ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1609.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: surface scanner; photogrammetry; close-range photogrammetry; feature tracks
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:05:48 CEST)
A close-range photogrammetric approach and its implementation using a CNC device and a macro camera are proposed. A tailored image acquisition approach is proposed that is implemented using this device. To increase reconstruction robustness and accuracy, the key point features detected in the acquired images are tracked across multiple views from multiple viewpoints at multiple distances. This approach reduces spurious correspondences and, as a result, the estimation accuracy of calibration parameters is increased and reconstruction errors are reduced. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed approach, which exhibits micrometre resolution and low implementation cost.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1915.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: 3D Scanner; Orthoses; Photogrammetry; Structured Light
Online: 30 November 2023 (09:18:30 CET)
When a limb suffers a fracture, rupture, or dislocation, it is traditionally immobilized with plaster. This may induce discomfort in the patient, excessive itching and sweating, which creates the growth of bacteria, leading to an unhygienic and difficulty to keep clean from treatment. Furthermore, if the plaster remains for a long period, it may cause lesions in the joints and ligaments. To overcome all these disadvantages, orthoses have emerged as important medical devices to help patients in rehabilitation, as well as for self-care of deficiencies in clinics and daily life. Traditionally, these devices are produced manually, which becomes time-consuming and error prone. From another point-of-view, it is possible to use imageology (X-ray or computed tomography) to scan the human body; a process that may help orthoses manufacturing but induces radiation to the patient. To overcome this great disadvantage, several types of 3D scanners, without any kind of radiation have emerged. This article describes the use of various types of scanners capable of digitizing the human body, to produce custom orthoses. Studies have shown that photogrammetry is the most used and most suitable 3D scanner for the acquisition of the human body in 3D. With this evolution of technology, it is possible to decrease the scanning time and it will be possible to introduce this technology in clinical environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0533.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: firebrands; embers; bark; photogrammetry; fuel moisture
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:54:52 CEST)
Firebrands are an important agent of wildfire spread and structure fire ignitions at the wildland urban interface. Bark flake morphology has been highlighted as an important, yet poorly characterized factor in firebrand generation, transport, deposition, and ignition of unburned material. Using pine species where bark flakes are the documented source of embers, we conducted experiments to investigate how bark structure changes in response to diurnal drying. Over a 3-day period in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stand in Florida, we recorded changes in temperature, moisture content and structure of bark across different facing aspects of mature pine trees to examine the effects of varying solar exposure on bark moisture. We further compared results to bark drying in a pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) plantation in New Jersey. Under all conditions, bark peeled and lifted away from the tree trunk over the study periods. Tree bole aspect and the time of day interacted to significantly affect bark peeling. General temperature increases and moisture content decreases were significantly different between east and west aspects in pitch pine, and with time of day and aspect in longleaf pine. These results illustrate that bark moisture and flakiness is highly dynamic on short time scales, driven largely by solar exposure. These diurnal changes likely influence the probability of firebrand production during fire events via controls on moisture (ignition) and peeling (lofting).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0014.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Hydrothermal; Venting; ROV; Photogrammetry; Greece; Milos
Online: 26 March 2018 (14:02:22 CEST)
The use of low-cost, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and underwater photogrammetry techniques for 3D reconstruction of shallow hydrothermal vent sites around Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece. Characterising venting fields through interactive bathymetry models produced from still images taken from camera onboard ROV flown over areas of interest in double raster pattern. First time the shallow venting fields on Milos have been actively surveyed using ROV. Areas were successfully surveyed and the bathymetry was reconstructed using SfM photogrammetry with a ~10 cm scale resolution. A diverse range of benthic habitats were surveyed and the resulting topographic models will act as a baseline, providing further characterisation of the vent systems and any evolving seafloor morphology associated with mineral deposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1725.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: NeRF; Cultural Heritage; 3D reconstruction; photogrammetry; 3D surveying
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:04:31 CET)
While Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) are gaining increasing interest in various domains as innovative methods for novel view synthesis and image-based reconstruction, their potential application in the realm of Cultural Heritage remains unexplored. Purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of applying NeRF to sets of images of digital heritage objects and sites. The study’s findings demonstrate that NeRF could be valuable when used in combination with or as a comparison to other well-established techniques such as photogrammetry, to expand the possibilities of preserving and presenting heritage assets with enhanced visual fidelity and accuracy. Particularly, NeRF show promising results in improving the rendering of translucent and reflective surfaces, objects with homogeneous textures, and elements with intricate details. In addition, we demonstrate that, when considering the same set of input images (with known camera poses), reducing the image quality or the number of images results in significantly less information loss with NeRF compared to photogrammetry. This suggests that NeRF is preferentially suited for scenarios involving sparse information or low-quality photos or videos, which could be especially valuable in risky or challenging situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0815.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: terrestrial photogrammetry; deep excavation; paving block; displacement detection
Online: 11 May 2023 (07:41:18 CEST)
In urban areas, deep excavation-induced ground deformation may damage adjacent existing structures and is conventionally evaluated by levelling at installed settlement points. However, a small number of measurements cannot represent the total change in ground deformation adjacent to excavation sites. Furthermore, significant local subsidence may occur in places where settlement points have not been installed and only noticed after an accident. For deep excavation sites located in urban areas, paved pedestrian sidewalks are often located adjacent to sites, and construction activity can cause these paving blocks to displace. This study introduces a method to detect paving block displacement adjacent to deep excavation sites using terrestrial photogrammetry. A digital camera creating point cloud data (PCD) and an acquisition method satisfying the frontal and side overlap requirements were demonstrated. To investigate the displacement detection and measurement capabilities by PCD analysis, an experimental program was conducted, including a PCD comparison containing the uplift, settlement, and horizontal paving block displacement and reference data. The cloud-to-cloud distance computation algorithm was adopted for PCD comparison. Paving block displacement was detected for displacements of 5, 7.5, and 10 mm in the uplift, settlement, and horizontal directions; however, the horizontal displacements were less clear. PCD analysis enabled satisfactory measurements between 0.024 and 0.881 mm for the vertical-displacement cases, but a significant error was observed for the horizontal-displacement cases owing to the cloud-comparison algorithm. The measurement blind spot of limited settlement points was overcome by the proposed method that detected and measured paving block displacement adjacent to excavation sites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0233.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Unzen Volcano; Lahars; Erosion; Entropy; LiDAR; Photogrammetry; GPR
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:37:56 CEST)
In the aftermath of pyroclastic-flow –dominated eruptions, lahars are the main geomorphic agent, but at the decadal scale, different sets of processes take place in the volcanic sediment cascade. At Unzen Volcano, in the Gokurakudani Gully we investigated the geomorphologic evolution and how the topographic change and the sediment change over time is controlling this transition. For this purpose, a combination of LiDAR data, aerial photography and photogrammetry, Ground Penetrating Radar and sediment grain-size analysis was done. The results show chocking zones and zones of enlargement of the gully, partly controlled by pre-eruption topography, but also by the overlapping patterns of the pyroclastic flow deposits of 1990 – 1995. The Ground Penetrating Radar revealed that on top of the typical lahar structure at the bottom of the gully, side-wall collapses were trapping finer sandy sediments formed in relatively low-energy deposition environment. This shows that secondary processes are taking place in the sediment transport process, on top of lahar activity, but also that these temporary dams may be a source of sudden sediment and water release, leading to lahars. Finally, the sediments from the gully walls are being preferentially oozed out of the pyroclastic-flow deposit, meaning that over longer period of time, there may be a lack of fines, increasing permeability and reducing internal pore-pressure needed for lahar triggering. It also poses the important question of how much of a past-event one can understand from outcrops in coarse heterometric material, as the deposit structure can remain, even after loosing part of its fine material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0770.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: shear test; scale effect; roughness; photogrammetry; friction angle
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:35:04 CEST)
An accurate understanding of jointed rock mass behavior is important in many applications ranging from deep geological disposal of nuclear waste to deep mining to urban geoengineering projects. The roughness of rock fractures and the matching of the fracture surfaces are the key contributors to the shear strength of rock fractures. In this research, push shear tests with three normal stress levels of 3.6, 6.0, and 8.5 kPa were conducted with two granite samples with artificially induced well-matching tensile fractures with sizes of 500 mm × 250 mm and 1000 mm × 500 mm. The large sample reached on average a -60 % weaker peak shear stress than the medium-sized sample, and a strong negative scale effect was observed in the peak shear strength. The roughness of the surfaces was measured using a profilometer and photogrammetry. The scale-corrected profilometer-based method (JRC) underestimates the peak friction angle for the medium-sized slabs by -27 % for the medium sample and -9 % for the large sample. The photogrammetry-based (Z’2) method produces an estimate with -7% (medium) and +12 % (large) errors. The photogrammetry-based Z’2 is an objective method that consistently produces usable estimates for the JRC and peak friction angle.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Drone; GNSS RTK; UAV; photogrammetry; precision; accuracy; elevation
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:49:25 CET)
Georeferencing using ground control points (GCPs) is the most common strategy in photogrammetry modeling using UAV-acquired imagery. However, with the increased availability of UAVs with onboard GNSS RTK, georeferencing without GCPs is a promising alternative. However, systematic elevation error remains a problem of this technique. We aimed to analyze the reasons for this systematic error and propose strategies for the elimination of this error. Multiple flights differing in the flight altitude and image acquisition axis were performed at two real-world sites. A flight height of 100m with vertical (nadiral) image acquisition axis was considered primary, supplemented with flight altitudes of 75 m and 125 m with vertical image acquisition axis and two flights at 100 m with oblique image acquisition axes (30° a 15°). Each of these flights was performed twice to produce a full double grid. Models were calculated from individual flights and their combinations. The elevation error from individual flights or even combinations yielded systematic elevation errors of up to several decimeters. This error was linearly dependent on the deviation of the focal length from the reference value. A combination of two flights from the same altitude (with nadiral and oblique image acquisition) was capable of reducing the systematic elevation error to less than 0.03 m. This study is the first to demonstrate the linear dependence between the systematic elevation error of the models based only on the onboard GNSS-RTK data and the deviation in the determined internal orientation parameters (focal length). Besides, we have shown that a combination of two flights with different image acquisition axis can eliminate this systematic error even in real-world conditions and that georeferencing without GCPs is, therefore, a feasible alternative to the use of GCPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Greenland; photogrammetry; Knud Rasmussen Glacier; RPAS; glaciology; geomatics
Online: 1 December 2020 (09:32:40 CET)
This article discusses an international scientific expedition to Greenland that researched geography, geodesy, botany, and glaciology of the area. The results here focus on the geodetic and glaciological results obtained with the eBee drone in the eastern part of Greenland at the front of the Knud Rasmussen glacier. From two overflights nearby the glacier front, it was possible to obtain the speed of the glacier flow and the distribution of velocities in the glacier stream. The results correlate with other measurement methods and this technology has been shown as feasible. Of course, there are more accurate and long-term options or devices for monitoring the flow of glaciers. In this case of short-term visits to the site, the possibility of using a drone is interesting and the results show not only the flow speed of the glacier, but also the shape and structure from a height of up to 200m. The second part of the paper focuses on the analysis of modern satellite images of the Knud Rasmussen glacier from Google Earth (Landsat series 1984-2016) and a comparison with historical aerial images from 1932-1933. Experimentally, historical images were processed photogrammetrically into a 3D model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: crack detection; UAV imagery; SMV classification; aerial photogrammetry
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:33:38 CEST)
Road surface monitoring more specifically crack detection on the surface of the road pavement is a complicated task which is found vital due to critical nature of roads as elements of transportation infrastructure. Cracks on the road pavement is detectable using remotely sensed imagery or car mounted platforms. UAV’s are also considered as useful tools for acquiring reliable information about the pavement of the road. In This paper, an automatic method for crack detection on the road pavement is proposed using acquired videos from UAV platform. Selecting key frames and generating Ortho-image, violating non road regions in the scene are removed. Then through an edge based approach hypothesis crack elements are extracted. Afterwards, through SVM based classification true cracks are detected. Developing the proposed method, the generated results show 75% accuracy in crack detection while less than 10% of cracks are omitted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: monitoring; SfM-MVS; photogrammetry; internet of things; M3C2
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:53:34 CEST)
Multi-view stereo (MVS) employs multi-point photography for image point positioning and three-dimensional reconstruction technology. Recently, this technology has been introduced into the monitoring of road slopes due to advances in photography and computing technology. In general, the various phases of post-image processing procedures are applied to various photographic data. In this study a novel, automated image-monitoring system is proposed to improve the ability of automatic processing. First, an Internet of things (IoT)-based digital photography system architecture was constructed to provide automatic control of camera photography and real-time transmission of image data. In addition, a visual SfM-MVS 3D reconstruction technique was used to develop related software and hardware interfaces based on the built-in Python computing framework of Photoscan Pro. The software integrates fully automatic photography, image transmission, monitoring of data processing and product release programs. The experimental results show that the system architecture can be applied to fully automatic three-dimensional monitoring of road slopes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: close range photogrammetry; 3D linear control network; object dimensioning
Online: 7 March 2022 (19:57:21 CET)
In surveying engineering tasks, close-range photogrammetry belongs to leading technology considering different aspects like the achievable accuracy, availability of hardware and software, accessibility to measured objects, or the economy. Hence, constant studies on photogrammetric data processing are desirable. Especially in industrial applications, the control points for close-range photogrammetry are usually measured using total stations. In the case of small objects, more precise positions of control points can be obtained by deploying and adjusting a three-dimensional linear network set up on the object. The article analyzes the accuracy of the proposed method, based on the measurement of the linear network using a tape with a precision of ±1 mm. The experiment shows that the adjusted positions of the network control points can be determined with high, one-millimeter accuracy. The photogrammetric 3D model derived referring to such control points and stereo-images captured with a non-metric camera is also characterized by the highest possible precision, which qualifies the presented method to accurate measurements used in surveying engineering. The authors prove that the distance between two randomly optional points derived from the 3D model of a dimensioned object is equal to the actual distance measured directly on it with one-millimeter accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0283.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: UAV-photogrammetry; digital surface model; Structure from Motion; microtopography
Online: 27 August 2019 (10:40:49 CEST)
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of the 3D point cloud density derived from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry and structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereopsis (MVS) techniques, the interpolation method for generating a digital terrain model (DTM), and the resolution (grid size) of the derived DTM on the accuracy of estimated heights in small areas, where a very accurate high spatial resolution is required. A UAV-photogrammetry project was carried out on a bare soil of 13 × 13 m with a rotatory wing UAV at 10 m flight altitude (equivalent ground sample distance = 0.4 cm). The 3D point cloud was derived, and five sample replications representing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% of the original cloud were extracted to analyze the effect of cloud density on DTM accuracy. For each of these samples, DTMs were derived using four different interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), Multiquadric Radial Basis Function (MRBF), Kriging (KR), and Triangulation with Linear Interpolation (TLI)) and 15 DTM grid size (GS) values (20, 15, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0.67, 0.5, and 0.4 cm). Then, 675 DTMs were analyzed. The results showed, for each interpolation method and each density, an optimal GS value (most of the cases equal to 1 cm) for which the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is minimum. IDW was the interpolator which yielded best accuracies for all combination of densities and GS. Its RMSE, considering the raw cloud, was 1.054 cm. The RMSE increased 3% when a point cloud with 80% extracted from the raw cloud was used to generate the DTM. When the point cloud included the 40% of the raw cloud, RMSE increased 5%. For densities lower than 15%, RMSE increased exponentially (45% for 1% of raw cloud). The grid size minimizing RMSE for densities of 20% or higher was 1 cm, which represents 2.5 times the ground sample distance of the pictures used for developing the photogrammetry project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: rapid prototyping; fused deposition; filament jams; extrusion failures; photogrammetry; manufacturing system
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:27:40 CEST)
The main purpose of this paper is to present a system to detect extrusion failures in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printers by sensing that the filament is moving forward properly. After several years using these kind of machines, authors detected that there is not any system to detect the main problem in FDM machines. Authors thought in different sensors and used the Weighted Objectives Method, one of the most common evaluation methods, for comparing design concepts based on an overall value per design concept. Taking into account the obtained scores of each specification, the best choice for this work is the optical encoder. Once the sensor is chosen, it is necessary to design de part where it will be installed without interfering with the normal function of the machine. To do it, photogrammetry scanning methodology was employed. The developed device perfectly detects the advance of the filament without affecting the normal operation of the machine. Also, it is achieved the primary objective of the system, avoiding loss of material, energy and mechanical wear, keeping the premise of making a low-cost product that does not significantly increase the cost of the machine. This development has made it possible to use the printer with remains coil filament, which were not spent because they were not sufficient to complete an impression and also printing models in two colours with only one extruder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1431.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: photogrammetry; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV); 3D point cloud; geographic information systems (GIS)
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:39:09 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have emerged as a solution to day to day survey tasks, allowing users to visualize phenomena in real-time. This paper explores the capabilities of UAV or drones in the collection of accurate, geo-tagged data quickly, including photogrammetry software processes to deliver standardized data output. In order to explore the capabilities of UAV, Gatu Township in Centenary, Muzabani District of Zimbabwe was chosen from the national mapping topographic series. This study demonstrates the efficiency of data collection using drones, generate 2D orthomosaics in real time, so that analysts can easily visualize land cover and identify any changes, map and model large areas to produce data for 2D and 3D models. The recent development of innovative optical image processing has further lowered the costs high resolution topographic surveys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0697.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: UAV; Structure from Motion; photogrammetry; crude protein; acid detergent fibre; hyperspectral sensing
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:07:02 CEST)
The aim of this research was to test recent developments in the use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to map pasture biomass yield and nutrient status, across a selected range of field sites throughout the rangelands of Queensland. Improved pasture management begins with an understanding of the state of the resource base, UAV based methods can potentially achieve this at improved spatial and temporal scales. This study developed predictive models of both pasture yield and pasture nutrient status. An automated pasture height surface modelling technique was developed, tested and used along with field site measurements of pasture yields, to predict further estimates across each field site. Both prior knowledge and automated predictive modelling techniques were employed to predict pasture yield and nutrition. Pasture height surface modelling was assessed against field measurements using a rising plate meter, results reported correlation coefficients (R2) ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 for both woodland and grassland field sites. Accuracy of the predictive modelling was determined from further field measurements of pasture yield and on average indicated an error of 0.8 t ha-1 in grasslands and 1.3 t ha-1 in mixed woodlands across both modelling approaches. Correlation analyses between measures of pasture quality, acid detergent fibre and crude protein (ADF, CP), and spectral reflectance data indicated the visible red (651 nm) and red-edge (759 nm) regions were highly correlated (ADF R2 = 0.9 and CP R2 = 0.5 mean values). These findings agreed with previous studies linking specific absorption features with grass chemical composition. These results conclude that the practical application of such techniques, to efficiently and accurately map pasture yield and quality, is possible at the field site scale, however further research is needed, in particular further field sampling of both yield and nutrient elements across such a diverse landscape, with the potential to scale up to a satellite platform for broader scale monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0227.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: digital aerial photogrammetry; SAR; model-assisted; biomass estimation; Copernicus; unmanned aerial vehicles
Online: 19 December 2018 (02:56:20 CET)
Due to the increasing importance of mangroves in climate change mitigation projects, more accurate and cost-effective aboveground biomass (AGB) monitoring methods are required. However, field measurement of AGB may be a challenge because of its remote location and the difficulty to walk in these areas. This study is based on the Livelihoods Fund’ Oceanium project of 10,000 hectare mangrove plantations monitoring. In a first step, the possibility of replacing traditional field measurements of sample plots in a young mangrove plantation by a semiautomatic processing of UAV-based photogrammetric point clouds was assessed. In a second step, Sentinel-1 radar and Sentinel-2 optical imagery were used as auxiliary information to estimate AGB and its variance for the entire study area under a model-assisted framework. AGB was measured using UAV imagery in a total of 95 sample plots. UAV plot data was used in combination with non-parametric Support Vector Regression (SVR) models for the estimation of the study area AGB using model-assisted estimators. Purely UAV-based AGB estimates and their associated standard error (SE) were compared with model-assisted estimates using (1) Sentinel-1, (2) Sentinel-2 and (3) a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data as auxiliary information. The validation of the UAV-based individual tree height and crown diameter measurements showed a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.21 m and 0.32 m respectively. Relative efficiency of the three model-assisted scenarios ranged between 1.61 and 2.15. Although all SVR models improved the efficiency of the monitoring over UAV-based estimates, the best results were achieved when a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data was used. Results indicated that the methodology used in this research can provide accurate and cost-effective estimates of AGB in mangrove young plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy diagnosis; close-range photogrammetry; energy efficiency; visualization of information; energy feedback
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:31:05 CEST)
Owing to the large ratio of consumption in the building sector, energy saving strategies are required. Energy feedback is an energy-saving strategy that consumers to change their energy-consumption behaviors. The strategy has been principally focused on providing energy-consumption information. However, realization of energy savings using only consumption information remains limited. In this paper, a building-energy three-dimensional (3D) visualization solution is thus proposed. This solution includes the process of diagnosing a building and providing prediction of energy requirements if a building improvement is undertaken. Accurate diagnostic information is provided by real-time measurement data from sensors and building models using a close-range photogrammetry (CRP) method without depending on blueprints. The information is provided by employing visualization effects to increase the energy-feedback efficiency. The proposed strategy is implemented on two testbeds, and building diagnostics are performed accordingly. For the first testbed, the predicted energy improvement amount resulting from the facility upgrade is provided. The second testbed is provided with a 3D visualization of the energy information. The aim is to determine if the building manager will replace the facility after our recommendation is given to improve the building energy efficiency driven from the energy information. Unlike existing systems, which provide only ambiguous data that lack quantitative information, this study is meaningful because it provides energy information with the aid of visualization effects before and after building improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0690.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: close-range photogrammetry; mobile laser scanning; deep learning; standing trees; classification; acoustic tomography
Online: 10 November 2023 (10:23:21 CET)
The health and stability of trees are essential information for the safety of people and property in urban greenery, parks or along roads. The stability of the trees is linked to root stability but essentially also to trunk decay. Currently used internal tree stem decay assessment methods, such as tomography or penetrometry, are reliable but usually time-consuming and unsuitable for large-scale surveys. Therefore, a new method based on close-range remote sensed data, specifically close-range photogrammetry and iPhone LiDAR, was tested to detect decayed standing tree trunks automatically. The proposed study used the PointNet deep learning algorithm for 3D data classification. It was verified in three different datasets consisting of pure coniferous trees, pure deciduous trees or mixed data to eliminate the influence of the detectable symptoms for each group and species itself. The mean achieved validation accuracies of the models were 65.5 % for Coniferous trees, 58.4 % for Deciduous trees and 57.7 % for Mixed data classification. The accuracies indicate promising data, which can be either used by practitioners for preliminary surveys or for other researchers to acquire more input data and create more robust classification models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1972.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: aerial; data; drones; urban; nature-based; photogrammetry; design; software; decision-making; stormwater; management
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:43:24 CET)
Urbanization and climate change have increased the need for stormwater management and nature-based solutions. Decisions made at project level impact the emergence of systemic traits of the stormwater network and the functionality of the catchment areas in urban planning. To that end, it is vital to introduce the decision-making tools for analyzing both the utilities and amenities of nature-based solutions (NBS) to increase their adoption to reduce the peak loads in the stormwater system, and to that end, mitigate the impacts of climate change. This paper demonstrates a workflow using drone-based photogrammetry, 3D modeling, and simulation software to generate visual and functional models assisting in informed decision-making in the design of stormwater systems as functional landscape architecture. Using aerial data from drones and modeled design solutions, the proposed workflow simulates rain events, infiltration, evaporation, water flow, and accumulation of stormwater in a way that allows the visual and quantified analysis of detailed landscape architecture designs. The paper provides an example of a rooftop site simulation demonstrating the infiltration and flow of water to the drainage. The visual decision-making method provided can aid in investment decisions for functional landscape design in support of stormwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0186.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Remotely piloted aircraft system; structure from motion; photogrammetry; artificial neural networks; deep-learning
Online: 9 August 2021 (09:44:30 CEST)
The aim of this research is to expand recent developments in the mapping of pasture yield with remotely piloted aircraft systems to that of satellite-borne imagery. Up to date, spatially explicit and accurate information of the pasture resource base is needed for improved climate-adapted livestock rangeland grazing. This study developed deep learning predictive models of pasture yield, as total standing dry matter in tonnes per hectare (TSDM(tha−1)), from field measurements and both remotely piloted aircraft systems and satellite imagery. Repeated remotely piloted aircraft system structure measurements derived from structure from motion photogrammetry, provided measures of pasture biomass from many overlapping high-resolution images. Repeated remotely piloted aircraft system measures throughout a growing season, were modelled with persistent photosynthetic pasture responses from various Planet Dove high spatial resolution satellite image-derived vegetation indices. Pasture height modelling as an input to the modelling of yield was assessed against terrestrial laser scanning and reported correlation coefficients (R2) from 0.3 to 0.8 for both a coastal grassland and inland woodland pasture. Accuracy of the predictive modelling from both the remotely piloted aircraft system and the Planet Dove satellite image estimates of pasture yield ranged from 0.8 to 1.8 TSDM(tha−1). These results indicated that the practical application of repeated remotely piloted aircraft system derived measures of pasture yield can, with some limitations, be scaled-up to satellite-borne imagery to provide more temporally and spatially explicit measures of the pasture resource base.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Terrestrial photogrammetry, 3D reconstruction, Low-cost technology, 3D model, bundle adjustment, Agisoft PhotoScan, C2C
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:35:32 CET)
This paper analyses and evaluate the precision and the accuracy the capability of low-cost terrestrial photogrammetry by using many digital cameras to construct a 3D model of an object. To obtain the goal, a building façade has imaged by two inexpensive digital cameras such as Canon and Pentax camera. Bundle adjustment and image processing calculated by using Agisoft PhotScan software. Several factors will be included during this study, different cameras, and control points. Many photogrammetric point clouds will be generated. Their accuracy will be compared with some natural control points which collected by the laser total station of the same building. The cloud to cloud distance will be computed for different comparison 3D models to investigate different variables. The practical field experiment showed a spatial positioning reported by the investigated technique was between 2-4cm in the 3D coordinates of a façade. This accuracy is optimistic since the captured images were processed without any control points.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0086.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: vibration measurement; frequency prediction; deep learning; convolutional neural network; photogrammetry; computer vison; non-contact measurement
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:31:00 CEST)
Vibration measurement serves as the basis for various engineering practices such as natural frequency or resonant frequency estimation. As image acquisition devices become cheaper and faster, vibration measurement and frequency estimation through image sequence analysis continue to receive increasing attention. In the conventional photogrammetry and optical methods of frequency measurement, vibration signals are first extracted before implementing the vibration frequency analysis algorithm. In this work, we demonstrated that frequency prediction can be achieved using a single feed-forward convolutional neural network. The proposed method is verified using a vibration signal generator and excitation system, and the result obtained was compared with that of an industrial contact vibrometer in a real application. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve acceptable prediction accuracy even in unfavorable field conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: surveying; close-range photogrammetry; internal coincidence precision estimation; external coincidence accuracy estimation; experimental work; testing
Online: 7 February 2018 (10:28:16 CET)
Precision and accuracy estimation is an important index used to reflect the measurement performance and quality of a measurement system. To reveal the significance and connotations of the precision and accuracy estimation index of a close-range photogrammetry system, several common precision and accuracy estimation methods used in close-range photogrammetry are explained from a theoretical perspective, and the mechanism of the internal coincidence precision estimation and the external coincidence accuracy estimation are deduced, respectively. Through detailed experimental design and testing, the validity and reliability of the proposed precision and accuracy estimation methods are verified, which provides strong evidence for the quality control, optimisation, and evaluation of the measurement results from a close-range photogrammetry system. At the same time, it has significance for the further development of precision and accuracy estimation analysis of close-range photogrammetry systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); UAV-photogrammetry; Structure From Motion (SfM); cut slope; extreme topography; landslide
Online: 3 April 2017 (18:34:22 CEST)
UAV photogrammetry development during the last decade has allowed to catch information at a very high spatial and temporal resolution from terrains with very difficult or impossible human access. This paper deals with the application of these techniques to study and produce information of very extreme topography which is useful to plan works on this terrain or monitoring it over the time to study its evolution. The methodology stars with the execution of UAV flights on the cut slope studied, one with the cam vertically oriented and other at 45º respect that orientation. Ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were measured for georeference and accuracy measurement purposes. Orthophoto was obtained projecting on a fitted plane to a studied surface. Moreover, since a digital surface model (DSM) is not able to represent faithfully that extreme morphology, information to project works or monitoring it has been derived from the point cloud generated during the photogrammetric process. An informatics program was developed to generate contour lines and cross sections derived from the point cloud, which was able to represent all terrain geometric characteristics, like several Z coordinates for a given planimetric (X, Y) point. Results yield a root mean square error (RMSE) in X, Y and Z directions of 0.053 m, 0.070 m and 0.061 m respectively. Furthermore, comparison between contour lines and cross sections generated from point cloud with the developed program on one hand and those generated from DSM on other hand, shown that the former are capable of representing terrain geometric characteristics that the latter cannot. The methodology proposed in this work has been shown as an adequate alternative to generate manageable information, as orthophoto, contour lines and cross sections, useful for the elaboration, for example, of projects for repairing or maintenance works of cut slopes with extreme topography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1366.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: digital twins; cultural heritage; museum; 3d modeling; digitization; platform; cultural content; museum visitors; paleontological findings; paleontology; photogrammetry; methodology
Online: 20 July 2023 (08:35:46 CEST)
In recent years, researchers in the field of cultural heritage have intensified their efforts to develop new ways to enhance the promotion and accessibility of cultural content in order to attract more audiences using virtual representations of physical objects (digital twins). Therefore, they increasingly include new technologies and digital tools in their operation, since their application both to the general public and among the cultural organisations themselves, is considered particularly effective. Simultaneously, the increasing quality of the produced digitizations has opened up new opportunities for further exploitation of digitization outcomes in a broader context than was initially anticipated. Responding to the growing demand of museum visitors for a personalized digital tour experience, especially in the midst of the recent Covid-2019 pandemic, the v-PalM project aims to develop a digital platform for offering virtual guidance and education services at the Museum of Paleontology and Geology that is hosted at the National Kapodistrian University of Athens. The development of the platform will be based on collecting data through several methods including crowdsourcing, innovative information and communication technologies, taking advantage of content digitization using 3D scanning devices. In this paper, we demonstrate a methodology for the digitization of paleontological findings that can be used for creating digital twins suitable for various scenarios including research, education, and entertainment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1015.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: drone; UAV; unmanned aerial vehicle; 3D; three-dimensional; digital twin; photogrammetry; BIM; urban planning; regional planning; preservation; heritage conservation
Online: 17 October 2023 (06:51:09 CEST)
Drone imagery has the potential to enrich urban planning and preservation, especially where it converges with the growing creation and use of 3D models. The authors have conducted a systematic literature review of articles published between 2002 and 2022, drawing from reputable academic repositories including Science Direct, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), to identify current gaps in existing research in the application of UAVs to the creation of 3D models in urban planning and preservation. Findings indicate five research shortcomings: limited participation of planning experts, research focus imbalance, lack of usage for special scenarios, lack of integration with smart city planning, and limited interdisciplinary collaboration. The study also acknowledges current limitations with UAV applications and discusses possible countermeasures as well as future prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Remote sensing; Photogrammetry; Life cycle modeling; Time series forecasting; Structural damage; Stochastic modeling; Convex Hull; ARIMA; VAR; Fatigue crack prediction
Online: 1 July 2019 (12:23:16 CEST)
The evaluation of geometric defects is necessary in order to maintain the integrity of structures over time. These assessments are designed to detect damages of structures and ideally help inspectors to estimate the remaining life of structures. Current methodologies for monitoring structural systems, while providing useful information about the current state of a structure, are limited in the monitoring of defects over time and in linking them to predictive simulation. This paper presents a new approach to the predictive modeling of geometric defects. A combination of segmented from point clouds are parametrized using the convex hull algorithm to extract features from detected defects, and a stochastic dynamic model is then adapted to these features to model the evolution of the hull over time. Describing a defect in terms of its parameterized hull enables consistent temporal tracking for predictive purposes, while implicitly reducing data dimensionality and complexity as well. In this study, 2D point clouds analogous to information derived from point clouds were first generated over simulated life-cycles. The evolutions of point cloud hull parameterizations were modeled as stochastic dynamical processes via autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and vectorized autoregression (VAR) and compared against ground truth. The results indicate that this convex hull approach provides consistent and accurate representations of defect evolution across a range of defect topologies and is reasonably robust to noisy measurements, however assumptions regarding the underlying dynamical process play a significant the role in predictive accuracy. The results were then validated on experimental data from fatigue testing with high accuracy. Longer term, the results of this work will support finite element model updating for predictive analysis of structural capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0160.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Artifacts digitization; Paintings digitization; Drawings digitization; custom-made instruments; 3D printing; photometric stereo; digital photogrammetry; 2D capture instruments; 3D capture instruments
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:32:59 CEST)
The emergence of new methodologies and tools for digitizing objects belonging to the Cultural Heritage (CH) changed the paradigms adopted so far. Traditionally, the process to acquire artifacts required specialized and often costly equipment tailored to specific purposes. However, the development of more generalized, adaptable, and affordable tools led to novel approaches. This manuscript provides a glimpse into the evolving landscape of custom-made tools for digital documentation, both hardware and software, and their transformative impact on the digitization techniques, built to meet requirements of specific case studies, including ancient drawings, manuscripts, paintings, and museum objects. The advent of self-built instruments has revolutionized the way professionals work today, by leveraging a new generation of low-cost, adaptable gears, leading to unprecedented flexibility and efficiency, while facilitating the capture of high-quality digital representations of objects with minimal damage and preserving their integrity. The outcomes of instruments and tools specifically produced for the contexts described in this paper highlight their potential for promoting interdisciplinary collaboration, facilitating scholarly research, enhancing conservation efforts, and fostering cultural exchange. Ultimately, this research contributes to illustrate how custom software, in combination with recent devices such as smartphones and 3D printers, underscores the importance of adopting these innovative approaches to generate an ecosystem of tools and methods able to preserve, document, and promote the richness of our collective past for future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0555.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: UAS, debris-covered glacier, trans-Himalaya, aerial photogrammetry, structure from motion, DSM differencing, point cloud differencing, glacial mass balance, ice-cliffs
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:00:27 CEST)
Debris-covered glaciers are a notable feature in the greater Himalaya, and their ongoing mass loss under changing climate will affect the water resources of over a billion people. The current knowledge of the mass balance of Himalayan glaciers is restricted by the paucity of in-situ measurements of glaciers in both space and time, as well as the resolution of satellite remote sensing imageries. Recently, the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery has shown the potential to bridge this gap by enabling very detailed monitoring of inaccessible glacial areas. UAS imagery-based monitoring of Himalayan glaciers has so far been limited to a single glacier in the entire Himalaya, providing a limited understanding of spatial variability in glacier mass balance and driving factors. In the first UAS based glacial mass change estimation in the trans-Himalaya, we conducted two Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) surveys (May and November 2019) over the debris-covered Annapurna III glacier in the Himalaya. We performed Structure-from-Motion (SfM) analysis and utilized differential GPS field observations to derive geometrically accurate point clouds, ortho-mosaics and digital surface models (DSMs). The glacial volumetric loss was estimated from DSM differencing, and the magnitude and spatial variability of glacier surface change was derived from 3-D differencing of point clouds. Results revealed a heterogeneous glacial melt pattern, with an average elevation loss of 0.89 m during the monitored time period. The majority of the glacial tongue exhibited surface lowering except the area above and around the glacial snout that surprisingly exhibited significant elevation gain. Both the highest magnitude of mass loss and the highest spatial variability in mass change was observed in areas with exposed ice-cliffs and supraglacial ponds. Glacial surface velocity derived from manual feature tracking showed velocity ranging from 0-4.1 m. A detailed evaluation of specific areas allowed an improved understanding of the complex interplay of factors leading to observed surface change. Our findings expand the extent of UAS based monitoring of debris-covered glaciers in the Himalaya and conclude that UAS derived 3D topographic products will become increasingly important for monitoring of thinning debris-covered glaciers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hot Mix Asphalt; Aggregate Stockpile; RAP; Remote Sensing; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Drone; Photogrammetry; Structure from Motion; Density; Volume Calculation; Life Cycle Assessment
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:49:52 CET)
This study introduces a remote sensing application using satellite imagery to survey a network-scale aggregate stockpile inventory. First, a real scale aggregate quarry site was surveyed using a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) to produce digital terrain models that enabled analysis of aggregate pile geometry. Second, a lab experiment was designed and performed to validate the applicability of close-range Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry for measuring aggregate piles' physical properties such as volume and density. The other part of the lab experiment delved into direct measurement of aggregate density under varying compaction efforts. These experimental results, in conjunction with some simplifying assumptions, enabled the calculation of aggregate stockpile volumes and estimated weights from satellite imagery. We estimated that an inventory of 4.4 and 1.1 million metric tons of crushed aggregates and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), respectively, stockpiled in Washington State for asphalt production in 2017. The merit of producing such database was further showcased in an example on the economic and environmental impacts of material transportation. We approximated that hauling aggregates from quarry plants to construction sites within Washington State incurs a cost of about $50 thousand to over $4 million, consumes about 0.25 to 20 TJ of energy, and emits 20 to over 1,500 tons of CO2-eq per asphalt plant annually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1355.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Workshop; Landscape surveying; Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); GNSS; Photogrammetry; Digital terrain model (DTM); Digital elevation model (DEM); Accuracy assessment; Ground control points; Quality check points (QCP).
Online: 20 June 2023 (08:01:04 CEST)
This study examines the activities conducted at the archaeological site of Aptera in Crete, Greece. The research was part of the DIACHRONIC LANDSCAPES International Design Workshop, organized by the CAM (Center for Mediterranean Architecture), TUC (Technological University of Crete School of Architecture), and UNIFE (University of Ferrara Department of Architecture). This article outlines the methods used for data acquisition and processing on a territorial scale, which generated digital outputs necessary for the analysis and design phases of the workshop, as well as for further examination of the results. The collected data, obtained through low-cost aerial photogrammetric surveying and GNSS terrestrial coordinate detection, were integrated in a Structure from Motion workflow that led to the creation and exportation of various digital outputs, such as point clouds, DTM, DSM, orthophotos, and contour lines. An accuracy analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the digital models compared to the implemented surveying strategies, including the Ground Control Point and Quality Check Point marker positioning strategy. The resulting digital models proved to be valuable assets for analysis and design within the workshop and provided insightful prospects for future research and territorial-scale projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0581.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Alpine ecology; Arabis alpina; Digital Elevation Models (DEMs); Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR); Multiscale; Photogrammetry; Spatial scale; Species distribution models (SDM); Terrain attributes; Very-high resolution
Online: 24 March 2021 (12:30:37 CET)
The vulnerability of alpine environments to climate change presses an urgent need to accurately model and understand these ecosystems. Popularity in use of digital elevation models (DEMs) to derive proxy environmental variables has increased over the past decade, particularly as DEMs are relatively cheaply acquired at very high resolutions (VHR; <1m spatial resolution). Here, we implement a multiscale framework and compare DEM-derived variables produced by Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and stereo-photogrammetry (PHOTO) methods, with the aims of assessing their relevance and utility in species distribution modelling (SDM). Using a case study on the arctic-alpine plant Arabis alpina in two valleys in the western Swiss Alps, we show that both LiDAR and PHOTO technologies can be relevant for producing DEM-derived variables for use in SDMs. We demonstrate that PHOTO DEMs rivalled the accuracy of LiDAR, putting the current paradigm of LiDAR being the more accurate of the two methods into question. We obtained DEMs at spatial resolutions of 6.25cm-8m for PHOTO and 50cm-32m for LiDAR, where we determined that the optimal spatial resolutions of DEM-derived variables in SDM were between 1 and 32m, depending on the variable and site characteristics. We found that the reduced extent of PHOTO DEMs altered the calculations of all derived variables, which had particular consequences on their relevance at the site with heterogenous terrain. However, for the homogenous site, we found that SDMs based on PHOTO-derived variables generally had higher predictive powers than those derived from LiDAR at matching resolutions. From our results, we recommend carefully considering the required DEM extent to produce relevant derived variables. We also advocate implementing a multiscale framework to appropriately assess the ecological relevance of derived variables, where we caution against the use of VHR-DEMs finer than 50cm in such studies.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: photogrammetry; metrology; underwater 3D reconstruction; structure-from-motion; navigation fusion; multi-objective BA; laser scalers; Monte-Carlo simulation; uncertainty estimation; scale drift evaluation; laser spot detection
Online: 15 July 2019 (05:22:16 CEST)
Rapid developments in the field of underwater photogrammetry have given scientists1the ability to produce accurate 3-dimensional (3D) models which are now increasingly used in the representation and study of local areas of interest. This paper addresses the lack of systematic analysis of 3D reconstruction and navigation fusion strategies, as well as associated error evaluation of models produced at larger scales in GPS-denied environments using a monocular camera (often in deep-sea scenarios). Based on our prior work on automatic scale estimation of Structure from Motion (SfM)-based 3D models using laser scalers, an automatic scale accuracy framework is presented. The confidence level for each of the scale error estimates is independently assessed through the propagation of the uncertainties associated with image features and laser spot detections using a Monte Carlo simulation. The number of iterations used in the simulation was validated through the analysis of the final estimate behaviour. To facilitate the detection and uncertainty estimation of even greatly attenuated laser beams, an automatic laser spot detection method, mitigating the effects of scene texture, was developed, with the main novelty of estimating the uncertainties based on the recovered characteristic shapes of laser spots with radially decreasing1 intensities. The effects of four different reconstruction strategies resulting from the combinations of Incremental/GlobalSfM, and thea priori/a posterioriuse of navigation data were analyzed using two distinct survey scenarios captured during the SUBSAINTES 2017 cruise (doi: 10.17600/17001000). The study demonstrates that surveys with multiple overlaps of non-sequential images result in a nearly identical solution regardless of the strategy (SfM or navigation fusion), while surveys with weakly connected sequentially acquired images are prone to produce broad-scale deformation (doming effect) when navigation is not included in the optimization. Thus the scenarios with complex survey patterns substantially benefit from using multi-objective BA navigation fusion. In all cases, the errors in the models are inferior to 5%, with errors often being around 1%. The effects of combining data from multiple surveys were also evaluated. The introduction of additional vectors in the optimization of multi-survey problems successfully accounted for offset changes present in the underwater USBL-based navigation data and thus minimize the effect of contradicting navigation priors. Our results also illustrate the importance of collecting a multitude of evaluation data at different locations and moments during the survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: History of technology; Computer Vision; Photogrammetry; Endoscopy; Computed Tomography; Convolutional Neural Networks; Structure-from-Motion; Dense Image Matching; Data Fusion; Sensor Fusion; Digital Twin; Navigation Instruments; Inertial Sensors
Online: 8 December 2020 (16:18:53 CET)
Gyroscopes are fascinating instruments with a history of about 200 years. When J.G.F. Bohnenberger presented his machine to his students in 1810 at the University of Tuebingen, Germany, nobody could have foreseen that this fascinating development would be used for complex orientation and positioning. At the University of Stuttgart, Germany, a collection of 160 exhibits is available and in transition for a sustainable future. Here, the systems are digitized in 2D, 2.5D and 3D and are made available for a world-wide community using OpenAccess platforms. The technologies being used are Computed Tomography, Computer Vision, Endoscopy and Photogrammetry. The workflows for combining voxel representations and colored point clouds are described, to create Digital Twins of the tangible assets. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed und work for near future is outlined in this new and challenging field of Tech Heritage digitization.