ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0324.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Papillary thyroid carcinoma; bioinformatics analysis; artificial neural network; diagnosis
Online: 11 March 2021 (16:08:01 CET)
The diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma has always been a concerned and challenging issue and it is very important and meaningful to have a definite diagnosis before the operation. In this study, we tried to use an artificial intelligence algorithm instead of medical statistics to analyze the genetic fingerprint from gene chip results to identify papillary thyroid carcinoma. We trained 20 artificial neural network models with differential genes and other important genes related to the cell metabolic cycle as the list of input features, and apply them to the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer in the independent validation data set. The results showed that when we used the DEGs and all genes lists as input features the models got the best diagnostic performance with AUC=98.97% and 99.37% and the accuracy were both 96%. This study revealed that the proposed artificial neural network models constructed with genetic fingerprints could achieve a prediction of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Such models can support clinicians to make more accurate clinical diagnoses. At the same time, it provides a novel idea for the application of artificial intelligence in clinical medicine.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0103.v1
Subject: Keywords: lung adenocarcinoma; papillary thyroid carcinoma; mediastinal lymph nodes; lymphadenectomy
Online: 7 May 2020 (02:30:36 CEST)
In the surgical treatment of lung cancer, systemic mediastinal lymph node dissection, as one important routine procedure, has been accepted by most peers in the world. However, due to the special location of some mediastinal lymph nodes, the difficulty of dissection, and the negative preoperative CT results, the specific scope of lymph node dissection is still controversial. Especially the second group, which is located at the top of thorax, is likely to be overlooked for the above reasons. Here, we report a case of lung adenocarcinoma in which the preoperative CT showed no abnormal lymph nodes in the second group and also no enlarged lymph nodes of the second group were found during the surgery, yet lymphadenectomy was still performed according the routine with the lymph node of station 2 being sampled. In the postoperative pathological report, cancer cells were found in the second group, instead of lung adenocarcinoma, these cells come from thyroid and were proved to be papillary thyroid carcinoma, which is unusual because no obvious indication of thyroid carcinoma was found in preoperative color doppler ultrasound of superficial lymph nodes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0720.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Papillary thyroid cancer; noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features; follicular adenoma; telomere-related genomic instability
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:37:22 CET)
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has two main histologic variants: classical-PTC (CL-PTC) and follicular variant PTC (FV-PTC). Recently, due to its similar features to benign lesions, the encapsulated FV-PTC variant was reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). Nonetheless, specific molecular signatures are not yet available. It is well known that telomere-related genome instability is caused by inappropriate DNA repair of dysfunctional telomeres and that mechanisms involved in the damaged telomere repair processing may led to detrimental outcomes, altering the 3D nuclear telomere and genome organization in cancer cells. This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether a specific nuclear telomere architecture might characterize NIFTP, potentially distinguishing it from other PTC histologic variants. Our findings demonstrate that 3D telomere profiles of CL-PTC and FV-PTC were different from NIFTP and that NIFTP more closely resembles follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA). NIFTP has longer telomeres than CL-PTC and FV-PTC samples and telomere length overlaps in NIFTP and FTA. There was no association between BRAF expression and telomere length in all tested samples. Our data showing that 3D nuclear telomere organization is altered differently in thyroid cancer variants, suggest that this parameter might guide clinical management of NIFTP. Although further investigations in a larger cohort of patients are necessary to corroborate our observations, telomere-related genomic instability might be of value in the diagnosis of NIFTP and allow for a more appropriate selection of the correct treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: iodine nutritional status; BRAFV600E; papillary thyroid cancer
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:57:18 CEST)
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for approximately 85%-90% of all thyroid cancers. BRAFV600E mutation is a highly specific target for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and may have a reciprocal causative relationship with iodide-metabolizing genes. Here, we performed a review of studies published in the past 10 years to determine the relationship between iodine intake and BRAFV600E mutation in patients with PTC. We searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases for studies published from 2009 to 2019; seven partially matched the selection criteria and were suitable for review, and five passed all selection criteria. We divided the patients into three groups by iodine intake: low (urinary iodine concentration [UIC] <100 μg/L), adequate (UIC 100–200 μg/L), and high iodine intake groups (UIC ≥200 μg/L). Between-group analysis revealed no significant differences in the odds ratio of the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation between the high and adequate/low iodine intake groups and between the adequate and low iodine intake groups. To further analyzed the results of studies, they exhibited U-shaped curves in the relation of deficient and excessive dietary iodine intake in BRAFV600E mutation. The results might suggest that iodine intake slightly influences the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation in patients with PTC despite the heterogeneity of studies. Further research should explore potential mechanisms underlying the associations between iodine intake and BRAF mutation in PTC. The systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021279462).
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; obesity; overweight; multifocality; bilaterality; extrathyroidal extension
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:28:18 CET)
Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between high body mass index (BMI) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We assessed the clinical and histopathological features of PTC in patients with a higher BMI and compared them to analogous parameters in PTC patients with a normal BMI. We retrospectively analyzed 5,021 medical records of patients admitted and surgically treated for thyroid tumors in one center between 2008 and 2018. Finally, we extracted data from 523 adult patients with PTC and stratified patients into two groups according to BMI: Group 1 with BMI < 25 kg/m² and Group 2 with BMI ≥25 kg/m². Data stratification was performed to estimate the association of overweight and obesity with clinical and histopathological features of PTC in both univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, compared to patients with a normal BMI, overweight and obese patients had a greater risk of minimal extrathyroidal extension (minimal ETE), multifocality and bilaterality of PTC (p<0.001 for all). Analysis did not show that BMI was significantly associated with more advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (p=0.894). Obesity and overweight were significantly associated with higher aggressiveness of PTC. When considering various management options for PTC patients, these findings regarding overweight and obesity should be taken into consideration during the decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0154.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; germline mutations; whole genome sequencing; predisposition markers; pathway analysis
Online: 13 October 2019 (17:07:34 CEST)
Evidence of familial inheritance in non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) has accumulated over the last few decades. However, known variants account for a very small percentage of the genetic burden. Here, we focused on the identification of common pathways and networks enriched in NMTC families to better understand its pathogenesis with the final aim of identifying one novel high/moderate-penetrance germline predisposition variant segregating with the disease in each studied family. We performed whole genome sequencing on 23 affected and 3 unaffected family members from five NMTC-prone families and prioritized the identified variants using our Familial Cancer Variant Prioritization Pipeline (FCVPPv2). In total, 31 coding variants and 39 variants located in upstream, downstream, 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions passed FCVPPv2 filtering. Altogether, 210 genes affected by variants that passed the first three steps of the FCVPPv2 were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. These genes were enriched in tumorigenic signaling pathways mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein coupled receptors, implicating a central role of PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling in familial NMTC. Our approach can facilitate the identification and functional validation of causal variants in each family as well as the screening and genetic counseling of other individuals at risk of developing NMTC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer; BCPAP cells; 8505C cells; prostate cancer; LNCaP cells; DU145 cells; kidney cancer; HL-60 cells; cancer gene software
Online: 20 June 2019 (10:28:48 CEST)
The dynamic and never exactly repeatable tumor transcriptomic profile of people affected by the same form of cancer requires a personalized and time-sensitive approach of the gene therapy. The Gene Master Regulators (GMRs) were defined as genes whose highly controlled expression by the homeostatic mechanisms commands the cell phenotype by modulating major functional pathways through expression correlation with their genes. The Gene Commanding Height (GCH), a measure that combines the expression control and expression correlation with all other genes, is used to establish the gene hierarchy in each cell phenotype. We developed the experimental protocol, the mathematical algorithm and the computer software to identify the GMRs from transcriptomic data in surgically removed tumors, biopsies or blood from cancer patients. The GMR approach is illustrated with applications to our microarray data on human kidney, thyroid and prostate cancer samples, and on thyroid, prostate and blood cancer cell lines. We proved experimentally that each patient has his/her own GMRs, that cancer nuclei and surrounding normal tissue are governed by different GMRs, and that manipulating the expression has larger consequences for genes with higher GCH. Therefore, we launch the hypothesis that silencing the GMR may selectively kill the cancer cells from a tissue.