ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0221.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; nucleic acid detection; micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction; real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Online: 24 January 2018 (04:21:18 CET)
Establishment of diagnostic methods with low detection limits plays a critical role in the maintenance of early diagnosis, prevention of serious neurological complications, and control of the spread of ZIKA. In this study, we established the micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and real-time fluorescent quantification PCR (qPCR) protocols for the detection of Zika virus based on the NS5 gene. For the Zika standard plasmid, the standard curve of R2 was 0.999, and the amplification efficiency was 92.203%, as determined by qPCR. Both ddPCR and qPCR were positive for cell culture of Zika nucleic acid.The minimum detection limit of ddPCR is 1–2 times lower than qPCR. Moreover, all tests of Dengue virus (1–4 serotypes) were negative in cell culture. Overall, these results suggested than ddPCR may have a lower limit of detection than qPCR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0154.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: water bridging; dipole waves; coherent states; polymerase chain reaction; DNA amplification; DNA transduction; enzyme catalytic activity; fractal-like self-similarity
Online: 25 April 2017 (04:24:21 CEST)
We discuss the role of water bridging the DNA-enzyme interaction by resorting to recent 1 results showing that London dispersion forces between delocalized electrons of base pairs of DNA 2 are responsible for the formation of dipole modes that can be recognized by Taq polymerase. 3 We describe the dynamical origin of the high efficiency and precise targeting of Taq activity in 4 PCR. The spatiotemporal distribution of interaction couplings, frequencies, amplitudes, and phase 5 modulations comprise a pattern of fields instantiating the electromagnetic image of DNA in its 6 water environment, which is what the polymerase enzyme actually recognizes at long range. The 7 experimental realization of PCR amplification, achieved through replacement of the DNA template 8 by the treatment of pure water with electromagnetic signals recorded from viral and bacterial DNA 9 solutions, is found consistent with the gauge theory paradigm of quantum fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0392.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV2), COVID-19, molecular diagnostics, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:55:44 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2. In Colombia, many commercial methods are now available to perform the RT-qPCR assays, and the laboratories must evaluate its diagnostic accuracy to ensure reliable results to suspected COVID-19 patients. The purpose of the study was to compare four commercial RT-qPCR assays for detection of SARS-CoV2 virus, from nasopharyngeal swab samples referred to Laboratorio Carvajal IPS, SAS of Tunja, Boyacá - Colombia. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 152 samples of respiratory tract samples (Nasopharyngeal Swab) from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. Diagnostic accuracy of GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp (In Vitro diagnostic), One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR (Vitro Master diagnostica), Berlin modified protocol and gold standard Berlin protocol (Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit, New England Biolabs) as reference was assessed. Operational characteristics were estimated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and predictive values. Results: Using Berlin Charite Probe One-Step RT-qPCR Kit as reference, the sensitivity/specificity for the diagnostic tests were found to be GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit 100%/92.7%, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR, One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR 92.75%/67.47%, and Berlin modified protocol 100%/96.39%. The results of four commercially available methods were found to be consistent with those obtained from Berlin Modified protocol analysis for % of the samples and showed good agreement (κ= 0.96). Concordant SARS-CoV2 negative and positive RT-qPCR results were reported for xxx and xxx samples, respectively. Summarize something about the Ct. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that all commercially available methods are rapid and reliable for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with COVID-19. One-Step RT-qPCR Kit and GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp assay show optimal sensitivity compared with Belin modified protocol. In addition, there is no significant correlation between xxxxx
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0203.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Tungiasis; Tunga penetrans; molecular entomology; DNA isolation; Phusion® polymerase; FIREpol® Taq polymerase; low-cost PCR,
Online: 10 November 2022 (11:19:42 CET)
Tungiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by skin-penetrating female Tunga penetrans fleas. Although tungiasis causes severe health problems, its ecology is poorly understood and morphological descriptions of larvae are unavailable. To identify T. penetrans immature stages and sites where they develop, diagnostic PCRs are required. However, flea larvae feed on soil organic matter rich in PCR inhibitors. Here, three DNA preparation methods, a soil DNA kit removing inhibitors, a simple ammonium acetate precipitation approach (AmAcet) and a crude lysate of larvae (CL), were combined with amplification by the highly processive FIREPol® Taq or the inhibitor-resistant Phusion® polymerase. Independent of the polymerase used, frequency of successful amplification, Cq values and PCR efficacies for the low-cost CL and AmAcet methods were superior to the commercial kit for amplification of a 278 bp partial internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) and a 730 bp pan-Siphonaptera cytochrome oxidase I PCR. For the CL method combined with Phusion® polymerase, costs were approximately 20-fold lower than for methods based on the soil DNA kit, which is a considerable advantage in resource-poor settings. The ITS-2 PCR did not amplify Ctenocephalides felis genomic or Tunga trimammilata ITS-2 plasmid DNA allowing it to be used to specifically identify T. penetrans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0170.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza virus; RNA-polymerase; RNA-polymerase II; protein-protein interaction; PPI; cap snatching; transcription; binary complementation assay
Online: 14 February 2022 (09:51:21 CET)
Influenza virus transcription is catalyzed by the viral RNA-polymerase (FluPol) through a cap-snatching activity. The snatching of the cap of cellular mRNA by FluPol is preceded by its binding to the flexible C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RPB1 subunit of RNA-polymerase II (Pol II). To better understand how FluPol brings the 3’-end of the genomic RNAs in close proximity to the host-derived primer, we hypothesized that FluPol may recognize additional Pol II subunits/domains to ensure cap-snatching. Using binary complementation assays between the Pol II and FluPol subunits and their structural domains, we revealed an interaction between the N-third domain of PB2 and RPB4. This interaction was confirmed by a co-immunoprecipitation assay and found to occur with the homologous domains of influenza B and C FluPols. Residues [1-72] of RPB4 were found critical in this interaction. Numerous punctual mutants generated at conserved positions between influenza A, B and C FluPols in the N-third domain of PB2 exhibited strong transcriptional activity defect. These results suggest that FluPol interacts with several domains/subunits of Pol II, the CTD to bind Pol II initiating host transcription and a second on RPB4 to locate FluPol at the proximity of the 5’-end of nascent host mRNA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Archaea; transcription inhibition; RNA polymerase; viruses; evolution; antibiotics
Online: 12 August 2022 (11:25:05 CEST)
Multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAP) carry out transcription in all domains of life; during vi-rus infection, RNAPs are targeted by transcription factors encoded by either the cell or the virus, resulting in the global repression of transcription with distinct outcomes for different host-virus combinations. These repressors serve as versatile molecular probes to study RNAP mechanisms, as well as they aid the exploration of druggable sites for the development of new antibiotics. Here, we review the mechanisms and structural basis of RNAP inhibition by the viral repressor RIP and the crenarchaeal negative regulator TFS4, which follow distinct strategies. RIP operates by occluding the DNA-binding channel and mimicking the initiation factor TFB/TFIIB. RIP binds tightly to the clamp and locks it into one fixed position, thereby preventing conformational oscil-lations that are critical for RNAP function as it progresses through the transcription cycle. TFS4 engages with RNAP in a similar manner to transcript cleavage factors such as TFS/TFIIS through the NTP-entry channel; TFS4 interferes with the trigger loop and bridge helix within the active site by occlusion and allosteric mechanisms, respectively. The conformational changes of RNAP described above are universally conserved and are also seen in inactive dimers of eukaryotic RNAPI and several inhibited RNAP complexes of both bacterial and eukaryotic RNA polymer-ases, including inactive states that precede transcription termination. A comparison of target sites and inhibitory mechanisms reveals that proteinaceous repressors and RNAP-specific antibiotics use surprisingly common ways to inhibit RNAP function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0504.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: lamprey; cyclostome; meiosis; chromosome; chromatin; histone; RNA polymerase II
Online: 27 December 2022 (02:41:52 CET)
This paper presents results of the experiments performed on a nonconventional and extremely interesting in regard to evolution, creature, the European river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (Petromyzontiformes, Cyclostomata), one of the oldest taxa of vertebrates. We present detailed immunocytochemical and electron microscopy analyses of chromosome synapsis, the transcription process, and chromatin dynamics in lamprey prophase I, which is the first time for science. We found that not all chromosomes complete synapsis. Rounded structures were detected in chromatin and in some synaptonemal complexes but their nature could not be determined conclusively. An analysis of RNA polymerase II distribution led to the conclusion that transcriptional reactivation in lamprey prophase I is not associated with the completion of chromosome synapsis. Monomethylated histone H3K4 is localized to meiotic chromatin throughout prophase I, and this pattern has not been previously detected in the animals. Thus, the findings made it possible to identify synaptic and epigenetic patterns specific for this group, and to add new pieces of the puzzle to the discussions of the scientific issues under study. The research on lamprey meiotic chromatin and chromosomal dynamics raises many questions leading to new discoveries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0419.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Trichuris trichiura; polymerase chain reaction; bead-beating; DNA extraction; Systematic review
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:54:06 CEST)
Objectives: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the effect of addition of a bead-beating step during DNA extraction to effectively isolate Trichuris trichura DNA for quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)-based diagnosis. Abstract was reported according to PRISMA-DTA abstract checklist. Methods: Eligibility criteria: qPCR-based molecular studies comparing the inclusion of bead-beating step during the DNA extraction from stool samples with extraction without the step were included in the analysis. Information sources: Studies using real patient samples in community settings were included. PubMed and Google search engine were searched in December 2019. Risk of bias and applicability: Risk of bias and applicability were assessed using QUADAS-2 checklist. Synthesis of results: Odds ratio for individual studies were combined to estimate Random Effects Model odds ratio. Additional literature were searched to discuss biochemical nature of helminth eggs. Results:Included studies: A total of six independent sub-studies were gathered from two published original articles. Division of the two major studies into six sub-studies was indispensable due to natures of the study carried. 128 of total 192 samples (in all studies) were positive for Trichiuris trichiura when bead-beating was used during DNA extraction compared to 108/192 when bead-beating was excluded. Combined odds ratio was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.059 to 2.602). Biochemical nature of helminth eggs was discussed. Discussions: Strengths and limitations: Though only two article were included in the study, six exclusive individual sub-studies were analyzed. Inherent differences in the background prevalence of helminth in study population could impact sensitivity of qPCR. Interpretation: It was found that the inclusion of the bead-beating step during DNA extraction significantly increased the sensitivity of the test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0548.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: promoter sequences; repetitive sequences; pausing; abortive initiation; RNA polymerase; dsDNA rigidity
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:28:21 CEST)
In the process of transcription initiation by RNA polymerase, promoter DNA sequences affect multiple reaction pathways determining the productivity of transcription. However, the question of how the molecular mechanism of transcription initiation depends on sequence properties of promoter DNA remains poorly understood. Here, combining the statistical mechanical approach with high-throughput sequencing results, we characterize abortive transcription and pausing during transcription initiation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase at a genome-wide level. Our results suggest that initially transcribed sequences enriched with thymine bases represent the signal inducing abortive transcription. On the other hand, certain repetitive sequence elements broadly embedded in promoter regions constitute the signal inducing pausing. Both signals decrease the productivity of transcription initiation. Based on solution NMR and in vitro transcription measurements, we also suggest that repetitive sequence elements of promoter DNA modulate the rigidity of its double-stranded form, which profoundly influences the reaction coordinates of the productive initiation via pausing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0347.v1
Online: 23 March 2020 (07:46:54 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent for the ongoing COVID19 pandemic, and this virus belongs to the Coronaviridae family. Like other members of this family, the virus possesses a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The genome encodes for the nsp12 protein, which houses the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRP) activity responsible for the replication of the viral genome. A homology model of nsp12 was prepared using the structure of the SARS nsp12 (6NUR) as a model. The model was used to carry out in silico screening to identify molecules among natural products, or FDA approved drugs that can potentially inhibit the activity of nsp12. This exercise showed that vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) may bind to the active site of the nsp12 protein. A model of the nsp12 in complex with substrate RNA and incoming NTP showed that Vitamin B12 binding site overlaps with that of the incoming nucleotide. A comparison of the calculated energies of binding for RNA plus NTP and methylcobalamin suggested that the vitamin may bind to the active site of nsp12 with significant affinity. It is, therefore, possible that methylcobalamin binding may prevent association with RNA and NTP and thus inhibit the RdRP activity of nsp12. Overall, our computational studies suggest that methylcobalamin form of vitamin B12 may serve as an effective inhibitor of the nsp12 protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0055.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: metapneumovirus; molecular docking; phenolic compounds; glycosides; ellagic acid; RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:40:19 CEST)
Human metapneumovirus is one of major causes of common cold among children, especially infants. Its key enzyme is RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, which performs both replication and transcription, including capping and cap methylation. The goal of the work is to find possible inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase across the active compounds of Rosaceae plants. The candidates were selected by molecular docking to cap-transferring domain of RNA-polymerase (PDB ID: 4UCZ) in Autodock VINA. Among all the substances tested by docking, ellagic acid derivatives showed the most promising results (affinity values below -10 kcal/mol). Hence, they could be treated as possible candidate drugs against metapneumoviral infection after experimental examination. The main advantage of using these substances should be their low toxicity, which is quite uncommon for selective RNA polymerase inhibitors used in clinical practice. Occurrence of ellagic acid derivatives among the plants from Rosaceae family like raspberry could explain their effect during common cold.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: dengue virus; antiviral targets; NS5; flavivirus; polymerase; nucleoside inhibitors; non-nucleoside inhibitors
Online: 17 August 2021 (14:07:29 CEST)
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease globally and affects approximately 2.5 billion people living in over 100 countries. The increasing geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which transmit the virus has made dengue fever a global health concern. There are currently no approved antivirals available to treat dengue, and the only approved vaccine used in some countries is limited to seropositive patients. Treatment of dengue therefore remains largely supportive to date; hence research efforts are being intensified for the development of antivirals against dengue. The NS3 and NS5 nonstructural proteins have been the major targets for dengue antiviral development due to their indispensable enzymatic and biological functions in the viral replication process. NS5 is the largest and most conserved nonstructural protein encoded by flaviviruses including dengue. Its multifunctionality makes it an attractive target for antiviral development against dengue, but research efforts are hindered due to its limited structural characterization compared to the NS5 of other flaviviruses like the Zika virus. Increase in structural insights into the dengue NS5 protein will accelerate drug discovery efforts focused on NS5 as an antiviral target. In this review, we will give an overview of the current state of therapeutic development against dengue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0355.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Colletotrichum truncatum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides; chilli anthracnose; polymerase chain reaction assay; disease distribution
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:13:10 CEST)
This paper reviews the current knowledge of pepper anthracnose in the Philippines. We present research outputs on pepper anthracnose from the last three years. Then, we present evidence of the widespread occurrence of C. acutatum sensu lato in the Philippines. Finally, we highlight some research prospects that would contribute towards developing an integrated anthracnose management program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0393.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: SARS-CoV2; RNA depended RNA polymerase; Valproic acid Co-A; drug repurposing
Online: 26 March 2020 (15:04:22 CET)
SARS-CoV2 RNA depended RNA polymerase is an essential enzyme for the survival of the virus in hosts as it helps in the replication of viral RNA. There are no human polymerases that share either sequence or structural homology with viral RNA depended RNA polymerase. These make it a good target for inhibitor discovery, as a specific inhibitor cannot cross-react with the human polymerases. We have used virtual screening, docking, binding energy calculation and simulation to show that valproic acid Co-A, a metabolite from prodrug valproic acid, forms stable interaction with nsP12 of CoV. Our results suggest valproic acid Co-A could be a potential inhibitor of nsP12 of SARS-CoV2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0060.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: fission yeast; microtubule polymerase; xmap215/tog; mitotic spindle; spindle pole body; kinetochore
Online: 7 October 2019 (11:02:36 CEST)
Proper bipolar spindle assembly underlies accurate chromosome segregation. A cohort of microtubule-associated proteins orchestrates spindle microtubule formation in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. Among them, the conserved XMAP215/TOG family of microtubule polymerase plays a central role in spindle assembly. In fission yeast, two XMAP215/TOG members, Alp14 and Dis1, share essential roles in cell viability; however how these two proteins functionally collaborate remains undetermined. Here we show the functional interplay and specification of Alp14 and Dis1. Creation of new mutant alleles of alp14, which display temperature sensitivity in the absence of Dis1, enabled us to conduct detailed analyses of a double mutant. We have found that simultaneous inactivation of Alp14 and Dis1 results in early mitotic arrest with very short, fragile spindles. Intriguingly, these cells often undergo spindle collapse, leading to a lethal “cut” phenotype. By implementing an artificial targetting system, we have shown that Alp14 and Dis1 are not functionally exchangeable and as such are not merely redundant paralogues. Intriguingly, while Alp14 promotes microtubule nucleation, Dis1 does not. Our results uncover that the intrinsic specification, not the spatial regulation, between Alp14 and Dis1 underlies the collaborative actions of these two XMAP215/TOG members in mitotic progression, spindle integrity and genome stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0149.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza; H1N1; mouse adaptation; deep sequencing; polymerase; PA; PB1; defective viral genomes
Online: 19 March 2018 (08:59:26 CET)
Mice are not natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAVs), but they are useful models for studying antiviral immune responses and pathogenesis. Serial passage of IAV in mice invariably causes the emergence of adaptive mutations and increased virulence. Typically, mouse-adaptation studies are conducted in inbred laboratory strains BALB/c and C57BL/6, which have defects in the antiviral Mx1 gene that results in increased susceptibility to infection and disease severity. Here, we report the adaptation of IAV reference strain A/California/07/2009(H1N1) (a.k.a. CA/07) in outbred Swiss Webster mice. Serial passage led to increased virulence and lung titers, and dissemination of the virus to brains. We adapted a deep-sequencing protocol to identify and enumerate adaptive mutations across all genome segments. Among mutations that emerged during mouse-adaptation, we focused on amino acid substitutions in polymerase subunits: polymerase basic-1 (PB1) T156A and F740L, and polymerase acidic (PA) E349G. These mutations were evaluated singly and in combination in minigenome replicon assays, which revealed that PA E349G increased polymerase activity. By selectively engineering these three adaptive PB1 and PA mutations into the parental CA/07 strain, we demonstrated that adaptive mutations in polymerase subunits decreased the production of defective viral genome segments with internal deletions, and dramatically increased the release of infectious virions from mouse cells. Together, these findings increase our understanding of the contribution of polymerase subunits to successful host adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0569.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Recombinase polymerase amplification; Treponema pallidum; Haemophilus ducreyi; Molecular diagnostics; Point-of-care test
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:01:07 CEST)
Yaws is a skin debilitating disease caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue with most cases reported in children. World Health Organization (WHO) aims at total eradication of this disease through mass treatment of suspected cases followed by an intensive follow-up program. However, effective diagnosis is pivotal in the successful implementation of this control program. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique offers a wider range of differentiation of pathogens including those isolated from chronic skin ulcers with similar characteristics such as Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). We have developed a duplex RPA assay for the simultaneous detection of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) and H. ducreyi (TPHD-RPA). TPHD-RPA assay demonstrated no cross-reaction with other pathogens and enable detection of T. pallidum and H. ducreyi within 15 minutes at 42 oC. The duplex RPA assay was validated with 49 clinical samples from individuals confirmed to have yaws by serological tests. Compared with commercial multiplex real-time PCR, the TPHD-RPA assay demonstrated 94-95% sensitivity for T. pallidum and H. ducreyi confirmed samples, respectively and 100% specificity. This simple novel TPHD-RPA assay enables the rapid detection of both T. pallidum and H. ducreyi in yaws-like lesions. This test could support the yaws eradication programs by ensuring effective diagnosis as well as enable monitoring of eradication efforts success or failure and planning of follow-up interventions at the community level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0184.v1
Online: 12 April 2020 (05:36:40 CEST)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect humans and animals. Infection by CoVs such as HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43 and -HKUI1 leads to the common cold, short lasting rhinitis, cough, sore throat and fever. However, CoVs such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the newest SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of COVID-19) lead to severe and deadly diseases with mortality rates ranging between ~1 to 35% depending on factors such as age and pre-existing conditions. Despite continuous global health threats to human, there are no approved vaccines or drugs targeting human CoVs, and the recent outbreak of COVID-19 emphasizes an urgent need for therapeutic interventions. Using computational and bioinformatics tools, here we present the feasibility of reported broad-spectrum RNA polymerase inhibitors as anti- SARS-CoV-2 drugs targeting its main RNA polymerase, suggesting that investigational and approved nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitors have potential as anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. However, we note that it is also possible for SARS-CoV-2 to evolve and acquire drug resistance mutations against these nucleoside inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; CoV-Mpro; CoV-Nsp12 polymerase; CoV-Nsp13 helicase
Online: 5 March 2020 (11:50:45 CET)
The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a major outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and instigated a widespread fear and has threatened global health security. Although phenomenal efforts are in progress to effectively combat this COVID-19 outbreak. Still, no licensed antiviral drugs or vaccines are available, and treatment is limited to supportive care and few repurposed drugs. In this urgency situation, computational drug discovery methods provide both an alternative and a supplement to tiresome high-throughput screening, particularly in the hit-to-lead-optimization stage. Identification of small molecules that specifically target viral replication apparatus has shown the most successful strategy in antiviral drug discovery. The present study deals with the identification of potential compounds that specifically interact with SARS-CoV-2 vital proteins, including main protease (Mpro), Nsp12 RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (RdRp) and Nsp13 helicase. A constructive and integrated virtual screening efforts together with molecular dynamics simulations identified potential binding modes and favourable molecular interaction profile of corresponding compounds. Moreover, structurally important binding site residues in conserved motifs located inside the active site are elucidated, which displayed relative importance in ligand binding based on residual energy decomposition analysis. Although the current study lacks experimental validation, the structural information obtained from this computational study paved the way to identify and design specific targeted inhibitors to combat COVID-19 outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0019.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase; automodified PARP (PAR-PARP); DNA damage; pesticides; growers; greenhouses
Online: 3 January 2019 (13:00:04 CET)
Background: Increased DNA damage and the propension to cancer development, depend on the modulation of the mechanisms to control and maintain genomic integrity. Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase activation and automodification are early responses to genotoxic stress. Upon binding to DNA strand breaks, the enzyme, a molecular DNA nick sensor, is hyperactivated: this is the first step in a series of events leading to either DNA repair or apoptosis. Enzyme hyperactivation and automodification can be easily measured and are widely used to look at DNA damage extent in the cell. We investigated whether these two markers (increased catalytic activity and auto modification), could help to monitor DNA damage in lymphocytes of flower growers from Southern Italy, occupationally exposed to pesticides. Methods: Peripheral lymphocyte lysates were analysed for Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase activity, and by SDS-PAGE and anti-Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase 1-antibody to measure automodified anti-Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase levels by densitometry. Results: Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase activity levels were consistent with those of enzyme auto-modification. Growers daily exposed to pesticides, showed both biomarkers very high, either in the presence or in the absence of pathologies. Conclusions: PARP activity and auto-modification in peripheral blood lymphocytes are possible,non-invasive, and routinar tools to monitor the healthy conditions of floricoltorists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0492.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Drug resistance; nsp12; protein design; fitness; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; resistance mutations; SARS-CoV-2.
Online: 20 May 2021 (13:18:14 CEST)
Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) currently being used to manage COVID-19 in several countries. By acting as a substrate for RdRp, favipiravir gets incorporated into the nascent viral RNA and prevents strand extension. A high mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp may facilitate antigenic drift as an answer to the host immune response, thereby generating resistance of virus to favipiravir. Therefore, it is extremely crucial to predict potential mutational sites in the RdRp and the emergence of structural modifications contributing to drug resistance. Here, we used high-throughput interface-based protein design to generate >100,000 designs and identify mutation hotspot residues in the favipiravir-binding site of RdRp. Several mutants had lower binding affinities to favipiravir, out of which hotspot residues with a high propensity to undergo positive selection were identified. The results showed that the designs retained an average of 97 to 98% sequence identity, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 can develop favipiravir resistance with just a few mutations. Notably, we observed that out of 134 mutations predicted designs, 63 specific mutations were already present in the CoV-GLUE database, thus attaining ~47% correlation match with the clinical sequencing data. The findings improve our understanding of the potential signatures of adaptation in SARS-CoV-2 against favipiravir and management of COVID-19. Furthermore, they can help develop exhaustive strategies for robust antiviral design and discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1; E2F1 transcription factor; cell cycle; neoplasm; glioma; animal disease models
Online: 5 September 2020 (04:39:42 CEST)
In recent years, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have heen evaluated for treating homologous recombination-deficient tumors, taking advantage of synthetic lethality. However, increasing evidence indicates that PARP proteins exert several cellular functions unrelated with their role on DNA repair, including function as a co-activators of transcription through protein-protein interaction with E2F1. Since the RB/E2F1 pathway is among the most frequently mutated in many tumours types, we investigated whether the absence of PARP activity could counteract the consequences of E2F1 hyperactivation. Our results demonstrate that genetic ablation of Parp1 extends the survival of Rb-null embryos, while genetic inactivation of Parp1 results in reduced development of pRb-dependent tumors. Our results demonstrate that PARP1 plays a key role as a transcriptional co-activator of the transcription factor E2F1, an important component of the cell cycle regulation. Furthermore, impairment of PARP results in a reduction of tumor growth, that is not depending of the activity of PARP on DNA repair. Considering that most oncogenic processes are associated with cell cycle deregulation, the disruption of this PARP1-E2F1 interaction could provide a new therapeutic target of great interest and a wide spectrum of indications.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0084.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Vitamin D; Ivermectin; RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase; Spike glycoprotein; Knowledge based docking
Online: 5 May 2020 (15:18:30 CEST)
COVID-19 has emerged as deadly pandemic worldwide with no vaccine or suitable antiviral drugs to prevent or cure the disease. Because of the time-consuming process to develop new vaccines or antiviral agents, there has been a growing interest in repurposing some existing drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin D is known to be protective against acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia and cytokine storm. Recently it has been used as a repurposed drug for the treatment of H5N1 virus-induced lung injury. Circumstantial evidences indicate that people with low level of vitamin D are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Although, vitamin D was suggested to interfere with viral replication, its interaction with any SARS-CoV-2 protein is unexplored yet. Beside this, ivermectin, a well-known anti-parasitic agent, exhibits potent anti-viral activities in vitro against viruses such as HIV-1 and dengue. Very recently, ivermectin has been found to reduce viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. We have analyzed available structures of SARS-CoV-2 proteins to identify probable binding partner(s) of vitamin D and ivermectin through knowledge-based docking studies and figured out possible implication of their binding in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our observations suggest that the non-structural protein nsp7 possesses a potential site to house 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (VDY) or the active form of Vitamin D, calcitrol. Binding of vitamin D with nsp7 likely to hamper the formation of nsp7-nsp8 complex which is required to bind with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), nsp12 for optimal function. On the other hand, potential binding site of ivermectin has been identified in the S2 subunit of trimeric spike(S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. We propose that deeply inserted mode of ivermectin binding at three inter-subunit junctions may restrict large scale conformational changes of S2 helices which is necessary for efficient fusion of viral and host membrane. Our study, therefore, opens up avenues for further investigations to consider vitamin D and ivermectin as potential drugs against SARS-CoV-2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Histone PTM; RNA Polymerase II; ChIP-seq; chromatin; epigenetics; transcriptional interference; plant; Transcription Cycle; Transcription
Online: 18 March 2020 (17:14:28 CET)
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone residues shape the landscape of gene expression by modulating the dynamic process of RNAPII transcription. The contribution of particular histone modifications to the definition of distinct RNAPII transcription stages remains poorly characterized in plants. Chromatin Immuno-precipitation combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) resolves the genomic distribution of histone modifications. Here, we review histone PTM ChIP-seq data in Arabidopsis thaliana and find support for a Genomic Positioning System (GPS) that guides RNAPII transcription. We review the roles of histone PTM “readers”, “writers” and “erasers”, with a focus on the regulation of gene expression and biological functions in plants. The distinct functions of RNAPII transcription during the plant transcription cycle may in part rely on the characteristic histone PTMs profiles that distinguish transcription stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; KERRA; SARS-CoV-2 main protease; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; anti-FIPV activity
Online: 1 April 2022 (14:53:44 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects all parameters, especially health care professionals, drugs and medical supplies. The KERRA is a mixed medicinal plant capsule that is used for the treatment of patients with high fever with food and drug administration approved by FDA Thailand. Recently, KERRA showed quicker recovery for COVID-19 patients. Therefore, it is possible that some ingredients in KERRA could inhibit SARS-CoV-2. In this study, two important replication-related enzymes in SARS-CoV-2, a main protease and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), were used to study the effect of KERRA. The results showed that KERRA inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 main protease and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp with IC50 values of 49.91 ± 1.75 ng/mL and 36.23 ± 5.23 µg/mL, respectively. KERRA displayed no cytotoxic activity on macrophage cells at concentrations lower than 1 mg/mL and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, KERRA was against a feline coronavirus (feline infectious peritonitis [FIP]) infection with an EC50 value of 134.3 g/mL. This study supports the potential use of KERRA as a candidate drug for COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp); remdesivir; homology model; molecular dynamics; free energy perturbation
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:07:15 CET)
Starting from December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a once-in-a-century pandemic with deadly consequences, which urgently calls for new treatments, cures and supporting apparatuses. Remdesivir was reported by World Health Organization (WHO) as the most promising drug currently available for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations and free energy perturbation methods to study the inhibition mechanism of remdesivir to its target SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). In the absence of a crystal structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, we first construct the homology model of this polymerase based on a previously available structure of SARS-CoV NSP12 RdRp (with a sequence identify of 95.8%). We then build the putative binding mode by aligning the remdesivir + RdRp complex to the ATP bound poliovirus RdRp. The putative binding structure is further optimized with molecular dynamics simulations and demonstrated to be stable, indicating a reasonable binding mode for remdesivir. The relative binding free energy of remdesivir is calculated to be -8.28 ± 0.65 kcal/mol, much stronger than the natural substrate ATP (-4.14 ± 0.89 kcal/mol) which is needed for the polymerization. The ~800-fold improvement in the Kd from remdesivir over ATP indicates an effective replacement of APT in blocking of the RdRp binding pocket. Key residues D618, S549 and R555 are found to be the contributors to the binding affinity of remdesivir. These findings demonstrate that remdesivir can potentially act as a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-chain terminator, effectively stopping its RNA reproduction, with key residues also identified for future lead optimization and/or drug resistance studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer; DNA damage; digestive tract diseases; fat profile; lipids; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase; PARP; poly(ADP-ribose); PAR
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:09:03 CET)
Background: Beyond risk factors such as smoking, obesity and others, gastrointestinal cancer often occurs in families and the risk of getting cancer is passed down from parents to offspring. About 5%-10% of gastrointestinal cancers are hereditary (inherited by a gene mutation from one or both parents, predisposing them to develop cancer in their lifetime). Here we describe the clinical history of family members affected by gastrointestinal pathologies which often leaded to cancer. Methods: The subjects were monitored from May 2006 to December 2017 by collecting periodically clinical and endoscopic data, and performing molecular analyses by assaying two biomarkers , auto-modification of lymphocyte Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase as early signal of DNA damage, and erythrocyte membrane lipid composition (Fat Profile). First we focused on the oldest members, nine brothers, and thereafter we considered their offspring. Results: Both groups of subjects developed gastrointestinal pathologies of different kind and seriousness. Some diseases evolved to cancer, sometimes as a sudden and lethal event. The results of the two molecular approaches auto-modification of Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase and Fat Profile), were in agreement and even predicted the clinical and imaging paths. Conclusions: Both non-invasive molecular analyses can be used preliminarly to predict altered physiological states and support clinical and imaging analyses.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Siberian sturgeon; CNS signs; Acipenser iridovirus European; viral nervous necrosis; Acipenser herpesvirus; gas bubble disease; Polymerase chain reaction
Online: 6 September 2018 (14:16:37 CEST)
Background: Infectious disease is a major challenge in aquaculture and poses a constraint for development of farming of new species. In 2017, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juveniles were imported from Italy to a Swedish farm. Due to stressful conditions, 30% died during transport and in the first days after arrival. Ten days after arrival, mortalities started to occur again. Within two months, only 5% of the juveniles were still alive. Methods: Diseased fish were transported live to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for necropsy and further analysis. Pathological and histopathological investigation was conducted. Virology was performed on gills and internal organs by cell culture isolation and specific PCR protocols. Results: The juveniles displayed neurological signs such as lethargy, inability to maintain upright position and erratic swimming. Body condition was low. Gills were pale. One fish had petechial hemorrhage on the abdomen and the snout. The ventricles were air-filled with, but swim bladders were deflated. One specimen had intestinal hemorrhage. Viral cell cultures were negative, but PCR of gills and internal organs detected the presence of Acipenser Iridovirus European (AcIV-E). Conclusions: AcIV-E was associated with disease and high mortality in the sturgeon juveniles. Stress probably aggravated the course of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0071.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; RNA silencing; Argonaute; double-stranded RNA binding (DRB); RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR); Pol IV
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:42:51 CET)
RNA silencing serves key roles in a multitude of cellular processes, including development, stress responses, metabolism, and maintenance of genome integrity. Dicer, Argonaute (AGO), double-stranded RNA binding (DRB), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases known as Pol IV and Pol V form core components to trigger RNA silencing. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important staple crop worldwide. In this study, we aimed to unravel the components of the RNA-guided silencing pathway in this non-model plant taking advantage of the availability of two genome assemblies of Andean and Meso-American origin. We identified six PvDCLs, thirteen PvAGOs, 10 PvDRB, 5 PvRDR, in both genotypes, suggesting no recent gene amplification or deletion after the gene pool separation. In addition, we identified one PvNRPD1 and one PvNRPE1 encoding the largest subunits of Pol IV and Pol V, respectively. These genes were categorized into subgroups based on phylogenetic analyses. Comprehensive analyses of gene structure, genomic localization and similarity among these genes were performed. Their expression patterns were investigated by means of expression models in different organs using online data and quantitative RT-PCR after pathogen infection. Several of the candidate genes were up-regulated after infection with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0744.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: long non-coding RNA (lncRNA); RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription; gene regulation; tandem transcriptional interference (tTI); antisense transcription; DNA processing
Online: 31 July 2020 (10:47:08 CEST)
RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) frequently transcribes non-protein coding DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes into long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). Here, we focus on the impact of the act of lncRNA transcription on nearby functional DNA units. Distinct molecular mechanisms linked to the position of lncRNA relative to the coding gene illustrate how non-coding transcription controls gene expression. We review the biological significance of the act of lncRNA transcription on DNA processing, highlighting common themes, such as mediating cellular responses to environmental changes. This review presents the background in chromatin signaling to appreciate examples in different organisms where we can interpret functions of non-coding DNA through the act of RNAPII transcription.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: DNA polymerase δ; PDIP46; poldip3; PDIP38; poldip2; DNA replication; enzyme regulation; DNA damage response; p12 subunit; E3 ligases; cell cycle
Online: 10 July 2017 (08:44:53 CEST)
This review focuses on the regulation and modulation of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). The emphasis is on mechanisms that regulate the activity and properties of Pol δ in DNA repair and replication. The areas covered are the degradation of the p12 subunit of Pol δ, which converts it from a heterotetramer (Pol δ4) to a heterotrimer (Pol δ3), in response to DNA damage and also during the cell cycle. The biochemical mechanisms that lead to degradation of p12 are reviewed, as well as the properties of Pol δ4 and Pol δ3 that provide insights into their functions in DNA replication and repair. The second focus of the review involves the functions of two Pol δ binding proteins, PDIP46 and PDIP38, both of which are multi-functional proteins. PDIP46 is a novel activator of Pol δ4, and the impact of this function is discussed in relation to its potential roles in DNA replication. Several new models for the roles of Pol δ3 and Pol δ4 in leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis that integrate a role for PDIP46 are presented. PDIP38 has multiple cellular localizations including the mitochondria, the splicesosomes and the nucleus. It has been implicated in a number of cellular functions, including the regulation of specialized DNA polymerases, mitosis, the DNA damage response, Mdm2 alternative splicing and the regulation of the Nox4 NADPH oxidase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0323.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: walnut; RNA interference; Argonaute (AGO); Dicer-like (DCL); RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR); double-stranded RNA-binding (DRB); evolution; expression characteristics
Online: 21 October 2022 (08:03:38 CEST)
RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the main mechanisms for disease resistance and small RNA production in plants. The main proteins involved in RNAi include Dicer-like (DCL), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR), double-stranded RNA-binding (DRB), and Argonaute (AGO). Juglandaceae contains a variety of important woody plants, and walnuts are one of the four major woody plant groups and one of the four major dried fruits in the world. To clarify the evolution and functional differentiation of RNAi-related proteins in the walnut (Juglans regia) genome, this study integrated various web resources from gene family acquisition to structural analysis and transcriptome data to correlate walnuts and their congeners. The walnut genome has 5 DCL, 13 RDR, 15 DRB and 15 AGO genes, similar genes encoding conserved protein structural domains and conserved motifs with similar subcellular localization. Walnut AGO proteins are classified into three classes and seven subclasses. The DCL is divided into four categories, while RDR is mainly divided into four categories, and DRB can be divided into six categories. The exception is that the copy number of walnut RDR1 is 9, in which seven RDR1 are distributed in clusters on chromosome 16. Purifying selection drove the formation of walnut genes, but protein classes were subjected to varying degrees of purifying selection. Additionally, these results showed some similarity in other plants of the walnut family. Moreover, different RNAi-related genes of walnut produced abundant selective expression in response to different tissues and stresses. In this study, DCL, RDR, DRB and AGO gene families were identified and analysed in the genome of the walnut family for the first time and preliminarily examined the evolution, structure and expression characteristics of these families to provide a preliminary basis for the evolution of the walnut RNAi pathway and breeding research.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0199.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: CRISPR interference; error-prone polymerase chain reaction; ribosomal proteins; ribosome; viability assay; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; sequence space; conformational space; mutational map
Online: 9 October 2020 (12:24:14 CEST)
Ribosomes are macromolecular complexes important to protein translation, and thus, essential to life. Comprising an ensemble of ribosomal proteins and RNA molecules, ribosomes are conserved in structure and function across all domains of life, but recent structural studies have revealed differentiated structures of ribosomes from bacterial, archaea and eukaryotes. Additionally, unique ribosomal protein mass fingerprints have been found for individual species; thereby, indicating that ribosomes are differentiated in structure amongst different species. Given that structure defines function, differentiated function likely exists amongst ribosomes of different species, which could manifest as differences in translation efficiency that could impact on cell growth rate. But ribosomal proteins also hold phylogenetic significance in informing the evolutionary trajectory of each species. Such ribosomal proteins are thus not highly conserved and offers sufficient sequence space for the evolution of differentiated structure and function in different species. Using ribosomal proteins that hold phylogenetic significance as templates, this study sought to understand the mutational and conformational limits that define functional ribosomes. Specifically, ribosomal proteins in Bacillus subtilis that hold phylogenetic cues would be mutated through error-prone polymerase chain reaction to generate variants that are subsequently transformed into Escherichia coli. To help assess the functional properties of the heterologous ribosomal proteins, endogenous ribosomal protein genes would be inactivated by multiplex CRISPR interference. Since variants in ribosomal proteins would likely impact on ribosome function and translation efficiency, live/dead screening on LB agar would be effective as a preliminary screen for functional mutants. These mutants would subsequently be inoculated into liquid LB medium in 96 well plates to quantify relative growth rates between different strains harbouring different heterologous variants of ribosomal proteins. Plasmids containing different ribosomal protein mutants would be extracted from each functional strain and subjected to Sanger sequencing for determining the specific mutations involved. Collection of such mutations would provide a comprehensive mutational map that define the limits of ribosomal protein sequence space important to ribosome function. Furthermore, biochemical isolation of ribosomal proteins and their structural characterization by X-ray crystallography or cryo-electron microscopy would further illuminate the structural significance of each mutation on ribosome structure and function; thereby, elucidating the structural tolerance space for functional ribosomes. Overall, generating a diverse pool of mutant ribosomal proteins in viability assays followed by sequencing and structural characterization would help define the mutational and conformational limits of a functional and efficient ribosome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0375.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: bipolar mitotic spindle; fission yeast; kinesin; kinetochore; microtubule dynamics; microtubule polymerase; microtubule–associated proteins (MAPs); spindle pole body (SPB); sister chromatid cohesion
Online: 21 April 2020 (05:58:17 CEST)
The bipolar mitotic spindle drives accurate chromosome segregation by capturing the kinetochore and pulling each set of sister chromatids to the opposite poles. In this review, we describe recent findings on the multiple pathways leading to bipolar spindle formation in fission yeast and discuss these results from a broader perspective. Roles of four mitotic kinesins (Kinesin-5, Kinesin-6, Kinesin-12 and Kinesin-14) in spindle assembly are depicted, and how a group of microtubule-associated proteins, sister chromatid cohesion and the kinetochore collaborates with these motors is shown. We have paid special attention to the molecular pathways that render otherwise essential Kinesin-5 to become non-essential: how cells build bipolar mitotic spindles without the need for Kinesin-5 and where the alternate forces come from are considered. We highlight the force balance for bipolar spindle assembly and explain how outward and inward forces are generated by various ways, in which the proper fine-tuning of microtubule dynamics plays a crucial role. Overall, these new pathways have illuminated remarkable plasticity and adaptability of spindle mechanics. Kinesin molecules are regarded as prospective targets for cancer chemotherapy and many specific inhibitors have been developed. However, several hurdles have arisen against their clinical implementation. This review provides insight into possible strategies to overcome these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0172.v4
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA-dependent amplification of mammalian mRNA; physiologically occurring intracellular PCR, iPCR; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; chimeric RNA; sense-strand RNA; antisense-strand RNA
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:21:59 CEST)
The transfer of protein-encoding genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, a process formalized as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”, has undergone a significant evolution since its inception. It was amended to account for the information flow from RNA to DNA, the reverse transcription, and for the information transfer from RNA to RNA, the RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. These processes, both potentially leading to protein production, were initially described only in viral systems, and although RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was shown to be present, and RNA-dependent RNA synthesisfound to occur, in mammalian cells, its function was presumed to be restricted to regulatory. However, recent results, obtained with multiple mRNA species in several mammalian systems, strongly indicate the occurrence of protein-encoding RNA to RNA information transfer in mammalian cells. It can result in the rapid production of the extraordinary quantities of specific proteins as was seen in cases of terminal cellular differentiation and during cellular deposition of extracellular matrix molecules. A malfunction of this process may be involved in pathologies associated either with the deficiency of a protein normally produced by this mechanism or with the abnormal abundanceof a protein or of its C-terminal fragment. It seems to be responsible for some types of familial thalassemia and may underlie the overproduction of beta amyloid in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present article is to systematize the current knowledge and understanding of this pathway. The outlined framework introduces unexpected features of the mRNA amplification such as its ability to generate polypeptides non-contiguously encoded in the genome, its second Tier, a physiologically occurring intracellular polymerase chain reaction, iPCR, a Two-Tier Paradox and RNA Dark Matter. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification represents a new mode of genomic protein-encoding information transfer in mammalian cells. Its potential physiological impact is substantial, it appears relevant to multiple pathologies and its understanding opens new venues of therapeutic interference, it suggests powerful novel bioengineering approaches and its further rigorous investigations are highly warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0293.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), PARP-DNA complex,DNA-protein binding,DNA repair, 5′,8-Cyclopurine-2′-deoxynucleoside, DNA damage , DNA repair efficiency.
Online: 24 December 2018 (16:01:44 CET)
Abstract5′,8-Cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (cdA), in the 5′R and 5′Sdiastereomeric forms, are typical non strand-break oxidative DNA lesions, induced by hydroxyl radicals, with emerging importance as a molecular marker. These lesions are exclusively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism with a low efficiency, thus readily accumulating in the genome. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) acts as an early responder to DNA damage and plays a key role as a nick sensor in the maintenance of the integrity of the genome by recognizing nicked DNA. So far, it was unknown whether the diastereomeric cdA lesions could induce specific PARP1 binding. Here we provide the first evidence of PARP1 to selectively recognize the diastereomeric lesions 5′S-cdA and 5′R-cdA in vitro as compared to deoxyadenosine in model DNA substrates (23-mers) by using circular dichroism,fluorescence spectroscopy, immunoblotting analysis and gel mobility shift assay. Several features of the recognition of the damaged and undamaged oligonucleotides by PARP1were characterized. Remarkably, PARP1 efficiently binds to both cdA lesions in the double stranded (ds)-oligonucleotides. In particular, PARP1 proved to bind 5′S-cdAwith a higher affinity constant for the 5'S lesion in a model of ds DNA than 5′R-cdA, showing different recognition patterns, also compared with undamaged dA. This new finding highlights the ability of PARP1 to recognize and differentiate the distorted DNA backbone in a biomimetic system caused by different diastereomeric forms of a cdA lesion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ADP-ribosyl transferase (ART); Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP); ADP-ribose (ADPR); Sirtuin (SIRT); poly ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG); ADP-ribose hydrolase (ARH); Macro-domain (MACRO).
Online: 13 September 2021 (11:43:19 CEST)
Among post-translational modifications of proteins, ADP-ribosylation has been studied for over fifty years, assigning to this PTM a large set of functions, including DNA repair, transcription and cell signaling. This review presents an update on the function of a large set of enzyme writers, the readers that are recruited by the modified targets, and the erasers that reverse the modification to the original amino acid residue, removing the covalent bonds formed. In particular, the review provides details on the involvement of the enzymes performing MAR/PAR cycling in cancers. Of note, there is potential for application of the inhibitors developed for cancer also in the therapy of non-oncological diseases such as the protection against oxidative stress, suppression of inflammatory responses, and the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This field of studies is not concluded, since novel enzymes are being discovered at a rapid pace.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0484.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RNA world theory; Viral RNA; Genome stability; Viral evolution; Mutational signatures; RNA dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; RNA recombination; RNA damage; Hypermutation; APOBEC; ADAR; RNA editing; SARS-CoV-2; rubella virus
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:22:01 CEST)
The current SARS- CoV-2 pandemic underscores the importance of understanding the evolution of RNA genomes. While RNA is subject to the formation of similar lesions as DNA, the evolutionary and physiological impacts RNA lesions have on viral genomes are yet to be characterized. Lesions that may drive the evolution of RNA genomes can induce breaks that are repaired by recombination or can cause base substitution mutagenesis, also known as base editing. Over the past decade or so, base editing mutagenesis of DNA genomes has been subject to many studies, revealing that exposure of ssDNA is subject to hypermutation that is involved in the etiology of cancer. However, base editing of RNA genomes has not been studied to the same extent. Recently hypermutation of single-stranded RNA viral genomes have also been documented though its role in evolution and population dynamics. Here, we will summarize the current knowledge of key mechanisms and causes of RNA genome instability covering areas from the RNA world theory to the SARS- CoV-2 pandemic of today. We will also highlight the key questions that remain as it pertains to RNA genome instability, mutations accumulation, and experimental strategies for addressing these questions.