CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0680.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Acute febrile illness; Alphavirus; chikungunya virus; post-chikungunya musculoskeletal disorder; post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism
Online: 29 March 2021 (10:56:13 CEST)
Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus. Outbreaks are unpredictable and explosive in nature. Fever, arthralgia, and rash are common symptoms during the acute phase. Diagnostic tests are required to differentiate chikungunya virus from other co-circulating arboviruses, as symptoms can overlap, causing a dilemma for clinicians. Arthritis is observed during the sub-acute and chronic phases, which can flare up, resulting in increased morbidity that adversely affects activities of daily living. During the 2019 chikungunya epidemic in Thailand, cases surged in Bangkok in the last quarter of the year. Here, we demonstrate the chronic sequelae of post-chikungunya arthritis in one of our patients 1 year after the initial infection. An inflammatory process involving edema, erythema, and tenderness to palpation of her fingers' flexor surfaces was observed, with positive chikungunya IgG and negative IgM tests and antigen. The condition produced stiffness in the patient’s fingers and limited their range of motion, adversely affecting daily living activities. Resolution of symptoms was observed with a short course of an anti-inflammatory agent. More research is required to determine whether sanctuaries enable chikungunya virus to evade the host immune response and remain latent, flaring up months later and triggering an inflammatory response that causes post-chikungunya arthritis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2-infection; dehydration; hypoalbuminemia; pulmonary hypoxia; hyaline memrane; pulmonary engorgement; lung weight; acute respiratory distress syndrome; diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)
Online: 13 April 2022 (08:27:30 CEST)
ABSTRACT Two years after first patients approached the emergency rooms of hospitals in Wuhan becouse of respiratory distress,thousend of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons continue to die every day worldwide.SARS-CoV-2-infected patients undergo a process of dehydration and malnutrition before they develop respiratory problems and approach the emergency room of a hospital.This is,in many cases, the consequence of high fever which causes massive loss of fluids. In addition loss of appetite, is responsible for the deficit of protein intake.Most of the virus-infected patients admitted to the emergency room are therefore hypovolemic and hypoproteinemic and suffer of respiratory distress accompanied by ground grass opacities at CT-scan of the lungs.Critically ill patients are treated following the guidelines for treatment of septic shock but with „conservative“ fluid replacement and administration of diuretics to assure sufficient hourly urine production. The combination of conservative fluid administration with reduced protein content in the enterally administered diet, together with administration of diuretics, has severe hemodynamic consequenses in mostly aged,dehydrated,critically ill patients. Many of them will develop acute kidney injury in the next 24 hours.In most of the cases, patients continue to loose weight by loosing skeletal muscle mass. Ischemic damage in the lung capillaries is responsible for the acute respiratory distreass syndrome (ARDS) and for the hallmark of autoptic findings,diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) characterized by hyaline membrane formation,fluid invasion of the alveoli recruitment of some inflammatory cells and progressive arrest of blood flow in the pulmonary vessels.The consequence is progressive congestion , increase of lung weight and progressive hypoxia (progressive severity of ARDS).Sequestration of blood in the lungs worsen hypovolemia and ischemia in different organs.This is most probably responsible for recruitment of inflammatory cells and for persistance of elevated serum levels of positive acute-phase markers and of hypoalbuminemia. Autoptic studies have been performed mostly in patients who died in the ICU after SARS-CoV-2-infection because of progessive ARDS.In those patients, tubulus epithelium necrosis in the kidney is a frequent finding as it has been the case in the first SARS-CoV-1 pandemic.In the death certification charts, many times weeks after first symptoms have started ,cardiac arrest is the cause of death after respitatory insufficiency.Replacement therapy with sufficient amount of fluid and albumin should be part of the early individualized life-saving supportive measures avoiding mechanical ventilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; depression; anxiety; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome; post-COVID
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:56:33 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to examine the course of Depression and anxiety in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history compared with those without a psychiatric history. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey for COVID-19 survivors was conducted from July to September 2021. 6016 COVID-19 survivors, the accuracy of whose responses was determined to be assured, were included in analyses. Exposures included psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection, and the main outcomes and measures included severity of depression and anxiety, as assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), respectively. Results: Mean severity of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were significantly higher in participants with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history. Two-way analysis of covariance for PHQ-9 showed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and a significant interaction effect of psychiatric history × time since infection. Two-way analysis of covariance for the GAD-7 score revealed a significant main effect of the presence of psychiatric history and time since COVID-19 infection and the interaction effect of these factors. Conclusions: The course of depression and anxiety was more severe in COVID-19 survivors with a psychiatric history than in those without a psychiatric history.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Pangolin; Intrinsic; Disorder; Protein; Nucleocapsid; Virulence; Shell; Covid; Coronavirus; Vaccine; Immune; Antibody; Shell; Nucleoprotein; Matrix; Attenuate; Severe Acute Respiratory
Online: 4 May 2021 (16:24:51 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 was empirically and computationally found to be of a specific but peculiar evolution. Shell disorder models found that the outer shell (M protein) of SARS-CoV-2 to be among the hardest in its CoV family. The hard outer shell (low M percentage of disorder (PID)) is likely to be related to the SARS-CoV-2 resistance to the antimicrobial enzymes in saliva and mucus, and be responsible for the high-level of viral shedding which has been observed clinically. Experimental studies have also shown that SARS-CoV-2 is more resilient in the environment than many other CoVs, including SARS-CoV-1. Another aspect of the shell disorder models predicts that SARS-CoV-1 is more virulent than SARS-CoV-2 because of higher inner shell disorder (N PID) that helps SARS-CoV-1 replicate faster in vital organs despite being of lesser viral loads in the saliva and mucus, unlike SARS-CoV-2. This has been reaffirmed experimentally, where higher levels (50 folds) of infectious particles were detected in the SARS-CoV-1 samples in comparison with those of SARS-CoV-2. The hard outer shell of SARS-CoV-2 has been found to be associated with burrowing animals, particularly pangolins, which are often in contact with buried feces. For these reasons, the M protein is highly conserved among close relatives of SARS-CoV-2. The phylogenetic tree using M, unlike the genome-wide one, shows that pangolin-CoVs are more closely related to SARS-CoV-2 than bat-RaTG13. Previous phylogenetic studies may have been confused by recombinations that are usually poorly handled. According to the shell disorder models based on the N PID, an attenuated COVID-19 strain is likely to have entered humans via pangolins in 2017 or before, which provides the virus enough time to adapt to humans. This could explain why the SARS-CoV-2 S protein is highly adapted to the human ACE-2. The specific but peculiar evolution has a wide range of clinical, immunological, and epidemiological implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Long Covid; post Covid; Post-acute COVID
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:25:20 CET)
Abstract: COVID-19 Long Haulers, an estimated 3% to 12% of people infected globally with coronavirus having latter devasting symptoms 12 weeks after the initial infection is on the rise. We conducted a collaborative study with the long covid patient organization in Greece in order to estimate the prevalence, symptoms and problems that adult long haulers experience and then propose a management plan for these patients. Symptoms were obtained from 208 patients using unstructured qualitative free text entries in an anonymized online questionnaire. The majority of respondents (68.8%) were not hospitalized and had been diagnosed more than six months ago with lingering symptoms (66,8%). Eighteen different symptoms (fatigue, tachycardia, shortness of breath, parosmia etc) were mentioned in both hospitalized and community patients. Interestingly, patients with initial mild symptoms suffer from the same persistent symptoms as those who were hospitalized. Awareness of long covid sequelae seems to be low even among medical doctors. Treatment options incorporating targeted rehabilitation programs are either not available or still excluded from the management plan of long covid patients. Since long COVID is a multi-systemic entity, we propose a holistic interventional approach using a multidisciplinary medical team in order to securely and effectively diagnose and treat these specific patients. Academic and medical community must collaborate with long covid patients’ organizations so as to provide personalized medicine.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0317.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); COVID19; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; bioaerosol; aerosol
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:30:30 CEST)
A short review of the important studies was conducted to evaluate the potential of aerosol transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The minimum size of droplets potentially carrying the SARS-CoV-2 was newly estimated and discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0474.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; children and adolescents; Rwanda; structural inequalities; post colonialism
Online: 28 March 2023 (05:33:08 CEST)
COVID-19, the fear it engendered, and the policy measures to manage its spread have disproportionately impacted the wellbeing of children and adolescents (CAs). We present an intensive critical realist case study of the impact of COVID-19 on the health and wellbeing of CAs in Rwanda, seeing it as much a social and political crisis as a medical and public health one. To do this, we carried out interviews with a purposive sample of 25 leaders with a working knowledge of children and young people; they were more likely than the CAs themselves to observe changes across the CA population within their remit and more likely to be looking for general explanations rather than individual experiences. The findings show that CAs' responses to the changes wrought on their lives by Covid-19 were conditioned by their age, gender, social class and if they lived in urban or rural areas. However, Covid19 has not just revealed the structural weakness of the Rwandan health system but of education, social protection, child protection, employment, family, and financial systems. The pathway to (adverse) impacts of COVID-19 on CAs is conditioned by these institutions and their interactions together with structural socioeconomic inequalities both within Rwanda and globally.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rotavirus; coronavirus; vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cross immunity; trained immunity; vaccinated breakthrough infections; COVID variants; long-Covid; post-viral syndrome; chronic fatigue; booster
Online: 23 August 2022 (10:50:57 CEST)
This proposal was prepared in the very first weeks of 2020 because of the outbreak of COVID-19.There is good reason to suppose that rotavirus vaccine can be used as protection tool to effectively and safely fight and mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impact caused by COVID-19 in adult humans, due to the development of cross and trained immunity following rotavirus vaccination. Up-to-date, some rotavirus vaccines are available and approved, two of them have a large experience in results and safety. Little experience has been achieved in the use of rotavirus vaccine in adults. However, it can be expected that it would be safe and effective in adults and in the elderly as well. This proposal explains the background.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; booster vaccine; post-vaccine IgG antibody persistence
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:18:10 CEST)
Our aim was to evaluate the immune response of healthcare workers included in the RIPOVAC study, after receiving a booster dose (third dose), in terms of intensity and persistence of induced antibodies. In the second phase of RIPOVAC study, between December 2021 and January 2022, eight months after the second dose, 389 voluntary, immunocompetent, non-pregnant healthcare workers received a booster dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and a serum sample was obtained. Two groups of patients were established: with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. In order to quantify anti-S1 IgG (AU/mL) we used CMIA (Abbott). All the health workers were anti-S IgG positive 8 months after receiving the booster dose of the vaccine, with a mean of 17040 AU/mL. In 53 patients without previous infection, antibody levels had increased by a mean of 10762 AU/mL. This figure is 7 times higher than the one produced after the second dose (1506 AU/mL). The booster dose produces a robust elevation of the antibody level, which persists at 8 months with levels up to values significantly higher than those reached after the second dose, that allow to predict a persistence of more than one year. The study demonstrates the efficacy of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; ancestral reconstruction; clonality; source of entry; dispersal routes
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:21:49 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was officially declared a pandemic on the 11th March 2020. It is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), impacting the lower respiratory tract. International travel to Australia during the early stages of the pandemic prior to border closure provided avenues for this virus to spread into Australia. There is little understanding of the clonality of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Australia, and where they originated. This study aimed to investigate the clonality and ancestral sources of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Australia using in silico methods. We retrieved 1,346 complete genomes from Australia along with 153 genomes from other countries from the NCBI nucleotide database and Global Initiative On Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). We then constructed a representative population of 270 sequences for downstream phylogenetic analysis and ancestral area reconstruction. Overall, two major clusters, one stemming from Europe and another from Asia, especially East Asia, were observed, implying at least two major transmission events with subsequent clades confirming the multiclonality of Australian isolates. We also identified three potential dissemination routes of SARS-CoV-2 into Australia. This study supports the hypothesis of multiple clonality and dispersals of SARS-CoV-2 isolates into Australia.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0360.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; acute respiratory distress syndrome; hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction; alveolar edema; early low-flow oxygen
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:40:30 CET)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread over the world for more than one year. COVID-19 often develops life-threatening hypoxemia. Endothelial injury caused by the viral infection leads to intravascular coagulation and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. However, besides above pathogenic mechanisms, the role of alveolar edema in the disease progression has not been discussed comprehensively. Since the exudation of pulmonary edema fluid was extremely serious in COVID-19 patients, we bring out a hypothesis that severity of alveolar edema may determine the size of poorly-ventilated area and the blood oxygen content. Treatments to pulmonary edema (alcohol-oxygen vapor therapy and fluid management) may be great helpful for reducing occurrence of severe cases. Given that late mechanical ventilation may cause mucus (edema fluid) to be blown to the deep of the small airways, oxygen therapy should be given at the early stages. The optimal time and SpO2 threshold for oxygen therapy are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: contrast induced nephropath; acute myocardial infarction
Online: 21 November 2016 (12:13:30 CET)
Background: The morbidity of myocardial infarction is keeping raise in this decade. Because of high safety and operability , percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) has been used to conquer this disease for more than 20 years.An important complication of PCI is contrast induced nephropathy(CIN), which raises our attention. Previously, we started a study to explore the correlation between acute kidney injury and myonecrosis after scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention. Our study showed that the rate of CI-AKI in patients with post-procedural myocardial injury and undergoing elective PCI was higher than that in patients free of injury. Methods: In this study,forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n=8), CM group (n=12), AMI group (n=8) and AMI+CM group (n=12), then velocity of renal artery blood flow (VRABF), computer tomography (CT), serum creatinine(Scr), reactive oxidative species (ROS), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and TUNEL were used to estimate the injury of kidney. We analyzed 327 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome subjects undertaking elective PCI. Serum levels of creatinine (SCr) and the eGFR before coronary angiography, and 24–72 h after contrast administration were recorded to assess the renal function. Results: The data showed that VRABF was lower in AMI+CM group than CM group from 0 minute to 24h and CT number in cortex was higher in AMI+CM group than CM group at 4-hour. As well as the level of Scr in AMI+CM group displayed a significantly increase at 24-hour compared with CM group. The histopathologic scores and percentage of tubular cell apoptosis were higher in AMI+CM group at 24-hour. In 327 patients, we found that CI-AKI occurred more often in subjects with post-procedural myonecrosis (PMN) than in those without PMN (20.8% versus 5.8%, respectively, P=0.001). Conclusion: Compared to the elective patient, the injury of CIN exhibited a higher severity in AMI patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0171.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: protein functional domains; short linear motifs; coronaviruses; COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; virus outbreak
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:54:17 CEST)
Although phylogenetic analysis shows coronaviruses (CoV) share similar genome sequences, CoVs encode different number of proteins (5 to 14), which has implication on viral pathogenicity and infection. Here, we aimed to identify (in-silico) the similarities between different members of coronavirus family. The analysis included 50 coronavirus proteomes, including SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), to find the variation of the number of protein functional motifs and domain in each coronavirus. For this role, we used the experimentally validated domain (motif) that known to be crucial for viral infection. Although human CoVs are classified within one genus, we found variations among them. SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV encode different type of domains, which has implications on the molecular interactions triggered by each virus within human cells. Secondly, we used functional motifs to reconstruct the potential molecular pathways or interactions triggered by SARS-CoV-2 proteins within human cell.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; meta-analysis
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:06:04 CET)
Introduction: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is very contagious, and can be transmitted to other people by droplet, aerosol, sneezing, infected surface, and cough. There is no vaccine or effective treatment at this time. Therefore, the prevention of COVID-19 and the rapid diagnosis of infected patients is crucial. Method: We searched all relevant literature published up to February 28, 2020, from Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library to collect the studies that reported clinical and laboratory characteristics of COVID-19 infected patients. The study quality was assessed with the Critical Appraisal Checklist. Depending on the heterogeneity test, we used either random or fixed-effect models to analyze the appropriateness of the pooled results. Result: Twenty studies were included in the meta-analysis, including a total of 52,251 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. 69.5% (95% CI 54.5-81, p < 0.001) of patients had a history of recent travel to Wuhan, contact with people from Wuhan, or lived in Wuhan. The most common symptoms among COVID-19 infected patients were fever 85.6 % (95% CI 73 -93, p < 0.001), and cough 63 % (95% CI 55.5-70, p < 0.001), respectively. The laboratory analysis showed that thrombocytosis was present in 91% (95% CI 81-98, p < 0.001) CRP was elevated in 81% (95% CI 65-91, p < 0.001), and lymphopenia in 62.5% of cases (95% CI 42-79, p < 0.001). The most common radiographic signs were bilateral involvement in 76.8% (95% CI 62.5-87, p < 0.001) and consolidation in 75.5% (95% CI 50.5-91, p < 0.001) of patients. Most patients (85.4%) were hospitalized, 20.6% of patients were admitted to the ICU in critical condition, and the mortality rate was 5.6%. Conclusions: Fever and cough are the most common symptoms of COVID-19 infection in the literature published to date. Thombocytosis, lymphopenia, and increased CRP were common lab findings although most patients included in the overall analysis did not have laboratory values reported. The most common radiographic sign was bilateral involvement in and consolidation. Among Chinese patients with COVID-19, rates of hospitalization, critical condition, and hospitalization were high in this study, but these findings may be biased by reporting only confirmed cases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0338.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2; (soluble) ACE2; eosinophil; asthma; IL-10; Lung fibrosis; hypercapnic acidosis; hypoxia; infarction; hypertension; cardiac dysfunction; respiratory distress; coagulopathy; Angiotensin; renin; Ang (1-7); Ang (1-9); Mas receptor; AT2 receptor
Online: 6 May 2020 (04:40:25 CEST)
The article describes the rational for inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) pathways as specific targets in patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 in order to prevent the establishment of positive feedback loops triggered by COVID-19 in some predisposed subjects. Making use of a large quantity of published reports in which human/rodent ACE2 pathway inhibitors were administered in vivo, it is hypothesized a possible therapeutic pharmacological intervention through an inhibition strategy of the zinc metalloprotease ACE2 and its downstream pathway for SARS-CoV-2 patients. Of even more interest, metal (zinc) chelators and renin inhibitors (both FDA approved drugs) may also work alone or in combination in inhibiting the positive feedback loops, initially triggered by COVID-19 and subsequently sustained by hypoxia independently on viral trigger, when both arms of renin-angiotensin system (ACE2 and ACE) are upregulated, leading to critical, advanced and untreatable stages of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: pneumonia; acute respiratory distress syndrome; pathogenesis; protein-homeostasis-system; corticosteroid; intravenous immunoglobulin
Online: 18 November 2016 (10:18:58 CET)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis). The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin) as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human bocaparvovirus; acute gastroenteritis; children
Online: 4 April 2023 (05:19:34 CEST)
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is an emerging virus that has been detected worldwide that could be associated with cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, its contribution to AGE has not been elucidated. This study aimed to describe the frequency, clinical features, and HBoV genotypes circulation in children up to 5 years with or without AGE symptoms in Acre, Northern Brazil. A total of 480 stool samples were collected between January and December 2012. Fecal samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. Statistical analysis was applied to verify the association between epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Overall HBoV-positivity was 10% (48/480), being HBoV-positivity rates of 8.4% (19/226) and 11.4% (29/254) recorded among diarrheic and non-diarrheic children, respectively. The most affected age group was between 7 and 24 months (50%). HBoV infection was more frequent in children living in urban areas (85.4%), using water from the public network (56.2%), and living with adequate sewage facilities (50%). Co-infection with other enteric viruses was 16.7% (8/48) and the most prevalent coinfection was RVA+ HBoV (50%, 4/8). HBoV‐1 was the most frequent species detected, responsible for 43.8% (21/48) of cases, followed by HBoV-3 (29.2%, 14/48) and HBoV-2 (25%, 12/48). In the present study, HBoV infections are not associated with AGE, as most HBoV cases belonged to the non-diarrheal group without AGE symptoms. Future studies are warranted to determine the role of HBoV in causing acute diarrhea disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV2), COVID-19, molecular diagnostics, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:55:44 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2. In Colombia, many commercial methods are now available to perform the RT-qPCR assays, and the laboratories must evaluate its diagnostic accuracy to ensure reliable results to suspected COVID-19 patients. The purpose of the study was to compare four commercial RT-qPCR assays for detection of SARS-CoV2 virus, from nasopharyngeal swab samples referred to Laboratorio Carvajal IPS, SAS of Tunja, Boyacá - Colombia. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 152 samples of respiratory tract samples (Nasopharyngeal Swab) from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. Diagnostic accuracy of GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp (In Vitro diagnostic), One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR (Vitro Master diagnostica), Berlin modified protocol and gold standard Berlin protocol (Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit, New England Biolabs) as reference was assessed. Operational characteristics were estimated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and predictive values. Results: Using Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit as reference, the sensitivity/specificity for the diagnostic tests were found to be GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit 100%/92.7%, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR 92.75%/67.47%, and Berlin modified protocol 100%/96.39%. The results of four commercially available methods were found to be consistent with those obtained from Berlin Modified protocol analysis for % of the samples and showed good agreement (κ= 0.96). Concordant SARS-CoV2 negative and positive RT-qPCR results were reported for xxx and xxx samples, respectively. Summarize something about the Ct. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that all commercially available methods are rapid and reliable for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with COVID-19. One-Step RT-qPCR Kit and GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp assay show optimal sensitivity compared with Belin modified protocol. In addition, there is no significant correlation between xxxxx
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: acupuncture; dysphagia; post-acute stroke; overview; systematic reviews; meta-analyses; rehabilitation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:31:46 CEST)
Background: Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews (SRs) on acupuncture treatment for post-acute stroke dysphagia have been published. Due to conflicting results an overview of SRs to summarize and assess the quality of this evidence to determine whether acupuncture is effective for this disease was conducted. Methods: Seven databases were searched for SRs and/or Meta-analysis of RCTs and quasi-RCTs on acupuncture for post-acute stroke dysphagia. Two authors independently identified SRs and meta-analyses, collected data to assess the quality of included SRs and meta analyses according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2). Results: 31 SRs were identified. Quality of 22 SRs was critically low, 5 SRs were low, and 4 Cochrane SRs were moderate when evaluated by AMSTAR2. 17 SRs reported 85.2-96.3% items of PRISMA. Five SRs included explanatory RCTs, 16 SRs included pragmatic RCTs, and 10 SRs included both. Conclusion: Currently evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture on post-acute stroke dysphagia is low quality. Type of study appeared to have no direct influence on the result, but the primary outcome measures showed a relationship with the quality of SRs. High quality trials with large sample sizes should be the focus of future research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134163
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: inflation risk; investment returns; life annuity; longevity risk; post-retirement benefits
Online: 7 December 2016 (10:27:23 CET)
Building a social security system to ensure Singapore residents have peace of mind in funding for retirement has been at the top of Singapore Government’s policy agenda over the last decade. Implementation of the Lifelong Income For the Elderly (LIFE) scheme in 2009 clearly shows that the government spares no effort in improving its pension scheme to boost its residents’ income after retirement. Despite the recent modifications to the LIFE scheme, Singapore residents must still choose between two plans: the Standard and Basic plans. To enhance the flexibility of the LIFE scheme while maintaining its simplicity, we propose some plan modifications such that scheme members do not face a dichotomy of plan choices. Instead, they select two age parameters: the Payout Age and the Life-annuity Age. This paper provides an actuarial framework for determining members’ payouts and bequests based on the proposed age parameters. We analyze the net cash receipts and internal rate of return (IRR) for various plan-parameter configurations. This information helps members make their plan choices. To address cost-of-living increases we propose to extend the plan to accommodate an annual step-up of monthly payouts. By deferring the Payout Age from 65 to 68, members can enjoy an annual increase of about 2% of the payouts for the same first-year monthly benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Long covid; Post covid; Sleep disorders
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Objectives: To examine the long term impact of COVID-19 on sleep patterns and development of sleep disorders. Methods: Using the centralized Massachusetts General Brigham (MGB) Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), SARS-CoV2 positive patients were surveyed about their sleep patterns before and after the viral infection. Information related to co-morbid conditions and medications were obtained through chart review. Results: Two hundred and forty five completed surverys were analysed. Average age was 53.3 ± 16.3 years, and participants were predominantly Non-Hispanic White (84.1%) and female (74.3%). Average BMI (kg/m2) was 29.9 ± 6.9, and a greater proportion was non-smokers (63.2%). After COVID-19, there was an increase in the percentage of participants reporting difficulty initiating (31 ± 46% vs. 39 ± 49%, P=0.01), and maintaining sleep (43 ± 49% vs. 57 ± 49%, P<0.001), and use of sleep aids (24 ± 43% vs. 30 ± 45% P=0.003) with an incidence rate of 24.3%, 37.4%, and 12.3% respectively. In addition, there was an increase in daytime fatigue and the need for napping (58 ± 49% vs. 36 ± 48%, P <0.0001) with an incidence of 8% and 23% respectively. The sleep symptoms persisted beyond 12 months among 28% of the participants and were predominantly seen among women. Conclusions: Infection with SARS-CoV2 has negative effects on sleep, and a significant proportion of adults experience insomnia and daytime sleepiness beyond 12 months after recovering from the initial infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: acute pharyngitis; rational use of drugs; incidence; prevalence
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:37:07 CET)
According to Indonesia’s result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There were 80.01% over prescription of antibiotics, with a total of 8.98% is non-treatment option, and 62.43% irrational used of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% of incidence and 2.00% of prevalence with irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there were still irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health center. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining health services quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0082.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Africa, African women, Christianity, Igbo society, patriarchy, post-colonialism, feminism, womanism
Online: 27 July 2016 (04:18:57 CEST)
The African society is one of the societies with rich culture and traditions. Apart from the indigenous religion of Africa, Christianity and Islam are worshiped as the major religions of the African society. Literature reflects a great amount of influence of religions on the existing societies, people and cultures. African literature often mirrors the clash of indigenous religion with Christianity. In the writings of African authors one can find the elements of Christian beliefs and practices. The present paper, however, is focused on the African woman novelist Buchi Emecheta’s selected four novels: Second-Class Citizen (1974), The Bride Price (1976), The Slave-Girl (1977) and The Joys of Motherhood (1979). The paper attempts to discuss the impact of Christianity on the social and cultural aspects of the African society with special focus on African women. The findings reveal the positive as well as negative impacts of the new religion on African people and on the position of African women through the characters present in the selected novels. With the medium of writing and through Christianity, Emecheta seek to educate her society and improve upon the position of the African women.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: novel coronavirus infection; renal transplant; acute kidney injury
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:02:03 CET)
Novel coronavirus infection is a recent infective agent that causes severe potentially fatal pneumonia. The clinical presentation includes asymptomatic infection, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. Data pertaining to the clinical presentation of solid organ transplant recipients are scarce. Two cases of novel coronavirus infection in two recipients of renal transplant with variable clinical presentations and outcomes are reported. The first patient presented with progressive respiratory symptoms, acute renal failure, and passed away, whereas the second one, although presented with respiratory tract symptoms and hypoxemia remained stable and exhibited an excellent clinical recovery despite recent reception of thymoglobulin induction. This paper reports rare cases of novel coronavirus infection in renal transplant recipients. For an enhanced insight of the novel coronavirus infection and acute kidney injury on the clinical presentation, severity, and outcome in solid organ transplant recipients, further investigations are required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; COVID-19; epidemiology; laboratory; long COVID; pathogenesis; post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-19 infection (PASC); post COVID; post-COVID syndrome (PCS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (09:41:11 CEST)
Long COVID (LC) encompasses a constellation of long-term symptoms experienced by at least 10% of people after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, and so far has affected about 65 million people. The etiology of LC remains unclear; however, many pathophysiological pathways may be involved, including viral persistence; chronic, low grade inflammatory response; immune dysregulation and defective immune response; reactivation of latent viruses; autoimmunity; persistent endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy; gut dysbiosis; hormonal dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction; and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. There are no specific tests for the diagnosis of LC, and clinical features including laboratory findings and biomarkers may not specifically relate to LC. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to develop and validate biomarkers that can be employed for the prediction, diagnosis and prognosis of LC and its therapeutic response. Promising candidate biomarkers that are found in some patients are markers of systemic inflammation including acute phase proteins, cytokines and chemokines; biomarkers reflecting SARS-CoV-2 persistence, reactivation of herpesviruses and immune dysregulation; biomarkers of endotheliopathy, coagulation and fibrinolysis; microbiota alterations; diverse proteins and metabolites; hormonal and metabolic biomarkers; as well as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. At present, there are only two reviews summarizing relevant biomarkers; however, they do not cover the entire umbrella of current biomarkers or their link to etiopathogenetic mechanisms, and the diagnostic work-up in a comprehensive manner. Herein, we aim to appraise and synopsize the available evidence on the typical laboratory manifestations and candidate biomarkers of LC, their classification based on main LC symptomatology in the frame of the epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the syndrome, and furthermore assess limitations and challenges as well as potential implications in candidate therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: labor migration; migration policy; Russia; Post-Soviet space; governmentality; labor legalization
Online: 18 September 2016 (09:45:52 CEST)
The authors argue that despite significant numbers of foreign workers present in the Russian labor market Russia remains unattractive for highly skilled foreign workers. The economic crisis the country has faced since 2014 has resulted in a further outflow of foreign nationals from OECD countries. So Russia has to look for employees among newcomers from the former Soviet states, the majority of whom come from Central Asia. Russian politics with regard to immigration is characterized by the collision between “geopolitical” and domestic policy rationales. On one hand, seeking to maximize its influence in the post-Soviet space Russia provides preferential conditions of employment for citizens of partner countries in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. On the other hand, the Kremlin is afraid to liberalize its approach to immigration and the integration of immigrants through fear of losing popularity among the electorate. The second substantial feature of Russian immigration politics is an extreme level of securitization of migration issues. The government considers these issues primarily through a policing lens. One cannot claim that the Russian state does not take any steps to liberalize “migratory regulation”; however, the effect of these measures is being vastly reduced by new restrictions. In addition, liberally designed laws do not bring the expected results due to the corrupt practices that pervade the whole of migration regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: laproscopic cholecystectomy; acute cholecystitis; gall stone; sepsis; surgical site infection
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:16:36 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study to evaluate various factors responsible for surgical site infection after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgeries. Material and Methods: Patient who underwent gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery in our department were evaluated retrospectively. Various factors associated with surgical site infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Surgical site infection was defined as any culture positive discharge from the wound within 30 days of surgery.Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: We evaluated total 331 patients operated between April 2018 to March 2020. 14 patients were lost to follow up after discharge and before completing post operative day 30. 18 patients expired before 30 days without developing SSI and were excluded from the study as per exclusion criteria. 299 patient included in the study. Total 20 patients developed surgical site infection. It showed SSI rate in our study population was 6.68%. On univariate analysis prolonged hospital stay, more blood product used, higher cdc grade of surgery, higher ASA grade, more operative time, open surgeries,colorectal and HPB surgeries were associated with surgical site infections. On multivariate analysis only prolonged hospital stay independently predicted Surgical Site Infectins. (p=0.014,0dds ratio 1.223, 95% confidence interal 1.042-1.435). Conclusion: Prolonged hospital stay independently predicts surgical site infections after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: nutrition; pediatrics; geographic information systems; acute respiratory infections; diarrhea; growth
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:00:12 CEST)
Infectious disease is the leading cause of mortality in children under five. This study has investigated environmental factors related to the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), diarrhea, and growth using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. Anthropometric, address and disease prevalence data were collected through the SEEM study in Matiari, Pakistan. Publicly available map data was used to compile coordinates of healthcare facilities. A Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to calculate the correlation between distance from healthcare facilities and participant growth and morbidity. Other continuous variables influencing these outcomes were analyzed using a random forest regression model. In this study of 416 children, we found participants living closer to secondary hospitals had lower prevalence of ARI (r=0.154, p<0.010) and diarrhea (r=0.228, p<0.001) as well as participants living closer to Maternal Health Centers (MHCs): ARI (r=0.185, p<0.002) and diarrhea (r=0.223, p<0.001) compared to those living near primary facilities. Our random forest model showed distance to have high variable importance in the context of disease prevalence. Our results indicated that participants closer to more basic healthcare facilities reported a higher prevalence of both diarrhea and ARI than those near more urban facilities, highlighting potential public policy gaps in ameliorating rural health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0216.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-coronavirus; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; COVID-19; Stool; Urine; Wastewater; Wastewater-based epidemiology
Online: 18 June 2020 (09:29:00 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed many knowledge gaps with implications toward the speed and nature of our response to contain, assess and mitigate risk. The routine discharge of treated and untreated wastewater into rivers and coastal waters has placed SARS-CoV-2 viability in wastewater at the centre of an emerging hazard and potential risk to water industry workers and the public who come into contact with sewage-impacted water. Here we provide a review of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus primary literature that presents the evidence base pertaining to the key questions of whether the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 is shed in stool and urine, is recoverable, and infectious in wastewater. We discuss the challenges posed by the current literature base and the extent to which the current evidence is fit for the purpose of informing robust human and environmental risk assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: acute HIV infection; vaccines; CD8$^+$ T cells; immune response; multiple epitopes; competition; mathematical model
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:22:41 CET)
Multiple lines of evidence indicate that CD8$^+$ T cells are important in the control of HIV-1 (HIV) replication. However, CD8$^+$ T cells induced by natural infection cannot eliminate the virus or reduce viral loads to acceptably low levels in most infected individuals. Understanding the basic quantitative features of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses induced during the course of HIV infection may therefore inform us about the limits that HIV vaccines, which aim to induce protective CD8$^+$ T-cell responses, must exceed. Using previously published experimental data from a cohort of HIV-infected individuals with sampling times from acute to chronic infection we defined the quantitative properties of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses to the whole HIV proteome. In contrast with a commonly held view, we found that the relative number of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses (response breadth) changed little over the course of infection (first 400 days post-infection), with moderate but statistically significant changes occurring only during the first 35 symptomatic days. This challenges the idea that a change in the T-cell response breadth over time is responsible for the slow speed of viral escape from CD8$^+$ T cells in the chronic infection. The breadth of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses was not correlated with the average viral load for our small cohort of patients. Metrics of relative immunodominance of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses such as Shannon entropy or the Evenness index were also not significantly correlated with the average viral load. Our mathematical-model-driven analysis suggested extremely slow expansion kinetics for the majority of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses and the presence of intra- and interclonal competition between multiple CD8$^+$ T-cell responses; such competition may limit the magnitude of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses, specific to different epitopes, and the overall number of T-cell responses induced by vaccination. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying interactions between the virus and virus-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell response will be instrumental in determining which T-cell-based vaccines will induce T-cell responses providing durable protection against HIV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute lung injury; mycelium of Sanghuangporus sanghuang; lipopolysaccharide; KAP1/Nrf2 pathway; PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways; HO-1; HNGB1
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:15:30 CET)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1), believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit MPO activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit HNGB1 activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and Trx-1 in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KAP1/Nrf2/Keap1 pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced (ALI) in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0491.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; exercise; autonomic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system; COVID-19 vaccination; post-acute sequelae of COVID-19; communicable diseases
Online: 28 November 2022 (03:39:10 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has detrimental multi-system consequences. Symptoms may appear during the acute phase of infection, but literature on long-term recovery of young adults after mild-to-moderate infection is lacking. Heart rate variability (HRV) allows observation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation post SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, physical activity (PA) helps improve ANS modulation, where investigation of PA influence on ANS recovery is vital to reduce risk and severity of symptoms. Clinicians may use this research to aid development of non-medication interventions. At baseline, 18 control (CT) and 20 post-COVID-19 (PCOV) participants were observed where general amnamnesis was performed, followed by HRV and PA assessment. 10 CT and 7 PCOV subjects returned for follow-up (FU) evaluation 6 weeks after complete immunization (2 doses) and assessments were repeated. Over the follow-up period, decrease in sympathetic (SNS) activity (mean heart rate: p=0.0024, CI=-24.67- -3.26; SNS index: p=0.0068, CI=-2.50- -0.32) and increase in parasympathetic (PNS) activity (mean RR:p=0.0097, CI=33.72-225.51; PNS index: p=0.0091, CI=-0.20-1.47) were observed. At follow-up, HRV was not different between groups (p>0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in PA between moments and groups. This study provides evidence of ANS recovery after SARS-CoV-2 insult in young adults over a follow-up period, independent of changes in PA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pathology; post-mortem biopsy
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:24:10 CET)
Data on pathologic changes of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are scarce. To gain knowledge about the pathology that may contribute to disease progression and fatality, we performed post-mortem needle core biopsies of lung, liver, and heart in four patients who died of COVID-19 pneumonia. The patients’ ages ranged from 59 to 81, including 3 males and 1 female. Each patient had at least one underlying disease, including immunocompromised status (chronic lymphocytic leukemia and renal transplantation) or other conditions (cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes). Time from disease onset to death ranged from 15 to 52 days. All patients had elevated white blood cell counts, with significant rise toward the end, and all had lymphocytopenia except for the patient with leukemia. Histologically, the main findings are in the lungs, including injury to the alveolar epithelial cells, hyaline membrane formation, and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes, all components of diffuse alveolar damage. Consolidation by fibroblastic proliferation with extracellular matrix and fibrin forming clusters in airspaces is evident. In one patient, the consolidation consists of abundant intra-alveolar neutrophilic infiltration, consistent with superimposed bacterial bronchopneumonia. The liver exhibits mild lobular infiltration by small lymphocytes, and centrilobular sinusoidal dilation. Patchy necrosis is also seen. The heart shows only focal mild fibrosis and mild myocardial hypertrophy, changes likely related to the underlying conditions. In conclusion, the post-mortem examinations show advanced diffuse alveolar damage, as well as superimposed bacterial pneumonia in some patients. Changes in the liver and heart are likely secondary or related to the underlying diseases.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0197.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); victims; psychological problems; counseling
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:40:55 CEST)
Since January, the disease caused by the Sars Cov-2 virus has spread and following pandemic. In a few months, the virus is seriously affecting the health systems of the various countries of the world and placing people in difficult psychological conditions. Few scientific resources on mental health have been published but still no one has proposed an action plan to cope the future psychological problems.This manuscript provides a plan to easily frame the priorities of mental health area related to COVID-19 to be taken into consideration which should be disseminated and that should be known by all health professionals and also by the major administrators of public health.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1535.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: IBD; GERD; Mental-health; POST-SARS-CoV2-symdromes
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:37:42 CEST)
Abstract: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and mental health issues are significant public health concerns in globally. Although rising peaks observed post-COVID-19, there is a sever paucity in high quality data. Using descriptive analysis, we identified the frequency and associations of age- and gender, sport, genetic, and psychiatric consequences in the coexistence of GERD and IBD in 2067 participants 18 to >60 years with mean age of 26.8 ± 12.9 years. Most were 18 -29 years old (66%, n=1364) of which majority were young Saudi females (72.4%, n=1496). Estimated 1099 (53.2%) were students, 428 (20.7%) were unemployed, and 540 (26.1%) were. The majority were Saudis (94.7%, n= 1957). Psychological syndromes anxiety (60.7%), stress (60.7%), and depression (60.6%) were most frequent; whereas, IBD (48.7%) and GERD (36.3%), respectively were the second and third. In 51 % respondents depression, anxiety, and stress occurred first while in 33.9%, and 24.3% IBD and GERD, respectively, were the first signs. In most respondents (59.2%, n=1178), these signs first appeared recently and 33.6% (n=669) reported occurrence during adult life, and only in 7.2% (n=144) the signs noticed during childhood (7.2%, n=144)). Aggravating factors were 32.9% (n=681) genetic and other factors of which 476 (69.9%) inherited IBD while 215(31.6%) and 175 ((25.7), respectively, inherited psychological (depression, anxiety, and stress) and GERD. However, only 18.3% sought treatment (n=378) and only 66 (3.2%) had colectomy or a colostomy bag. Little over half of the studied population (58.1%, n=1201) were active in outdoor. GERD or IBS and psychological factors (anxiety, depression, and stress), were significantly associated with age (P value =.001).; GERD with old age, IBD with mid-age 40-49 years, and psychological disorders among younger ages. Thus, while mental health issues predispose young millennial women to neurogastroenterological disorders, the IBD and GERD initiate psychological problems in old and mid-ages, respectively. Intriguingly, despite the significantly mosaic global genetic population structures, their lifestyles, and nutritional habits, the pattern of these disorders remains similar. Thus, this is potentially consistent with notion that the gut nerve cells are conserved and that the changes in gut dysbiosis of gut microbiome signatures are responsible. These findings have significant clinical implications in the patient treatment strategies and tailored educational and awareness programs in lifestyle medicine. Future microbiome studies would reveal more insight into the mechanisms of disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pre-COVID-19; Post-COVID-19; Secondary Schools; Water Demand; Groundwater; Nigeria
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:22:37 CEST)
The prevalence of corona virus and the novel COVID-19 disease in the entire globe has exacerbated different impact on socioeconomic spectrum in the world, including water use pattern. Thus a research was conducted to examine the comparative use of water during pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown pattern among post-primary schools in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. A survey was conducted among fifteen schools which were randomly selected, but with eight public and seven private schools for the investigation. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in data analysis. The results revealed that the major source of water to the schools investigated is ground water which is obtained through hand-dug wells and boreholes. It was further discovered that there was increase in water use during post-COVID-19 lockdown era as a result of the directive by the government that clean water should be provided for hand-washing by all schools regardless of the owner to curtail the spread of COVID-19 disease in the country. One sample t-test also revealed that there was a significant difference in water use at (p<0.01) level. It is recommended that the government and other stakeholders in water sector to ensure that all-time and non-seasonal dependent source of water be provided rather than ground water source which is susceptible to variations in water yields from seasonal variations. This will enable continuous clean water supply, for all purposes, including COVID-19 protocols.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Acute Cardiac Injury; Arrhythmia; Heart Failure; Cardiogenic Shock
Online: 11 August 2020 (07:47:51 CEST)
A newly identified novel coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus2 (SARS‐CoV 2) has given rise to the global pandemic. SARS-CoV2 which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a positive-stranded RNA virus with nucleocapsid. It binds to host angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2) receptor through surface glycoprotein (S protein). These ACE 2 receptors are attached to the cell membranes of many organs. Thus, COVID-19 does not only result in acute respiratory distress syndrome but also affects multiple organ systems, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to manage this disease. COVID-19 can damage the myocardial cells and result in fulminant myocarditis, acute cardiac injury, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or arrhythmia. COVID-19 seeds harmful immune response through cytokine storm leading to indirect organ damage. In this literature review, the available data is comprehended regarding cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, and the correlation of biomarkers with the disease activity is discussed. This literature review also highlights the important treatment options and outcomes of the individual study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RAS; acute kidney injury; immune response
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:20:36 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To contain the virus, numerous preventive measures have been taken including isolation of patients, careful infection control, social distancing, and taking vaccine. So far, new confirmed and death cases are still increasing. SARS-CoV-2 invades cells by using the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is an essential enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7). ACE2 is expressed in different organs, including lung, heart, and kidney. A high number of COVID-19 patients developed kidney injury has been reported. Renal impairment and acute injury are associated with mortality of COVID-19, which is 14-16 times higher than other general patients. Acute Kidney Injury has been occured in 2.9 up to 43% of intensive care unit patients. The increasing evidence show that the components of RAS can activate the complement cascade, and cytokines production. Kidney injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 is related mainly to systemic and local inflammation. Moreover, the uncontrolled immune responses mediated by SARS-CoV-2 including hypercytokinaemia, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, antibody dependent enhancement, complement system, and phagocytic cells activation can contribute in the virus pathogenesis leading to associated renal dysfunction. However, the role and crosstalk between of RAS components and immune response in mediating kidney injury remain undefined. In this review, we focus on the recent studies to provide the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 interacting with RAS and immune responses to mediate kidney injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2; breast feeding; drug therapy; pregnancy; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Online: 13 May 2021 (15:26:34 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the chief concern of the international community in almost no time. As of May 9th, 2021, more than 150 million cases and 3.2 million deaths have been recorded. Considering the early struggle in treating COVID-19 patients, the researchers and clinicians have decided to try the previously available drugs according to their mechanisms of action. Hence, many antivirals, antibiotics, antiparasitics, and antipyretics have been proposed. Pregnant women, fetuses, and infants are known high-risk populations that are threatened during disease outbreaks. Therefore, this article reviews the safety of potential drugs for COVID-19 patients during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Depression; anxiety; stress; university healthcare workers; COVID-19; post–movement lockdown
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:46:33 CET)
This study investigated the prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress and determined the association between various factors, social support, and depression and anxiety among university healthcare workers in Malaysia after the government lifted the movement control order (MCO) put in place to curb the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This online, cross-sectional survey recruited 399 participants from two university hospitals, and they were administered a self-reported questionnaire on demographic, personal, and clinical characteristics; COVID-19-related stressors; and coping. In addition, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) to measure perceived social support, as well as the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to assess depression, anxiety, and stress. We found that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress were 21.8%, 31.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Participants with moderate to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress made up 13.3%, 25.8%, and 8.1% of the sample, respectively. Being single or divorced, fear of frequent exposure to COVID-19 patients, those who agreed that their area of living had a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases, and uncertainty regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 cases in the area of living were associated with higher odds of depression and anxiety. Conversely, having more than three children and greater perceived friend support were associated with lower odds of depression and anxiety. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress remained elevated even after the MCO was lifted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0408.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hesitancy; covid-19; post-covid; medical doctors; indonesia
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:13:14 CEST)
This study is a cross-sectional survey involving physicians around Indonesia aimed to explore physician hesitancy to treat COVID-19 patients after experiencing COVID-19 infection coupled with associated occupational risk factors. The questionnaire was distributed via contact information from the Indonesian Physician Association database. Out of 383 participants, 25.6% suffered from moderate symptoms of COVID-19 and 2.9% were admitted for critical care. Hesitancy to treat suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 patients was found in 20.3% of physicians. A higher hesitancy rate was found in older physicians and those with less experience in treating COVID-19 patients. Specialist trainees and those who work in public hospitals were physicians with the lowest hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients. There is a significant hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients among physicians who have suffered from COVID-19 which calls for further action by management and policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: stigma; news frame; monkeypox; COVID-19; The Washington Post; online news
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:42:16 CET)
Abstract: Background: Stigma in health can result in a broad range of vulnerabilities and risk for patients and healthcare providers. The media plays a role in people’s understanding of health and stigma is socially constructed through many communication channels including via media framing. Among health issues that were affected by stigma recently were the Monkeypox and Covid-19. Objectives: This research aims to examine how The Washington Post framed stigma around mon-keypox and COVID-19. Guided by the framing theory and stigma theory, online news coverage for monkeypox and COVID-19 were analyzed to understand the construction of social stigma through the media reporting. Methods: This research employed a qualitative content analysis to compare news framing in The Washington Post online news regarding monkeypox and COVID-19. Results: Based on endemic, reassurance, and sexual transmission frames, the The Washington Post predominantly defined Africa as the source of the disease, blames gay communities, and empha-sizes no need to worry about the spread of the monkeypox virus. For the COVID-19 coverage, The Washington Post described China as the source of the coronavirus and constructs the image of panic towards the spread of the virus. Conclusions: The shifts in stigma discourse essentially manifest racism, xenophobia, and sexism in public health. This research affirms that the media reinforces stigma phenomenon in health through framing and offers constructive suggestions for mitigating this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Bioimpedance; COVID-19; E-health; Health Care Personnel; Pathophysiology; Post-COVID syndrome; Rheography
Online: 23 May 2022 (05:26:58 CEST)
At present, there are no hardware or biochemical systems allow to assess the severity of post-COVID syndrome in vivo. The hardware of the proposed biotechnical system is based on routine transthoracic electrical impedance rheography, which makes it possible to register the frequency characteristics of the patient's bioimpedance response to controlled stress stimulation, thereby simultaneously fixing the characteristics of his productive heart, the state of the hemomicrocirculatory bed, the efficiency of the gas transport function of his blood, and also reliably assess personal reactivity and adaptive potential. Subsequent mathematical approximation of the obtained biometric data by an original neural network makes it possible to rank the results obtained and automatically generate a program of medical rehabilitation for a particular patient, depending on the severity of his post-COVID syndrome. The study results proved two reliable physiological signs confirming the presence of latent post-COVID complications: a decrease in the base impedance value for light exercise and an increase in the length of the systolic arc of the rheocardiogram.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: macrophage-derived chemokine; MDC/CCL22, chemokines; novel coronavirus infection; COVID-19; post-COVID
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:40:04 CEST)
Macrophage-derived chemokine belongs to the CC subfamily. It is produced by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages with or without external stimulation. We have previously shown a statistically significant depletion of MDC/CCL22 concentrations in a number of studies concerning COVID-19. These shifts in concentrations demonstrated stability unrelated to the SARS-CoV-2 genetic variant and remained noticeable even in convalescent patients. In this work, we analyze MDC/CCL22 dynamics in various diseases, including those that manifest with inflammation in lung tissue. In addition, we provide our hypothesis on such a decrease in MDC/CCL22 concentrations in COVID-19. If its secretion by producer cells is unperturbed, then it is possible for viral products to bind to this chemokine and to block its functional activity. There is, however, another possible explanation directly linked to depletion in DC subpopulations and the inhibition of their function. We also discuss MDC/CCL22's role in the immunology of novel coronavirus infection, based on both our own data and other studies.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:16:43 CEST)
Background: The information on the difference in clinical characteristics between severe and non-severe cases is limited in some countries including Iran. The objective of this case series is to compare the clinical characteristics, radiologic features, and laboratory findings between COVID-19 severe cases who received the intensive care unit (ICU) care with non-severe cases who did not receive ICU care. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 186 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 diagnosed from 1 March 2020 to 30 March 2020 were investigated. Results: This study population included 186 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19. The median age was 47 years, and 88 (47.31%) were female. Of these patients, 48 were admitted and transferred to ICU. Of 186 patients, 44.62% had medical comorbidities including hypertension and diabetes. The most common clinical manifestation were shortness of breath 86.56%, myalgia 74.19%, and headache. Higher neutrophil counts, CRP, and LDH as well as the lower levels of lymphocytes were the most important laboratory finding among COVID-19 patients. As of April 15, 2020, 33 were still hospitalized. A total of 116 patients (62.70 %) had been discharged, and 36 patients (19.94 %) had died. Of the 48 patients admitted to the ICU, 33.33% have died. Conclusion: In the present study, shortness of breath was the most common clinical symptom, and the mortality rate in patients admitted to the ICU was about 33%, indicating that about one-third of patients with severe illness who admitted to the ICU section died.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Acute myocardial infarction; Congestive heart failure; Cardiovascular hospitalizations
Online: 10 February 2022 (02:47:49 CET)
Background A decline in cardiovascular hospitalizations was observed during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine the continued effect of the pandemic on cardiovascular hospitalizations and the associated mortality rates during the first year of the pandemic in Israel. Methods We conduct a retrospective cohort study using the data of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare organization in Israel. We divide the Corona year into six periods (three lockdowns and three post-lockdowns) and compare the incidence rates of cardiovascular hospitalizations and their 30-day mortality during each period to the previous three years. Results The number of non-STEMI hospitalizations during the first year of the pandemic was 13.7% lower than the average of the previous three years (95% CI 11%-17%); STEMI hospitalizations were 15.7% lower (95% CI 13%-19%); and CHF hospitalizations were 23.9% lower (95%, CI 21%-27%). No significant differences in 30-day mortality rates were observed for AMI patients during most of the periods, whereas the annual 30-day all-cause mortality rate of CHF was 23% higher. Conclusions Hospitalizations for AMI and CHF were significantly lower during the first year of the pandemic relative to 2017–9. Mortality rates were higher in the case of CHF patients but not in the case of AMI patients, possibly due a change in the clinical acuity of patients arriving at the hospitals. We conclude that targeted public health messaging should be implemented, together with proactive monitoring in order to identify residual disability in patients that may have received non-optimal treatment during the pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0829.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; COVID-19; Computed Tomography; Hormesis; Ionizing radiation; NLRP3 inflammasome
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:50:49 CEST)
United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of 2006 report was the first document released by an abandoned the classical paradigm that ionizing suppressive, considering the idea that at low doses enhances the appearance of antiinflammatory biomarkers [UNSCEAR 2006]. It considers energetic an immune modulation agent due to the multitude the innate immune system, depending on various age, health status, co-morbidities, genetic background, co-stressors [Lumniczky et al.]. Natural background radiation is the most hazardous public health, followed by medical imaging as a close Naturally occurring radionuclides attach to particulate ionizing radiation after inhalation and deposition in the in this article that exposure to particle radioactivity of inflammation. With that purpose, we have done an on common anti-inflammatory biomarkers between cases on COVID-19 elderly patients, and those found low-intensity natural ionizing radiation in locations with hypothesize that radioactivity increases biomarkers of strategy involved the use of databases from PubMed, (e.g., dose response, hormesis, J-shaped, NLRP3 LNT model, etc.). Extrapolating these effects to artificial ionizing radiation drawn conclusions on the over use of X-ray computed images in elderly ICU admitted patients with pulmonary oxygen species (ROS) generation by this action seems inflammation of leucine-rich protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, waking up an over cytokine production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome; mesenchymal stem/stromal cells,; exosome; COVID-19; Clinical trials
Online: 4 December 2020 (10:10:11 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached a global epidemic across the world after first reported in Wuhan, China’s Hubei province in December 2019. The pandemic is also associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by excess inflammation, progressive arterial hypoxemia and dyspnea. Mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) have been investigated as treatment for ARDS due to immunomodulatory property. Exosomes derived from MSCs play an important role in paracrine signaling of MSCs, thereby contributed to immunomodulation of the immune microenvironment. Exosomes are emerged as potential alternative to MSC cell therapy with superiority of safety. In this review, we will introduce MSC-derived exosomes and briefly discuss current progress on MSCs and exosomes in ARDS, which may have clinical implications in pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Hypothesis, Fission, Heavy Post-Post-Fe Elements, Solar System
Online: 23 July 2019 (11:17:56 CEST)
Conventional models do not fully explain composition of the solar system – for example, the presence of p-nuclei and post-post-Fe-nuclei remains not yet understood (and is one of the great unresolved puzzles of nuclear astrophysics in general); other puzzles exist. We offer a hypothesis which can explain the appearance of non-native elements in the solar system, and a feasible scenario for its implementation. The hypothesis suggests that a nuclear-fission "event" occurred in the inner part of the solar system at the time currently defined as the birth of the system. Conventional models have never considered fission as a contributing nuclei-production mechanism. Upon examination of the existing models and factual data (presented in volumes of publications but never combined into an aggregate), we identified one plausible scenario by which a fission event (not demolishing the entire solar system) could occur: an encounter with a compact super-dense stellar "fragment" (with specific properties) and its "explosion" in fission-cascades. Such scenario also helps resolve other long-standing puzzles of the solar system. For example, it provides that the fission-produced nuclei subsequently transformed into the material that (eventually) accreted into the "rocky" objects in the system (terrestrial planets, asteroids, etc.) and enriched the pre-existed hydrogen-helium objects (the Sun and the gaseous giants) – this offers an explanation for the planets’ inner position and compositional differences within the predominantly hydrogen-helium rest of the solar system. Other implications also follow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: post-mining regeneration; succession; tropical dry forest; post-mining recovery
Online: 6 December 2018 (11:04:06 CET)
Open pit mining is a common activity in the Yucatan peninsula for the extraction of limestone. This mining is known under the generic name of quarries, and regionally as sascaberas (sascab=white soil in Mayan language). These areas are characterized by the total removal of the natural vegetation cover and soil in order to have access to the calcareous material. The present study shows the composition and structure of the vegetation in five quarries after approximately ten years of abandonment, and the conserved vegetation near to each one of the quarries in southeastern Quintana Roo. Using a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), the distribution of the species was determined in relation to the edaphic variables: soil depth, percentage of organic matter (OM), cationic exchange capacity (CEC), pH and texture. 26 families, 46 genera and 50 species were recorded in the quarries and 25 families, 45 genera and 47 species were recorded in the conserved areas. The dominant species in the quarries belong to the families Poaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Anacardiaceae. The quarries with higher values of OM (1.63%), CEC (24.05 Cmol/kg), depth (11 cm) and sand percentage (31.33%) include the following species like Lysiloma latisiliquum, Metopium brownei and Bursera simaruba which are commonly found in secondary forests. On the other hand, quarries with lower values of OM (0.39%), CEC (16.58 Cmol/kg) and depth (5.02), and higher percentage of silt (42.44%) were dominated by herbaceous species belonging to the Poaceae family and by Borreria verticillata, which are typical in disturbed areas of southeastern Mexico. In all cases, the pH was slightly alkaline due to the content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), characteristic of the soils of the region. The edaphic variables are significantly correlated with the development and distribution of vegetation, and with the structure of the communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: long COVID; Post COVID-19 condition; sleep disorders, SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; children
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:13:22 CEST)
Acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents are usually mild. However, they can suffer from ongoing symptoms generally referred as long COVID. Sleep disorders are one of the most frequent complaints in long COVID although precise data are missing. We assessed the sleep behavior of children and adolescents who presented at our outpatient clinic between January 2021 and May 2022 with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ-DE). We compared sleep behavior at three different time points: pre-COVID-19, post-COVID-19 at initial presentation and post-COVID-19 at re-presentation. Data from 45 patients were analyzed. Of those, 64% were female and the median age was 10 years (range 0-18 years). Asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 disease was experienced in 89% of patients, whilst 11% experienced moderate disease. Initial presentation occurred at a median of 20.4 weeks (6 weeks - 14 months) after infection. The CSHQ-DE score increased significantly from pre-COVID-19 (45.82+8.7 points) to post-COVID-19 (49.40+8.3 points; p=<0.01). The score then normalized at re-presentation (46.98+7.8; p=0.1). The greatest changes were seen in the CSHQ-DE subscale score "daytime sleepiness". Our data show that children and adolescents with long COVID often suffer from sleep disturbance. For most children and adolescents these sleep disorders decreased over time without further medical intervention, aside from a basic sleep consultation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children and adolescents; machine learning; post-hoc explainability; model calibration
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:21:19 CET)
The global spread of COVID-19 led the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on 11 March 2020. To decelerate this spread, countries have taken strict measures that affected the lifestyle and economy. Various studies have been focused on the identification of COVID-19 impact to mental health of children and adolescents via traditional statistical approaches. However, a machine learning methodology must be developed to explain the main factors that contribute to the change of mood state of children and adolescents during the first lockdown. Therefore, to this study an explainable machine learning pipeline is presented focusing on children and adolescents in Greece, where a strict lockdown was imposed. The target group consists of children and adolescents, recruited from children and adolescent mental health services, who present mental health problems diagnosed before the pandemic. The proposed methodology imposes: (i) data collection via questionnaires; (ii) a clustering process to identify the groups of subjects with amelioration, deterioration and stability to their mood state; (iii) a feature selection process to identify the most informative features that contribute to mood state prediction; (iv) a decision-making process based on an experimental evaluation among classifiers; (v) calibration of the best performing model and (v) a post-hoc interpretation of the features’ impact on the best performing model. The results showed that a blend of heterogeneous features from almost all feature categories is necessary to increase our understanding regarding the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the mood state of children and adolescents.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: COVID-19; Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS); SAR-CoV-2; flow cytometry; flow virometry; viral particles; herpes simplex virus; HSV; nanoparticles
Online: 12 May 2020 (07:45:53 CEST)
The coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (known as COVID 19) is highly contagious and has spread rapidly over 200 countries over last three months. WHO suggested urgent escalation in testing, isolation and contact tracing, as the "backbone" of managing the pandemic. Globally, the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in patients are done by RT-PCR and blood antibody-based testing. In addition to the existing processes, flow-cytometry could be used as a high-throughput and efficient diagnostic method for detection of COVID 19. The suspected COVID 19 samples can be analyzed using ‘Indirect flow cytometry’, with the specific primary antibody and fluorescent tagged secondary antibodies. The fluorescence signal can distinguish the infected v/s non-infected samples. In the present article, we have summarized the applications of Flow virometry to study various viruses and have proposed possible application in the detection of COVID 19.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, ARDS, Famotidine, Celecoxib
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:46:15 CEST)
Celecoxib as adjuvant therapy has been shown in a small randomized trial for Covid-19 to prevent clinical deterioration and rapidly improve thoracic computerized axial tomography (CT-chest)1. Multiple descriptive trials of high dose famotidine (both inpatient and outpatient) have demonstrated clinical response2,3,4. We describe the rapid clinical responses after increasing the celecoxib dosage to 400mg bid with high dose famotidine 80mg qid in both a critical inpatient who on baseline required 40 liters per minute high flow nasal insufflation and an outpatient who declined admission but had critical Covid-19 biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0690.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Finland; health care personnel; psychological distress; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 28 September 2020 (15:37:39 CEST)
On March 2020 strict measures took place in Finland to limit the COVID -19 pandemic. A majority of the Finnish COVID -19 –patients have been located in the southern Finland and consequently cared for in the HUS Helsinki University Hospital. During the ongoing pandemic, HUS personnel’s psychological symptoms are followed via an electronic survey, which also delivers information on psychosocial support services. The baseline survey in June 2020 was sent to 25494 HUS employees out of whom 4804 (19%) answered; altogether 62.4% of the respondents were nursing staff and 8.9% medical doctors. While the follow-up continues for a year and a half, this report shares the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the first results of psychological symptoms from the baseline survey. Out of those who were directly involved in pandemic patients` care, 43.4% reported potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related experiences vs. 21.8% among the other (p < 0.001). While over a half of the personnel was symptomless, a group of respondents reported pandemic work –related traumatic events and concurrent depressive, insomnia and anxiety symptoms. This highlights the need to ensure appropriate psychosocial support services to all traumatized personnel and PTEs were present especially among nursing staff.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute coronary syndromes; myocardial infarction; STEMI; Covid-19, infectious disease; respiratory infections; pathophysiology; percutaneous coronary intervention; thrombolysis; drug treatment
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:49:39 CEST)
Since association between myocardial infarction (MI) and respiratory infections has been described for influenza-viruses and other respiratory viral agents, understanding possible physiopathological links between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is of the greatest importance. First data suggest an underestimation of ACS cases all over the world, but acute MI still represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and should not be overshadowed during the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic. No common consensus regarding the most adequate healthcare management policy for ACS is currently available. Indeed, important differences have been reported between the measures employed to treat ACS in China during the first disease outbreak and what currently represents clinical practice across Europe and the USA. This review aims to discuss: pathophysiological links between MI, respiratory infections, and Covid-19; epidemiological data related to ACS at the time of the Covid-19 pandemic; what emerged so far from several catheterization labs and coronary care units all over the world, in order to shed some light on the current strategies for optimal management of ACS patients with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0469.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; COVID-2019; epidemiology; pathobiology; clinical profile; phyloanalysis; artificial intelligence; diagnosis; vaccines; therapeutics
Online: 26 April 2020 (08:15:23 CEST)
The technology-driven world of the 21st century is currently confronted with a major threat to humankind in the form of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of April 22, 2020, COVID-19 has claimed 169, 006 human lives and had spread to over 200 countries with more than 2,471,136 confirmed cases. The perpetually increasing figures associated with COVID-19 are disrupting the social and economic systems globally. The losses are unmatched and significantly higher compared to those from previously encountered pathogenic infections. Previously, two CoVs (SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) affected the human population in 2002 and 2012 in China and Saudi Arabia, respectively. Based on genomic similarities, animal-origin CoVs, primarily those infecting bats, civet cats, and pangolins, were presumed to be the source of emerging human CoVs, including the SARS-CoV-2. The cohesive approach amongst virologists, bioinformaticians, big data analysts, epidemiologists, and public health researchers across the globe has delivered high-end viral diagnostics. Similarly, vaccines and therapeutics against COVID-19 are currently in the pipeline for clinical trials. The rapidly evolving and popular technology of artificial intelligence played a major role in confirming and countering the COVID-19 pandemic using digital technologies and mathematical algorithms. In this review, we discuss the noteworthy advancements in the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the etiological viral agent, comparative genomic analysis, population susceptibility, disease epidemiology, animal reservoirs, laboratory animal models, disease transmission, diagnosis using artificial intelligence interventions, therapeutics and vaccines, and disease mitigation measures to combat disease dissemination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: post-editing; machine translation; Portuguese; English; translationese; post-editese
Online: 8 December 2021 (09:43:11 CET)
In the present study, we investigate the post-editese phenomenon, i.e., the unique features that set machine translated post-edited texts apart from human-translated texts. We use two literary texts, namely, the English children's novel by Lewis Carroll Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (AW) and Paula Hawkins' popular book The Girl on the Train (TGOTT) translated from English into Brazilian-Portuguese to investigate whether the post-editese features can be found on the surface of the post-edited (PE) texts. In addition, we examine how the features found in the PE texts differ from the features encountered in the human-translated (HT) and machine translation (MT) versions of the same source text. Results revealed evidence for post-editese for TGOTT only with PE versions being more similar to the MT output than to the HT texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Heart rate variability; COVID-19; post-COVID-19 condition; long COVID; autonomic dysfunction; vagal nerve activity; symptomatology; lung function
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:13:53 CET)
Persistence of symptoms beyond three months after COVID-19 infection, often referred to as post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), is commonly experienced. It is hypothesized that PCC results from autonomic dysfunction with decreased vagal nerve activity, which can be indexed by low heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to assess the association of HRV upon admission with pulmonary function impairment and number of reported symptoms beyond three months after initial hospitalization for COVID-19 between February and December 2020. Follow-up took place three to five months after discharge and included pulmonary function tests and the assessment of persistent symptoms. HRV analysis was performed on one 10s electrocardiogram obtained upon admission. Analyses were performed using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models. Among 171 patients who received follow-up, and with an electrocardiogram at admission, decreased diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (41%) was most frequently found. After a median of 119 days (IQR 101-141), 81% of the participants reported at least one symptom. HRV was not associated with pulmonary function impairment or persistent symptoms three to five months after hospitalization for COVID-19.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Aviptadil; Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; VIP; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Corona Virus; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ARDS; Acute Lung Injury; ALI; surfactant; Alveolar Type II; ATII
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:16:20 CEST)
RLF-100 (Aviptadil), a synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is shown to block replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been granted Fast Track Designation by the US FDA for the treatment of Critical COVID-19 with Respiratory Failure. We describe the clinical course of the first patient treated with this investigational medication in an open label manner -- a 54 year old patient suffering antibody-mediated rejection of his double lung transplant who contracted COVID-19 with respiratory failure refractory to all currently available therapies. He received three infusions of RLF-100 under an FDA-approved emergency use IND. Within 24 hours of the third infusion, substantial improvement in oxygen saturation and radiographic improvement in characteristic COVID-19 pneumonitis was noted. He was discharged from intensive care at that point and scheduled for discharge to home at 1 week on room air. Despite an intervening hospitalization for trauma, he remains alive and free of respiratory failure at 28 days post treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; acute respiratory distress syndrome; methylprednisolone; mechanical ventilation; ventilator-free days; SARS-CoV-2 infection
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:13:42 CET)
Objectives: There are limited data regarding the efficacy of methylprednisolone in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. We aimed to determine whether methylprednisolone increases the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) among these patients. Design: Retrospective single-center study Setting: Intensive care unit Patients: All patients with ARDS due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation between 1 March and 29 May 2020 were included Interventions: None Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was ventilator-free days (VFDs) during the first 28 days, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was analyzed with competing-risks regression based on Fine and Gray’s proportional subhazards model. Death before day 28 was considered to be the competing event. A total of 77 patients met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two patients (41.6%) received methylprednisolone. The median dose was 1 mg.kg-1 (IQR: 1-1.3 mg.kg-1) and median duration of 5 days (IQR:5-7 days). Patients who received methylprednisolone had a mean 18.8 VFDs (95% CI, 16.6-20.9) during the first 28 days vs. 14.2 VFDs (95% CI, 12.6-16.7) in patients who did not receive methylprednisolone (difference, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.10-8.12; P = 0.001). In the multivariable competing-risks regression analysis and after adjusting for potential confounders (ventilator settings, prone position, organ failure support, severity of the disease, tocilizumab, and inflammatory markers), methylprednisolone was independently associated with a higher number of VFDs (subhazards ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.02-0.45; p=0.003). Hospital mortality did not differ between the two groups (31.2% vs. 28.9%, p=0.82). Hospital length of stay was significantly shorter in the methylprednisolone group (24 days [IQR:15-41 days] vs. 37 days [IQR:23-52 days], p=0.046). The incidence of positive blood cultures was higher in patients who received methylprednisolone (37.5% vs. 17.8%, p=0.052). However, 91% of patients who received methylprednisolone also received tocilizumab. The number of days with hyperglycemia was similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Methylprednisolone was independently associated with increased VFDs and shortened hospital length of stay. The combination of methylprednisolone and tocilizumab was associated with a higher rate of positive blood cultures. Further trials are needed to evaluate the benefits and safety of methylprednisolone in moderate or severe COVID-19 ARDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antibody; BNT162b2; coronavirus disease 2019; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; vaccine hesitancy; vaccine booster
Online: 25 February 2022 (10:01:23 CET)
This was a retrospective cohort study, which aimed to investigate the factors associated with hesitancy to receive the third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. A paper-based questionnaire survey was administered to all participants. Accordingly, the study included participants who provided answer in the questionnaire whether they have an intent to receive the third dose of vaccine. Data on sex, age, area of residence, adverse reactions after the second vaccination, whether the third vaccination was desired, and reasons to accept or hesitate booster vaccination were retrieved. Among the 2439 participants with mean (±SD) age of 52.6±18.9 years, and median IgG-S antibody titer of 324.9 (AU/mL), 97.9% of participants indicated their intent to accept a third vaccination dose. The logistic regression revealed that younger age (OR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and higher antibody level (OR=2.52; 95% CI: 1.27-4.99) are positively associated with the third vaccine hesitancy. The efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine and concerns about adverse reactions had significant impact on the third vaccination behavior. A rapid increase in the booster dose rate is needed to control the pandemic, and specific approaches should be taken in these groups that are likely to hesitate the third vaccine, subsequently increasing booster contact rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; interobserver agreement; interrater reliability; lung ultrasound; point-of-care ultrasound; reliability; severe acute respiratory syndrome; ultrasound
Online: 15 November 2022 (09:57:17 CET)
Lung ultrasound (LUS) allows the detection of a series of manifestations of COVID-19 such as B lines and consolidations. The objective of this work was to study the inter-rater reliability (IRR) when detecting signs associated with COVID-19 in the LUS, as well as the impact of performing the test in the longitudinal or transverse orientation. 33 physicians with advanced experience in LUS, independently evaluated ultrasound videos previously acquired with the ULTRACOV system of 20 patients with confirmed COVID-19. In each patient, 24 videos of 3 seconds were acquired (using 12 positions with the probe in longitudinal and transverse orientations). Physicians had no information about the patients or other previous evaluations. The score assigned to each acquisition followed the convention applied in previous studies. A substantial IRR was found in the cases of normal LUS (κ = 0.74), only a fair IRR for the presence of individual B lines (κ = 0.36) and for confluent B lines occupying <50% (κ = 0.26), and a moderate IRR in consolidations and B-lines >50% (κ = 0.50). No statistically significant differences between the longitudinal and transverse scans were found. The IRR in LUS of COVID-19 patients may benefit from more standardization of the clinical protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: stroke; post-stroke dementia; anaemia
Online: 19 April 2019 (09:41:13 CEST)
Background: Whilst lack of concentration is a known symptom of anaemia, its association with post-stroke dementia is unclear. Methods: We used data from a UK regional stroke register. To be eligible, patient must have survived to discharge and had anaemia by WHO criteria. Dementia status and other prevalent co-morbidities were assessed using ICD-10 codes. Patients were followed till May 2015 (mean follow-up 3.7 years, total person years = 27,769). Hazard Ratio for incident dementia was calculated using Cox-proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounders. Fine and Gray model was additionally constructed using mortality as the competing risk. Results: A total of 7,454 stroke patients were included with mean age (SD) of 75.9(12.3) years (50.2% men). Those with anaemia were older, has higher disability and co-morbidity burden prior to stroke. We observed a large amount of variation in the dementia incidence rates over time and that the hazard ratio increased every year. The significant association between anaemia and dementia incidence was lost after controlling for pre-stroke Modified Rankin score (HR1.17(0.97,1.40)). With every 20g/dL increase in Hb was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of dementia after adjustment for age, sex, stroke factors and disability but lost significance after adjustment for vascular risk factors. Competing risk analyses showed similar results. Conclusion: Whilst we found no evidence of anaemia as a risk factor for post-stroke dementia, the findings may be limited by potential under recognition of post stroke dementia.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; acute kidney injury; angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2); transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSSs)
Online: 23 February 2020 (15:42:24 CET)
Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe symptom of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), especially for patients in a critical condition.This study explored the potential mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on AKI at the single-cell level. Methods: 15 normal human kidney samples were collected and analyzed using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Subsequently, we analyzed the components and proportions of kidney cells expressing the host cellular receptor ACE2 and the key protease TMPRSSs family, and analyzed the expression differences in Occidental and Asian populations. Results: We drafted the currently available world's largest human kidney cell atlas with 42,589 cells and identified 19 clusters through unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. ACE2 and TMPRSSs genes were significantly co-expressed in podocytes and proximal convoluted tubules as potential host cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Comparative analysis showed that ACE2 expression in kidney cells was no less than that in the lung, esophagus, small intestine and colon, suggesting that the kidney may be an important target organ for SARS-CoV-2. In addition, given the high expression of ACE2 and kidney disease-related genes in Occidental donors relative to Asian donors, Occidental populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection might be a higher risk of of kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; Post-Pandemic; Higher Education; Online Learning; Global Citizenship; Hiroshima; Japan; Students’ Perception
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:20:14 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has struck educational experience systems around the globe. This paper investigates and evaluates the student participants’ perceptions who joined the international exchange seminar on global citizenship and peace held at a University in Hiroshima, Japan. Approximately seventy students and faculty members from nine to ten different universities from around the globe joined this summer program in August 2021 (online) and 2022 (face-to-face). This study is a mixed-method study. The first part consists of a quantitative analysis of BEVI data obtained from the students in the seminar before COVID-19 and after. The research concludes that there are no changes in the way students learn. The second part consists of qualitative data. This data shows the perceptions of students of online teaching versus hybrid teaching. It compares the differences in participants’ perceptions reported in students’ feedback on the programs during and post-COVID-19. Our results confirm prominent differences exist in the students’ perceptions of their learning experience during the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods. The findings of this study suggest that universities need to strive and define a meaning and purpose of international seminars, which enables students to experience a high level of intercultural social interaction face-to-face.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Sickle Cell Disease; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaso-occlusive Crisis; Pain; Thromboxane; Prostaglandin D2; Thrombo-inflammation; Acute Chest Syndrome; Ramatroban
Online: 5 December 2022 (08:00:45 CET)
People with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at greater risk of severe illness and death from respiratory infections, including COVID-19 than people without SCD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA). Vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in SCD and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are both characterized by thrombo-inflammation mediated by endothelial injury, complement activation, inflammatory lipid storm, platelet activation, platelet-leukocyte adhesion, and activation of the coagulation cascade. Notably, lipid mediators, including thromboxane A2, significantly increase in severe COVID-19 and SCD. In addition, the release of thromboxane A2 from endothelial cells and macrophages stimulates platelets to release microvesicles which are harbingers of multicellular adhesion and thrombo-inflammation. Currently, there are limited therapeutic strategies targeting platelet-neutrophil activation and thrombo-inflammation in either SCD or COVID-19 during acute crisis. However, due to many similarities between the pathobiology of thrombo-inflammation in SCD and COVID-19, therapies targeting one disease may likely be effective in the other. Therefore, the preclinical and clinical research spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic, including clinical trials of anti-thrombotic agents, are potentially applicable to VOC. Here, we first outline the parallels between SCD and COVID-19; second, review the role of lipid mediators in the pathogenesis of these diseases and lastly, examine the therapeutic targets and potential treatments for the two diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0596.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; immunity; T cells; IL-6; GGT; hepatopathy; biliary lesion; acute kidney injury; liver disease
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:40:42 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the key laboratory features displayed by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients which associated with mild, moderate, severe and fatal course of the disease and, through longitudinal follow-up, to understand the dynamics of COVID-19 pathophysiology. All SARS-CoV-2 positive patients admitted to the University Hospital in Motol between March and June 2020 were included in this study. Severe course of COVID-19 was associated with elevation of proinflammatory markers, efflux of immature granulocytes into peripheral blood, activation of CD8 T cells, which infiltrate lungs, and transient liver disease. In particular, the elevation of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and histological signs of cholestasis were highly specific for patients with severe disease. In contrast, patients with fatal course of COVID-19 failed to upregulate markers of inflammation, showed dyscoordination of immune response and progressed towards acute kidney failure. COVID-19 is a disease with multi-organ affinity characterized by activation of innate and cellular adaptive immunity. Biliary lesion with elevation of GGT and organ-infiltration of IL-6 producing cells are defining characteristic for patients with fulminant disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS CoV-2; hypertension; obesity; clinical predictor of outcomes; clinical triage; ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 observational study
Online: 20 March 2023 (07:46:35 CET)
In New Orleans, Louisiana the population’s poor baseline health led to its establishment as an early epicenter for severe acute COVID-19. Antici-pating future outbreaks of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, we need to identify correlates of outcome, from real clinical experience. 89 patients were recruited into the ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 longitudinal observational study, from the beginning of the outbreak in March to July 2020. Patients admitted for acute COVID-19 were enrolled in person. The cohort is unique as it is 68% Black, 53% female, of average age of early 60s, and prevalence of obesity and hypertension respectively of 55% and 83%. The outcomes are: 53% severe (20% fatal, 33% non-fatal) and 47% non-severe, with severe defined as death or requiring mechanical ventila-tion or high flow oxygen. Obesity and admit systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg are each associated with severe outcome and, despite respective sensitivity of 71% and 76%, specificity ~66% for both, and ac-curacy of 60% and 70% by ROC analysis, would likely provide useful predictors of outcome in critically stressed health care systems. We discuss pathophysiologic hypotheses to explain why high admit SBP is observed only in half of patients with pre-COVID hypertension and is associated with severe outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: p53; post-translational modifications; alzheimer's disease
Online: 21 September 2021 (12:01:29 CEST)
Our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis has developed with several hypotheses over the last 40 years, including the Amyloid and Tau hypotheses, respectively. More recently, the p53 protein, well-known as ‘the guardian of the genome,’ has gained attention for its role in the early evolution of AD. This is due to p53’s central role in the control of oxidative stress and potential involvement in both Amyloid and Tau pathways. p53 is commonly regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), which affect its conformation, increasing its capacity to adopt multiple structural and functional states, including those that can influence several processes in AD. The following review will explore the impact of p53 post-translational modifications (PTMs) on its function and consequential involvement in AD pathogenesis.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: spontaneous; racemization; apoptosis; post translational modification
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:09:30 CET)
Biochirality is evident in the hierarchical relation of molecular and cellular physiology during organism development and aging. Chirality influences the higher levels of biological processes, such as perception, memory and cognition, through intermolecular interactions between DNA, proteins, and lipids. At the molecular level, an organism's aging is the accumulation of macro-molecules with the aberrant composition, chirality, and folding. Cellular aging is driven by the non-physiological phase transitions (PhTs) withing membrane-bound and membrane-less compartments. Genomic instability and protein aging, as the interconnected root-causes of cell and organism aging, share two essential feature – spontaneous nature and accumulation over a lifetime. Consequently, we will analyze the interaction between the enzymatic (Enz) and spontaneous (Sp) post-translational modifications (PTMsEnz and PTMs Sp). Both forms of PTMs significantly contribute to the balance of L- and D-amino acids (L/D-AAs) in organisms, modulating the functions of nervous and immune systems. The most abundant form of PTM - enzymatic phosphorylation is bio-chemically associated with the spontaneous racemization (RzSp). The crass talk of enzymatic phosphorylation and spontaneous racemization, as an essential determinant of protein aging and aggregation, associated with the aberrant autophagy, apoptosis, and cell signaling, is discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; case fatality; registry
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:12:24 CET)
Background: This study aimed to present the development process and characteristics of the Korean Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction for Regional Cardiocerebrovascular Centers (KRAMI-RCC). Methods: We developed KRAMI-RCC, a web-based registry for patients with AMI. Patients from 14 RCCs were registered for more than 3 years from July 2016. It includes an automatic error-checking system, and user training and on-site monitoring are performed to manage data quality. Results: A total of 11,700 AMI patients were registered in KRAMI-RCC over 3 years (73.9% men). The proportions of patients with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction at discharge were 43.4% and 56.6%, respectively. Of the total 3-year patients, 5.6% died in the hospital and 4.4% died 12 months after discharge. The case fatality within 12 months was 9.7%. Prehospital care data showed delayed arrival time after onset of symptoms (median 153 min) and low transportation rate by public ambulance (25.2%). Post-hospital care data showed lower participation rate in the second rehabilitation program (16.8%). Conclusions: The recently developed KRAMI-RCC registry has been more focused on pre-hospital and post-hospital data, which will be helpful in understanding the current state of AMI disease management and in making policy decisions to reduce case fatality in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0694.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Causes, post traumatic stress disorder,refugees
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:51:27 CEST)
Abstract Objectives To assess the causes and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD, between male and female adult refugees/ asylum seekers is different. Study design Systematic review of current literature. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up until February 2019 Method A structured systematic search was conducted in the relevant databases. Papers were excluded, if they failed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, a qualitative assessment was performed on the selected papers. Results 12 Studies were included for the final analysis. All papers were either case studies/report or cross sectional studies. The number of traumatic events experienced by refugees/asylum seekers, is the most frequently reported pre-migration causes for PTSD development. Whilst acculturative stress, is the most common post migration stressor. There were mixed reports, regarding the causes of PTSD between both genders of refugees/asylum seekers. Conclusion This reviews’ findings, have potential clinical application into helping clinicians, to risk stratify refugees/asylum seekers for PTSD development and thus aid in embarking on earlier intervention measures. However, more rigorous research similar to this one, is needed for it to be implemented into clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; viral infection; virus-host interaction
Online: 4 September 2020 (03:19:43 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The worldwide transmission of COVID-19 from human to human is spreading like wildfire, affecting almost every country in the world. In the past 100 years, the globe did not face microbial pandemic similar in scale to COVID-19. Taken together, both previous outbreaks of other members of the coronavirus family (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) did not produce even 1% of the global harm already inflicted by COVID-19. There are also four other CoVs capable of infecting humans (HCoVs), which circulate continuously in the human population, but their phenotypes are generally mild, and these HCoVs received relatively little attention. These dramatic differences between infection with HCoVs, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 raise many questions, such as: Why is COVID-19 transmitted so quickly? Is it due to the some specific features of the viral structure? Are there some specific human (host) factors? Are there some environmental factors? The aim of this review is to collect and concisely summaries the possible and logic answers to these questions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: etiology; leukemia; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloblastic leukemia; genetics; causes; occupations; hobbies; genetic; infections; mycovirus; aspergillus
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:09:21 CET)
Acute leukemias constitute some of the most common malignant disorders. Despite significant progress made in the treatment of these disorders, their etiology remains unknown. A large and diverse group of genetic and environmental variables have been proposed. The role of a variety of factors, including pre-existing and acquired genetic mutations, exposure to radiation and various chemicals during pre-conception, pregnancy and throughout life have been explored. The effects of inherited genetic variations and disorders, pre-existing diseases, infectious agents, hobbies, occupations, prior treatments and a host of other factors have been proposed, but none is universally applicable to all cases. Variation in the incidence and prognosis based on the age, sex, race, type of the disease, geographic area of residence and other factors are intriguing, but remains unexplained. Advances in genomic profiling, including genome‐wide gene expression, DNA copy number, and single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] genotype may shed some light on the role of genetics in these disparities. Separate two-hit hypothesis for the development of acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia have been proposed. The latter combines genetics and infection factors resulting in leukemogenesis. A number of pre- and post-natal environmental conditions and exposure to infections, including a mycovirus infected Aspergillus flavus, have been suggested. The exact nature, timing, sequence of the events and mechanisms resulting in occurrence of leukemia requires further investigations. This review summarizes some of the above factors and the direction for future research on the etiology of acute leukemias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0214.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Post-harvest losses; Avocado; producer’s; Quantity; MLR
Online: 13 February 2023 (10:00:45 CET)
Current study was to estimation the post-harvest loss of avocado at the producer level using cross-sectional data obtained from 385 proportionately sampled respondents from Wolaita and Kembata Tembaro Zones, the SNNPR of Ethiopia. Descriptive and multiple regression analysis were used to the amount and determinant of post harvest loss of avocado fruits. Estimated total post harvest- loss of avocados was 24%; of which 5.7% unacceptable harvesting methods and 4.9% of improper storage practices. The respondent's sex, education, income, training, contact with extension agents, distance from the nearest road, and off-farm income were found to be negative determinants, whereas storage accessibility and avocado harvest techniques were found to be positive determinants of post-harvest loss of avocado fruits. Post-harvest management techniques for avocados need to be better understood and used by avocado growers if they are to minimize losses. Post-harvest losses contribute considerably to food insecurity and create a problem for the source of revenue for people and the economy of the country as well. Therefore, the use of a practical and effective post-harvest loss reduction technique could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, eliminate hunger and improve farmers' livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: acute malnutrition; combined protocol; community-based management of acute malnutrition; ef-fectiveness; Mali; mid-upper-arm circumference; moderate acute malnutrition; ready-to-use ther-apeutic food; treatment; severe acute malnutrition; simplified protocol; wasting
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:21:16 CEST)
The simplified, combined protocol admits children with a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) of <125 mm or edema to malnutrition treatment with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) prescribing 2 daily RUTF sachets to children with MUAC <115 mm or edema and 1 daily sachet to those with MUAC ≥115 mm but <125 mm. This treatment has previously been shown to result in non-inferior programmatic outcomes compared to standard treatment. We aimed at observing its effectiveness in a routine setting at scale, including via delivery by community health workers (CHW). A total of 27 601 children were admitted to the simplified, combined treatment. Treatment resulted in 96% overall recovery with a mean LOS of 40 days and a mean RUTF consumption of 63 sachets per child treated. Among children admitted with MUAC <115 mm or edema 94% recovered with a mean LOS of 55 days and consuming an average of 97 RUTF sachets. Recovery in all sub-groups studied exceeded 90%.Treatment by CHWs resulted in similar (96%) recovery as treatment by formal health care workers (96%). The simplified, combined protocol results in high recovery and low RUTF consumption per child treated, and can safely be adopted by CHWs to provide treatment in the community-level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Geriatrics; Prehabilitation; Surgery; Acute Care Surgery
Online: 12 August 2017 (04:30:56 CEST)
INTRODUCTION Recently there has been a significant increase in age in the United States. It is necessary to better understand the physiological and surgical needs of these patients in order to optimize outcomes. The vast majority of procedures performed in adult patients are low-risk operations, such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our aim is to investigate the outcomes, including length of stay, morbidity, mortality, re-admission and discharge disposition of the elderly population (>80) undergoing low-risk operations in our tertiary community hospital. METHODS A retrospective chart review was done at a tertiary community hospital. The time frame utilized was 2011-2015. Patients were excluded only on the basis of their age (< 80) at the time of operation. RESULTS There were a total of 30 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 2011 to 2015. 21 patients (70%) were female and 9 (30%) were male. No patients were converted to an open procedure. The average age was 86.4 years and average ASA classification prior to surgery was 2.88. Higher ASA class, specifically those that were class III/IV were more likely to have an increased length of stay that was statistically significant. Overall age greater than 80 was an independent risk factor for transfer to a higher level of care upon discharge (SNF, LTAC, etc.), a surrogate marker for physical decompensation following surgery. CONCLUSIONS Routine surgery, such as the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, effects the elderly population in a more substantial way, and early recognition coupled with increased education for physicians regarding geriatric patients can help to reduce length of stay, morbidity, and overall physical and mental deconditioning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Cataract surgery, acute endophthalmitis, chronic endophthalmitis
Online: 14 May 2019 (15:28:30 CEST)
Background: The assessment of the incidence and characteristic of acute and chronic post-operative endophthalmitis (POE) after cataract surgery in Poland during 2010 - 2015. Patients and methods: All hospitalizations of patients, in the National Database of Hospitalizations, who underwent cataract surgery alone or in combined procedures in Poland between January 2010 and December 2015, with a billing code of endophthalmitis, were selected. Acute endophthalmitis was identified if symptoms occurred within 1 - 42 days from the cataract surgery and chronic endophthalmitis if symptoms occurred ≥ 43 days after cataract surgery, respectively. Results: In total, 1331 cases of POE after 1,218,777 cataract extractions were identified. The overall incidence of POE decreased from 0.125% in 2010 to 0.066% in 2015. In multiple logistic regression analyses, increasing age was significantly associated with acute POE, while type II diabetes mellitus, extracapsular cataract extraction and one-day surgery were significantly associated with chronic POE. The combined cataract surgery and male sex were significant risk factors for both acute and chronic POE. A total of 62.51% of all eyes affected by POE received antibiotic treatment and 37.49% had vitrectomy treatment. Conclusions: During the study period, the total incidence of post-operative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery decreased significantly.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aflatoxins; tumorigenicity; carcinogenicity; acute toxicity; immunogenicity; genotoxicity
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:07:58 CET)
There are presently more than 18 known aflatoxins (>18) most of which have been insufficiently studied for their incidence, health-risk, and mechanisms of toxicity to allow effective intervention and control means that would significantly and sustainably reduce their incidence and adverse effects on health and economy. Among these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has by far been the most studied; and yet, many aspects of the range and mechanisms of the diseases it causes remain to be elucidated. Its mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, and carcinogenicity, which are the best known still suffer from many limitations regarding the relative contribution of the oxidative stress and the reactive epoxide derivative (Aflatoxin-exo 8,9-epoxide) in the induction of the diseases, as well as its metabolic and synthesis pathways. Additionally, despite the well-established additive effects for carcinogenicity between AFB1 and other risk factors, e.g., hepatitis viruses B and C, and the algal hepatotoxic microcystins, the mechanisms of this synergy remain unclear. This study reviews the most recent advances in the mechanisms of toxicity of aflatoxins and the adverse health effects that they cause in humans and animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0623.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: spontaneous post-translational modification, racemization, glycation, glycosylation.
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:35:48 CEST)
The universal chirality is the commonly accepted view of nature. Biological chirality is the distinct part of the more general phenomena. Following this view, all living organisms are characterized by the non-equilibrium state of their molecular constituents. From the thermodynamic perspective, the non-equilibrium state of biomolecular ensemble holds inevitable consequences being the substrate of spontaneous reactions directed to equilibrium (not associated with life) state. At the protein level, spontaneous biological reactions represent the natural part of proteins' post-translational modifications (PTMs). The essential contribution to the origin and maintenance of the non-equilibrium state belongs to prevalent bio-molecular chirality. Correspondently, spontaneous PTMs such as racemization and glycation, working against life-supporting prevalent chirality, are known as the significant determinants of protein misfolding, dysfunctions, and aggregation. Accumulation of aberrant protein during life-span allows consideration of time-dependent spontaneous racemization and glycation as protein aging. Spontaneous PTMs of proteins is occurring in the interaction with other forms of enzymatic and non-enzymatic PTMs. In this review, we are considering the contribution of spontaneous racemization and non-enzymatic glycosylation to protein aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Critical Illness; Hospital Mortality; Intensive Care Units; Outcome Assessment, Health Care; Prognosis; Risk Adjustment; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:51:34 CET)
Objectives To develop and validate a prediction model for 28-day in-hospital mortality among adult patients critically ill with COVID-19 in the UK. Design Observational cohort study. Setting 287 adult critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, of which 260 admitted at least one eligible patient. Participants 10,933 patients with confirmed COVID-19 of whom 10,401 were eligible (excluding 532 patients with a duration of critical care less than 24 hours and 1 patient with unknown 28-day outcome): 8,666 development (March-April 2020) and 1,735 temporal validation (May-August 2020). Main outcome measures 28-day in-hospital mortality from start of critical care. Results Two models were developed using 14 patient level predictors selected from 30 candidate predictors, with and without adjustment for calendar time. In the temporal validation data, the model discrimination was maintained (c index 0.78) but calibration was poor, particularly for the model not adjusted for calendar time (ratio of observed to predicted mortality 0.74 versus 0.88 for the model adjusted for calendar time). Conclusions We developed and validated a prediction model for 28-day in-hospital mortality for patients critically ill with COVID-19. Although absolute predictions were inaccurate due to changing outcomes, the models will support risk-adjustment in analyses and monitoring changes in risk-adjusted outcome over time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: paracetamol; breastfeeding; post; childhood; prophylactic; immunization; vaccination
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:09:16 CET)
Background: Paracetamol may be use as antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain on post vaccination in infants. The use of Paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter natural human body immune response although it may reduce pain. Objectives: This study described the relevancy of Paracetamol use post infants vaccination based on data collection systematic review analyses. This study aims to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and Paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infants vaccination. Data Sources and Study Selection: Electronic literature search by hand searching six (6) databases which include Ovid LWW Total Access Collection and Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Alled Health Literature) Plus with Fulltext, Science Direct, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Proquest Education Journal and Proquest Health and Medical Complete. Additionally, manual reference checks of all articles on Paracetamol and breastfeeding post infants vaccination published in English Language between 1978 and 2017. Two level of screening were used on 9614 citations which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. Data Synthesis: Data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality and effects. Authors of trials were not contacted for further details or provision of original data if the published report contained insufficient information. The study findings, as reported by the authors, were included in this review. The data in this research cannot be pool due to not enough data regarding odd ratio or relative risk as well as confidence interval in each study. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three (3) studies from 9614 of database searching. The reviews of all these three (3) studies found significant benefit from breastfed in pain score and duration of crying as well as behavioral changes. None study stated the unbeneficial of breastfeeding before, during and after immunization. Meanwhile, systematic review of Paracetamol effectiveness included four (4) studies from 1177 of database searching. The reviews of two (2) studies found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever and only one (1) study found significant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fussiness. On the other hand, there was one (1) study found not signifiant benefit from prophylaxis Paracetamol in fever. Other than that, there were two (2) studies evaluate the safety of prophylactic Paracetamol which revealed different outcomes, in which study by Prymula et. al. in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were reduced significantly, and the other study by Uhari et. al. in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM not differ significantly. Thus, Paracetamol seems to be not relevant post infants vaccination and breastfeeding was found to be beneficial post infants vaccination. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving Paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable since the safety issue of this intervention may be arised. Breastfeeding before, during and after immunization are recommended for pain reduction as it was proved effectively. Finally, in deciding Paracetamol to be of rational use following infants immunization, it may need for further research which include in depth quantitative and qualitative studies to identify specific problem and causes regarding this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Geophila obvallata; toxicity; Sub-acute; Drug therapy
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:38:46 CEST)
The study evaluates the toxic effects of acute and sub-acute oral administration of methanol extracts of Geophila obvallata in rats. During acute study, a dose of 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg bw of extract was orally administered to rats. Rats were observed for signs of toxicity for two weeks. During sub-acute study (28 days), the extract, at doses of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw were administered orally to rats while control rats were given only tap water. At the end of the study, samples were collected for analyses. In acute toxicity studies, the extract did not induce death after single dose administration. Hence, the LD50 was estimated above 5000mg/kg. The results of sub-acute toxicity study show that no significant changes were observed in the body weights, organ weights, kidney function and organ histology. There were significant changes in hematology and biochemical indices investigated at elevated doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw compared to the control. GOE may be considered non-toxic at a dose of 100 mg/kg with promising applications in drug therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0107.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: Magnetic microwires; post-processing; hysteresis loops; magnetic anisotropy
Online: 7 July 2020 (02:41:20 CEST)
The influence of post-processing conditions on the magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires have been thoroughly analyzed, paying attention on the influence of magnetoelastic, induced and magnetocrystalline anisotropies on the hysteresis loops of Fe-, Ni- and Co-rich microwires. We showed that magnetic properties of glass-coated microwires can be tuned by the selection of appropriate chemical composition and geometry in as-prepared state or further considerably modified by appropriate post-processing, which consists of either annealing or glass-coated removal. Furthermore, stress-annealing or Joule heating can further effectively modify the magnetic properties of amorphous magnetic microwires owing to induced magnetic anisotropy. Devitrification of microwires can be useful for either magnetic softening or magnetic hardening of the microwires. Depending on the chemical composition of the metallic nucleus and on structural features (grain size, precipitating phases) nanocrystalline microwires can exhibit either soft magnetic properties or semi-hard magnetic properties. We demonstrated that the microwires with coercivities from 1 A/m to 40 kA/m can be prepared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0323.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA; IKZF1; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Online: 17 August 2022 (11:29:02 CEST)
The hematopoietic transcription factor Ikaros (IKZF1) regulates normal B cell development and functions as a tumor suppressor in precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that through post-transcriptional gene regulation play critical roles in intracellular processes including cell growth in cancer. However, the role of Ikaros in the regulation of miRNA expression in developing B cells is unknown. In this study, we examined the Ikaros-regulated miRNA targets using patient-derived IKZF1-mutated B-ALL xenograft-derived cell lines. Inducible expression of wild-type Ikaros (the Ik1 isoform) caused B-ALL growth arrest and exit from the cell cycle. Global miRNA expression analysis revealed a total of 31 miRNAs regulated by IK1, and ChIP-seq analysis showed that Ikaros bound to several Ik1-responsive miRNA genes. Examination of the prognostic significance of miRNA expression in B-ALL indicate that the IK1-regulated miRNAs hsa-miR-26b, hsa-miR-130b and hsa-miR-4649 are significantly associated with outcome in B-ALL. Our findings establish a potential regulatory circuit between the tumor-suppressor Ikaros and the oncogenic miRNA networks in IKZF1-mutated B-ALL. These results indicate that Ikaros regulates the expression of a subset of miRNAs, of which several may contribute to B-ALL growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Epitranscriptomics, acute myeloid leukemia, microRNA, CISH, Immunotherapeutics.
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:53:12 CEST)
Epigenetic alterations have contributed greatly to human carcinogenesis. Conventional epigenetic studies have been predominantly focused on DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodelling. However, recently, RNA modification (m6A-methylation) also termed ‘epitranscriptomics’ has emerged as a new layer of epigenetic regulation due to its diverse role in various biological processes. In this review, we have summarized the therapeutic potential of m6A-modifiers in controlling haematological disorders especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is a type of blood cancer affecting specific subsets of blood-forming hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) which proliferate rapidly and acquire self-renewable capacities with impaired terminal cell-differentiation and apoptosis leading to abnormal accumulation of white blood cells, and thus an alternative therapeutic approach is required urgently. Here, we have described how RNA m6A-modification machineries EEE (Editor/writer: Mettl3, Mettl14; Eraser/remover: FTO, ALKBH5 and Effector/reader: YTHDF-1/2) could be reformed into potential druggable candidate or as RNA modifying drug (RMD) to treat leukemia. Moreover, we have shed-light on the role of microRNA and suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) in increasing anti-tumor immunity towards leukemia. We anticipate, our investigation will provide a fundamental knowledge in nurturing the potential of RNA modifiers in discovering novel therapeutics or immunotherapeutic procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Heart Failure; Acute Kidney Injury; Prognosis; Mortality.
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:09:49 CET)
Introduction: Decompensated heart failure (HF) is a complex and debilitating syndrome, which constitutes a severe emergency condition with high morbidity and mortality. The kidneys play fundamental roles in the pathophysiology of HF and, in the context of decompensations, acute kidney injury (AKI) has a bilateral cause-and-effect relationship, which can significantly worsen prognosis. However, the interaction between AKI and decompensated HF is poorly understood. Objective: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of AKI in patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF and to analyze its prognostic impact during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective single-center observational study that included patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF in a tertiary-level teaching hospital, conducted between July 2017 and January 2020. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were compared with those who did not develop it, until hospital discharge or death. AKI was defined as a serum creatinine increase greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl in 48 hours, a 1.5-fold increase in baseline creatinine in seven days or urinary volume <0.5 ml/kg/h during six hours, according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The endpoints analyzed were death, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and length of hospital stay. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and unpaired student t tests were used. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included, with a mean age of 65.4 ± 14 years, of which 47 (47.5%) were male and 52 (52.5%) were female. Reduced ejection fraction was observed in 77.8% of patients, whilst 22.2% had a diagnosis of HF with preserved EF. The decompensation clinical classifications were: dry and warm = 7 (7.1%), wet and warm = 72 (72.7%), wet and cold = 15 (15.1%) and dry and cold = 5 (5.1%). The average left ventricular ejection fraction was 38.3% ± 15. AKI ocurred in 22 patients (22.2%). Comparison between patients who evolved with and without AKI showed higher mortality (36.4% vs 10.4%, p = 0.004) and the need for IMV (54.5% vs 13%, p = 0.0001) in the first group. There was no significant difference regarding the length of in-hospital stay (22.9 ± 19 vs 18.8 ± 16 days, p = 0.26). Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI was frequent in patients with decompensated HF requiring hospitalization, affecting approximately one out of five patients. This complication was significantly associated with increased mortality and the need for IMV during hospitalization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0235.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); ascorbic acid; cathelicidin; coronavirus; COVID-19; cytokine storm; influenza; observational; pneumonia, prevention; respiratory tract infection; solar radiation; treatment; UVB; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 30 March 2020 (05:48:43 CEST)
The world is in the grips of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public health measures that can reduce the risk of infection and death in addition to quarantines are desperately needed. This article reviews the roles of vitamin D in reducing risk of respiratory tract infections, knowledge about the epidemiology of influenza and COVID-19, and how vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce risk. Through several mechanisms, vitamin D can reduce risk of infections. Those mechanisms include inducing cathelicidins and defensins that can lower viral replication rates and reducing concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines that produce the inflammation that injures the lining of the lungs, leading to pneumonia, as well as increase concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Several observational studies and clinical trials reported that vitamin D supplementation reduced risk of influenza, whereas others did not. Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing risk of COVID-19 includes that the outbreak occurred in winter, a time when 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are lowest; that the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are low; that vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and that case-fatality rates increase with age and with chronic disease comorbidity, both of which are associated with lower 25(OH)D concentration. To reduce risk of infection, it is recommended that people at risk of influenza and/or COVID-19 consider taking 10,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 for a few weeks to rapidly raise 25(OH)D concentrations, followed by 5000 IU/d. The goal should be to raise 25(OH)D concentrations above 40–60 ng/ml (100–150 nmol/l). For treatment of people who become infected with COVID-19, higher vitamin D3 doses might be useful. Randomized controlled trials and large population studies should be conducted to evaluate these recommendations.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2, prediabetes; new-onset diabetes; diabetes; HbA1c; long COVID
Online: 22 November 2022 (10:39:38 CET)
Studies have shown that COVID-19 patients with prediabetes frequently present with high plasma glucose levels on hospital admission. However, whether the glycemic abnormalities are temporary or persist after recovery from the illness is unclear. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 69 COVID-19 patients with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%) who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India, from May to October 2020 and were discharged alive. Over a mean follow-up of 146.6 (SD: 72.5) days, the mean fasting plasma glucose rose by 16.8 mg/dl (from 119.3-136.1 mg/dl), 2-hr post-prandial glucose by 61.0 mg/dl (from 176.2-237.2 mg/dl), and HbA1c by 0.6% (5.9-6.5%). Of the 49 (84.5%) patients who were discharged with glucose-lowering medications, 40 (81.6%) continued taking them at the first follow-up visit (mean of 50.1 days from admission), and 39 (79.6%) continued taking them at the second follow-up visit (mean of 114.3 days from first the follow-up visit). In addition, 12.1% of patients developed new-onset diabetes after recovery from the illness. Continuous monitoring of glycemia and detecting new-onset diabetes in COVID-19 patients with prediabetes after recovery are essential, as the metabolic effects of SARS-CoV-2 persist for several months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute fluorosis; tetramethylpyrazine; liver; oxidative damage; Nrf2
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:34:59 CEST)
Excessive intake of fluoride, one of the trace elements to maintain health, leads to liver injury. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine monomer with good antioxidant and hepatoprotective function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TMP on liver injury induced by acute fluorosis. A total of 60 1-month-old male Institute of Cancer Research mice without carriage of pathogenic bacteria were selected. All mice were fed adaptively for one week, and then randomly divided into 5 groups: control (K) group, model (F) group, low-dose (LT) group, medium-dose (MT) group and high-dose (HT) group. The control and model group were given distilled water, while 40 mg/kg (LT), 80 mg/kg (MT) and 160 mg/kg (HT) TMP were fed by gavage for two weeks with the maximum gavage volume of mice is 0.2ml/10g/d. Except for the control group, all groups were given fluoride (35 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection on the last day of the experiment. The results of this study showed that compared with the model group, TMP alleviated the pathological changes of liver induced by fluoride and improved the ultrastructure of liver cells; TMP significantly decreased the levels of ALT, AST and MDA (P <0.05), and increased the levels of T-AOC, T-SOD and GSH (P <0.05). The results of mRNA detection showed that TMP significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, CAT, GSH-Px and SOD in liver compared with model group (P <0.05). In conclusion, TMP can inhibit oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 pathway and alleviate liver injury induced by fluoride.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: septicemia; septic shock; post-sepsis syndrome; cytokines; inflammation
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:43:46 CET)
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition with high hospital mortality. Elevated mortality has also been observed in patients after hospital discharge due to post-sepsis syndrome (PSS). The etiology of PSS is still not entirely known, but it involves inflammation. Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are recognized as a unique mechanism of intercellular communication in inflammatory processes. It has been reported that EV microRNA (miRNA) production during the acute sepsis phase may persist until after disease resolution and is associated with PSS. We employed mass spectrometry and qPCR analysis to determine the protein and miRNA composition of plasma-derived EVs of 36 patients during sepsis-related hospitalization, immediately after ICU discharge (post-sepsis), and three, six, twelve, and up to 36 months post-sepsis. We determined that patients’ immune system cells were the primary EV source. Fifteen differentially expressed EV miRNAs (DEmiRs) were identified in samples from septic patients compared to the control group. Predictive analyses revealed that these DEmiRs could influence inflammation by modulating pathways mediated by NF-κB, STAT3, and TLR4 signaling activation. Thirteen miRNAs (-15b-5p,-16-5p,-20a-5p,-25-3p,-27a-3p,-29a-3p,-30d-5p,-93-5p,-146a-5p,-148a-3p,-191-5p,-195-5p,-223-3p) were downregulated in the death group compared to the survivor group, making them candidate prognostic markers of ICU survival. One year after ICU discharge, the expression of miR-21-5p and miR-195-5p were decreased in the survivor group. The miRNAs identified in the present study represent potential biomarkers for the survival prognosis of post-sepsis patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0571.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; plastid; co-maturation; post-transcriptional; Nanopore
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:48:48 CEST)
Plastid gene expression involves many post-transcriptional maturation steps resulting in a complex transcriptome composed of multiple isoforms. Although short read RNA-seq has considerably improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling these processes, it is unable to sequence full-length transcripts. This information is however crucial when it comes to understand the interplay between the various steps of plastid gene expression. Here, the study of the Arabidopsis leaf plastid transcriptome using Nanopore sequencing showed that many splicing and editing events were not independent but co-occurring. For a given transcript, maturation events also appeared to be chronologically ordered with splicing happening after most sites are edited.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: post-stroke aphasia; pharmacotherapy; cholinergic treatment
Online: 11 July 2022 (08:58:05 CEST)
Despite the relative scarcity of studies focusing on pharmacotherapy in aphasia, there is evidence in the literature indicating that remediation of language disorders via pharmaceutical agents could be a promising aphasia treatment option. Among the various agents used to treat chronic aphasic deficits, cholinergic drugs have provided interesting results. In the current review, we focused on published reports investigating the impact of acetylcholine on language and further cognitive disturbances. It has been suggested that acetylcholine plays an important role in neuroplasticity and is related to several aspects of cognition, such as memory and attention. Moreover, cholinergic input is diffused to a wide network of cortical areas, which have been associated with language sub-processes. This could be a possible explanation for the positive reported outcomes of cholinergic drugs in aphasia recovery, and specifically in distinct language processes, such as naming and comprehension, as well as overall communication competence. However, evidence with regard to functional alterations in specific brain areas after pharmacotherapy is rather limited. Finally, despite the positive results derived from the relevant studies, cholinergic pharmacotherapy treatment in post-stroke aphasia has not been widely implemented. The present review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature in cholinergic pharmacotherapy interventions in post-stroke aphasia, following an integrated approach by converging evidence from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0300.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Post Quantum Cryptography, Oil and Vinegar
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:31:13 CET)
Public key encryption methods are often used to create a digital signature, and where Bob has a public key and a private key. In order to prove his identity, he will encrypt something related to the message with his private key, and which can then be checked with his public key. The main current methods of public-key encryption include RSA and ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography), and which involve computationally difficult operations. But these operations have not been proven to be hard in an era of quantum computers. One well-known hard problem is the solving of quadratic equations with $m$ equations with $n$ variables. This is a known NP-hard problem, even in a world of quantum computers. These can be used as post-quantum signature schemes and which involve multivariate equations. In order to understand these methods, this paper outlines a simple example of implementing the oil and vinegar method, and where we have a number of unknown oil variables and a number of known vinegar variables, and where the vinegar variables help convert the hard problem into an easy one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.