach, Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) is utilized whose parameters consist of depth, coast type, coast width, brightness, current speed, water base materials, observation of dangerous biota and availability of fresh water. Based on the overall mapping area of 98,644 ha, the research results show that the area that can be utilized is 7,979 ha with a very suitable category, while there is an area of 1,045 ha which can still be classified in the appropriate category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0077.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: thermodynamics; Ramsey theory; graph theory; directed graph; irreversible process.
Online: 3 November 2022 (11:36:33 CET)
Re-shaping of thermodynamics with the graph theory and Ramsey theory is suggested. Maps built of thermodynamic states are addressed. Thermodynamic states may be attainable and non-attainable by the thermodynamic process in the system of constant mass. We address the following question how large should be a graph describing connections between discrete thermodynamic states to guarantee the appearance of thermodynamic cycles? The Ramsey theory supplies the answer to this question. Direct graphs emerging from the chains of irreversible thermodynamic processes are considered. In any complete directed graph, representing the thermodynamic states of the system the Hamiltonian path is found. Transitive thermodynamic tournaments are addressed. The entire transitive thermodynamic tournament built of irreversible processes does not contain a cycle of length 3, or in other words, the transitive thermodynamic tournament is acyclic and contains no directed thermodynamic cycles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0464.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: wheat aleurone; dietary fibre; extraction process; antioxidant; bread; arabinoxylans
Online: 29 September 2022 (09:00:46 CEST)
The wheat aleurone layer is, according to millers, the main bran fraction. It is a source of nutritionally valuable compounds, such as dietary fibres, proteins, minerals and vitamins, that may exhibit health benefits. Despite these advantages, the aleurone layer is scarce on the market, probably due to issues related to its extraction. Many processes exist with some patents, but a choice must be made between the quality and quantity of the resulting product. Nonetheless, its potential has been studied mainly in bread and pasta. While the nutritional benefits of aleurone-rich flour addition to bread agree, opposite results have been obtained concerning its effects on end-product characteristics (namely loaf volume and sensory characteristics), thus ensuing different acceptability responses from consumers. However, the observed negative effects of aleurone-rich flour on bread dough could be reduced by subjecting it to pre- or post-extracting treatments meant to either reduce the particle size of the aleurone’s fibres or to change the conformation of its components.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0389.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Weyl semimetal; NbAs single crystal; CVT; seed growth process
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:21:18 CET)
A Weyl semimetal is a novel crystal with low-energy electronic excitations that behave as Weyl fermions. It has received worldwide interest and was believed to have opened the next era of condensed matter physics after graphene and three-dimensional topological insulators. Howev-er, it is not easy to obtain a single large-size crystal because there are many nucleations in the preparation process. Here, a bottom-seed CVT growth method is proposed in this paper, and we acquired the large-size, high-quality NbAs single crystals up to 5x4x4 mm3 finally. X-ray diffrac-tion and STEM confirmed that they are tetragonal NbAs, which the key is to use seed crystal in vertical growth furnace. Notably, the photoelectric properties of the crystal are obtained under the existing conditions, which paves the way for the follow-up work.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Decision Making Process; Social Networks; Social Commerce; Social Support
Online: 21 January 2022 (14:53:08 CET)
The introduction of social commerce ushered in a new era in business-consumer interaction. As a result, more power has passed from the vendor to the buyer, primarily fueling e-commerce acceptance. As a result, understanding consumer behaviour in the context of social commerce adoption has become essential for businesses looking to persuade customers by using the power of social ties and support.Furthermore, such social ties will facilitate trust as the most promising benefit while reducing perceived risk, which has always been a critical problem with online commerce. This study proposes a paradigm for understanding the impact of social commerce on the stages of the consumer decision-making process: need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour, with a focus on social support. In this respect, relevant literature in the subject of social commerce either (1) lacks an adequate explanatory model, (2) has a solid theoretical base, or (3) contains practically complex theories with insufficient empirical data. The research model applies the Social Commerce Constructs (SCC): recommendations and referrals, forums and communities, and ratings and reviews to study the respective influence on the consumer decision-making process phases. This paper aims to understand the influence of social commerce on an integrative model that incorporates all customer choice phases while expecting new knowledge. Furthermore, it is advised that this conceptual model be empirically verified to evaluate the practical consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Celiac disease; diagnostic process; gluten free diet; delayed diagnosis
Online: 29 December 2021 (11:22:00 CET)
The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) may be delayed due to non-specific clinical symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical manifestation and diagnostic process of CD in Polish children and adults. Methods: The members of the Polish Coeliac Society (n=2 500) were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, clinical and diagnostic aspects of CD. The analysis was based on 796 responses from patients with confirmed CD diagnosis, and included 224 (28.1%) children and 572 (71.9%) adults. Results: The mean duration of symptoms prior to CD diagnosis in children was significantly shorter than in adults (p < 0.001), and amounted to 3.1 and 9 years respectively. The most frequent symptoms before CD diagnosis were abdominal pain and bloating in children (70.4%), and chronic fatigue in adults (74.5%). Although almost all CD patients claimed to strictly avoid gluten after CD diagnosis, symptoms were still present in the majority of these respondents. No comorbid diseases were reported by 29.8% of children and by 11.7% of adults (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that CD diagnosis is delayed in Poland, espe-cially in adults, and clinicians should be aware of the diversity in CD presentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0363.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Automatic Fiber Laying; Thermoplastic composites; Process simulation; Digital twin
Online: 25 November 2021 (15:55:01 CET)
As use of composite materials increases, the search for suitable automated processes gains relevance to guarantee production quality by ensuring uniformity of the process, minimizing the amount of generated scrap and reducing time and energy consumption. Limitations on production by traditional means such as hand lay-up, vacuum bagging and in-autoclave methods, tend not to be as efficient when the size and shape complexity of the part being produced increases, motivating the search for alternative processes such as the Automated Tape Laying (ATL). This work aims to describe the process of modelling and simulating a composite ATL with in situ consolidation by characterizing the machine elements, using the finite differences method in conjunction with energy balances, in order to create a digital twin of the process for further control design. The modelling approach implemented is able to follow the process dynamics when changes to the heating element are imposed as well as to predict the composite material temperature response, making it suitable to work as a digital twin of a production process using an ATL machine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: core affect; emotion; semantics; process cycle; quantum cognition; qubit
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:04:58 CET)
The paper describes model of human affect based on quantum theory of semantics. The model considers emotion as subjective representation of behavioral context relative to a basis binary choice, organized by cyclical process structure and an orthogonal evaluation axis. The resulting spherical space, generalizing well-known circumplex models, accommodates basic emotions in specific angular domains. Predicted process-semantic structure of affect is observed in the word2vec data, as well as in the previously obtained spaces of emotion concepts. The established quantum-theoretic structure of affective space connects emotion science with quantum models of cognition and behavior, opening perspective for synergetic progress in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0303.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: accelerated degradation tests; gold nanoparticles; life distribution; Wiener process
Online: 17 September 2021 (10:11:15 CEST)
Accelerated degradation tests (ADT) are widely used in the manufacturing industry to obtain information on the reliability of components and materials, through degrading the lifespan of the product by applying an acceleration factor which causes damage to the material. The main objective is to obtain fast information which is modeled to estimate the characteristics of the material life under normal conditions of use and to save time and expenses. The purpose of this work is to estimate the lifespan distribution of gold nanoparticles stabilized with lipoic acid (GNPs@LA) through accelerated degradation tests applying sodium chloride (NaCl) as an acceleration factor. For this, the synthesis of GNPs@LA was carried out, a constant stress ADT (CSADT) was applied, and the non-linear Wiener process was proposed with random effects, error measures and different covariability for the adjustment of the degradation signals. The information obtained with the test and analysis allows us to obtain the life distribution in GNPs@LA, the results make possible to determine the guaranteed time for a possible commercialization and successful application based on the stability of the material. In addition, for the evaluation and selection of the model, the Akaike and Bootstraping criteria were used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0674.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Petri nets; programmable logic controllers; process modelling; digital twin
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:03:34 CEST)
Industrial discrete event dynamic systems (DEDSs) are commonly modelled by means of Petri nets (PNs). PNs have the capability to model behaviours such as concurrency, synchronization, and resource sharing, compared to a GRAphe Fonctionnel de Commande Etape Transition (GRAFCET) which is a particular case of a PN. However, there is not a systematic way to implement a PN in a programmable logic controller (PLC), and so it is very common the implementation of such a controller outside a PLC, in some external software that will communicate with the PLC. There have been some attempts to implement PNs within a PLC, but they are dependent on how the logic of places and transitions is programmed for each application. This work proposes a novel application-independent and platform-independent PN implementation methodology. This methodology is a systematic way to implement a PN controller within industrial PLCs. A great portion of the code will be validated automatically prior to PLC implementation. Net structure and marking evolution will be checked on the basis of PN model structural analysis, and only net interpretation will be manually coded and error-prone. Thus, this methodology represents a systematic and semi-compiled PN implementation method. A use case supported by a digital twin (DT) is shown where the automated solution required by a manufacturing system is carried out and executed in two different devices for portability testing, and the scan cycle periods are compared for both approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0622.v1
Subject: Keywords: Monte Carlo Tree Search, Software Design, Markov Decision Process
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:29:08 CEST)
Flexible implementations of Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS), combined with domain specific knowledge and hybridization with other search algorithms, can be a very powerful for the solution of problems in complex planning. We introduce mctreesearch4j, a standard MCTS implementation written as a standard JVM library following key design principles of object oriented programming. We define key class abstractions allowing the MCTS library to flexibly adapt to any well defined Markov Decision Process or turn-based adversarial game. Furthermore, our library is designed to be modular and extensible, utilizing class inheritance and generic typing to standardize custom algorithm definitions. We demon- strate that the design of the MCTS implementation provides ease of adaptation for unique heuristics and customization across varying Markov Decision Process (MDP) domains. In addition, the implementation is reasonably performant and accurate for standard MDP’s. In addition, via the implementation of mctreesearch4j, the nuances of different types of MCTS algorithms are discussed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Clinching; binding mechanism; process chain; torsion test; electrical test
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:33:17 CEST)
The multi-material design and the adaptability of a modern process chain require joining connections with specifically adjustable mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical properties, whereby previous considerations have focused primarily on the mechanical properties. With clinching, the multitude of possible combinations of requirements, materials and component or joint geometry makes it impossible to determine these joint properties empirically. As a result of the established and empirically based procedure, no model exists to date that considers all questions of joinability, i.e. the materials (suitability for joining), the design (joining safety) and the production (joining possibility) and allows a calculation of the achievable properties. It is therefore necessary to describe the physical properties of the joint as a function of the three bonding mechanisms force closure, form closure and material closure in relation to the application. This approach enables the illustration of the relationships along the causal chain "joint requirement - binding mechanism - joining parameters". In this way the adaptability of the mechanical joining technology can be improved. A geometric comparison is made using metallographic cross sections, of clinched joints of the combination of aluminum and steel. The torsional testing of the rotationally symmetric clinching points for detection of the mechanical stress state are qualified as examination method and technological test. By measuring the electrical resistance in the base material, in the clinch joint and during the production cycle (after clinching, before precipitation hardening and after precipitation hardening), this change in the stress state can also be detected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: abrasive materials; garnet; corundum; olivine; disintegration, cutting process efficiency
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:27:31 CEST)
The size and distribution of abrasive particles have a significant influence on the effectiveness of the cutting process by the high-speed abrasive water jet (AWJ). The paper deal with the abrasive materials disintegration intensity in AWJ cutting during the creation of the abrasive jet. An evaluation of the abrasive materials grabbed after forming in the cutting head was carried out and its grain distribution was evaluated. Used here the arithmetic, geometric and logarithmic method of moments and Folk and Ward method. The influence of abrasive concentration of abrasive materials as alluvial garnet, recycled garnet, corundum, and olivine on grain distribution was studied. A recovery analysis was also carried out and the recycling coefficient for each tested abrasive material was determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0256.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: reversible electrodialysis; water scarcity; process efficiency; temperature effect; voltage
Online: 12 May 2021 (07:25:01 CEST)
Currently, a large part of the wells for agricultural use located in the state of Sonora are overexploited, which generates a high degree of saline intrusion and abandonment by nearby communities. In this paper the temperature effect on the final concentration of permeate water was evaluated through voltage and intel concentration variations in a batch electrodialysis reversal process (EDR), in order to identify optimal operating conditions with emphasis on the reduction of energy consumption and cost of desalinated water. Thirty-six samples were prepared: eighteen 2,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) samples and eighteen 5,000 mg/L TDS samples; brackish well water of 639 mg/L TDS and synthetic salt were mixed to obtain those concentrations. 3 different temperatures (25, 30, 35 °C) and 2 different voltages (10 and 20 V) were tested for each sample. The best salt removal occurred in the 20 V arrays, with 18.34% higher removal for 2,000 mg/L TDS experiments and 25.05% for 5,000 mg/L experiments (average between the 25 to 35 °C tests). Temperature positively affected EDR, especially in the experiments at 10 V voltage, where increasing 10 °C increased its efficiency by 10.83% and 24.69% for 2,000 and 5,000 mg/L TDS, respectively. Energy consumption was lower with increasing temperature (35 °C), as it decreased by 1.405% and 1.613% for 2,000 and 5,000 mg/L TDS concentrations, respectively (average between 10 and 20 V tests), decreasing the cost per m3 of water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0085.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Sol gel process; Pigments; Cobalt Chromate; Nanoparticles; Synthesis; Lithium,
Online: 6 May 2021 (13:05:13 CEST)
CoCr2O4 and doped lithium Co1-xLixCr2O4 chromate powder and nanoparticles were prepared by modified by sol-gel method. The morphological and structural properties of nano chromates were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL). Nanoparticles of doped lithium were synthesized by adding appropriate amount of cobalt nitrate, chromium nitrate, lithium nitrate and 1,2 Ethanediol as a complexing agent. The sample were heated at 105 ˚C for ten hours in oven to obtain dry gel. Calcination temperature for these samples was 700˚C for 3 hours in a furnace. The particle size of parent compound ranges from 4.4 nm to 11 nm, determined by SEM. The tendency of particles to form the aggregates with the increased annealing temperature was observed. The SEM and optical characterization of this compound has shown the sol gel derived material may be successfully used as an effective doped lithium cobalt ceramic pigment with controlled variation in structural and optical properties. SEM images showed that spherical like doped particle have diameter 33nm. From PL spectra Nano structure shows band gap 2.5ev and when we doped Lithium in it band gap decreases and become 1.19ev, which is associated to band gap transition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0299.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Markov Modulated Poisson Process; Multifractals; Self-similarity; Traffic modeling
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:38:36 CET)
This paper presents a simple and fast technique of multifractal traffic modeling. It proposes a method of fitting model to a given traffic trace. A comparison of simulation results obtained for an exemplary trace, multifractal model and Markov Modulated Poisson Process models has been performed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process; Important-Satisfaction Model; TAIPEI 101; Sustainability
Online: 3 December 2020 (15:52:22 CET)
In order to maintain the best conditions of the building from the first day of opening, explorations of office buildings in the world investigated the approaches of optimizing the building operation and property facilities, whereas building managers often have trouble prioritizing improvements toward their sustainable objectives. The challenge is due to numerous equipment types in the building, which has various durability in years and represents users’ different feelings of importance and satisfaction. When faced with multiple improvement projects, building managers are often unable to determine the order of implementation.Hence, this research applies the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) using TAIPEI 101 Tower as a case study to explore the key factors affecting tenants’ willingness to lease office buildings by distributing questionnaires to real estate experts. By filtering out key indicators related to property facilities that users care about, this study used Importance and Satisfaction Analysis (IS Analysis) to identify items that need urgent improvement. The research revealed that air conditioning is the top priority for improvement through empirical evaluation and weight ranking. This study hopes to establish an evaluation model for facility improvements to help clarify the prioritization and defeat limited resources to projects effectively, which is helpful for sustainable property management.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0348.v1
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:06:39 CEST)
With the year 2020, the world faced a new threat that affects all areas of life, negatively affects production in all areas, and paralyzes social life. The measures and restrictions taken by the country's governments to prevent the epidemic from spreading rapidly in the society with the effect of the Covid-19 virus, which first appeared in China and spread all over the world, brought a new lifestyle. Covid-19 has been much the impact on electricity use and electricity production in the period in Turkey as in other countries. There was a sharp decline in commercial and industrial electricity use. The coronavirus effect has also been reflected in the electricity demand and the consumption amount has undergone a great negative change. Due to the enactment of measures against the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic and the partial or full-time curfews, electricity consumption was moved to homes, supermarkets, and hospitals in April 2020 from places where mass consumption is intense, such as industry, workplaces, and educational institutions. In this study, Covid-19 period, the first cases were examined electricity production and consumption in Turkey as of the date it is seen throughout, in comparison with electricity consumption data in the same month of the previous years corresponding to this period, the effects on electricity generation and consumption habits of this period were examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0218.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: agricultural commodity futures; price discovery; market reflexivity; Hawkes process
Online: 13 May 2020 (03:35:53 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze market reflexivity in agricultural futures contracts with different maturities. To this end, we apply a four-dimensional Hawkes model to storable and non-storable agricultural commodities. We find market reflexivity for both storable and non-storable commodities. Reflexivity accounts for about 50 to 70 percent of the total trading activity. Differences between nearby and deferred contracts are less pronounced for non-storable than for storable commodities. We conclude that the co-existence of exogenous and endogenous price dynamics does not change qualitative characteristics of the price discovery process that have been observed earlier without consideration of market reflexivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0026.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Scambi; fushi tarazu; Drosophila; BioArt; BioMusic; music; process composition
Online: 4 January 2020 (04:47:51 CET)
The term Bio-Art has entered common usage to describe the interaction between the arts and the biological sciences. Although Bio-Art implies that Bio-Music would be one of its obvious sub-disciplines, the latter term has been much less frequently used. Nevertheless, there has been no shortage of projects that have brought together music and the biological sciences. Most of these projects have allowed the biological data to dictate to a large extent the sound produced, for instance the translation of genome or protein sequences into musical phrases, and therefore may be regarded as process compositions. Here I describe a Bio-Music process composition that derives its biological input from a visual representation of the expression pattern of the gene fushi tarazu in the Drosophila embryo. An equivalent pattern is constructed from the Scambi portfolio of short electronic music fragments created by Henri Pousseur in the 1950s. This general form of the resulting electronic composition follows that of the fushi tarazu pattern, while satisfying the rules of the Scambi compositional framework devised by Pousseur. The range and flexibility of Scambi make it ideally suited to other Bio-Music projects wherever there is a requirement, or desire, to build larger sonic structures from small units.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Requirement Change Management; Methodology; Change Management Process; Software System
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:41:40 CET)
During software development requirement gathering is an important phase. Requirements are the basis of software development. The success or failure of any software depends upon level of understanding developed in requirements. During software development requirements keeps on changing due to different reasons. Hence requirements are such a critical phase that leads to the total project failure. So, to understand the impacts and to identify the conflicts with existing requirements, it is important to manage and analyze the requirements well. Requirement change management is the interest of this paper. Different requirement change management techniques has been discussed in this paper and analyzed them well and finally conclude the results accordingly.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: glycine-nitrate process; copper oxide nanopowders; heterogeneous catalysis; NP9EO
Online: 10 December 2019 (15:20:25 CET)
Copper-based nanoparticles were synthesized using the glycine–nitrate process (GNP) by using copper nitrate trihydrate [Cu(NO3)2‧3H2O] as the main starting material and glycine [C2H5NO2] as the complexing and incendiary agent. The as-prepared powders were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Using Cu(NO3)2.3H2O as the oxidizer (N) and glycine as fuel (G), we obtained CuO, mixed-valence copper oxides (CuO + Cu2O, G/N = 0.3–0.5), and metallic Cu (G/N = 0.7). The XRD and BET results indicated that increasing the glycine concentration (G/N = 0.7) and reducing particle surface area increased the yield of metallic Cu. The effects of varying reaction parameters such as catalyst activity, catalyst dose, and H2O2 concentration on nonylphenol-9-polyethoxylate (NP9EO) degradation were assessed. With a copper‐based catalyst in a heterogeneous system, the NP9EO and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were 83.1% and 70.6%, respectively, under optimum operating conditions (pH, 6.0; catalyst dose, 0.3 g/L; H2O2 concentration, 0.05 mM). The results suggested that removal efficiency increased with an increase in H2O2 concentration but decreased when the H2O2 concentration exceeded 0.0.5 mM. Furthermore, the trend of photocatalytic activity was as follows: G/N = 0.5 > G/N = 0.7 > G/N = 0.3. The G/N = 0.5 catalysts showed the highest photocatalytic activity and resulted in 94.6% NP9EO degradation in 600 min.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Chemometric data,sparse autoencoder, gaussian process regressor, pareto optimization.
Online: 9 May 2019 (11:31:46 CEST)
We proposed a deep learning based chemometric data analysis technique. We trained L2 regularized sparse autoencoder end-to-end for reducing the size of the feature vector to handle the classic problem of curse of dimensionality in chemometric data analysis. We introduce a novel technique of automatic selection of nodes inside hidden layer of an autoencoder through pareto optimization. Moreover, linear regression, ϵ-SVR , and Gaussian process regressor are applied on the reduced size feature vector for the regression. We evaluated our technique on orange juice and wine dataset and results are compared against state-of-the-art methods. Quantitative results are shown on Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) and the results show considerable improvement in the state-of- the-art.
Online: 19 April 2019 (11:18:13 CEST)
This paper describes a multi-channel in-situ monitoring system developed to better understand defect formation signatures in metal additive manufacturing. Three high-speed imaging modes coupled with an image computer capable of processing and storing these data streams allowed an examination of defect formations signatures and mechanisms. It was found that defects later detected in X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans were related to regions with anomalous heat signatures and powder bed morphology. Automated defect detection algorithms based on these defect signatures captured 80% of defects greater than 300 µm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: cogeneration; process integration; solar energy; thermal storage; desalination; optimization
Online: 18 April 2018 (08:08:48 CEST)
Shale gas production is associated with significant usage of fresh water and discharge of wastewater. Consequently, there is a necessity to create the proper management strategies for water resources in shale gas production and to integrate conventional energy sources (e.g., shale gas) with renewables (e.g., solar energy). The objective of this study is to develop a design framework for integrating water and energy systems including multiple energy sources, cogeneration process, and desalination technologies in treating wastewater and providing fresh water for shale gas production. Solar energy is included to provide thermal power directly to a multi-effect distillation plant (MED) exclusively (to be more feasible economically) or indirect supply through a thermal energy storage system. Thus, MED is driven by direct or indirect solar energy, and excess or direct cogeneration process heat. The proposed thermal energy storage along with the fossil fuel boiler will allow for the dual-purpose system to operate at steady-state by managing the dynamic variability of solar energy. Additionally, electric production is considered to supply a reverse osmosis plant (RO) without connecting to the local electric grid. A multi-period mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) is developed and applied to discretize operation period to track the diurnal fluctuations of solar energy. The solution of the optimization program determines the optimal mix of solar energy, thermal storage, and fossil fuel to attain the maximum annual profit of the entire system. A case study is solved for water treatment and energy management for Eagle Ford Basin in Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; culture; politics; differentiation; historical process; Western European countries
Online: 24 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
The societies of Western Europe, following the territorial delimitation of the corresponding State, have gone through different historical processes of internal homogenization. After the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the application of the principle cuius regio eius religio induced the religious homogenization of the population. Then, due to the ethnic diversity of its population, the State tried to homogenize it from the cultural point of view; it was the process of nationalization and democratization of the State. This process lead to the separation of religion from politics and from culture. After the two world wars, national reconstruction needed a foreign population: this need for labor was filled in the most developed countries by population of the countries that were least (Portuguese, Spanish, Italian ...) and also by population flows coming from the old colonies. The cultural and religious homogeneity of these countries began to lose force. With the oil crisis of the 1970s, a period of major economic fluctuations began in Europe. In those years, the second generation of the population of immigrant origin began to go to a job market that was not in good health. The religion and culture of their predecessors became autonomous resources for the reconstruction of their identity and to achieve a personal and social esteem. This process is necessarily leading States to rethink the relations between politics, culture and religion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: TIG process; Composite Coating; St 304; Hardness; Wear Resistance
Online: 14 April 2017 (04:29:16 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to develop a composite coating on St 304 steel employing TIG process. Ti wire cored with graphite powder is used as the means of coating material. The process parameters are varied in order to develop coating with optimum characteristics (i.e., hardness and wear resistance). The microstructure of the coating is analyzed with SEM and XRD. It is found that both of the hardness and wear resistance increase as the current increases while both of these properties decrease as the travelling speed increases. It is found that the coated samples with composite layers have more hardness than the substrate and it could range up to 1100 HV being almost 4.5 times higher than the hardness of St 304. Likewise, the wear resistance of coating is observed to be 4.5 times higher than that of substrate. The high performance of coating, as revealed by microstructural analysis, is due to formation of TiC and Cr23C6 .The optimum conditions to produce the coating are proposed to be 120 A current and 3.17 mm/s travel speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: feasibility; solar thermal energy; heat process; greenhouse gas emissions
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:05:07 CET)
This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC)—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year). CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373K to 423K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0143.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Industry 4.0; XaaS; SemSOA; business process optimization; scalable cloud service deployment; process service plan just-in-time adaptation; BPMN partial fault tolerance
Online: 22 November 2018 (05:29:31 CET)
A new requirement for the manufacturing companies in Industry 4.0 is to be flexible with respect to changes in demands, requiring them to react rapidly and efficiently on the production capacities. Together with the trend to use Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), this requirement induces a need for agile collaboration among supply chain partners, but also between different divisions or branches of the same company. In order to address this collaboration challenge, we~propose a novel pragmatic approach for the process analysis, implementation and execution. This~is achieved through sets of semantic annotations of business process models encoded into BPMN 2.0 extensions. Building blocks for such manufacturing processes are the individual available services, which are also semantically annotated according to the Everything-as-a-Service (XaaS) principles and stored into a common marketplace. The optimization of such manufacturing processes combines pattern-based semantic composition of services with their non-functional aspects. This is achieved by means of Quality-of-Service (QoS)-based Constraint Optimization Problem (COP) solving, resulting in an automatic implementation of service-based manufacturing processes. The produced solution is mapped back to the BPMN 2.0 standard formalism by means of the introduced extension elements, fully detailing the enactable optimal process service plan produced. This approach allows enacting a process instance, using just-in-time service leasing, allocation of resources and dynamic replanning in the case of failures. This proposition provides the best compromise between external visibility, control and flexibility. In this way, it provides an optimal approach for business process models' implementation, with a full service-oriented taste, by implementing user-defined QoS metrics, just-in-time execution and basic dynamic repairing capabilities. This paper presents the described approach and the technical architecture and depicts one initial industrial application in the manufacturing domain of aluminum forging for bicycle hull body forming, where the advantages stemming from the main capabilities of this approach are sketched.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: palm oil industry; palm oil milling; process safety; leadership; culture
Online: 7 December 2022 (08:58:35 CET)
Several studies have highlighted the importance and evolution of process safety leadership and culture in various industries. However, none has focused on the palm oil milling industry yet. This paper critically reviews the latest developments in the palm oil milling process and unit operations leading to process safety concerns. It also discusses the Principle of 3C that is applied to explain repeat accidents and the four-level safety culture in the palm oil milling industry. For this purpose, the author presents case studies of two key palm oil companies in Malaysia. Overall, this paper offers guidelines to leaders in the palm oil milling industry about the required process safety leadership and culture to be understood in order to improve their safety outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0089.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: BIPV; pearlescent pigment; NOA; spin coating; high transmittance; lamination process
Online: 7 February 2022 (13:04:23 CET)
In this study, we propose a solution process for realizing color glass for building integrated pho-tovoltaic (BIPV) systems by spin coating a color solution composed of a pearlescent pigment mixed in a norland optical adhesive (NOA) matrix. Color solutions are made from mixing pearlescent pigments in NOA63. Compared to a physical vapor deposition process, color coatings are achieved by spin coating in a relatively simple and inexpensive process at room temperature. The optical properties can be easily controlled by adjusting the spin coating speed and the concentra-tion of the pearlescent pigments. The produced color glasses achieved a high transmittance of 85% or more in the visible wavelength range, except the wavelength spectrum exhibiting the maxi-mum reflectance. In addition, we propose a one-step lamination process of color glass on a solar cell by leveraging on the adhesive property of the NOA matrix. This eliminates the cost and pro-cess of additional ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) layer or other materials used in the conventional lamination process. The color glass produced through this study has stability that does not change its properties over time. Therefore, it is expected to be applied to the BIPV solar module market where aesthetics and energy efficiency are required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0057.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Catalysis; Suzuki-Miyaura; Buchwald-Hartwig amination; Palladium; Pharmaceuticals, Process Chemistry
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:56:37 CET)
Cross coupling reactions have changed the way complex molecules are synthesized. In particular, Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig amination reactions have given opportunities to elegantly make pharmaceutical ingredients. Indeed, these reactions are forefront at both the stages of drug development, medicinal chemistry, and process chemistry. On one hand, these reactions have given medicinal chemists a tool to derivatize the core molecule to arrive at scaffold rapidly. On the other hand, these cross couplings have offered the process chemists a smart tool to synthesize the development candidates safely, quickly, and efficiently. Generally, the application of cross coupling reactions is broad, and this review will specifically focus on their real (pharma) world applications in large scale synthesis those appeared in last two years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Economic; MSF process; Optimization formulation; Parabolic trough collector; Solar desalination.
Online: 20 September 2021 (10:26:51 CEST)
Desalinators are traditionally driven by fossil-fuels but in order to avoid greenhouse emissions, renewable energy must be used. In this paper, a coupling between multi-stage flash distillation apparatus and a parabolic trough solar collector is analyzed. The purpose of this study is to determine the economic feasibility of the system, considering four cities of Saudi Arabia and three different potable water productions. To avoid solar energy intermittency and unavailability at night, thermal storage is implemented. Whereas other researchers made parametric analyses, in this paper, the authors developed a mathematical program which was optimized with the help of GAMS software, where the capital cost of the plant was the objective function. After that, a life cycle cost analysis was carried out for each scenario. Depending on the region and water production, the costs of drinking water vary from 2.26 to 3.93 US$/m3, and from 7440 to 23825 tons of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided. As a consequence of the approach used, low costs are obtained; even though no auxiliary heater is implemented and the lowest irradiance conditions are considered. The results of this study reflect that the proposed process is competitive with respect to the traditional one.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0489.v1
Subject: Keywords: Heat stress; molecular responses; morphological responses; physiological process; reproductive activity
Online: 25 August 2021 (11:46:08 CEST)
An astonishing increase in temperature is posing several harmful impacts on crop plants. Heat stress is an abiotic environmental phenomenon that causes limits, inhibits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide, resulting in losses in production yields. Heat stress is caused by human activities and global warming,s such as greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. There are many pieces of evidence to support that heat stress reduces the crop plants yield worldwide, and the effects of heat stress are challenging to meet nutritional security and global food security for human beings. Heat stress has negative impacts on each developmental stage, including from germination to harvesting. Prevalent approaches for heat adaption is inadequate management that is unable either to increase the crop productivity or sustain ld. Several responses to dissect the relevant knowledge about heat stress mechanism involving morphological phenomena, physiological phenomena, reproductive replies, and molecular responses such as heat shock proteins act as mRNA synthesis, mRNA control (effects of genes during heat stress), the translation process, heat response element. There are such phenomena involving disseminating the knowledge concerning heat stress. In this review, we summarise the effect of heat stress on plant mechanisms, including morphological, biochemical and molecular responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: residential high-rise building; critical success to sustainability; KMITL PROCESS
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:49:51 CEST)
Sustainability is very important in business. The residential high-rise building all firms wanted to successful and sustainability in business. There is need the construction to completed low time, low cost and high quality in construction work. Therefore, real estate developers must find various strategies to use in construction projects to achieve goals and success of the firm. The purpose of this study was to indicate the very importance of knowledge management can lead to sustainability in business. Analyze 14 critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building projects, collected questions from literature review, and survey in deep interview senior managers of 15 projects real estate development firms listed on the stock market of Thailand. Budget building more than 1000 million baht per project. From conceptual frame work five foundations integrated to knowledge management of critical success (KMITL PROCESS) used made tool survey in deep interview the critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project from project managers. Used IBM SPSS evaluated the critical success to sustainability. Found was one very important of critical success to sustainability, which was quality of products x̄ = 4.83. All 14 critical success to sustainability was found can applied made the knowledge management of critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project in firm. Especially in the field of construction managements project can used improve of all construction projects.