ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: India; active commuting; public transit; physical activity; built environment
Online: 30 June 2018 (14:55:26 CEST)
Background: Few studies have assessed built environment correlates of active commuting in low-and-middle-income countries, but the different context could yield distinct findings. This cross-sectional study investigated associations between home neighbourhood environment characteristics and active commuting in Chennai, India. Methods: Adults (N = 370, 47.2% female, mean age = 37.9 years) were recruited from 155 wards in the metropolitan area of Chennai in southern India between January and June 2015. Participants self-reported their usual mode of commute to work, with responses recoded into three categories: (1) multi-modal or active commuting (walking and bicycling); (2) public transit; and (3) private transport. Environmental attributes around participants’ homes were assessed using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-India (NEWS-India). Associations between environmental characteristics and likelihood of active commuting and public transit use were modelled using logistic regression with private transport (driving alone or carpool) as the reference category, adjusting for age, gender, and household car ownership. Results: Consistent with other international studies, participants living in neighbourhoods with a mix of land-uses and a transit stop within a 10-minute walk from home were more likely to use active commuting (both p < 0.01). Land-use mix was significantly associated with the use of public transit compared to private transport (aOR = 5.2, p = 0.002). Contrary to findings in high-income countries, the odds of active commuting were reduced with improved safety from crime (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003), aesthetics (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.05) and street connectivity (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Different environmental attributes were associated with active commuting, suggesting that these relationships are complex and may distinctly differ from those in high-income countries. Unexpected inverse associations of perceived safety from crime and aesthetics with active commuting emphasize the need for high quality epidemiologic studies with greater context-specificity in the study of physical activity in LMICs. Findings have public health implications for India and suggest that caution should be taken when translating evidence across countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0563.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: physical environment; conduct disorders; intellectual disabilities; aggression; review
Online: 30 November 2022 (04:19:22 CET)
The physical environment is of critical importance to child development. Understanding how exposure to domains of the physical environment such as greenspace, urbanicity, air pollution or noise affects externalising problems in typical and neurodiverse children is of particular importance given the significant long-term impact of those problems. In this narrative review we investigated the evidence for domains of the physical environment that may ameliorate or contribute to the display of externalising behaviours. We have considered a broad range of study designs that include typically developing and neurodiverse children and young people aged 0-18 years. We used the GRADE system to appraise the evidence. Searches were performed in 8 databases in July 2020 and updated in June 2022. Additional articles were further identified by hand-searching reference lists of included papers. The protocol for the review was preregistered with PROSPERO. Results: We retrieved 7174 studies of which 67 are included in this review. The studies reported on green space, environmental noise and music, air pollution, meteorological effects, spatial density, urban or rural setting, and home elements (e.g., damp/sensory aspects/colour). They all used well validated parent and child reported measures of externalising problems. Most of the studies were rated as having high or probably high risk of bias. Greenspace rurality and interior design had most evidence, although the certainty of the association was low. As expected, noise, air pollution, urbanicity, spatial density, colour and humidity appeared to increase the display of externalising behaviours. There was a dearth of studies on the role of the physical environment in neurodiverse children. The studies were heterogeneous and measured a range of externalising behaviours from symptoms to full syndromes. Greenspace exposure was the most common domain studied but certainty of evidence for the association between environmental exposures and externalising problems in the child or young person was low across all domains. We found a large knowledge gap in the literature concerning neurodiverse children, which suggests that future studies should focus on these children, who are also more likely to experience adverse early life experiences including living in more deprived environments as well as being highly vulnerable to the onset of mental ill health. Such research should also aim to dis-aggregate the mechanisms of action for both environmental influences on the externalising problems the results of which may point to pathways for public health interventions and policy development to address inequities that can be relevant to ill health in neurodiverse young people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: patient centered care; physical therapy; professional-patient relations; therapeutic relationship; environment.
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:02:48 CET)
Currently, in the scientific literature there is a great interest on the study of strategies to implement patient-centered care. One of the main tools for this is the therapeutic relationship. Some studies suggest that the perception of the environment in which the physical therapy treatment takes place can influence the perception of its quality. A qualitative study using focus groups was performed. Two researchers conducted the focus groups, using a topic guide with predetermined questions. The focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The setting was three hospitals and six public health centers located in Spain. The inclusion criteria were patients who had received a minimum of 15 physical therapy sessions and with no communication impairments. Thirty-one participants in four focus groups. Participants described a series of specific experiences relating to the environment, which they felt were influential in the establishment of therapeutic patient-centered relationships, including eight physical factors and five organizational factors. The results of this study highlight environmental factors that affect the quality of the therapeutic patient-centered relationship in physical therapy and emphasize the need for physical therapists and administrators to rethink the situation and propose strategies for improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0537.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cerium oxide nanoparticles; radicals; oxidative stress; physical and chemical properties and biological characteristics
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:22:46 CEST)
The advancement in the production and usage of the cerium oxide nanoparticles have diverted the attention of scientists towards their usage in medical field and therapeutic usage. The clinical usage of these Nano ceria is based on their ability to moderate the oxidative stress and this is only because of their ability to change their valent state from +3 to +4 which makes them ideal for scavenging radicals for use in a number of systemic and neurodegenerative disorders. This review aims to synthesize the basic methods used for the synthesis of nanoparticles along with the use of ligand, stabilizing agent and other components. This review also concludes that how various physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles effect the basic biological activities such as antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and many others. However, during the standardization, some of the physiochemical properties, methods used for preparation and catalytic abilities must be taken into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0377.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: aging; immunosenescence; physical fitness; physical activity; obesity; sex
Online: 26 September 2022 (05:00:15 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential for sustained work ability in good health, but declines with aging as does the functionality of the immune system, the latter process commonly referred to as immunosenescence. This study aimed to compare the capacity of immunosenescence biomarkers with chronological age for predicting low CRF in a cross-sectional sample recruited from the regional working population. CRF was determined by submaximal bicycle ergometer testing in a cross-sectional sample of 597 volunteers aged 20–70 years from the ’Dortmund Vital Study’ (DVS, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05155397). Low CRF was scored, if the ergometer test was not completed due to medical reasons or if the power output projected to a heart rate of 130 bpm divided by body mass was below sex-specific reference values of 1.25 W/kg for females and 1.5 W/kg for males, respectively. In addition to established biomarkers of immunosenescence, we calibrated a comprehensive metric of immune age to our data and compared its predictive capacity for low CRF to chronological age while adjusting our analysis for the influence of sex, obesity, and level of regular physical activity by applying univariate and multiple logistic regression. While obesity, low physical activity, chronological and immune age were all associated with increased probability for low CRF in univariate analyses, multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity and physical activity together with immune age, but not chronological age, were statistically significant predictors of low CRF outcome. Sex was non-significant due to the applied sex-specific reference values. These results demonstrate that biological age assessed by our immunological metric can outperform chronological age as a predictor for CRF and indicate a potential role for immunosenescence in explaining the inter-individual variability of the age-related decline in cardiorespiratory fitness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: physical education; physical activity; pedagogical models; sustainability development
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:44:11 CET)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a global strategy that aims to obtain a more equitable and just world. These objectives are organized in 17 SDGs, which are detailed in 169 targets. Different international institutions have emphasized education's relevance to developing citizens who contribute to the SDGs' achievement for 2030. However, a review focused on Physical Education exclusively has not been performed yet. Therefore, the objective of this work is double. First, to analyze and select the specific goals of the SDGs that can be implemented in the subject of Physical Education. And second, to relate these specific goals to the different models based on Physical Education practices. This review showed how three institutional documents have previously related sport, physical exercise and physical education to the specific goals of the SDGs. Based on the search done, this document selects those goals that could be integrated into the educational context through Physical Education. The bibliographic and narrative analysis carried out in this research shows that of the 169 specific goals proposed in the SDGs, only 24 could be worked on in Physical Education. In addition, after this previous analysis, a proposal for the relationship between the practice-based models and these 24 goals is presented. The contributions made in this paper will allow teachers to establish links between PE sessions and SDGs while raising awareness to develop students who contribute to a more sustainable world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0766.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: healthy life style; physical activity; physical and mental health
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:28:13 CEST)
The purpose of this article was to check the effects on health of various types of physical activities, diet, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption and their interrelationships with control for age, sex and level of education. The study was based on epidemiological data (9617 participants from 19 to 81 years old for whom we have health indicators over a period of 11 years) together with questionnaires about diet, alcohol, tobacco and the frequency of different types of physical activities. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric correlational analysis of epidemiological data was performed with use of SPSS v.19. Our results indicate the existence of the significant relationship between leading a healthy life style (type of physical activities, limitations of fats consume and weight maintenance). However, the different categories of physical activities were analysed separately and showed slight differences on health indicators impacts. Our findings confirm that leading a healthy life style (all types of physical activities, limitations of fats consume and weight maintenance) is an important issue since it has a significant relationship with physical and mental health indicators, but outdoor physical activities and practicing sport in group have shown slightly higher impact on health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0403.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; physical activity; physical exercise; sedentarism; quality of life
Online: 22 November 2022 (03:39:54 CET)
Obesity is related to the establishment of chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases, but it can be positively influenced by the regular practice of physical activity. The study aimed to compare the anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters of physically active Military Police Officers (MPOs) with those who are less physically active. Sixty male MPOs, low activity (n=28) and physically active (n=32) participated. The following parameters were measured: plasma cytokine levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, circulating glucose triglyceride (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and plasma glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities. The physically active group presented lower body fat and reduced TAG and IL-8 levels compared to the low activity group. Moreover, a negative correlation between SPE and SBP, DBP, BPM was detected for the physically active group (p<0.05) but not in the low activity group. Furthermore, the physically active group's work time (WT) values were not correlated with the important metabolic markers SBP, DBP, BPM, GLU, TAG (p>0.05) but could be in the low activity group (p<0.05). These findings highlight the fundamental protective role of physical activity in controlling body composition, subclinical inflammation, and cardiovascular risk in MPOs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: acute physical stress; sports performance; heart rate variability; physical exhaustion
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:35:01 CET)
Athletes are exposed to high-intensity loads to promote athletic performance, however without appropriate evaluation for its effects. This study investigates the effects of four types of exhaustion exercises on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Poincaré features as markers of central fatigue; Creatine Kinase (CK) and blood lactate concentrations ([LA-]b) as biomarkers of peripheral fatigue. To achieve this purpose, ten healthy volunteers were exposed to exhaustive exercise using isotonic-, isometric-, aerobic-, and anaerobic-fatigue protocols. HRV Poincaré features, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) and standard deviation of continuous long-term R-R interval variability (SD2) variables were collected. Central fatigue was tested through the sympathetic stress index (SS) and the sympathetic and parasympathetic index (SS/SD1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the exercises to determine CK and [LA-]b. The SD1 decreased in each exercise protocol, while the SS and SS/SD1 increased. [LA-]b and CK increased at the end of each protocol and correlated with SD1 and SS/SD1. HRV, CK, and [LA-]b are acute markers to detect, both central and peripheral fatigue; sensitive to the type, duration, and intensity of exercise, being HRV a novel noninvasive marker, simple and useful for sports coaches and athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; physical activity level; lactate threshold, physical fitness; International Physical Activity Questionnaire
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:32:02 CEST)
Adequate energy intake is critical for the healthy longevity of older adults, and the estimated energy requirement is determined by total energy expenditure (TEE). We aimed to identify the relationship between measured aerobic capacity and TEE, activity energy expenditure (AEE) or physical activity level (PAL) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) methods in the advanced older adults. A total of 12 physically independent older adults (10 males and 2 females) aged between 81 to 94 years participated in this study. Aerobic capacity was evaluated according to the lactate threshold (LT). TEE under free-living conditions was assessed using the DLW method, and self-reported physical activity was obtained through the Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). LT was significantly positively correlated with TEE, AEE, and PAL after adjustment for age and sex (ρ= 0.77 (P<0.01), 0.86 (p<0.01), and 0.86 (p<0.01), respectively). We found the LT as an aerobic capacity is positively and independently correlated with TEE, AEE or PAL. The present results suggest that maintaining aerobic capacity is an important factor for preventing frailty, although further research is needed to multisite studies and many samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0018.v1
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:17:18 CEST)
Background: In PE, the methodology used to develop coeducation must consider the tastes and preferences of students. The purpose of this work was to analyze how teachers work with different aspects of PE classes and how their work is perceived by students. Methods: The sample was formed by 176 teachers and 1,136 secondary school students. The research design was descriptive. The Questionnaire of Coeducational Aspects in Physical Education for teachers and the Questionnaire of Perception of Equality and Discrimination in Physical Education for Students. Results: The different statistical analyses showed significant differences in how male and female teachers assigned responsibility to the students and their control of motor activity space. In regards to the students, significant differences were found between boys and girls in their opinions of how their teachers apply the same rules to all the students. Conclusions: No differences exist between male and female teachers in regards to their utilization neither of materials and sexist language or in their evaluation and feedback given to the students. In regards to the students, girls perceive to a greater extent than their male counterparts that the activities in PE classes promote equality in the improvement of their capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: physical activity; self-determination theory; after-school period; physical fitness; sedentary time
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:11:08 CET)
Abstract: Increasing physical activity (PA) and personal and social values are two of the greatest demands in the current educational system. This study examined the effect of a hybrid pro-gramme based on the Personal and Social Responsibility Model and Gamification. A total of 58 students (13.89 years old, SD = 1.14) in two groups (Experimental and Control) participated dur-ing a complete academic year. Motivation, physical activity and sedentary behaviour were as-sessed though questionnaires. Physical fitness was evaluated using previously validated field tests. The results showed significant differences over time between EG and CG in afterschool physical activity (APA) at the weekend (p = 0.003), sedentary time (p = 0.04) and speed-agility (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in motivation. Regarding the intervention, speed-agility (p = 0.000), strength (p = 0.000), agility (p = 0.000), cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.001), APA-weekend (p = 0.000), APA-week (p= 0.000) and sedentary time (p = 0.000) increased signifi-cantly in the EG. Speed-agility (p = 0.000), APA-weekend (p = 0.03) and sedentary time (p = 0.008) increased in the CG. The use of this hybrid program can be useful to produced improvements in physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary hevaviours. The use of a hybrid program based on teaching personal and social responsibility and gamification strategies, produced improvements in physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior, but not in motivation variables. Further research is demanded in order to contrast this relevant findings due to the potential drawbacks and diversity found in the scientific literature among model-based practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0507.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; online teaching; physical education; physical activity; teachers; secondary school
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:26:28 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced physical activity (PA) behaviors of many people. Physical education (PE) is considered one of the privileged instruments to promote youths’ PA. We aimed to investigate the effects of lockdown on PE teachers’ behaviors promoting their students’ out-of-school PA and differences between three European countries. 1146 PE teachers (59.5% females) from France, Italy, and Turkey answered an online questionnaire about guiding students to engage in out-of-school PA, helping them to set PA goals, encouraging in self-monitoring PA, the pedagogical formats of these behaviors and feedback asked to students. RM-MANCOVAs were performed with a 2 Time (before and during the lockdown) × 3Country (France, Italy, Turkey) × 2 Gender factorial design, using teaching years and perceived health as covariates. A significant multivariate main effect Time×Country×Gender (p<.001) was reported for the behaviors promoting students’ PA, with French and Italian teachers increasing some behaviors, while Turkish teachers showing opposite trends. Significant multivariate main effects Time×Country were found for formats supporting the behaviors (p < .001) and for asked feedback formats (p<.001). The massive contextual change imposed by lockdown caused different reactions in teachers from the three countries. Findings are informative for PA promotion and PE teachers’ education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: health-oriented physical; immersive virtual reality; virtual reality; intensity of physical activity
Online: 12 August 2019 (14:02:12 CEST)
The aim of the study is to assess enjoyment and intensity of physical exercise while practicing physical activity (PA) in immersive virtual reality (IVR) using innovative training devices (omni-directional Omni treadmill and Icaros Pro flight simulator). The study also contains the results of subjective research on the usefulness of such a form of PA in the opinion of users. In total, 61 adults (10 women and 50 men) took part in the study. To assess the enjoyment level (EL) Interest/Enjoyment subscale of Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was used. Exercise intensity was assessed during 10-minute sessions of active video games (AVGs) in IVR based on heart rate (HR). The average enjoyment level during physical exercise in IVR on the tested training devices was relatively high (Omni 5.74 points, Icaros 5.60 points). In the opinion of the majority of participants, AVGs on IVR training devices constitute a sufficiently useful form of movement to meet the needs of PA practiced in free time, and they can even replace some of the classic forms of movement. Intensity of PA during games on training devices was at the level recommended for health benefits for 92% (Omni) and 84% (Icaros Pro) of its duration. Based on the conducted research, it can be assumed that AVGs in IVR using a multi-directional treadmill and a flight simulator can be an effective tool for increasing participation in health-oriented PA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0140.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: quality of life; physical activity; physical function; food and nutrition; older Japanese adults
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:32:36 CET)
Japan is experiencing a super-aging society faster than is anywhere else worldwide. Consequently, extending healthy life expectancy is an urgent social issue. To understand diet that supports the extension of healthy life expectancy, we studied the relationships among quality of life (QOL: SF-36 questionnaire), physical activity (number of steps and activity calculated using an accelerometer), physical function (muscle strength, movement function, agility, static balance, dynamic balance, and walking function) and dietary intake among 469 older adults living in the Tokyo metropolitan area (65–75 years old, men/women = 166/303) from February 23, 2017, to March 31, 2018. There was a significant positive association between physical QOL and steps, moderate-intensity activity, and high-intensity activity (p < 0.05), and a significant positive association (p < 0.05) between physical activity and movement, static balance, and walking functions, but no association with muscle strength. These three body functions were significantly positively correlated with intake of vegetables, seeds, fruits, and milk, and with magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6, and the dietary fibre/carbohydrate ratio and composition ratios (p < 0.05). Balancing food and nutrition may improve QOL in older adults through increased physical function and physical activity. Future verification of interventions is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0239.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: WRF; physical parameterization; sensitivity; Ethiopia
Online: 18 February 2022 (17:41:50 CET)
A 3-month (June-August) regime of the year 2002 summer rainfall (JJA2002) was simulated with 30 physics combinations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 12-km horizontal grid resolution. The objective is to examine summer rainfall sensitivity to parameterization of microphysical, convective, and boundary layer processes and identify the best possible combination of parameterization options that perform relatively better in simulating the spatial and temporal distribution of summer rains over Ethiopia. The WRF simulated rainfall was evaluated against station data and satellite rainfall products (CHIRPS and ENACTS) using mean absolute error, Pearson and Pattern correlation coefficients (PCC), pattern correlation, and error in a number of rainy days as evaluation metrics. Summer rainfall is found to be most sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization and least sensitive to cloud microphysics. All simulations captured the spatial distribution of mean seasonal precipitation with PCC ranging from 0.89-0.94. However, all simulations overestimated precipitation amount and number of rainy days. Out of the 30, the simulations that use a combination of Grell-3D cumulus scheme, ACM2 boundary layer, Lin Microphysics, Dudhai shortwave radiation, and RRTM longwave radiation scheme ranked the top and provided the most realistic simulation in terms of amount and spatio-temporal distribution of summer rainfall.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0306.v1
Online: 12 February 2021 (14:39:16 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic which have affected every part of the world have been deemed a public health concern and classified as a pandemic. The government imposing travel bans and quarantine measures have been found to be effective in preventing and reducing the spread of COVID-19. A reduction in physical activity and increase in the consumption of unhealthy foods have been observed to be some of the major implications of quarantine. Adequate physical activity and increased access to healthy foods would help in improving the psychological wellbeing of individuals thereby preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: body expression; self-concept; pre-service training; physical activity; physical education; COVID-19 pandemic; emotions
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:23:17 CET)
Body Expression (BE) has been defined in the past decades as a discipline within Physical Education (PE) with very particular characteristics and a strong emotional component. In this study, a programme of this discipline was applied to university Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) students from six consecutive academic years: three prior to and three during the pandemic. A pre-post design was used to determine how the BE programme affected the university students' self-concept (SC). To do so, a questionnaire with a multidimensional approach to this construct was administered, whose dimensions were closely related to the BE programme's characteristics. The results revealed significant improvements in the final SC, compared to the initial SC. Men reported lower SC values than women before the programme implementation, but higher at the end. Therefore, the change was larger in men, so the programme may have had an equalising effect between groups. It was also verified that the pandemic had particularly affected women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: wearable device; physical activity; behavior; COVID-19; pandemic; exercise habits; analysis; objectively-measured physical activity
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:49:56 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in government restrictions that altered the lifestyle of people worldwide. Studying the impact of these restrictions on exercise behaviors will improve our understanding of environmental factors that influence individuals’ PA. We conducted a retrospective analysis using an index of government pandemic stringency developed by Oxford and a wearable device for runners to compare strictness of lockdowns and exercise habits, using digitally-logged PA data from more than 7,000 runners on a global scale. Additionally, time-of-day of PA globally and levels of PA in 14 countries are compared between the pre-pandemic year of 2019 and the first pandemic year of 2020. We found that during the pandemic the time-of-day that people exercised experienced a major shift, with significantly more activities logged during standard working hours on workdays (p<0.001) and fewer during the same time frame on weekends (p<0.001). Of the countries examined, Italy and Spain had among the most strict lockdowns and suffered the largest decreases in activity counts, whereas France experienced a minimal decrease in activity counts despite enacting a similarly strict lockdown. This study suggests that there are several factors affecting PA, including government policy, workplace policy, and cultural norms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Physical Systems; Automotive; Cyber-Physical Attack; Integrity; Sensor Attack Detection; Speed Estimation; Deep learning
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:16:50 CET)
The violation of data integrity in automotive Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) may lead to dangerous situations for drivers and pedestrians in terms of safety. In particular, cyber-attacks on the sensor could easily degrade data accuracy and consistency over any other attack, we investigate attack detection and identification based on a deep learning technology on wheel speed sensors of automotive CPS. For faster recovery of a physical system with detection of the cyber-attacks, estimation of a specific value is conducted to substitute false data. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a case of joining sensor attack detection and vehicle speed estimation in existing literatures. In this work, we design a novel method to combine attack detection and identification, vehicle speed estimation of wheel speed sensors to improve the safety of CPS even under the attacks. First, we define states of the sensors based on the cases of attacks that can occur in the sensors. Second, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is applied to detect and identify wheel speed sensor attacks. Third, in order to estimate the vehicle speeds accurately, we employ Weighted Average (WA), as one of the fusion algorithms, in order to assign a different weight to each sensor. Since environment uncertainty while driving has an impact on different characteristics of vehicles and cause performance degradation, the recovery mechanism needs the ability adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, we estimate the vehicle speeds after assigning a different weight to each sensor depending on driving situations classified by analyzing driving data. Experiments including training, validation, and test are carried out with actual measurements obtained while driving on the real road. In case of the fault detection and identification, classification accuracy is evaluated. Mean Squared Error (MSE) is calculated to verify that the speed is estimated accurately. The classification accuracy about test additive attack data is 99.4978%. MSE of our proposed speed estimation algorithm is 1.7786. It is about 0.2 lower than MSEs of other algorithms. We demonstrate that our system maintains data integrity well and is safe relatively in comparison with systems which apply other algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: coordination abilities; training; handball; physical activity
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:42:11 CET)
According to the reviewed literature, the selection system in the handball game is quite complex and requires new approaches from specialists, based on the current requirements of this game. It was found that a main selection criterion in the game of handball is the coordination abilities because the handball game is mainly based on coordination. In this paper is related the importance of coordinative abilities development in the handball game for young children (10-12 years old) selection process meet in Romania. The results are obtained from a sociological questionnaire, where 109 specialists in the handball game are interrogated, 38 of them being handball coaches, and 71 being teachers of physical education and sports with abilities in handball game. The answers delivered depend on each specialist experience, the knowledge possessed and the difficulties encountered over the years. As a general overview, in the opinion of the surveyed specialists, the selection process in the handball game for Romania does not live up to their expectations, and the development level of coordination abilities meet in 10-12 years children is medium to weak. A total of 51.9% from the respondents stressed the importance of developing coordination abilities to optimize the selection process of children for handball game, opening a new approach in the modern training methods for performance achievement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: bullying; dentofacial features; physical features; schoolchildren
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:48:47 CEST)
Context: bullying among schoolchildren is a serious phenomenon and a leading health concern. Aim: to determine the prevalence of bullying, its forms, and its effect on academic abilities and school attendance, as well as associated sociodemographic, physical, and dentofacial features among Saudi schoolchildren. Methods: this cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 1131 parents of schoolchildren 8-18 years old and requested them to complete internationally accepted questionnaires for their children. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: a majority (89.2%) of schoolchildren were bully victims. Physical bullying (48.9%) was the most common form of bullying. The youngest schoolchildren (8-11 years), those who disliked school classes or neither liked nor hated them, as well as those who were truant from school were more likely to be victims. In addition, those who had worse grades because of bullying, and those who were very often bullied because of good grades or because they showed an interest in school were more likely to be victims. With regards to targeted physical features, teeth were the number one target, followed by the shape of the lips and strength, while teeth shape and color was the most common dentofacial target, followed by anterior open bite and protruded anterior teeth. Boys and the youngest schoolchildren were more often subjected to bullying because of these features (p<0.05). Conclusions: the prevalence of bullying, mainly in a physical form, was high among Saudi schoolchildren, with a negative influence on students’ academic abilities. Problems related to teeth, in particular, which can be treated, were targets, mainly for boys and the youngest schoolchildren. More studies are required in Saudi Arabia to explore the issue further among schoolchildren, themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: physical activity; hemodialysis; sclerostin; interleukin 6
Online: 25 February 2020 (06:18:45 CET)
Background: Chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy are associated with reduced physical activity, which may result in the presence of mineral-bone disorders and an increase in inflammation markers. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the performance of daily physical activity, expressed in the number of steps performed by patients undergoing hemodialysis and the concentration of selected biochemical parameters (SCL, IL-6). Materials and Methods: The study involved 33 patients aged 59.8 ± 9.8 years from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine PUM. Group C consisted of 30 people aged 54.9 (9.37), with GFR over 60 mL/min/1.73m. The study group was divided into S-N and N-S. Participants of the S-N group were assigned the task of performing the appropriate daily number of steps, and the N-S group was to perform spontaneous physical activity. The tasks were replaced after the third month of the research project. Physical activity was measured with pedometers. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, after the third and sixth month of the study. Descriptive statistics, intergroup comparisons using Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation analysis were performed. The level of significance was set at p≤0.005. Results: Patients from the S-N and N-S groups compared to group C performed significantly fewer steps in the 0-3 month and 4-6 month periods. In the S-N group, with an increase in steps performed in the period of 4-6 months, sclerostin levels dropped in the 6th month. In group C, the concentration of SCL and IL-6 decreased with the increase in the number of steps taken. Only in group C the waist circumference decreased with the increase of the number of steps performed. Conclusions: Patients receiving renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis showed significantly lower physical activity compared to people without kidney disease. Performing bigger number of steps can lower sclerostin levels in hemodialysis patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: enjoyment; outdoor activities: education; physical activity
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:45:47 CEST)
The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in the context of outdoor physical activities. In order to do this, we carried out a research in some Primary and Secondary school l located in western Andalucía (Spain), with kids aged 9-12 years old [M= 11.22; SD= 1.07), therefore a sample of 455 students (228 boys= 50.1% 227 girls = 49.9% = 50.1) was used]. Descriptive, exploratory and confirmatory analyses were conducted. We also analyzed several factors such as internal consistency, composite reliability, average variance extracted and convergent validity. Afterwards, differences by gender and school year were also studied. Data showed the need to eliminate many of the items from the original scale, giving as a result a model of 5 items with satisfactory fit in the confirmatory analysis. The ANOVA statistical test carried out in terms of sex and school year didn’t show any tangible difference between the target groups.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Disability, function, knee osteoarthritis, physical therapy.
Online: 22 March 2019 (10:10:19 CET)
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) commonly causes increase in the patients’ disability and reduce their function because it causes pain, limitation in knee range of motion and decrease in muscle power.AIM: This study investigated the effect of three different physical therapy programs on knee range of motion , pain level, muscle strength and functional condition in patients with knee OA. DESIGN: Randomized comparative study.SETTING: Outpatient Rehabilitation clinic of Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China).POPULATION: Seventy-two patients of Knee OA (aged 40-70) enrolled and randomly allocated into three groups. Group A (n=24) received physical agents and isometric quadriceps exercises, group B (n=24) received same physical agents as group A in addition to open kinetic chain exercises and group C (n=24) received physical agents as group A in addition to closed kinetic chain exercises.METHODS: knee range of motion (by electro goniometer), knee pain level (by VAS), quadriceps muscle strength (by isokinetic dynamometer) and functional condition (by WOMAC) were assessed before and after 5 weeks of treatment.RESULTS: In between group analysis, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between the three groups for all outcome measure. In within-group analysis, group C was the only group that showed significant differences (P<0.05) in all the outcomes. Group A and B showed significant differences (P<0.05) in quadriceps muscle strength and knee pain and no significant differences (P>0.05) in knee ROM and functional condition.CONCLUSIONS: After the study, our solid conclusion is that in physical therapy programs or protocols, closed kinematic chain exercise is very effective, it improves knee ROM, and help in reducing knee pain, muscle strength, function and disability for patients with knee osteoarthritis.CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Comparison between different physical therapy programs provides the rehabilitation team with the best treatment intervention that is more effective in treating the problems associated with knee osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0248.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: stratocumulus; cloud physical characteristics; eastern China
Online: 29 March 2018 (09:03:22 CEST)
Stratocumulus (Sc) is the most common cloud type in China. Sc clouds may or may not be accompanied by various types of precipitation that are representative of different macro- and microphysical characteristics. The finely resolved CloudSat data products are used in this study to quantitatively investigate the macro- and microphysical characteristics of precipitating and non-precipitating Sc (PS and NPS, respectively) clouds over Eastern China (EC). Based on statistical information extracted from the CloudSat data, Sc clouds are highly likely to occur alone, in association with liquid precipitation, or in association with drizzle over 25.65% of EC. The cloud bases of NPS clouds are higher than those of PS clouds, although the latter display higher cloud top heights and thicker cloud thicknesses. The spatial distributions of microphysical characteristics differ between PS and NPS clouds. The magnitudes of microphysical characteristics in NPS clouds are relatively small and decrease with height, whereas the magnitudes of microphysical characteristics in PS clouds are relatively large and peak in response to certain circulation patterns and over certain terrain. The variations in microphysical characteristics in Sc clouds with height and contoured frequency by altitude diagrams (CFADs) of radar reflectivity may indicate that different microphysical processes operate in PS and NPS clouds. In NPS clouds, hydrometeor particles accumulate by coalescence as they rise; once the particles are too large to be supported by updrafts, the cloud droplets form raindrops. In PS clouds, raindrops increase continuously in size via collision-coalescence processes as they fall. The levels between 2.5 and 3.0 km represent the space where particles grow most rapidly. Particles are affected by updrafts and accumulate at levels between 2.5 and 1.0 km as height decreases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0134.v2
Online: 11 February 2018 (04:35:28 CET)
The paper studies some cases in physics such as Galilean inertia motion and etc., and presents a logical schema of recursive abduction, from which we can derive the universality of physical laws in an effective logical path without requiring infinite inductions. Recursive abduction provides an effective logical framework to connect a universal physical law with finite empirical observations based on both quasi-law tautologies and suitable recursive dimensions, two new concepts introduced in this paper. Under the viewpoint of recursive abduction, the historical difficulty from Hume’s problem naturally vanishes. In Hume’s problem one always misunderstood a time-recursive issue as an infinitely inductive problem and, thus, sank into an inescapable quagmire. With this new effective logical schema, the paper gives a concluding discussion to Hume’s problem and justifies the validity of probability argument for natural laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0121.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: activity recognition; physical attributes; classification capability
Online: 29 September 2016 (12:57:00 CEST)
Motion related human activity recognition using wearable sensors can potentially enable various useful daily applications. So far, most studies view it as a stand-alone mathematical classification problem without considering the physical nature of human motions. Consequently, they suffer from data dependencies and encounter the dimension disaster problem and the over-fitting issue, and their models are never human-readable. In this study, we start from a deep analysis on natural physical properties of human motions, and then propose a useful feature selection method to quantify each feature's classification contribution capability. On one hand, the "dimension disaster" problem can be avoid to some extent, due to the affined dimension of key features; On the other hand, over-fitting issue can be depressed since the knowledge implied in human motions are nearly invariant, which compensates the possible data inadequacy. The experiment results indicate that the proposed method performs superior to those adopted in related works, such as decision tree, k-NN, SVM, neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic lessons; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA; whole-school; physical activity; physically active learning; PAL
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:11:07 CET)
Background: A large majority of primary school pupils fail to achieve 30-minutes in-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this study was to investigate MVPA accumulation and subject frequency during academic lesson segments and the broader segmented school day. Methods: 122 children (42.6% boys; 9.9±0.3yrs) from six primary schools in North East England, wore uniaxial accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Subject frequency was assessed by teacher diaries. Multilevel models (children nested within schools) examined significant predictors of MVPA across each school-day segment (lesson one, break, lesson two, lunch, lesson three). Results: Pupils averaged 18.33±8.34 minutes of in-school MVPA and 90.2% failed to achieve the in-school 30-minute MVPA threshold. Across all school-day segments, MVPA accumulation was typically influenced at the individual level. Lesson one and two - dominated by Math and English - were less active than lesson three. Break and lunch were the most active segments. Conclusion: This study breaks new ground, revealing MVPA accumulation and subject frequency varies greatly during different academic lessons. Morning lessons were dominated by the inactive delivery of Math and English, whereas afternoon lessons involved a greater array of subject delivery that resulted in marginally higher levels of MVPA.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: physical activity; exercise; green cover; open space; Metabolic Equivalent of Task; International Physical Activity Questionnaire; health promotion
Online: 20 March 2019 (10:46:23 CET)
1) Background: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to understand how green cover and accessibility of common public open spaces in compact urban areas affect physical activeness of resident. 2) Methods: A total of 554 residents completed a structured questionnaire on quality-of-life, physical activity level, and healthy eating practice. 3) Results: The sampled population lived with green cover averaged 10.11 ± 7.95% (ranged 1.56–9.88), whereas majority (90%) of the residents performed physical activities at medium and high levels. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-minutes/week was associated with the green cover percentage (Pearson r = 0.092; p < 0.05). Irrespective of age and physical activity level, active residents commonly used public open spaces within district for performing exercise, especially parks and promenade were mostly used by older residents while sports facilities by the younger groups. 4) Conclusions: Current findings suggested promotion of exercise could be achieved by the design or redesign of built environment to include more parks accessible to the residents with the increase of vegetation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: physical activity; overweight; obesity; BMI; university students
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:45:02 CEST)
Overweight and obesity, including its prevalence and consequences reflect a leading public health problem. Studies have already shown that physical activity leads to a reduction in body weight in children and adults. However, the university setting has rarely been investigated. The aim of this review is therefore to examine and summarize the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions to reduce obesity and overweight in university students. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus & Web of Science) were searched for relevant studies published in English between January 2010 and February 2022. Quantitative studies, conducting a physical-activity-based intervention with overweight or obese university students and reporting changes in BMI, were included. Data were described in a narrative synthesis. Eleven of 16 included studies reported a significant reduction in BMI. However, all studies except one were able to demonstrate some BMI improvements, whereas all studies reported significant changes in at least one health-related indicator. Aerobic exercises were able to demonstrate the greatest reductions in BMI. This review is the first systematic presentation on the effectiveness of physical-activity-based interventions on overweight and obese university students. Future work should reconsider BMI as the primary outcome because it is prone to bias. More interventions are needed to improve strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: leisure; recreation; gardening; physical activity; natural landscapes
Online: 10 February 2022 (10:33:35 CET)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived benefits of community gardening. A garden colony is a collection of adjacent plots of land primarily for the purpose of gardening. The methodology of this research consists of observations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus group. As a result of this research we found that gardening is a natural and safe way to meet the lifelong demands for a healthy life. We found specific mental and physical benefits as a result of this community gardening. We encourage communities to allow people to buy plots of land away from their homes to promote this healthy activity. The garden colony provides a place for individual renewal and restoration; this urban oasis offers a way to maintain and promote lifelong healthy living, and they are an important contribution to one’s life by adding a sense of meaning and purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: low back pain; physical therapy; disability; hydrotherapy
Online: 12 January 2022 (08:23:24 CET)
Low back pain is a common problem in the active population, and the second reason for visiting a physician. In patients with lumbar disc protrusion, the nucleus pulposus bulges against the disc and the latter protrudes into the spinal column, but the annulus fibrosus remains intact. The purpose of this study was to prove that starting an early complex rehabilitation treatment results into pain and disability reduction, and increased muscle strength and mobility in patients with lumbar disc protrusions. We performed a prospective cohort study, enrolling 60 patients (25 men and 35 women) aged between 26 to 76 years, diagnosed with lumbar disc protrusion. Patients in the experimental group registered significant improvements in all studied variables (pain, mobility, muscle strength, disability) after 6 months of treatment. The results of our study suggest that, in the lumbar disc disease, a combined rehabilitation program may be more effective in terms of pain and disability reduction, if it starts early after diagnosis. The current study proves the importance of combining electrotherapy with hydrotherapy and physical therapy. Patients who received this treatment combination showed an extremely significant improvement in pain relief, and reduction of functional disability after 6 months of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0257.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: health education; secondary school; physical education teacher
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Preparation of students for adult life also includes the area of health care. Health education is part of the core curriculum of Polish schools. The leading role of the health educator is assumed by the physical education teacher, but many other educational tasks are carried out by all school staff. The present study attempts to answer the question: How is health education implemented at school? The research project was carried out among students of various colleges in the city of Szczecin in Poland. At the same time, similar studies were conducted among students from other university in other cities. The research method was a diagnostic survey, with the main assessment tool being the ‘Questionnaire for Assessment of Implementation of Physical Education at Secondary School’ by Krystyna Górna-Łukasik from the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. On the basis of the study results, an attempt was made to determine the forms and methods of work and the involvement of various types of teachers in health education. The statistical analysis sought correlations between the students' opinions about the ways in which the curriculum content was implemented, university majors, and PE teachers’ sex.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: energy metabolism; South Asian; diet; physical activity
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:26:08 CEST)
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide not only in Western countries but also in Asian countries. Among Asian countries, South Asian countries experience the rapid increase of overweight and obesity that co-exist with the rapid increase of obesity-related non communicable diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular. The phenomena in South Asian countries are triggered by growth in population size, population aging, urbanization and changes in lifestyle including increases in energy intake and reductions in physical activity. The imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure leads to the development of positive energy balance, which over the time acumulate in a higher body fat. South Asians were reported to have a more unfavorable body composition with a higher body fat percentage as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. The differences in body composition between South Asians and Caucasians contribute to differences in resting energy expenditure, in which South Asians have a lower resting energy expenditure as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. Resting energy expenditure is the largest component of daily total energy expenditure, and therefore play an important role in determining the energy balance between energy intake and expenditure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0352.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: HeartMath; Fitbit; COVID-19; Meditation; Physical Activity
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:32:16 CEST)
1. Background: The global COVID-19 lockdowns are unique psychological factors, requiring adjustment and coping. This illustrative, South African case study investigated the influence the COVID-19 lockdown context would have on meditation and physical activity. As these were lifestyle patterns the null hypothesis was of no change. 2. Method: The methodology consisted of quantitative and qualitative phases. The quantitative phase was an empirical, case study review of data from the author’s HeartMath and Fitbit electronic devices, as from 9 November 2019 to 31 July 2021. This consisted of coherence and achievement data from the HeartMath Inner Balance application (app), as well as distance and activity data from the Fitbit app. The qualitative phase consisted of the selection and illustration of meditation sessions documented over lockdown. 3. Results: The highly significant increases in physical activity and meditation coherence and achievement collectively indicated significant health promotion over the COVID-19 Lockdown period. Subtle energetic, experiential descriptions of meditation apprehensions resonated and supported these quantitative findings. 4. Conclusions: COVID-19 lockdown has meant transformation, humility, and reordering of priorities. The meditation descriptions amplified information from the HeartMath and Fitbit electronic devices, together co-creating conscious, embodied, relationship science for discussion, instruction, and further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0181.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: physical activity; sleep; inhibitory performance; mediating effects
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:51:54 CEST)
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and inhibitory control performance and then determine whether this association was mediated by multiple sleep parameters (i.e., subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance). Methods. 180 healthy university students (age: 20.15 ± 1.92 years) from the East China Normal University were recruited in the present study. PA level, sleep parameters, and inhibitory control performance were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), and a Stroop test, respectively. Data were analyzed using structual equation modeling. Results. A higher level of PA was linked to better cognitive performance. Furthermore, higher subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency were associated with better inhibitory control performance. The mediation analysis revealed that subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediated the relationship between PA level and inhibitory control performance. Conclusion. Our results are in accordance with the literature and buttress the idea that a healthy lifestyle that involves a relatively high level of regular PA and adequate sleep patterns is beneficial for cognition (e.g., inhibitory control performance). Furthermore, our study adds to the literature that sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediates the relationship of PA and inhibitory control performance expanding our knowledge in the field of exercise-cognition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0492.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Biophysics; Spectroscopy; Physical Chemistry; Enzymes; Bioinorganic Chemistry
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:22:18 CET)
Earth-abundant transition metals like iron, nickel, copper, molybdenum, and vanadium have been identified as essential constituents of the cellular gas metabolism in all kingdoms of life. Associated with biological macromolecules, gas-processing metalloenzymes (GPMs) are formed that catalyse a variety of redox reactions. This includes the reduction of O2 to water by cytochrome c oxidase (‘complex IV’), the reduction of N2 to NH4 by nitrogenase, as well as the reduction of protons to H2 (and oxidation of the later) by hydrogenase. GPMs perform at ambient temperature and pressure, in the presence of water, and often extremely low educt concentrations, thus serving as natural examples for efficient catalysis. Facilitating the design of biomimetic catalysts, biophysicist thrive to understand the reaction principles of GPMs making use of various techniques. In this perspective, I will introduce Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection configuration (ATR FTIR) for the analysis of GPMs like cytochrome c oxidase, nitrogenase, and hydrogenase. Infrared spectroscopy provides information about the geometry and redox state of the catalytic cofactors, the protonation state of amino acid residues, the hydrogen-bonding network, and protein structural changes. I developed an approach to probe and trigger the reaction of GPMs by gas exchange experiments, exploring the reactivity of these enzymes with their natural reactants. This allows recording sensitive ATR FTIR difference spectra with seconds time resolution. Finally yet importantly, infrared spectroscopy is an electronically non-invasive technique that allows investigating protein samples under biologically relevant conditions, i.e., at ambient temperature and pressure, and in the presence of water.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0555.v1
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:50:28 CET)
What do you want to do ?New mailCopyBackground: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; physical therapy; rehabilitation; exercise
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:53:01 CET)
Background: to analyze the changes that a therapeutic physical exercise program is capable of causing in the functionality of patients suffering from ALS and in addition, to analyze the respiratory capacity. Methods: a systematic review of the PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane, SciELO, PEDro, CINAHL and MEDline databases is carried out. The information was filtered using the following MeSH terms: "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "Physical Therapy", "Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine". Clinical trials published in the last 5 years were included in which one of the interventions was therapeutic physical exercise in patients with ALS, which included the ALSFRS-R as a result variable. Results: 10 clinical trials with a total of 421 patients were analyzed, of which 183 underwent rehabilitation with physical exercise and were part of the case group; the rest belong to the control group and their treatment was mostly passive. The observed trend is of a decrease of approximately 6 points in the ALSFRS-R scale at 6 months in the case groups; however, no behavior pattern was met in the controls. Conclusions: Therapeutic physical exercise could contribute to slow down the deterioration of the musculature of people with ALS, thus facilitating the performance of their daily activities.What do you want to do ?New mailCopy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Acupuncture; lactate; heart rate; physical performance; sustainability
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:46:22 CEST)
Studies have demonstrated the positive effects of acupuncture on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of acupuncture on heart rate, the perceived exertion scale and lactate levels in recreational athletes. Fifteen competitive males engaged in HIIT. The characteristic was 29.86±2.51 years old, heart rate reserve 59.00±3.33, lactate 3.17±0.50 mM/DL. The subjects were submitted to two exercise sessions. Both training sessions consisted of 10 burpees, 12 thrusters and 14 box jumps (75 cm high) for 12 minutes. Activity intensity was between 85 and 95% of maximum heart rate. Acupuncture points: ST36, L3, LI11. The student’s t-test was adopted, Shapiro-Wilk test was applied for normality, and Pearson correlation. There was a positive correlation of r = 0.69 between lactate levels and heart rate. Lactate: Lac1 15.00±1.18 – Lac2 19.59± 1.46 p= 0.0001*; Heart 1rate: HRF 163.71±7.27 – HRF2 177.60±6.99 p=0.0001*; Blood pressure: SBP1 174.86±1.57 – SBP2 180.86±1.77 p= 0.0001*; PES1: 19.4±1.14; PES2 16.8±0.84 p= 0.0001*; weight1 – 182,57±12,05; weight 2 206,43±11,39 p=0.0325*. Acupuncture increased lactate accumulation, heart rate and blood pressure, suggesting that the exertion reached after acupuncture is higher than without acupuncture. The acupuncture technics improved the athlete performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0131.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Saqez; Copper; Physical properties; Biological resistance; Performance
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:08:51 CEST)
There is an increasing interest in applying environmentally-friendly materials in wood protection technology. This include the use of less toxic active ingredients, as well as better fixation. This study investigates the formulation based on the combination of copper and Saqez resin on the physical and biological resistance properties of poplar wood. Samples were treated by either copper-ethanolamine (Cu/MEA) and/or Saqez resin at various treatment levels. A vacuum pressure procedure was applied. The retention, weight percent gain, water absorption, volumetric swelling, and decay resistance of the samples were then determined. The highest retention and weight percent gain were obtained at the samples treated with the combination of copper-based system and Saqez resin. Additionally, the combination of the copper and Saqez improved the physical properties and decay-resistance against white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0363.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: physical properties; tem, icp-ms; elemental composition
Online: 28 November 2019 (12:05:34 CET)
This study was conducted in a laboratory-controlled environment aiming at studying the physical properties and elemental composition of coal combustion particles in a brazier. Particles were sampled ~1 m above the stove using a partector, where particles were collected on gold Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) grids and polycarbonate filters for TEM and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, respectively. Particles for elemental analysis collected on a 37 µm polycarbonate filters whereby a Gillian pump was used to draw in air. During sampling, a 2.5 µm cyclone was attached to the sampling cassette to isolate larger particles. The results have shown that combustion particles emitted during the early stage of combustion where single spherical particles with a diameter of around 450 nm. As the combustion progresses, the particle diameter gradually decreases and the morphology changes to accretion chain and fluffy bead structure for the flaming and char-burning phase, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0356.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: potential; groundwater; geoelectrical; chemical parameter; physical parameter
Online: 30 October 2019 (10:20:22 CET)
The purpose of this study was to recommend to the government about the appropriate land use based on geoelectric and hydrochemical works. The results were supposed to be used as models for effective land use. During the study, a groundwater survey using a geoelectrical method was conducted and was used to map an aquifer flow. In general, Solok groundwater mapping was meant to provide information necessary to optimize follow-up activities for the use of clean water. It was also intended to minimize the negative impacts of exploitation and utilization of groundwater. This research aimed to provide information on groundwater conditions in Solok. It focused on the survey of groundwater sources, the inversion of measurement data on Sclumberger electrode configuration geoelectric in thirteen districts, and chemical analysis of pH, Fe, Nitrite, and DHL. The results show there was a great potential for groundwater-unconfined aquifers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0028.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: photovoice; chronic illness; physical activity; barriers; facilitator
Online: 2 April 2019 (07:48:28 CEST)
Aims: A community-based multi-component intervention (increasing awareness of the importance of physical activity in chronic illness management through reading comic books, training regarding warm-up stretching exercises, identifying facilitators and barriers to exercise through photosharing, supporting self-reflection and development of action plans) was developed to promote physical activity (PA) among patients with diabetes and hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention on health behaviour (walking) and health outcomes. Design: A non-randomized controlled trial with waitlisted control and pre- and post-measures. Setting: Community centres for the elderly. Participants: A total of 204 older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension were recruited. They were assigned to either the intervention group (IG) or waitlisted to the control group (CG). Intervention: Under the supervision of a nurse, six weekly group meetings were arranged in community centres for the elderly in which the participants freely exchanged their views regarding the barriers and facilitators of regular physical activity. Participants were encouraged to take photos in their neighbourhood or at home and brought these photos to share at the group meetings. The photos showed both the barriers and the facilitators to PA. In the last meeting, each participant worked out a plan to perform PA in the coming four weeks. Measures: PA referred to the number of steps taken per day and it was measured by a Garmin Accelerometer at baseline, Week 6 and Week 10. Other measures included the nine-item Self-Efficacy Scale for Exercise - Chinese version (SEE-C), the 23-item Chinese Barriers to Exercise Scale and Senior Fitness Tests. Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) models compared the outcomes over time between IG and CG. Results: A statistically significant difference in the changes in the average number of steps taken daily between the two groups at Week 10 (mean difference = 965.4; 95% confidence interval: 92.2, 1838.6, p = 0.030) was observed, although the difference at Week 6 was non-significant (mean difference = 777.6; 95% confidence interval: −35.3, 1590.5, p = 0.061). IG participants also showed significant improvements in lower body strength (mean difference = 0.967; 95% confidence interval: 0.029, 1.904, p = 0.043) and lower limb flexibility (mean difference = 2.068; 95% confidence interval: 0.404, 3.731, p = 0.015) at Week 10 compared to CG participants. Conclusion: This multi-component intervention improved the participants’ physical activity level and physical fitness, particularly in lower limb flexibility and body strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0017.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: tobacco; alcohol; physical aggression; verbal aggression; impulsivity
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:27:20 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify different adolescent profiles identified by their use tobacco/alcohol and violent behavior repertoires as well as to analyze the extent to which they show impulsivity traits. Participants were selected by cluster random sampling. There was a total of 822 high school students in the sample aged 13 to 18 years with a mean of 14.84 (SD=.87). A cluster analysis with the following variables was done to form the groups: Use of tobacco, Use of alcohol, Physical aggression, Verbal aggression, Anger and Hostility. Three groups of adolescents resulted from these five variables. The multivariate comparison demonstrated the existence of significant between-group differences, and individual analysis for each of the dependent variables (impulsivity dimensions) showed that the relationship was statistically significant in all cases. In conclusion, analysis of factors possibly associated with adolescent’s risk behavior makes possible and orients intervention in different stages of development for sustainable consumption in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0115.v1
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:14:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between levels of leisure-time sports and physical activity and the stages of change in high school students with goal orientations. Methods: The sample consisted of 2168 students randomly selected to participate in a longitudinal study in Costa Rica (423), Mexico (408) and Spain (1337), with 1052 being boys, 1037 girls and 79 who did not specify sex, aged between 11 and 16 years old (M = 12.49, SD = .81). We used a questionnaire to ask students about their leisure-time sports and physical activity, about stages of change and to measure achievement goals. Results: The results show that students are more active in Costa Rica, most of them being in the stage of active change. Conclusions: We found significant differences in achievement goals in all three countries, which shows that students in active stages have higher values than those in the inactive stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: physical education, emotions, social skills, primary education
Online: 19 April 2018 (16:43:03 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore the intensity of emotions and social skills in a physical education teaching unit (PE). Two instruments of analysis are used: the GES (Games and Emotion Scale) to evaluate emotions and an ad-hoc questionnaire to measure the social skills of 21 students in the sixth year of primary education. The data analysis was carried out using a generalised estimating equation model (GEE), taking into account the correlation between the different scores of the same subject and the asymmetry of the data. The results show positive emotions to be significantly more intense than negative ones and ambiguous emotions are revealed throughout all the PE sessions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0023.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: physical exercise; irisin; neurodegeneration; aging; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 11 February 2018 (04:28:07 CET)
Irisin, a skeletal muscle-secreted myokine, produced in response to physical exercise, has protective functions in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems, including the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factors and modification of telomere length. Such beneficial effects may inhibit or delay the emergence of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review is based on the hypothesis that irisin produced by physical exercise helps control AD progression. Herein, we describe the physiology of irisin and its potential role in delaying or preventing AD. Although current and ongoing studies on irisin show promising results, further research is required to clarify its potential as a meaningful therapeutic target for treating human diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: WEEE; ASR; briquette; physical properties; biomass blend
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:14:42 CEST)
In this study, the physical properties of briquettes produced from two different biomass feedstocks (sawdust and date palm trunk) and different plastic wastes were investigated, without using any external binding agent. The biomass feedstocks were blended with different ratios of two WEEE plastics (halogen-free wire and print circuit boards (PCB)) and automotive shredder residues (ASR). The briquettes production is studied at different waste proportions (10-30%), pressures (22-67 MPa) and temperatures (room-130 ˚C). Physical properties as density and durability rating were measured, usually increasing with temperature. Palm trunk gave better results than sawdust in most cases, due to its moisture content and the extremely fine particles that are easily obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: online physical training; attitudes: influencing factors; interview method.
Online: 21 November 2022 (01:18:01 CET)
In the context of the new crown epidemic, remote physical training will already be in order under the guidance of the Ministry of Education. There is a global focus on current lifestyle behaviors and the future health and well-being of youth. Youth physical activity, aerobic activity and muscle fitness levels are declining. Research on the effects of youth physical training and group attitudes is still in its infancy. This study conducted in-depth interviews with online physical training students, parents, teachers involved in the construction of online physical training, and sports practitioners through interview methods, documentation, and mathematical statistics. The results of the interviews were qualitatively coded using NVivo to summarize the attitudes of different subjects toward physical fitness training and the influencing factors, (1) students were basically satisfied with the teaching effect of online physical fitness training (2) parents thought the teaching effect of online physical fitness training was average (3) physical education teachers thought the effect of online physical fitness training was average (4) physical education practitioners thought the effect of online teaching was poor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0437.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: freshman; weight gain; body composition; diet; physical activity
Online: 12 September 2022 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: Students in the United States gain weight significantly during their first year of university, however limited data are available for Australian students. Methods: This 12-month observational study was conducted to monitor monthly body weight and composition, as well as quarterly eating behaviours, dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and basal metabolic rate changes amongst first-year Australian university students. Participants were first-year university students over 18 years. Results: Twenty-two first-year university students (5 males and 17 females) completed the study. Female students gained weight significantly at two, three, and four-months (+0.9 kg; +1.5 kg; +1.1 kg, p <0.05). Female waist circumference (2.5 cm increase at three-months, p = 0.012), and body fat also increased (+0.9%, p = 0.026 at three-months). Intakes of sugar, saturated fat (both >10% of total energy), and sodium exceeded recommended levels (>2000 mg) at 12-months. Greater sedentary behaviours were observed amongst male students throughout the study (p <0.05). Conclusions: Female students are at risk of unfavourable changes in body composition during the first year of university, while males are at risk of increased sedentary behaviours. High intakes of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium warrant future interventions in such a vulnerable group.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: smartphones; balloons, internet of things; cyber-physical systems
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:34:09 CEST)
A smartphone plummeted from a stratospheric height of 36 km (~119,000 feet), providing a complete record of its rapid descent and abrupt deceleration when it hit the ground. The smartphone was configured to collect internal sensor data at high rates. We discuss the state-of-the-art of smartphone environmental and sensing capabilities at the closing of year 2020 and present a flexible mobile sensor data model. The associated open-source application programing interface (API) and python software development kit (SDK) used in this work is transportable to any hardware platform and operating system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Physical activity; bone vascularization; angiogenesis; VEGF; bone repair
Online: 19 March 2021 (14:47:50 CET)
Physical activity is widely recognized as a biotherapy by WHO in the fight and prevention of bone diseases such as osteoporosis. It reduces the risk of disabling fractures associated with many comorbidities, and whose repair is a major public health and economic issue. Bone tissue is a dynamic supportive tissue that reshapes itself according to the mechanical stresses to which it is exposed. Physical exercise is recognized as a key factor for bone health. However, the effects of exercise on bone quality depend on exercise protocols, duration, intensity and frequency. Today, the effects of different exercise modalities on capillary bone vascularization, bone blood flow and bone angiogenesis remain poorly understood and unclear. As vascularization is an integral part of bone repair process, the analysis of the preventive and/or curative effects of physical exercise is currently very undeveloped. Angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling may constitute a new way for understanding the role of physical activity, especially in fracturing or in the integration of bone biomaterials. Thus, this review aims to clarify the link between physical activities, vascularization and bone repair.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cardiorespiratory fitness; VO2 peak; sleep quality, physical activity
Online: 11 March 2021 (16:04:34 CET)
Abstract: Background: Recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been postulated as an adverse health outcome related to poor sleep quality. However, studies investigating the relationship between CRF with subjective sleep quality index are scarce. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the association between CRF and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) in apparently healthy people. The secondary aim was to investigate the association between reported physical activities (PA) and PSQI. Methods: 33 apparently healthy male participants volunteered to participate. CRF (VO2 peak) was measured via cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. A short form of the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA, and PSQI was used for sleep quality index. Results: There was no correlation between CRF and PSQI total score or any component of the PSQI. Also, there was no correlation between IPAQ and PSQI total score. Categorical data analysis of the two questionnaires revealed that 45.5% of the participants reported low physical activity and poor sleep quality. Conclusions: There was no association between CRF, reported PA with subjective sleep quality index. The use of objective tools for assessing the quality and quantity of sleep should be recommended for future studies as it may clarify the association between CRF and sleep quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0310.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: physical activity; Alzheimer’s disease; 5xFAD; acute, wheel running
Online: 12 February 2021 (15:03:25 CET)
Physical activity is considered a promising preventive intervention to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the positive effect of exercise therapy has not been proven conclusively yet, likely due to confounding factors such as varying activity regimens and life or disease stages. To examine the impact of different routines of physical exercise in the early disease stages, we subjected young 5xFAD and wild-type mice to 1-day (acute) and 30-day (chronic) voluntary wheel running and compared them with age-matched sedentary controls. We observed a significant increase in brain lactate levels in acutely trained 5xFAD mice relative to all other experimental groups. Subsequent brain RNA-seq analysis did not reveal major differences in transcriptomic regulation between training durations in 5xFAD mice. In contrast, acute training yielded substantial gene expression changes in wild-type animals relative to their chronically trained and sedentary counterparts. The comparison of 5xFAD and wild-type mice showed the highest transcriptional differences in the chronic and sedentary groups, whereas acute training was associated with much fewer differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that different training durations did not affect the global transcriptome of 3-month-old 5xFAD mice, whereas acute running seemed to induce a similar transcriptional stress state in wild-type animals as already known for 5xFAD mice.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Older adults; Physical exercise; Virtual exercise; COVID-19
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:08:37 CET)
Social isolation magnified by the restriction of movement order during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to negative psychosocial health impact among community-dwelling older adults. We evaluated the feasibility of virtual research methods and virtual group exercises among individuals aged 60 years and over in Malaysia. Participants were recruited from the Promoting Independence in Seniors with Arthritis (PISA) pilot cohort through social media messages. A four-week course of virtual group exercise was offered. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the last attended follow-up of the cohort study (pre-pandemic), pre-intervention, and post-intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using diary with daily entries and attendance to the virtual group exercise sessions were captured daily. The outcomes of interest were changes of anxiety and depression scores from baseline to pre-intervention (pandemic-related) and post-intervention (virtual exercise related). Forty-three individuals were recruited. A significant increase in anxiety scores from baseline to pre-intervention was observed. Comparisons using repeated-measures analysis of variance between those who attendance ≥14 and <14 group exercise sessions revealed no between-within subjects differences in depression scores. There was a 23% dropout rate in the post intervention survey and 60.5% of diaries were returned. This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting research entirely virtually among older persons during the peak of global first wave of a pandemic. The pandemic has led to increased anxiety among community-dwelling older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: health promotion; physical activity; local government; policy analysis
Online: 13 November 2020 (09:31:28 CET)
Policy is a lever for initiating the structural and environmental changes that foster health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) promotion. However, little is known about the evidence in support of local governments regarding their HEPA-promoting policies. This study collected comprehensive information on municipal HEPA policies on the French Riviera to gain an overview of HEPA policy development in this territory. Mid-sized cities from the two counties constituting the French Riviera were targeted (n = 17). In each city, a local tool for HEPA policy analysis, CAPLA-Santé, was used to gain information from key informants heading the departments of sports, health services and social services. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Ten mid-sized cities volunteered to participate. Key informants from the sports (n = 10), health services (n = 5) and social services (n = 6) departments were interviewed. Written HEPA policy documents were formalized in six cities. These documents (n = 14) were mainly from the sports (n = 8) and health services (n = 4) sectors. The key informants reported that support from that national policy, the commitment of elected officials, and large local stakeholder networks facilitated HEPA promotion, whereas the lack of intersectoral collaboration and limited resources were limitations. The results provide insight into the development of municipal HEPA policies, highlighting some of the barriers, facilitators and perspectives. These findings could be valuable to scale up HEPA promotion at the local level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0179.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Physical Education; knowledge; proper exercise; back care; adolescents
Online: 8 September 2020 (07:55:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to analyze the level of specific back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge. This is a cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 1500 students were recruited with a confidence level of 95% and an accepted standard error of ±2.53%. Individuals were aged between 13 and 18 years old (mean age= 15.18; SD = ±1.446). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record back-health-related physical activity and exercise knowledge concerning back care in adolescents. The level of specific knowledge of back health education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents was low (X = 2.05, SD = ±2.264). Only 10.9% of the students passed the specific knowledge test, achieving a grade equal or superior to 5. The boys average score was higher (X = 2.17, SD = ±2.312) than the girls (X = 1.94, SD = ±2.212) with statistically significant differences (p = .048). The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 11.531; p < .001). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Physical Education teachers should apply the conceptual content properly. Knowledge is the first step towards changing behavioral habits. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes; saffron; turmeric; food supplements; supplementation; physical exercise
Online: 7 June 2020 (06:01:12 CEST)
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world and one of its main features is chronic hyperglycemia. Among the therapeutic forms used to control the pathology are pharmacotherapy and the use of other alternatives such as regular exercise, which participates in glycemic control and the ingestion of plant extracts with antioxidant effects in the body. Among the different plants used, curcumin is a possible plant to be used to attenuate the hyperglycemic picture triggered by Diabetes Mellitus. Some studies suggest that this plant is antioxidant and hypoglycemic. The review aimed to know the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of curcumin supplementation in DM. The search was performed considering articles published between 2010 to 2019, in English and Portuguese, and a theoretical survey of relevant information was conducted in the main databases of scientific publications: Virtual Health Library and its indexed databases as Pubmed, LILACS, Scielo and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The associated use Turmeric and Physical Exercise demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activity caused by Diabetes Mellitus. We may suggest that these are potential therapeutic ways to improve the quality and survival of diabetic patients.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: coronavirus; fevers; pneumonia; nutrients; sauna baths; physical exercise
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
The recent outbreak and spread of the COVID-19 virus infection across the world has seen a massive global system-wide shutdown of human social and economic activity. Both developed and developing nations have been forced to contain and isolate their citizens as much as possible. However, the continuous rising cases in both categories of nations, especially those with poor or nonexistent testing facilities and healthcare systems pose a hidden danger. The seemingly lack of and access to a truly global concerted research effort in both temporary but effective symptom mitigation may lead to more deaths in infected cases. We propose that a fusion of both technological and home-grown solutions can be utilized effectively to manage symptoms. This would add to the preventive methods of social distancing, isolation, quarantine and frequent handwashing to halt the impact of the disease. We also hope to spur further research in such drug/non-drug combination therapy-based methods with emphasis on effectiveness based on quality of nutrient sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; chronic pain; mediastinal lymphomas
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:44:54 CET)
Thoracotomy is one of the most painful types of incision a patient can experience. Pain is a very complex pathophysiological entity. Neuronal pathophysiological mechanisms are integrated with the immunological response, which amplify inflammation and pain. Prolonged inflammation induces a pathological response of the immune-system and constantly stimulate the nociceptive pathways generating chronic pain. The mechanisms are particularly altered in lymphomas, where pain following chest surgery often becomes chronic and reduces the quality of life. In this study 51 elderly patients who had undergone a transthoracic biopsy to verify the suspect of mediastinal lymphoma were examined for pain reduction with oral opioids, effect of epidural analgesia and paravertebral block. Subsequently, patients underwent tensed torsion exercises, progressively intensified. After the first few days, patients walked progressively for 20 minutes a day. Once discharged a program of patients started aerobic exercises to increase muscle endurance and to strengthen the extensor muscles of the legs and of the upper limbs. The systemic administration of opioids is the simplest and most common method of providing analgesia for postoperative pain, but early mobilization, respiratory rehabilitation, and muscle toning exercises are excellent support devices both for physical and psychological recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0394.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: physical activity; elderly population; mediastinal lymphomas; cardiac transplantation
Online: 30 December 2019 (09:35:38 CET)
The incidence of post transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) and other neoplasms in organ transplant patients is higher than in the non-transplanted population. This event is more frequent in older subjects, due, at least in part, to the immune dysfunction induced by immunosuppressants administered to prevent rejection. Alterations of the immune system mechanisms of protection against carcinogenesis appear to be the key role in the in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. The data of our study on the incidence of neoplasms occurred during a long-term follow-up in an elderly population after they underwent cardiac transplantation. This study gives, also evidence of the favorable effect of physical activity programs on cardiorespiratory and psychomotor function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0313.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cistus incanus; wheat; bread; baking; physical properties; antioxidants
Online: 28 July 2019 (14:31:29 CEST)
Cistus incanus L. (CI) has been proposed as an innovative functional supplement of food products, and hence the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of dried CI on the properties of bread. Bread was prepared from white wheat flour supplemented with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% of ground CI. After the completion of baking process, various characteristics of the obtained bread product, such as yield, volume, porosity, acidity, color, and texture, were evaluated. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC), ABTS radical scavenging activity, CHEL chelating power, and ability to quench OH∙ radicals were measured. The results showed that the addition of CI to bread caused a reduction in the volume of bread, but texture of the crumbs was acceptable. Acidity and moisture content of bread were found to be increased following CI enrichment. Significant changes in the ash content and the color of bread crumbs were also observed. Bread incorporated with CI was characterized by significantly higher TPC and much higher antioxidant activity, as measured by ABTS, CHEL, and OH∙ radicals, compared to control bread. Supplementation of bread with 3% CI produced a product with desirable characteristics which was also favored by consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Physical model; chute structure; scour hole; divergence; downstream
Online: 19 July 2019 (10:15:33 CEST)
The effect of divergence of chute sidewalls with three different baffle block geometries namely USBR, trihedral and semicircular blocks, as well as the depth and dimensions of the scour hole downstream of the chute were studied using a physical model. For this purpose, 9 models of baffled chutes were designed and constructed with divergence ratios of 1.45, 1.75, and 2.45 and without divergence (with a divergence ratio of 1). Comparing the results on the effect of block geometry at different divergence ratios revealed that the use of blocks proposed in this study instead of standard USBR blocks reduced the mean and maximum scour hole by 50%. For a given block geometry, the mean depth, maximum depth, and length of scour hole were reduced by 75%, 58%, and 50%, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0189.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: beta-alanine; carnosine; oxidative stress; antioxidant; physical exercise
Online: 12 November 2018 (06:48:00 CET)
The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the articles that addressed the effect BA or carnosine supplementation on Physical exercise (PE)-induced oxidative stress (OS). We searched throughout PubMed, CAPES Periodic and SPORTDiscus human model peer review, randomized control studies with chronic BA or carnosine supplementation on PE-induced OS. We search papers published before May 2018. A total of 128 citations were found. Only four articles met criteria for inclusion. All four studies used healthy young (21y) sedentary, recreationally active or athletic participants. After a chorionic BA (~30 days) or carnosine (14 days) supplementation, the studies evaluated PE-induced OS both immediately and several hours after exercise (0.5 to 48 h). In response to PE-induced OS, when compared to placebo, BA/carnosine supplementation increased total antioxidant capacity [TAC; Effect Size (ES) = 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.65, p = 0.02] and glutathione (GSH; ES = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.19, p = 0.0007) concentrations while decreased pro-oxidant markers (ES = −1.19, 95% CI −1.48 to -0.80, p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (ES = −0.58, 95% CI −1.10 to −0.06, p = 0.03). BA or carnosine supplementation did not prevent the increase in peroxidation markers (ES: −0.20, 95% CI −0.59 to 0.20, p = 0.33). In humans, following PE-induced OS, initial treatment trials of BA or carnosine supplementation seemed to increase TAC and GSH concentrations, while decreasing SOD activity. Also, albeit mitigating the acute increase in pro-oxidants, treatment did not decrease measured values of peroxidation markers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: seeds; physical properties; range of variation; correlations; sorting
Online: 22 August 2018 (15:04:22 CEST)
Information about the variations and correlations between the physical properties of seeds is essential for designing and modeling seed processing operations. The aim of this study was to determine the variations in the basic physical properties of seeds of selected spruce species and to identify the correlations between these attributes for the needs of the seed sorting processes. Terminal velocity, thickness, width, length, mass and the angle of external friction were determined in the seeds of 11 spruce species. The measured parameters were used to calculate three aspect ratios, geometric mean diameter, sphericity index and specific mass of each seed. The average values of the basic physical properties of the analyzed seeds were determined in the following range: terminal velocity – 5.25 to 8.34 m s-1, thickness – 1.10 to 2.32 mm, width – 1.43 to 3.19 mm, length – 2.76 to 5.52 mm, the angle of external friction – 23.1 to 30.0°, and mass – 2.29 to 18.57 mg. The seeds of Jezo spruce and Meyer's spruce were most similar to the seeds of other spruce species, whereas oriental spruce seeds differed most considerably from the remaining seeds. Our findings indicate that spruce seeds should be sorted primarily with the use of mesh sieves with longitudinal openings to obtain fractions with similar seed mass and to promote even germination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0113.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate PMMA; henna; physical properties; hardness; surface roughness
Online: 18 April 2017 (12:24:49 CEST)
Statement of problem: Henna has been added to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as a new type of antifungal agent; however, its effect on the latter’s physical properties has not been investigated. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of various henna concentrations on the surface roughness and hardness of PMMA denture base material. Materials and Methods: A total of 99 specimens of rectangular-shaped (10×20×3 mm3) acrylic specimens were prepared from heat-cured acrylic resin. Specimens were divided into one control group without the addition of henna and five test groups, which were prepared by adding Yamani henna powder to acrylic powder at concentrations of 1wt%, 2.5wt%, 5wt%, 7.5wt%, and 10wt%. The polymer was added to the monomer before being mixed, packed, and processed using the conventional water bath method. After processing, specimens were finished and polished, then kept in distilled water for 48+2 h. A profilometer and Vickers hardness tester were used to measure surface roughness and hardness respectively. Statistical data analysis was conducted via SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). Results: The addition of henna at varying concentrations significantly increased surface roughness values (P ≤ 0.01) while decreasing hardness (P ≤ 0.0001). The most favorable addition value was 1% henna between all henna groups. Conclusion: The addition of henna to the acrylic resin may negatively affect the surface properties of PMMA acrylic denture base.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0082.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: water; physical; chemical; microbiological; quality; household; stored; source
Online: 14 March 2017 (10:49:43 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical and microbial qualities of source and stored household waters in some communities in Southwestern Nigeria using standard methods. Compared parameters include physicochemical constituents; Temperature (T), pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Magnesium ion (Mg2+) and Calcium ion (Ca2+) and microbiological parameters included Total Coliform Counts (TC), Faecal Coliform Counts (FC), Fungal Counts (Fung C), Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC). Comparing Stored and Source samples, the mean values of some physicochemical parameters of most of the stored water samples significantly (P<0.05) exceeded that of Sources and ranged in the following order: T (15.3±0.3oC - 28.3±0.5oC), pH (6.4±0.1 - 7.6±0.1), TDS (192.1±11.1 ppm - 473.7±27.9 ppm), TH (10.6±1.7 mg/L - 248.6±18.6 mg/L), BOD (0.5±0.0 mg/L - 3.2±0.3 mg/L), Mg2+ (6.5±2.4 mg/L - 29.1±3.2 mg/L) and Ca2+ (6.5±2.4 mg/L - 51.6±4.4 mg/L). The mean microbial counts obtained from microbial comparison of different points (Stored and Source) of collection showed that most of the stored water had counts significantly exceeding (P<0.05) those of the source water samples (cfu/100 mL) which ranged as follows: TC (3.1±1.5 - 156.8±42.9), FC (0.0±0.0 - 64.3±14.2) and HPC (47.8±12.1 - 266.1±12.2) across all sampled communities. Also, the predominant isolates recovered from the samples were identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Aspergillus spp, Mucor spp, Rhizopus spp and Candida spp. The presence of these pathogenic and potentially pathogenic organisms in the waters and the high counts of the indicator organisms suggest the waters to be a threat to public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: conceptual modeling; cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical gap; Object-Process Methodology; model-based systems engineering; Three Mile Island 2 Accident
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:59:29 CEST)
: The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is an inevitable issue in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment. We propose CPG-Aware Modeling & Engineering (CPGAME), a conceptual model-based approach for capturing, explaining, and mitigating the CPG, on top of and in sync with the conventional system model, and as an inherent systems engineering activity. This approach enhances the systems engineer’s ability to cope with CPGs, mitigate them by design, and prevent erroneous decisions, actions, and hazardous implications. CPGAME is a generic, conceptual approach, specified and demonstrated with Object Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm for multidisciplinary, complex, dynamic systems, which is also ISO-19450. We analyze the 1979 Three Miles Island 2 nuclear accident as a prime example of the disastrous consequences of unmitigated CPGs in complex systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0353.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: entropy; physical foundations; MaxEnt; wavefunction collapse; thermodynamics; statistical mechanics
Online: 25 November 2022 (04:29:00 CET)
The thermocontextual interpretation (TCI) establishes a system’s exergy, entropic energy, and thermal entropy as thermocontextual properties of state, defined with respect to its positive temperature surroundings. This work extends previous applications of the TCI to irreversible and statistical transitions. The TCI defines statistical entropy as a transactional process of derandomization and transition to a negative-entropy state. Statistical measurements of a confined quantum particle’s position are detailed in terms of reversible processes of instantiation and actualization. The TCI then formalizes the MaxEnt as a fundamental physical principle. We apply MaxEnt and statistical entropy measurements to the double-slit experiment. Particles passing through parallel slits record a wave interference pattern, but a “which-slit” detector eliminates wave interference. Richard Feynman called the double-slit experiment the only mystery, at the heart of quantum mechanics. The TCI offers a simple explanation. The which-slit detector breaks the system’s symmetry, enabling particles to pass through one slit or the other, and MaxEnt selects the asymmetrical transition, which has no wave interference and a higher statistical entropy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer, losing weight, interventions, physical activity, dietary restrictions, hormones.
Online: 24 November 2022 (06:30:03 CET)
(1) Background: Loss of weight is one of the practices which have been identified as key in reducing the risk of various forms of cancer. Therefore, this study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies related to the topic of loss of weight and risk of cancer and addresses the question, ‘does losing weight reduce the risk of cancer?’ Its purpose is to identify current high-quality evidence on such a question and synthesize such evidence before summarizing it given specific data attributes to improve decision-making processes on cancer management. (2) Methods: Research studies were identified from four main databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar, and Medline. A systematic review and meta-analysis of such studies were then conducted to reveal the most current evidence on the research topic. (3) Results: The studies showed that losing weight reduces cancer risk. Nonetheless, such intervention is not necessarily effective, especially in cases where patients may be at risk of developing cancer due to other risk factors. (4) Conclusions: The current study concludes that there is a need to implement effective interventions such as physical exercise, dietary restrictions, or both that can be effective in reducing weight to reduce the risk of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: youth; adiposity; psychopathology; anxiety; depression; physical activity; exercise; MRI
Online: 7 November 2022 (14:34:46 CET)
Obesity during childhood has been associated with many important physiological and neurological health considerations. Specifically concerning are the associations between youth obesity and declines in mental health, as shown with increasing rates of adolescent depression and anxiety worldwide. The emergence of mental health disorders commonly arises during adolescent development, and approximately half the global population satisfy the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, suggesting a need for early intervention. Adolescence is critical time whereby brain structure and functions are not only negatively associated with obesity and declines in mental health, while also coinciding with significant declines in rates of physical activity among individuals in this age group. Physical activity is thus a prime candidate to address the intersection of obesity and mental health crises occurring globally. This review addresses the important considerations between physiological health (obesity, aerobic fitness, physical activity), brain health (structure and function), and mental wellbeing symptomology. Lastly, we pose a theoretical framework which asks important questions regarding the influence of physiological health on the association between brain health and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0276.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; anxiety; depression; family income; physical activity
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:59:08 CEST)
Background: Young adults, particularly university students might be at greater risk of developing psychological distress, and exhibiting symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to explore and compare the determinants and predictors of mental health (anxiety and depression) during and after COVID-19 lockdown among university students. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a sample size of 417 students. An online survey utilizing International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form (IPAQ-SF), General Anxiety Disorder–7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was distributed to Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman students via Google forms. Results: During lockdown, family income [χ2 (1, n=124) = 5.155, p=0.023], and physical activity [χ2 (1, n=134) = 6.366, p=0.012] were associated with anxiety, while depression was associated with gender [χ2 (1, n=75) = 4.655, p=0.031]. After lockdown, family income was found to be associated with both anxiety [χ2 (1, n=111) = 8.089, p=0.004], and depression [χ2 (1, n=115) =9.305, p=0.002]. During lockdown, family income (OR=1.60, p=0.018), and physical activity (OR=0.59, p=0.011) were predictors for anxiety, and gender (OR=0.65, p=0.046) being the only predictor for depression. After lockdown, family income was a predictor for both anxiety (OR=1.67, p=0.011), and depression (OR=1.70, p=0.009). Conclusion: Significant negative effects attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown, and certain factors predisposed to the worsening of mental health status in university students. Family income, physical activity level, and gender were some of the major determinants that influenced the anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: response; dropout; older adults; physical activity interventions; OSM; GIS
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:47:38 CET)
Research is still lacking regarding the question as to how programs to promote healthy aging should be organized in order to increase acceptance and thus effectiveness. For older adults, ecological factors, such as physical distance to program sites, might predict participation and retention. Thus, the key aim of this analysis was to examine these factors in a physical activity intervention trial. Adults (N=8,299) aged 65 to 75 years were invited to participate and n=589 participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups with 10 weeks of physical activity home practice and exercise classes or a wait-list control group. Response, participation, and dropout data were compared regarding ecological, individual, and study-related variables. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of dropout. In total, 405 participants completed the study. Weekly class attendance rates were examined regarding significant weather conditions and holiday periods. The highest rates of nonresponse were observed in districts with very high neighborhood levels of socioeconomic status. In this study, ecological factors did not appear to be significant predictors of dropout, whereas certain individual and study-related variables were predictive. Future studies should consider these factors during program planning to mobilize and keep subjects in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0245.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Physical Foundations; Quantum mechanics; Time; Causality; Entropy; Entanglement; Nonlocality
Online: 6 December 2021 (14:35:24 CET)
The Thermocontextual Interpretation (TCI) is proposed here as an alternative to existing interpretations of physical states and time. Prevailing interpretations are based on assumptions rooted in classical mechanics. Logical implications include the determinism and reversibility of change, and an immediate conflict. Determinism underlies causality, but causality implies a distinction between cause and effect and an arrow of time, conflicting with reversibility. Prevailing interpretations also fail to explain the empirical irreversibility of wavefunction collapse without untestable and untenable metaphysical implications. They fail to reconcile nonlocality and relativity without invoking superdeterminism or unexplained superluminal correlations. The Thermocontextual Interpretation defines a system’s state with respect to its actual surroundings at a positive ambient temperature. The TCI bridges existing physical interpretations and thermodynamics as special cases, which define states either with respect to an absolute-zero reference or with respect to a thermally equilibrated reference. The TCI defines system time as a complex property of state spanning both reversible mechanical time and irreversible thermodynamic time, and it distinguishes between system time and the reference time of relativity and causality, as measured by an observer’s clock. And, the TCI provides a physical explanation for nonlocality, consistent with relativity, without hidden variables, superdeterminism, or “spooky action.”
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Television viewing; sedentary behavior; Physical activity; cardiometabolic risk factors
Online: 3 December 2021 (14:01:39 CET)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between television viewing/physical activity (TVV/PA) interactions and cardiometabolic risk in an adult European population. A total of 2,155 subjects (25-64 years) (45.2% males), a random population-based sample were evaluated in Brno, Czechia. TVV was classified as low (<2hours/day), moderate (2-4), and high (≥4). PA was classified as insufficient, moderate, and high. To assess the independent association of TVV/PA categories with cardiometabolic variables, multiple linear regression was used. After adjustments, significant associations were: high TVV/insufficient PA with body mass index (BMI) (β=2.61,SE=0.63), waist circumference (WC) (β=7.52,SE=1.58), body fat percent (%BF) (β=6.24,SE=1.02), glucose (β=0.25,SE=0.12), triglycerides (β=0.18,SE=0.05), and HDL-C (β=-0.10,SE=0.04); high TVV/moderate PA with BMI (β=1.98,SE=0.45), WC (β=5.43,SE=1.12), %BF (β =5.15,SE=0.72), triglycerides (β =0.08,SE=0.04), total cholesterol (β=0.21,SE=0.10), LDL-c (β=0.19,SE=0.08), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03); and moderate TVV/insufficient PA with WC (β=2.68,SE=1.25), %BF (β=3.80,SE=0.81), LDL-c (β=0.18,SE=0.09), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03). Independent of PA levels, higher TVV was associated with higher amounts of adipose tissue. Higher blood glucose and triglycerides were present in subjects with high TVV and insufficient PA, but not in those with high PA alone. These results affirm the independent cardiometabolic risk of sedentary routines even in subjects with high-levels of PA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0630.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: tug of war; anthropometrics; physical capacities; physiology; injuries; kinetics.
Online: 14 September 2021 (11:34:06 CEST)
Tug-of-war (TOW) is an internationally played activity including professional and amateur athletes and defined as early (4000 years ago as a rope less version) in the artwork on Egyptian tomb engravings and is played as per the rules laid out by TWIF, which has 73 member countries and administrative headquarters in the USA. Typically, two teams of “pullers” participate and apply enormous contra directional forces on the pulling rope. Originally, two types of competition are used: knockout and points. This narrative review describes the scientific state of the art about of TOW. For the best of the author’s knowledge no previous information has been published. Anthropometric parameters are near 83.6, lean body mass 69.4, and body fat 16. The VO2MAX is 55.8 ml/kg/min. Relative strength, the dynamic leg power was 4659.8 N. Endurance TOW elicits minimal muscle damage. The injured strains and sprains comprised over half of all injuries: back (42%), shoulder–upper limb (23%) and knee (17%). Pulling movement in TOW contests can be divided into three phases: namely "Drop", "Hold" and "Drive" phase. The maximal pulling forces was 1041.6 ± 123.9 N. The percentage of dynamic pulling force in static maximal pulling force was 75.5 ± 14.4% and the dynamic ranged from 106.4 to 182.5%. There are two gripping styles, indoor and outdoor. The friction characteristics between surface and shoe in TOW is important to determine a suitable shoe for indoor TOW. Waist Belt might be a useful piece of equipment for TOW sport. The EMG technique in Tow described a high activity of dorsal muscle during the pulling. The factor of force vanishing was the coordination among athletes. The force vanishing percentage goes from 8.82±5.59 for 2 contenders to 19.74±2.22 for 8 athletes, 6.4 % in the sum of 2 pullers. However, in the drop phase, for female elite TOW team, only the 0.5 % of them pulling force was wasted. Future studies are need in order to understand better this historical sport activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Feature extraction; independent component analysis; 3D inversion; physical properties
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:45:30 CEST)
A major problem in the post-inversion geophysical interpretation is the extraction of geological information from inverted physical property models, which do not necessarily represent all underlying geological features. No matter how accurate the inversions are, each inverted physical property model is sensitive to limited aspects of subsurface geology and is insensitive to other geological features that are otherwise detectable with complementary physical property models. Therefore, specific parts of the geological model can be reconstructed from different physical property models. To show how this reconstruction works, we simulated a complex geological system that comprises an original layered earth model that has passed several geological deformations and alteration overprints. Linear combination of complex geological features comprised three physical property distributions: Electrical resistivity, induced polarization chargeability, and magnetic susceptibility models. This study proposes a multivariate feature extraction approach to extract information about the underlying geological features comprising the bulk physical properties. We evaluated our method in numerical simulations and compared three feature extraction algorithms to see the tolerance of each method to the geological artifacts and noises. We show that the fast-independent component analysis (fast-ICA) algorithm by negentropy maximization is a robust method in the geological feature extraction that can handle the added unknown geological noises. The post-inversion physical properties are also used to reconstruct the underlying geological sources. We show that the sharpness of the inverted images is an important constraint on the feature extraction process. Our method successfully separates geological features in multiple 3D physical property models. This methodology is reproducible for any number of lithologies and physical property combinations and can recover the latent geological features, including the background geological patterns from overprints of chemical alteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0729.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: age; behaviour; open field; physical activity; anxiety; Wistar rat.
Online: 30 June 2021 (10:57:00 CEST)
The aim of this work was to study age-related changes in the behaviour of adult Wistar rats using the open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Behavioural changes related to motor activity and anxiety were of particular interest. Results showed that as male and female rats progressed from 2 to 5 months of age there was a decrease in the level of motor and exploratory activities, and an increase in the level of anxiety. Age-related changes were dependent upon initial individual characteristics of behaviour. For example, animals that demonstrated high motor activity at 2 months become significantly less active by 5 months, and animals that showed a low level of anxiety at 2 months become more anxious by 5 months. Low-activity and high-anxiety rats did not show any significant age-related changes in OF and EPM tests from 2 to 5 months of age, except for a decrease in the number of rearings in EPM. Significant individual differences in the behaviour of rats in OF and EPM tests observed at 2 months were not apparent by 5 months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0733.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: conditioning; high-intensity functional training; methods; performance; physical fitness
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:36:00 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to compare heart rate (HR), blood lactate and training load between different CrossFit® workouts, with equalized total volume in men and women. The study included 23 individuals (13 men and 10 women) experienced in CrossFit® training, who performed two workouts with different training types (as many reps as possible - AMRAP and for time) but equalized volume. Measurements of lactate, HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were performed. The results showed that there was no HR interaction between workout time and sex (p = 0.822; η2 = 0.006] and between workout type and sex (p = 0.064, η2 = 0.803). HR significantly differed during each workout type (p <0.001, η2 = 0.621), but not between the two workout types (p = 0.552, η2 = 0.017). Lactate showed no difference between the workout types (p = 0.474, η2 = 0.768), although the training load was higher (p = 0.033, η2 = 0.199) in women when they performed AMRAP. Altogether, HR was not significantly different between training types or sex, while RPE, lactate and training load showed small differences depending on the group (women or men) or workout type (AMRAP or 'for time').
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Overweight; Obesity paradox; Physical activity; Nutrition; Sugar-sweetened beverages
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:03:09 CET)
Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. However, it is not fully understood which lifestyle factors are associated with MUO in youth. We aimed to investigate the relationship between MUO and lifestyle patterns in youth. 7-17 years old youth with overweight (N=48; 60.4% girls) and obesity (N=71; 56.3% girls) were recruited in the Pediatric Clinic, Luxembourg (cross-sectional study). Eating and sedentary habits, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) were assessed. 72.3% of the participants had MUO. Multivariable logistic regressions showed that MUO is most likely to be associated with moderate to low weekly levels of MVPA [OR: 2.09 (95% CI: 1.07 – 4.09; p = 0.030)] and moderate to high weekly soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.92 (95% CI: 1.32 – 6.48; p = 0.008)]. After adjustment for age, gender and Tanner stages, MUO was most likely to be associated with moderate to high soda and lemonade drinks consumption [OR: 2.72 (95% CI: 1.21– 6.12; p = 0.016)] and with Tanner stages [OR: 2.06 (95% CI: 1.08– 3.94; p = 0.029)]. We support the promotion of MVPA and the moderation in the sugar-sweetened beverages consumption to manage cardiometabolic health in youth with obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0287.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Covid-19; quality of life; mental health; physical health
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:51:55 CET)
Introduction: The majority of epidemiological reports focus on confirmed cases of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to assess the health and well-being of adults not infected with Covid-19 after two months of quarantine in Morocco. Materials and methods: Two months after the declaration of quarantine in Morocco following the Covid-19 epidemic, we carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 279 Moroccan citizens. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a determinant of quality of life, which is based on eight dimensions of health. The data were collected using an electronic questionnaire distributed online. The participants also indicated their socio-demographic data, their knowledge and practices regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and whether they had chronic health problems. Results: The quality of life of all participants was moderately disrupted during the Covid-19 pandemic with a mental health score (MCS) of 34.49 (± 6.44) and a physical health score (PCS) of 36.10 (± 5.82). Participants with chronic diseases scored lower with 29.28 (± 1.23) in mental health (MCS) and 32.51 (± 7.14) in physical health (PCS). The seriousness of COVID-19 has an impact on the quality of life and health well-being of people and this impact is more marked in people with chronic health problems. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need to pay attention to the health of people who have not been infected with the virus. Our results also point out that uninfected people with chronic illnesses may be more likely to have well-being problems due to quarantine restrictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: early breast cancer; prognosis; physical activity; tumor dormancy; recurrence
Online: 2 February 2021 (08:24:31 CET)
Several studies have suggested that pre and/or postdiagnosis physical activity can reduce the risk of recurrence in breast cancer patients, however its effect according to follow-up time has not yet been investigated. We analyzed recurrence and mortality dynamics in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from Australia and Canada. The combined Australian RCTs evaluated, at median follow-up of 8.3 years, an 8-month pragmatic exercise intervention in 337 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, while the Canadian RCT evaluated, at median follow-up of 7.4 years, supervised aerobic or resistance exercise during chemotherapy in 242 patients. For each RCT, the control arm consisted of patients undergoing usual care. We estimated the event dynamics by the discrete hazard function, through flexible regression of yearly conditional event probabilities with generalized additive models. In the considered RCTs, the recurrence and mortality risk of patients enrolled in the physical activity arm was stably reduced at medium/long term after five year of follow-up. In the Australian RCTs where patients were recruited by urban versus rural area, the latter group did not display benefit from physical activity. Estimated Odds Ratios (95% Confidence Intervals) for Disease Free Survival (DFS) in urban women were 0.63 (0.22-1.85); 0.27 (0.079-0.90); 0.11 (0.013-0.96) at the 3rd, 5th and 7th year of follow-up, respectively. For rural women, DFS patterns were overlapping with ORs approximating 1 at the different years of follow-up. Although not reaching statistical evidence, the estimates in the Canadian trial were in line with the results from the Australian urban women with ORs (95% CI) forDFS of 0.70 (0.33-1.50); 0.47 (0.19-1.18); 0.32 (0.077-1.29) at 3rd, 5th, 7th follow-up year, respectively. While we acknowledge that the analyzed RCTs were not designed for investigating disease recurrence over time, these results support the evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of developing medium/long-term metastases. Additional translational research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: vocational students; healthy lifestyle intervention; physical activity; healthy diet
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:45:57 CET)
This study examines the effectiveness of the peer-delivered, school-based intervention Healthy by Design (HbD). Data were collected in two cross-sectional surveys before and after invention implementation. In total 1,177 vocational students (before: 557, after: 620) participated in an online health behaviour survey. Multilevel logistic and multilevel linear models explored the effect of the intervention over time and the effect of the intervention dose received on (determinants of) dietary of physical activity behaviours. A significant positive effect over time was found for moderate intensity physical activity. A high intervention dose was positively associated with increased water, breakfast and fruit consumption and higher levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity compared to no intervention dose received. A moderate and high intervention dose was negatively associated with high calorie snacks consumption compared to no intervention dose received. Effects of HbD on the investigated dietary and physical activity behaviours over time are limited, but these effects may be hard to demonstrate and link to the intervention due to the nature of the intervention design and the natural school-setting of this quasi-experimental study. However, a higher intervention dose showed a strong relation with healthier dietary and physical activity behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: pedagogical model; physical education; school contents; methodology; psychology; motivation
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:30:38 CET)
The aim was to implement a value-promoting program (Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility, TPSR) and to assess its impact on students. Method: The program was applied for 8 months with 257 students from three secondary school centres (151 boys and 106 girls) with a mean of 15.97 years old (SD = 2.31). They were in three groups, 67 students (control group), 90 students receiving at least 60% of the total teaching time the value-promoting program (experimental group for global education, EG-GE) and 100 students (experimental group only for physical education, EG-PE). As main results improvements were found in the EG-GE for responsibility, psychological mediator index, self-determination index, resilience, climate and prosocial behaviours. In the EG-PE improved were observed in the self-determination index, classroom climate and prosocial behaviours. Female students and from EG-GE improve much more than males and from EG-PE. The outcomes in psychological variables can be higher if TPSR is applied to the whole subjects apart from physical education. These results are even more pronounced for female students in personal and social responsibility. It is worth highlighting the importance of coordinating educational institutions to facilitate the involvement of the greatest number of teachers.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Behaviours; Childhood; Infant feeding; Interventions; Obesity; Prevention; Physical activity.
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:35:46 CET)
Childhood overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health issue. Our objective was to describe planned, ongoing and completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed for the prevention of obesity in early childhood. Two databases (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched to identify RCTs with the primary aim of preventing childhood obesity and at least one outcome related to child weight. Interventions needed to start in the first two years of childhood or earlier, continue for at least 6 months postnatally, include a component related to lifestyle or behaviors, and have a follow up time of at least 2 years. We identified 29 unique RCTs, implemented since 2008, with most being undertaken in high income countries. Interventions ranged from advice on diet, activity, sleep, emotion regulation and parenting education through individual home visits, clinic-based consultations or group education sessions. Eleven trials have published data on child weight related outcomes to date, though most were not sufficiently powered to detect significant effects. Many trials detected improvements in practices such as breastfeeding, screen time and physical activity in the intervention groups compared to the control groups. Further follow-up of ongoing trials is needed to assess longer-term effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0151.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Bubble collapse, Rayleigh's modelling, physical parameters, numerical simulation, Maple
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:46:36 CET)
This paper examines the influence of physical parameters on the collapse dynamics of a spherical bubble filled with diatomic gas ($\kappa=7/5$). The present numerical investigation shows that each physical parameter affects the bubble collapse dynamics differently. After comparing the contribution of each physical parameter, it appears that, of all the parameters, the surrounding liquid environment affects the bubble collapse dynamics the most. Meanwhile, surface tension has the weakest influence and can be ignored in the bubble collapse dynamics. However, surface tension must be retained in the initial analysis since this, as well as the pressure difference jointly control initial bubble formation. As an essential part of this study, a general Maple code is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0598.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: physical unclonable function; bloom filter; hardware security; PUF; memristor
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:05:03 CEST)
Because the development of the internet of things (IoT) requires technology that transfers information between objects without human intervention, the core of IoT security will be secure authentication between devices or between devices and servers. Software-based authentication may be a security vulnerability in IoT, but hardware-based security technology can provide a strong security environment. A physical unclonable functions (PUFs) are a hardware security element suitable for lightweight applications. PUFs can generate challenge-response pairs(CRPs) that cannot be controlled or predicted by utilizing inherent physical variations that occur in the manufacturing process. In particular, pulse width memristive PUF (PWM-PUF) improves security performance by applying different write pulse widths and bank structures. Bloom filter (BF) is probabilistic data structures that answer membership queries using small memories. Bloom filter can improve search performance and reduce memory usage and are used in areas such as networking, security, big data, and IoT. In this paper, we propose a structure that applies Bloom filters based on the PWM-PUF to reduce PUF data transmission errors. The proposed structure uses two different Bloom filter types that store different information and that are located in front of and behind the PWM-PUF, improving security by removing challenges from attacker access. Simulation results show that the proposed structure decreases the data transmission error rate and reuse rate as the Bloom filter size increases, the simulation results also show that the proposed structure improves PWM-PUF security with a very small Bloom filter memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0469.v6
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Physical Foundations; Quantum mechanics; Nonlocality; Time; Entropy; Quantum information; Entanglement
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:26:03 CEST)
The prevailing interpretations of physics are based on deeply entrenched assumptions, rooted in classical mechanics. Logical implications include: the denial of entropy as a fundamental physical property, and the inability to explain irreversible change, random quantum measurements, or nonlocality without untestable and implausible metaphysical implications. We propose a conceptual model that is based on empirically justifiable assumptions and consistent with observations. The WYSIWYG Conceptual Model (WCM) assumes no hidden properties: “What You can See Is What You Get.” The WCM contextually defines a system’s state with respect to its actual ambient background, and it extends existing models of physical reality by defining entropy and exergy as objective contextual properties of state. The WCM establishes the irreversible dissipation of exergy and the Second law of thermodynamics as a fundamental law of physics, it recognizes physical randomness, and it provides a physical explanation for nonlocality, consistent with Special Relativity, without hidden variables, superdeterminism, or “spooky action.”
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0700.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: physical fitness; exercise self-efficacy; quality of life; adulthood
Online: 29 July 2020 (12:57:08 CEST)
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the PRISMA statement guidelines, and based on the findings in 396 articles, the final sample was composed of 31 articles, which were reviewed to show whether self-efficacy has previously been studied as a mediator in the relationship between physical fitness and quality of life in adulthood. Results: The results indicate that little research exists in relation to healthy, populations with the majority being people with pathology. Physical fitness should be considered as a fundamental aspect in determining the functional capacity of the person. Conclusions: We discuss the need to investigate the mediation of self-efficacy in relation to the value of physical activity on quality of life and well-being in the healthy adult population in adult life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Pyrolysis; hardwood chips; heat transfer; physical parameters; kinetics parameters
Online: 7 February 2020 (09:31:24 CET)
This paper emphasises on the analogous modelling of hardwood (Acacia) pyrolysis. The effect of physical characteristics of hardwood chips on the pyrolysis is examined through the conservation of solid mass fraction of biomass. The chip size of G30 and G50 are used in the pyrolysis reactor. In the analogous situation, the fixed bed is assumed to be a wooden slab with a porosity equivalent to the voidage of bed. The bulk density, the length of the bed and the porosity are some of the physical attributes of a fixed bed used to determine the variation of solid mass of the hardwood across the fixed bed. The four-temperature sensors separated from each other by 80 mm are used to determine the temperature along the length of the pyrolysis unit. The heating element of 2 kWe is used to initiate the pyrolysis of biomass. The experiments are conducted in three different stages. The ONORM standard chips, G30 and G50, and the combination of them are separately pyrolysis to determine the validity of a model for different sizes of chips. The proposed model is also used to establish the relationship between the kinetics of pyrolysis and decomposition of the hardwood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0322.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: pm57; physical mapping; rna-seq; common wheat; molecular markers
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:30:27 CET)
Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) is one of many severe diseases that threaten bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and quality worldwide. The discovery and deployment of powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm) can prevent this disease epidemic in wheat. In a previous study, we transferred the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm57 from Aegilops searsii into common wheat and cytogenetically mapped the gene in a chromosome region with the fraction length (FL) 0.75-0.87, which represents 12% of 2Ss#1 segment on the long arm of chromosome 2Ss#1. In this study, we performed RNA-Seq on three infected and mock-infected wheat-Ae. searsii 2Ss#1 introgression lines with Bgt-isolates inoculation at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours after inoculation. Then we designed 79 molecular markers based on transcriptome sequences and physically mapped them to Ae. searsii chromosome 2Ss#1- in seven intervals. We used these markers to identify 46 wheat-Ae. searsii 2Ss#1 recombinants induced by ph1b, a deletion mutant of pairing homoelogous (Ph) genes. Analysis of the 46 ph1b-induced 2Ss#1L recombinants with different Bgt-responses using 28 2Ss#1L-specific molecular markers in the interval FL0.72-0.87 where Pm57 is located, and the flanking intervals, we physically mapped Pm57 gene on the long arm of 2Ss#1 in a 5.13 Mb genomic region, which was flanked by markers X67593 (773.72 Mb) and X62492 (778.85 Mb). By comparative synteny analysis of the corresponding region on chromosome 2B in Chinese spring (T. aestivum L.) with other model species we identified ten genes that are putative plant defense-related (R) genes which includes six coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (CNL), three nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NL) and a leucine-rich receptor-like repeat (RLP) encoding proteins. This study will lay a foundation for further cloning of Pm57, and benefit the understanding of interactions between resistance genes of wheat and powdery mildew pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; physical fitness; body composition; functional mobility; physiotherapy
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:03:10 CEST)
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have the potential impact on the functional mobility and basic motor skills improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by EDSS and AI scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p<0.001) and in TUG trials (p<0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR and FAT (p<0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) were significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) and functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during the physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to this parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stepped revetment; wave overtopping; surface roughness; physical model test
Online: 19 April 2019 (12:38:01 CEST)
Wave overtopping, i.e., excess of water over the crest of a coastal protection infrastructure due to wave run-up, of a smooth slope can be reduced by introducing slope roughness. A stepped revetment ideally constitutes a slope with uniform roughness. Apart from reducing overtopping, a stepped revetment provides safer access to a beach compared to conventional rubble. In recent years, research studies on stepped revetments have provided valuable findings regarding the performance and design optimization of stepped revetments as a typical mean of coastal protection. A stepped revetment can reduce overtopping volumes of breaking waves up to compared to a smooth slope. The effectiveness of the overtopping reduction decreases with increasing Iribarren number. However, up to date a unique approach applicable for a wide range of boundary conditions is still missing. The present paper critically reviews previous findings, gathers and analyzes data from previous studies and proposes a new formula for robust prediction of overtopping of stepped revetments. By means of this approach a critical assessment based on beforehand disclosed parameter ranges between a smooth slope on the one hand and a plain vertical wall on the other are contrasted. By analysis of a new data set compounded from different original studies a novel empirical formulation is derived to predict the roughness reduction coefficient of a stepped revetment for breaking and non-breaking waves. This coefficient is developed and adjusted for a direct incorporation into the present design guidelines. Underlying uncertainties are clearly addressed and quantified. Scale effects are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0332.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: growth promotion; palm mat geotextile; physical property; sand fixation
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:17:54 CET)
As the traditional sand fixation measures have many limitations, new sand fixing technologies and methods are urgently needed to be developed. This study demonstrated a new sand fixation method using palm mat geotextile to fix the sand dunes and plant grass. We experimented the physical property of the palm mat geotextile in the laboratory, and observed the vegetation growth in the Hobq Desert. The results showed that (1) The palm mat geotextile is more lighter and tougher than the common straw mat geotextile, the average weight, thickness and tensile strength of palm mat geotextile were 2023 g/m2, 20.14 mm, and 842–860 N/m, after a year of field observation, the tensile strength decreased by only 2%. (2) The palm mat geotextile had excellent water retention capacity and scouring resistance, the maximum water content reached 227%, and the substrate lost 2.9% after the simulation of heavy rainfall for 3 hours with rainfall intensity of 30 mm/h in laboratory. (3) The palm mat geotextile significantly decreased the soil temperature and increase the humidity in summer, the observed results shown that the palm mat geotextile had the greatest influence on 5cm depth of the soil temperature and 10cm depth of soil humidity. (4) The field experiment results showed that the vegetation coverage and the biomass of the palm mat geotextile with 2 m × 2 m were 35% and 11.21 g (3.9 times and 4.1 times than that of control group, 1.7 times and 1.8 times than that of high-banded salix psammophila sand-barriers group which is widely used in the Hobq Desert).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cyber-physical systems; WBAN security; biometric authentication; medical systems
Online: 14 November 2018 (08:03:19 CET)
A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a network of wirelessly connected sensing and actuating devices. WBANs used for recording biometric information and administering medication are classified as part of a Cyber Physical System (CPS). Preserving user security and privacy is a fundamental concern of WBANs, which introduces the notion of using biometric readings as a mechanism for authentication. Extensive research has been conducted regarding the various methodologies (e.g. ECG, EEG, gait, head/arm motion, skin impedance). This paper seeks to analyze and evaluate the most prominent biometric authentication techniques based on accuracy, cost, and feasibility of implementation. We suggest several authentication schemes which incorporate multiple biometric properties.