ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0139.v1
Online: 27 September 2017 (16:45:25 CEST)
Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our research analyses the impact of uncertainties in measuring the accuracy of OBIA-based slum detection. We selected Jakarta as our case study area, because of a national policy of slum eradication, which is causing rapid changes in slum areas. Our research comprises of four parts: slum conceptualization, ruleset development, implementation, and accuracy and uncertainty measurements. Existential and extensional uncertainty arise when producing reference data. The comparison of a manual expert delineations of slums with OBIA slum classification results into four combinations: True Positive, False Positive, True Negative and False Negative. However, the higher the True Positive (which lead to a better accuracy), the lower the certainty of the results. This demonstrates the impact of extensional uncertainties. Our study also demonstrates the role of non-observable indicators (i.e., land tenure), to assist slum detection, particularly in areas where uncertainties exist. In conclusion, uncertainties are increasing when aiming to achieve a higher classification accuracy by matching manual delineation and OBIA classification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation; phenology; Xishuangbanna; Landsat; object-based approach; pixel-based approach
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:54:28 CEST)
Effectively mapping and monitoring rubber plantation is still changing. Previous studies have explored the potential of phenology features for rubber plantation mapping through a pixel-based approach (pixel-based phenology approach). However, in fragmented mountainous Xishuangbanna, it could lead to noises and low accuracy of resultant maps. In this study, we investigated the capability of an integrated approach by combining phenology information with an object-based approach (object-based phenology approach) to map rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were firstly used to acquire the temporal profile and phenological features of rubber plantations and natural forests, which delineates the time windows of defoliation and foliation phases. Landsat images were then used to extract a phenology algorithm comparing three different approaches: pixel-based phenology, object-based phenology, and extended object-based phenology to separate rubber plantations and natural forests. The results showed that the two object-based approaches achieved higher accuracy than the pixel-based approach, having overall accuracies of 96.4%, 97.4%, and 95.5%, respectively. This study proved the reliability of a phenology-based rubber mapping in fragmented landscapes with a distinct dry/cool season using Landsat images. This study indicated that the object-based phenology approaches can effectively improve the accuracy of the resultant maps in fragmented landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0342.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: cadastral boundaries; automation; feature extraction; object based image analysis
Online: 29 May 2019 (04:37:50 CEST)
The objective to fast-track the mapping and registration of large numbers of unrecorded land rights globally, leads to the experimental application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the domain of land administration, and specifically the application of automated visual cognition techniques for cadastral mapping tasks. In this research, we applied and compared the ability of rule-based systems within Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA), as opposed to human analysis, to extract visible cadastral boundaries from Very high resolution (VHR) World View-2 image, in both rural and urban settings. From our experiments, machine-based techniques were able to automatically delineate a good proportion of rural parcels with explicit polygons where the correctness of the automatically extracted boundaries was 47.4% against 74.24% for humans and the completeness of 45% for machine, as against 70.4% for humans. On the contrary, in the urban area, automatic results were counterintuitive: even though urban plots and buildings are clearly marked with visible features such as fences, roads and tacitly perceptible to eyes, automation resulted in geometrically and topologically poorly structured data, that could neither be geometrically compared with human digitised, nor actual cadastral data from the field. These results provide an updated snapshot with regards to the performance of contemporary machine-drive feature extraction techniques compared to conventional manual digitising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0219.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: informal settlement indicators; very high resolution (VHR); urbanisation; sustainable development goals; object-based image analysis (OBIA); machine learning (ML); random forest (RF)
Online: 12 September 2018 (12:32:25 CEST)
The identification of informal settlements in urban areas is an important step in developing and implementing pro-poor urban policies. Understanding when, where and who lives inside informal settlements is critical to efforts to improve their resilience. This study aims to analyse the capability of machine-learning (ML) methods to map informal areas in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery and terrain data. Fourteen indicators of settlement characteristics were derived and mapped using an object-based ML approach and VHR imagery. These indicators were categorised according to three different spatial levels: environ, settlement and object. The most useful indicators for prediction were found to be density and texture measures, (with random forest (RF) relative importance measures of over 25% and 23% respectively). The success of this approach was evaluated using a small, fully independent validation dataset. Informal areas were mapped with an overall accuracy of 91%. Object-based ML as a hybrid approach performed better (8%) than object-based image analysis alone due to its ability to encompass all available geospatial levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0358.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Metaheuristic algorithms; Health data analytics; Multi-object simulated annealing; optimization
Online: 15 July 2021 (12:03:44 CEST)
Metaheuristic algorithms have been frequently using to tackle optimization problems, however such algorithms in the analysis of health-related data is not commonly used as developing metaheuristic algorithms that work well on health-related data is a difficult task due to complexity of the health data in particular genomics and epigenetics data. One of the important tasks in genomics is to predict genomic elements that are incorporating together to regulate a disease-related genes. Predicting such elements are important as they can be used to develop a personalized cure. In this study, we present for the first time, a multi-object simulated annealing algorithm to identify enhancer-promoter like interactions from Hi-C (chromosome conformation capture) data. These regulatory elements can potentially play vital roles as promoters and/or enhancers in appearance and exacerbation of the regulation of gene.s To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, we applied our proposed method and traditional methods on the Hi-C data from mice and compared together. Our results show that the interacting elements identified by our new method are more likely to be functional. The source code of the method is publicly available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0426.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: event-based vision; object detection and tracking; high-temporal resolution tracking; frame-based vision; hybrid approach
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:54:14 CEST)
Event-based vision is an emerging field of computer vision that offers unique properties such as asynchronous visual output, high temporal resolutions, and dependence on brightness changes to generate data. These properties can enable robust high-temporal-resolution object detection and tracking when combined with frame-based vision. In this paper, we present a hybrid, high-temporal-resolution, object detection and tracking approach, that combines learned and classical methods using synchronized images and event data. Off-the-shelf frame-based object detectors are used for initial object detection and classification. Then, event masks, generated per each detection, are used to enable inter-frame tracking at varying temporal resolutions using the event data. Detections are associated across time using a simple low-cost association metric. Moreover, we collect and label a traffic dataset using the hybrid sensor DAVIS 240c. This dataset is utilized for quantitative evaluation using state-of-the-art detection and tracking metrics. We provide ground truth bounding boxes and object IDs for each vehicle annotation. Further, we generate high-temporal-resolution ground truth data to analyze the tracking performance at different temporal rates. Our approach shows promising results with minimal performance deterioration at higher temporal resolutions (48 – 384 Hz) when compared with the baseline frame-based performance at 24 Hz.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Image Fusion, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Wetlands, Object-Based Classification, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:11:07 CEST)
Wetlands benefits can be summarized but are not limited to their ability to store floodwaters and improve water quality, providing habitats for wildlife and supporting biodiversity, as well as aesthetic values. Over the past few decades, remote sensing and geographical information technologies has proven to be a useful and frequent applications in monitoring and mapping wetlands. Combining both optical and microwave satellite data can give significant information about the biophysical characteristics of wetlands and wetlands` vegetation. Also, fusing data from different sensors, such as radar and optical remote sensing data, can increase the wetland classification accuracy. In this paper we investigate the ability of fusion two fine spatial resolution satellite data, Sentinel-2 and the Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite, Sentinel-1, for mapping wetlands. As a study area in this paper, Balikdami wetland located in the Anatolian part of Turkey has been selected. Both Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images require pre-processing before their use. After the pre-processing, several vegetation indices calculated from the Sentinel-2 bands were included in the data set. Furthermore, an object-based classification was performed. For the accuracy assessment of the obtained results, number of random points were added over the study area. In addition, the results were compared with data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle collected on the same data of the overpass of the Sentinel-2, and three days before the overpass of Sentinel-1 satellite. The accuracy assessment showed that the results significant and satisfying in the wetland classification using both multispectral and microwave data. The statistical results of the fusion of the optical and radar data showed high wetland mapping accuracy, with an overall classification accuracy of approximately 90% in the object-based classification. Compared with the high resolution UAV data, the classification results give promising results for mapping and monitoring not just wetlands, but also the sub-classes of the study area. For future research, multi-temporal image use and terrain data collection are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: UAV; VTOL; Object Tracking; Deep Learning; Sensor fusion; Kalman Filter; Autonomous Landing; Optimal Trajectory
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:58:13 CET)
This work aims to develop an autonomous system for the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to land on a moving platform such as the automobile or marine vessels, providing a promising solution for a long-endurance flight operation, a large mission coverage range, and a convenient recharging ground station. Different from most state-of-the-art UAV landing frameworks which rely on UAV’s onboard computers and sensors, the proposed system fully depends on the computation unit situated on the ground vehicle/marine vessel to serve as a landing guidance system. Such novel configuration can therefore lighten the burden of the UAV and computation power on the ground vehicle/marine vessel could be enhanced. In particular, we exploit a sensor fusion-based algorithm for the guidance system to perform UAV localization, whilst a control method based upon trajectory optimization is integrated. Indoor and outdoor experiments are conducted and the result shows that a precise autonomous landing on a 43 X 43 cm platform could be performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0122.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Classification, SVM Classifier, ML Classifier, Supervised and Unsupervised Classification, Object-based Classification, Multispectral Data
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:01:44 CET)
This paper focuses on the crucial role that remote sensing plays in divining land features. Data that is collected distantly provides information in spectral, spatial, temporal and radiometric domains, with each domain having the specific resolution to information collected. Diverse sectors such as hydrology, geology, agriculture, land cover mapping, forestry, urban development and planning, oceanography and others are known to use and rely on information that is gathered remotely from different sensors. In the present study, IRS LISS IV Multi-spectral data is used for land cover mapping. It is known, however, that the task of classifying high-resolution imagery of land cover through manual digitizing consumes time and is way too costly. Therefore, this paper proposes accomplishing classifications by way of enforcing algorithms in computers. These classifications fall in three classes: supervised, unsupervised, and object-based classification. In the case of supervised classification, two approaches are relied upon for land cover classification of high-resolution LISS-IV multispectral image. These approaches are Maximum Likelihood and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Finally, the paper proposes a step-by-step procedure for optical image classification methodology. This paper concludes that in optical data classification, SVM classification gives a better result than the ML classification technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0123.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: geobody modeling, object-based facies modeling (OBFM), variogram analysis, farewell formation, paleo-depositional environment
Online: 15 January 2018 (10:01:00 CET)
The early-mid Paleocene Farewell Formation is stratigraphically distributed across the southern Taranaki Basin (STB) which is also encountered within the Maui Gas Field. Using available 3D seismic and well log data, a challenging task to delineate the spatial distribution and geobody patterns of the potential reservoir sands of the formation was performed. Object based modeling coupled with sequential indicator simulation were used to analyze the spatial distribution of facies configuration and a conceptual model was developed based on the outputs from the structurally- modeled grids. The facies modeling followed a hierarchical object-based mechanism which was set to perform with constraints like channel geometry and heterogeneity within the formation. The resultant 3D geobody model showed that the distributary channels, mainly braided geobodies flowed from northeast cutting through several regional normal-fault systems to the southwest. Overbank facies was adhered to the fringe of the channels whereas the floodplain facies was at the periphery of the model. Meandering channel-sand facies were mostly observed at the center of the model flowing in a more random manner, occupying major flow directions of northwest to southwest and southeast to northwest within the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0089.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Object Detection; Cascade Mask R-CNN; Floor Plan Images; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Dataset Augmentation; Computer Vision
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:09:26 CEST)
Object detection is one of the most critical tasks in the field of Computer vision. This task comprises identifying and localizing an object in the image. Architectural floor plans represent the layout of buildings and apartments. The floor plans consist of walls, windows, stairs, and other furniture objects. While recognizing floor plan objects is straightforward for humans, automatically processing floor plans and recognizing objects is a challenging problem. In this work, we investigate the performance of the recently introduced Cascade Mask R-CNN network to solve object detection in floor plan images. Furthermore, we experimentally establish that deformable convolution works better than conventional convolutions in the proposed framework. Identifying objects in floor plan images is also challenging due to the variety of floor plans and different objects. We faced a problem in training our network because of the lack of publicly available datasets. Currently, available public datasets do not have enough images to train deep neural networks efficiently. We introduce SFPI, a novel synthetic floor plan dataset consisting of 10000 images to address this issue. Our proposed method conveniently surpasses the previous state-of-the-art results on the SESYD dataset and sets impressive baseline results on the proposed SFPI dataset. The dataset can be downloaded from SFPI Dataset Link. We believe that the novel dataset enables the researcher to enhance the research in this domain further.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: traffic flow; object detection; object tracking; deep learning
Online: 1 June 2021 (14:42:58 CEST)
This paper proposes a neural network which fuses the data received from a camera system on a gantry, to detect moving objects and calculate relative position and velocity of the vehicles traveling on a freeway, this information is used to estimate the traffic flow. To estimate the traffic flow at both microscopic and macroscopic view, this paper used YOLO v4 and DeepSORT for vehicle detection and tracking, then counting the number of vehicles pass through the freeway by drawing virtual lines and hot zones, also counting the velocity of each vehicles. The information is then pass to the traffic control center, in order to monitoring and control traffic flow on freeways, and analyzing freeway conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0506.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: neural network; object detection; object classification; Darknet; programming.
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:39:51 CEST)
The article’s goal is to overview challenges and problems on the way from the state of the art CUDA accelerated neural networks code to multi-GPU code. For this purpose, the authors describe the journey of porting the existing in the GitHub, fully-featured CUDA accelerated Darknet engine to OpenCL. The article presents lessons learned and the techniques that were put in place to make this port happen. There are few other implementations on the GitHub that leverage the OpenCL standard, and a few have tried to port Darknet as well. Darknet is a well known convolutional neural network (CNN) framework. The authors of this article investigated all aspects of the porting and achieved the fully-featured Darknet engine on OpenCL. The effort was focused not only on the classification with the use of YOLO1, YOLO2, and YOLO3 CNN models. They also covered other aspects, such as training neural networks, and benchmarks to look for the weak points in the implementation. The GPU computing code substantially improves Darknet computing time compared to the standard CPU version by using underused hardware in existing systems. If the system is OpenCL-based, then it is practically hardware independent. In this article, the authors report comparisons of the computation and training performance compared to the existing CUDA-based Darknet engine in the various computers, including single board computers, and, different CNN use-cases. The authors found that the OpenCL version could perform as fast as the CUDA version in the compute aspect, but it is slower in memory transfer between RAM (CPU memory) and VRAM (GPU memory). It depends on the quality of OpenCL implementation only. Moreover, loosening hardware requirements by the OpenCL Darknet can boost applications of DNN, especially in the energy-sensitive applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0192.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge-based Systems; Ontology; Knowledge Engineering; MCDA.
Online: 13 October 2022 (09:54:49 CEST)
Decision making as a result of system dynamics analysis requires, in practice, a straightforward and systematic modelling capability as well as a high-level of customisation and flexibility to adapt to situations and environments that may vary very much from each other. While in general terms a completely generic approach could be not as effective as ad-hoc solutions, the proper application of modern technology may facilitate agile strategies as a result of a smart combination of qualitative and quantitative aspects. In order to address such a complexity, we propose a knowledge-based approach that integrates the systematic computation of heterogeneous criteria with open semantics. The holistic understanding of the framework is described by a reference architecture and the proof-of-concept prototype developed can support high-level system analysis, as well as it suitable within a number of applications contexts - i.e. as a research/educational tool, communication framework, gamification and participatory modelling. Additionally, the knowledge-based philosophy, developed upon Semantic Web technology, increases the capability in terms of holistic knowledge building and re-use via interoperability. Last but not least, the framework is designed to constantly evolve in the next future, for instance by incorporating more advanced AI-powered features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0025.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: list-only entity linking; named entity disambiguation; graph-based approach
Online: 4 December 2017 (16:01:32 CET)
List-only entity linking is the task of mapping ambiguous mentions in texts to target entities in a group of entity lists. Different from traditional entity linking task, which leverages rich semantic relatedness in knowledge bases to improve linking accuracy, list-only entity linking can merely take advantage of co-occurrences information in entity lists. State-of-the-art work utilizes co-occurrences information to enrich entity descriptions, which are further used to calculate local compatibility between mentions and entities to determine results. Nonetheless, entity coherence is also deemed to play an important part in entity linking, which is yet currently neglected. In this work, in addition to local compatibility, we take into account global coherence among entities. Specifically, we propose to harness co-occurrences in entity lists for mining both explicit and implicit entity relations. The relations are then integrated into an entity graph, on which Personalized PageRank is incorporated to compute entity coherence. The final results are derived by combining local mention-entity similarity and global entity coherence. The experimental studies validate the superiority of our method. Our proposal not only improves the performance of list-only entity linking, but also opens up the bridge between list-only entity linking and conventional entity linking solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land use and land cover; Classification; Object-based change detection; Multi-temporal image analysis; Landsat; Tiaoxi
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:27:22 CEST)
The changing of land use and land cover (LULC) are both affected by climate and human activity and affect climate, biological diversity, and human well-being. Accurate and timely information about the LULC pattern and change is crucial for land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring, and urban planning, especially in developing economies undergoing industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. Biodiversity degradation and urban expansion in eastern China are research hot-spots. However, the influence of LULC changes on the region remains largely unexplored. Here, an object-based and multi-temporal image analysis approach was developed to detect how LULC changes during 1985-2015 in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China) using Landsat TM and OLI data. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from object-based and multi-temporal images. To this end, a total of seven LULC maps are generated with multi-temporal images. A random stratified sample design was used for assessing change detection accuracy. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.86%, 92.14%, 92.00%, and 93.86% for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with object-oriented and multi-temporal satellite images, offers a robust and flexible approach to LULC changes mapping that helps with emergency response and government management. Urbanization and agriculture efficiency are the main reasons for LULC changes in the region. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modeling for surface forcing, provide evidence of changes in LULC, and inform water-management decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: team-based learning; flipped classroom; team re-allocation
Online: 15 April 2019 (11:36:43 CEST)
Previously, we described the initial use of Flipped Team‐Based learning (FTBL) defined as TBL approach combined with flipped classroom learning methodology, in which students previewed online lectures and applied their knowledge in different in-class activities. The purpose of the present study is to review the progress within this approach and to investigate how constant changes in team allocation can affect student’s perception regarding this modified FTBL approach. Although students showed reluctance initially to get out of their ‘comfort zone’, our findings show that learners perceived the adoption of the continued random allocation, and became accustomed to this learning approach, which finally assisted them to enhance their team-work skills and classroom performance, to develop their reflective capabilities as well as improving their rapport building skills, learning and academic performance. Learners also believed that this learning strategy that creates critical incidents can simulate their future work environment as they might be expected to work in unfamiliar situations. Therefore, the present study indicated strong support for the modified FTBL method and was seen to work exceptionally well, despite some minor problems that students can experience working in a team and/or with different teammates in every session.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0257.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: impervious surface mapping; multi-temporal data; change detection; high-resolution imagery; LiDAR; object-based post-classification fusion
Online: 15 June 2018 (14:32:50 CEST)
Impervious surface mapping with high-resolution remote sensing imagery has attracted increasing interest as it can provide detailed information for urban structure and distribution. Previous studies have suggested that the combination of LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery for impervious surface mapping performs better than using only high-resolution imagery. However, due to the high cost of the acquisition of LiDAR data, it is difficult to obtain the multi-sensor remote sensing data acquired at the same acquisition time for impervious surface mapping. Consequently, real landscape changes between multi-sensor remote sensing data at different acquisition times would lead to the error of misclassification in impervious surface mapping. This issue has mostly been neglected in previous works. Furthermore, the observation differences generated from multi-sensor data, including the problems of misregistration, missing data in LiDAR data, and shadow in high-resolution images would also challenge the final mapping result in the fusion of LiDAR data and high-resolution images. In order to conquer these problems, we propose an improved impervious surface mapping method incorporating both LiDAR data and high-resolution imagery at different acquisition times in consideration of real landscape changes and observation differences. In the proposed method, a multi-sensor change detection by supervised multivariate alteration detection is employed to obtain changed areas and misregistration areas. The no-data areas in the LiDAR data and the shadow areas in the high-resolution imagery are extracted by independent classification yielded by its corresponding single sensor data. Finally, an object-based post-classification fusion is proposed to take advantage of independent classification results with single-sensor data and the joint classification result with stacked multi-sensor data. Experiments covering the study site in Buffalo, NY, USA demonstrate that our method can accurately detect landscape changes and obviously improve the performance of impervious surface mapping.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: UAV; Object Detection; Object Tracking; Deep Learning; Kalman Filter; Autonomous Surveillance
Online: 28 September 2021 (11:27:07 CEST)
The ever-burgeoning growth of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has demonstrated a promising platform for utilization in real-world applications. In particular, UAV equipped with a vision system could be leveraged for surveillance applications. This paper proposes a learning-based UAV system for achieving autonomous surveillance, in which the UAV can be of assistance in autonomously detecting, tracking, and following a target object without human intervention. Specifically, we adopted the YOLOv4-Tiny algorithm for semantic object detection and then consolidated it with a 3D object pose estimation method and Kalman Filter to enhance the perception performance. In addition, a back-end UAV path planning for surveillance maneuver is integrated to complete the fully autonomous system. The perception module is assessed on a quadrotor UAV, while the whole system is validated through flight experiments. The experiment results verified the robustness, effectiveness, and reliability of the autonomous object tracking UAV system in performing surveillance tasks. The source code is released to the research community for future reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machine learning; CNT-reinforced cement-based composites; mechanical attributes
Online: 15 March 2022 (16:50:44 CET)
Time and cost-efficient techniques are essential to avoid extra conventional experimental studies with large date-set to characterize the mechanical properties of composite materials. Correlation between the structural performance and mechanical properties could be captured through the efficient predictive models. Several ensembled Machine Learning (ML) methods were implemented in this study, to materially characterize carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced cement-based composites. Proposed models were compared with each other to represent the accuracy of each method. The Flexural and Compressive Strength (target values) of CNT reinforced composites were predicted based on the data-rich framework provided in previous experimental investigations. These data were utilized for training of the proposed models by employing SciKit-Learn library in Python, followed by hyper-parameter tuning and k-fold cross-validation method for obtaining an efficient model to predict the target values. Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) were developed for this purpose. The findings of this study would be useful for prospective composite designers in case of sufficient experimental data availability for ML model training.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; dynamic-based learning; , higher education; interactive learning; online classroom
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:17:22 CEST)
Purpose: Now traditional lecture-based teaching and learning have been affected by the COVID-19. The objectives of this article are to design the novel educational technique called ‘dynamic-based learning’ (DBL) that provides the combination of online teaching-learning methods and student’s creativity, to evaluate primary dynamic-based learning function, and to propose dynamic-based learning for higher education. Methods: DBL composes of four steps, including, preparation, homework, classroom, and evaluation, which was designed, and taught in medical and dental schools. Online support materials included mobile phone, email, Facebook Messenger, Line Messenger, Cisco Webex, and Zoom Meetings applications were recruited for this novel method. Results: A total of 32 third-year medical students and 26 sixth-year dental students was treated by DBL similarly. three subjects, including, Innovation in Dentistry, Basic Medical Research, and Principles of Pathology and Forensic Medicine were selected in this article. The results showed students could create their knowledge, ideas, and creativity during the online classes.Conclusion: DBL can be used as an alternative learning mode during the COVID-19 crisis. The benefits of DBL also include high flexibility, dynamic process, active learning, and high creativity. DBL should be tested with other disciplines such as engineering school, laws school, health sciences school, and should be compared with other traditional teaching and learning modes in the future. This method may support the global higher education systems to move forward the COVID-19 pandemic to set a novel standard of a future normal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0418.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: detailed vegetation mapping; kudzu mapping; coarse label; two-step classification; object-based image analysis; lidar point clouds; sampling specificity
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:58:25 CET)
Mapping vegetation species is critical to facilitate related quantitative assessment, and for invasive plants mapping their distribution is important to enhance monitoring and controlling activities. Integrating high resolution multispectral remote sensing (RS) image and lidar (light detection and ranging) point clouds can provide robust features for vegetation mapping. However, using multiple source of high-resolution RS data for vegetation mapping at large spatial scale can be both computationally and sampling intensive. Here we designed a two-step classification workflow to decrease computational cost and sampling effort, and to increase classification accuracy by integrating multispectral and lidar data to derive spectral, textural, and structural features for mapping target vegetation species. We used this workflow to classify kudzu, an aggressive invasive vine, in the entire Knox County (1,362 km2) of Tennessee, the United States. Object-based image analysis was conducted in the workflow. The first-step classification used 320 kudzu samples and extensive coarsely labeled samples (based on national land cover) to generate an overprediction map of kudzu using random forest (RF). For the second step, 350 samples were randomly extracted from the overpredicted kudzu and labeled manually for the final prediction using RF and support vector machine (SVM). Computationally intensive features were only used for the second-step classification. SVM had constantly better accuracy than RF, and the Producer’s Accuracy, User’s Accuracy, and Kappa for the SVM model on kudzu was 0.94, 0.96, and 0.90, respectively. SVM predicted 1010 kudzu patches covering 1.29 km2 in Knox County. We found the sample size of kudzu used for algorithm training impacted the accuracy and number of kudzu predicted. The proposed workflow could also improve sampling efficiency and specificity. Our workflow had much higher accuracy than the traditional method conducted in this research, and could be easily implemented to map kudzu in other regions or other vegetation species.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Model-Based Systems Engineering; Category Theory; Object-Process Methodology; Model Analytics; Concept-Model-Graph-View-Concept; Graph Data Structures; Graph Query; Decision Support Matrix; Matrix-Based Analysis
Online: 18 February 2021 (12:27:50 CET)
We introduce the Concept-Model-Graph-View Cycle (CMGVC). The CMGVC facilitates coherent architecture analysis, reasoning, insight, and decision-making based on conceptual models that are transformed into a generic, robust graph data structure (GDS). The GDS is then transformed into multiple views of the model, which inform stakeholders in various ways. This GDS-based approach decouples the view from the model and constitutes a powerful enhancement of model-based systems engineering (MBSE). The CMGVC applies the rigorous foundations of Category Theory, a mathematical framework of representations and transformations. We show that modeling languages are categories, drawing an analogy to programming languages. The CMGVC architecture is superior to direct transformations and language-coupled common representations. We demonstrate the CMGVC to transform a conceptual system architecture model built with the Object Process Modeling Language (OPM) into dual graphs and a stakeholder-informing matrix that stimulates system architecture insight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0653.v1
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:55:00 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to use deep learning tools to innovate pre-trained object detection models to improve the accuracy of non-destructive testing (NDT) of civil aviation maintenance. First, this thesis classifies object defects for NDT, such as cracks, undercut, etc. Nowadays, thesis surveys innovation deep-learning methods technology is used to improve the defect detection performance inferencing capability, increase the accuracy and efficiency of automatic identification which in enhanced the safety and reliability of aircraft fuselage in future, mark hidden cracks and solve the challenges that cannot be identified by manual inspection. Second, recent mainstream techniques the YOLOv4 neural network to the graphics card GPU core operator to speed up the recognition of defect images is being applied to the non-destructive inspection process of aircraft maintenance on A, C and D-Level, fully validating the deep learning model's powerful defect detection target capability. The attention-based YOLOv4 algorithm is improved by applying a one-stage attention mechanism to the YOLOv4, thereby improving the accuracy of the innovation model. Finally, thesis improved YOLOv4 based on an attention mechanism is proposed for object detection NDT via the deep learning method to effectively improve and shorten the inspection anomaly detection method for automatic detection sensor systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0733.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Discrete multiphysics; smooth particle hydrodynamics; Lattice Spring Model; Fluid-structure interaction; particle-based method; Coronary stent; Atherosclerosis
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:55:59 CEST)
Stenting is a common method for treating atherosclerosis. A metal or polymer stent is deployed to open the stenosed artery or vein. After the stent is deployed, the blood flow dynamics influence the mechanics by compressing and expanding the structure. If the stent does not respond properly to the resulting stress, vascular wall injury or re-stenosis can occur. In this work, Discrete Multiphysics is used to study the mechanical deformation of the coronary stent and its relationship with the blood flow dynamics. The major parameters responsible for deforming the stent are sort in terms of dimensionless numbers and a relationship between the elastic forces in the stent and pressure forces in the fluid is established. The blood flow and the stiffness of the stent material contribute significantly to the stent deformation and affect the rate of deformation. The stress distribution in the stent is not uniform with the higher stresses occurring at the nodes of the structure.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Reducing Training Annotations per Image; Object Detection; Object Counting; Asymmetric Loss Function
Online: 15 January 2021 (15:44:51 CET)
Annotating training data is a time consuming and labor intensive process in deep learning, especially for images with many objects present. In this paper, we propose a method to allow deep networks to be trained on data with reduced numbers of annotations (per image) in heatmap regression tasks (e.g. object detection and counting), by applying an asymmetric loss function. In a real scenario, this reduction of annotations can be imposed by the researchers (e.g. ask the annotators to label only 50% of what they see in each image), or can potentially counteract unintentionally missing labels from the annotators. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments in two domains, crowd counting and wheat spikelet detection, using different deep network architecture. We drop various percentages of instance annotations per image in training. Results show that an asymmetric loss function is effective across different models and datasets, even in very extreme cases with limited annotations provided (e.g. 90% of the original annotations reduced). Whilst tuning of the key parameters are required, we find that setting conservative parameter values can help more realistic situations, where only small amounts of data have been missed by annotators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0521.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: displacement monitoring; ground-based interferometric radar; non contact measurement; structural health monitoring (SHM)
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:04:58 CET)
In this paper, we introduce a non-invasive approach for monitoring bridge infrastructure with ground-based interferometric radar. This approach is called the mirror mode, since it utilises the flat surface of the bridge underside as a mirror to reflect the signal to a corner reflector on the ground placed opposite of the radar sensor. For proving the feasibility of this approach, a measurement campaign has been carried out at an exemplary bridge in Karlsruhe (Germany) including a radar sensor in mirror mode, a second radar sensor in the default mode and a laser profile scanner. We investigate the potential of this approach to monitor the bridge displacement in vertical direction and compare the results with the two other sensors. The derived results reveal the potential for monitoring bridge infrastructure. Finally, we propose further research aspects of this approach to analyse its capabilities and limitation in the context of non-invasive infrastructure monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: conceptual modeling; cyber-physical systems; cyber-physical gap; Object-Process Methodology; model-based systems engineering; Three Mile Island 2 Accident
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:59:29 CEST)
: The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is an inevitable issue in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment. We propose CPG-Aware Modeling & Engineering (CPGAME), a conceptual model-based approach for capturing, explaining, and mitigating the CPG, on top of and in sync with the conventional system model, and as an inherent systems engineering activity. This approach enhances the systems engineer’s ability to cope with CPGs, mitigate them by design, and prevent erroneous decisions, actions, and hazardous implications. CPGAME is a generic, conceptual approach, specified and demonstrated with Object Process Methodology (OPM). OPM is a holistic conceptual modeling paradigm for multidisciplinary, complex, dynamic systems, which is also ISO-19450. We analyze the 1979 Three Miles Island 2 nuclear accident as a prime example of the disastrous consequences of unmitigated CPGs in complex systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0186.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Adsorption; DFT; Starch-based Activated Carbon; Kinetics; Thermodynamics
Online: 12 October 2021 (14:58:07 CEST)
Cadmium (II) contamination in the environment is an emerging problem due to its acute toxicity and mobility, so it is very urgent to remove this species from industrial wastewater before it is discharged into the environment. Thus, a starch-based activated carbon (AC) with a specific surface area of 1600 m2g-1 is used as an adsorbent for the capturing of toxic Cadmium (II) ions from synthetic solution. The sorbent is characterized by BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and zeta potential. The maximum uptake (284 mg g-1) of Cadmium (II) ion is obtained at pH 6. The thermodynamics parameters like ∆G, ∆H, ΔS are found to be -17.42 kJmol-1, 6.49 kJ mol-1, and 55.66 Jmol-1K-1 respectively, revealing that the adsorption mechanism is endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible. The experimental data follows the D-R and Langmuir models well. The mass transfer is controlled by pseudo 2nd order kinetics. Furthermore, the density functional theory simulations demonstrate that the activated carbon strongly interacted with the Cd (II) ion through its various active sites. The adsorption energy noted for all interactive sites is highly negative (-0.45 eV to -10.03 eV), which shows that the adsorption process is spontaneous and stable which is in agreement with the experimental thermodynamics analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0030.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: OpenCV; Python; objects; object detection; card
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:40:17 CET)
Computer vision is a rapidly developing field that focuses on highly sophisticated picture analysis, manipulation, and comprehension. Its objective is to analyze what is happening in front of a camera and utilize that understanding to control a computer or robotic system or to present users with fresh visuals that are more enlightening or appealing than the original camera images. Computer vision technologies make it feasible for new user interfaces, augmented reality gaming, biometrics, automobile, photography, movie creation, Web search, and many more applications. This essay seeks to explain how computer vision can be utilized to play blackjack successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0543.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: OpenCV; Python; objects; object detection; card
Online: 28 December 2022 (12:42:17 CET)
Computer vision is a fast-expanding discipline focusing on analyzing, altering, and comprehending images at a high level. Its goal is to figure out what's going on in front of a camera and use that knowledge to manage a computer or robotic system or to show people new visuals that are more instructive or attractive than the original camera photos. Video surveillance, biometrics, automotive, photography, movie production, Web search, medicine, augmented reality gaming, new user interfaces, and many other applications are all possible with computer vision technologies. This paper aims to describe how computer vision will be used to play a winning game of blackjack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0105.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: fusion; point clouds; images; object detection
Online: 12 February 2019 (16:53:19 CET)
This paper aims at tackling with the task of fusion feature from images and its corresponding point clouds for 3D object detection in autonomous driving scenarios basing on AVOD, an Aggregate View Object Detection network. The proposed fusion algorithms fuse features targeted from Bird’s Eye View (BEV) LIDAR point clouds and its corresponding RGB images. Differs in existing fusion methods, which are simply the adoptions of concatenation module, element-wise sum module or element-wise mean module, our proposed fusion algorithms enhance the interaction between BEV feature maps and its corresponding images feature maps by designing a novel structure, where single level feature maps and another utilizes multilevel feature maps. Experiments show that our proposed fusion algorithm produces better results on 3D mAP and AHS with less speed loss comparing to existing fusion method used on the KITTI 3D object detection benchmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0651.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: wooden object; cultural heritage; history; analysis
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:32:23 CET)
Aims of the paper are the results of a research on a wooden box that holds an important historical document, which is a hand Bible handwritten in the thirteenth century. The tradition connect this Bible to the name of Marco Polo (Venice, 1254 - Venice, 1324), who would be the owner and that it would accompany him on his travels (1262 and 1271) in China. The Bible, of fine workmanship, written on thin parchment, and its container, along with a yellow silk cloth, is preserved in the ancient and prestigious Laurentian Library in Florence. The manuscript was in very poor condition and in the course of the study (2011) was being restored. Aims of survey were to determine the place and period of realization of the box, or rather if it be contemporary or later than the manuscript it contains and whether it was made in the East or in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0133.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Radiation risk analysis, GIS based model, thermal power plant, surface radiation, remedial measures
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:57:09 CET)
Coal combustion in thermal power plants releases ash. Ash is reported to cause different adverse health hazards in humans and other organisms. Owing to the presence of radionuclides, it is also considered as a potential radiation hazard. In this study, based on the surface radiation measurements and relevant ancillary data, expected radiation risk zones were identified with regard to the human population residing near the Thermal Power Plant. With population density as the risk determining criteria, about 20% of the study area was at ‘High’ risk and another 20% of the study area was at ‘Low’ risk zone. The remaining 60% was under medium risk zone. Based on the findings remedial measures which may be adopted have been suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0035.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: landslide; classifier ensemble; instance based learning; Rotation Forest; GIS; Vietnam
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:25:12 CEST)
This study proposes a novel hybrid machine learning approach for modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. The proposed approach is a combination of an instance-based learning algorithm (k-NN) and Rotation Forest (RF), state of the art machine techniques that have seldom explored for landslide modeling. The Lang Son city area (Vietnam) is selected as a case study. For this purpose, a spatial database for the study area was constructed, and then, was used to build and evaluate the hybrid model. Performance of the model was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), area under the ROC curve (AUC), success rate and prediction rate, and several statistical evaluation metrics. The results showed that the model has high performance with both the training data (AUC = 0.948) and the validation data (AUC = 0.848). The results were compared with those obtained from soft computing techniques i.e. Random Forest, J48 Decision Trees, and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. Overall, the performance of the proposed model is better than those obtained from the above methods. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool for landslide modeling. The research result can be highly useful for land use planning and management in landslide prone areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0313.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; faster region-based convolutional neural network (FRCNN); single-shot multibox detector (SSD); super-resolution; remote sensing imagery; edge enhancement; satellites
Online: 29 April 2020 (13:33:56 CEST)
The detection performance of small objects in remote sensing images has not been satisfactory compared to large objects, especially in low-resolution and noisy images. A generative adversarial network (GAN)-based model called enhanced super-resolution GAN (ESRGAN) showed remarkable image enhancement performance, but reconstructed images usually miss high-frequency edge information. Therefore, object detection performance showed degradation for small objects on recovered noisy and low-resolution remote sensing images. Inspired by the success of edge enhanced GAN (EEGAN) and ESRGAN, we applied a new edge-enhanced super-resolution GAN (EESRGAN) to improve the quality of remote sensing images and used different detector networks in an end-to-end manner where detector loss was backpropagated into the EESRGAN to improve the detection performance. We proposed an architecture with three components: ESRGAN, EEN, and Detection network. We used residual-in-residual dense blocks (RRDB) for both the ESRGAN and EEN, and for the detector network, we used a faster region-based convolutional network (FRCNN) (two-stage detector) and a single-shot multibox detector (SSD) (one stage detector). Extensive experiments on a public (car overhead with context) dataset and another self-assembled (oil and gas storage tank) satellite dataset showed superior performance of our method compared to the standalone state-of-the-art object detectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: low-back pain (LBP); guidelines; gaps; evidence-based; acute pain; analgesics; multimodal analgesia; fixed doses combination (FDC)
Online: 26 August 2022 (04:36:13 CEST)
Acute low back pain (LBP) stands as a leading cause of activity limitation and work absenteeism, and its associated healthcare expenditures are expected to become substantial when acute LBP develops into a chronic and even refractory condition. Therefore, early intervention is crucial to prevent progression to chronic pain whose management is particularly challenging and for which the most effective pharmacological therapy is still controversial. Current guideline treatment recommendations vary and are mostly driven by expertise with opinion differing across different interventions. Thus, it is difficult to formulate evidence-based guidance when relatively few randomized clinical trials did explore the diagnosis and management of LBP while employing different selection criteria, statistical analyses, and outcome measurements. This narrative review aims to provide a critical appraisal of current acute LBP management by discussing the unmet needs and areas of improvement from bench-to-bedside and proposes multimodal analgesia as the way forward to attain an effective and prolonged pain relief and functional recovery in patients with acute LBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Deep Learning; Smartphone Image; Acne Grading; Acne Object DetectionDeep Learning, Smartphone Image, Acne Grading, Acne Object Detection
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Skin image analysis using artificial intelligence (AI) has recently attracted significant research interest, particularly for analyzing skin images captured by mobile devices. Acne is one of the most common skin conditions with profound effects in severe cases. In this study, we developed an AI system called AcneDet for automatic acne object detection and acne severity grading using facial images captured by smartphones. AcneDet includes two models for conducting two tasks: (1) a Faster R-CNN-based deep learning model for the detection of acne lesion objects of four types including blackheads/whiteheads, papules/pustules, nodules/cysts, and acne scars; and (2) a LightGBM machine learning model for grading acne severity using the Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) scale. The output of the Faster R-CNN model, i.e., the counts of each acne type, were used as input for the LightGBM model for acne severity grading. A dataset consisting of 1,572 labeled facial images captured by both iOS and Android smartphones was used for training. The results show that the Faster R-CNN model achieves a mAP of 0.54 for acne object detection. The mean accuracy of acne severity grading by the LightGBM model is 0.85. With this study, we hope to contribute to the development of artificial intelligent systems that are able to help acne patients understand more about their conditions and support doctors in acne diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: tactile sensing; artificial robotic skin; active tactile object perception; active tactile object learning; active tactile transfer learning
Online: 16 November 2017 (03:49:49 CET)
Reusing the tactile knowledge of some previously explored objects helps us to easily recognize the tactual properties of new objects. In this paper, we enable a robotic arm equipped with multi-modal artificial skin, like humans, to actively transfer the prior tactile exploratory action experiences when it learns the detailed physical properties of new objects. These experiences, or prior tactile knowledge, are built by the feature observations that the robot perceives from multiple sensory modalities, when it applies the pressing, sliding, and static contact movements on objects with different action parameters. We call our method Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer (APTKT), and systematically evaluated its performance by several experiments. Results show that the robot improved the discrimination accuracy by around 10% when it used only one training sample plus the feature observations of prior objects. By incorporating the auxiliary features, the transfer learning improved the discrimination accuracy by over 20%. The results also show that the proposed method is robust against transferring irrelevant prior tactile knowledge (negative knowledge transfer).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0172.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; larger-scale dataset; stacked carton
Online: 11 March 2022 (15:48:23 CET)
Carton detection is an important technique in the automatic logistics system and can be applied to many applications such as the stacking and unstacking of cartons, the unloading of cartons in the containers. However, there is no public large-scale carton dataset for the research community to train and evaluate the carton detection models up to now, which hinders the development of carton detection. In this paper, we present a large-scale carton dataset named Stacked Carton Dataset (SCD) with the goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in carton detection. Images are collected from the Internet and several warehouses, and objects are labeled using per-instance segmentation for precise localization. There are total of 250,000 instance masks from 16,136 images. Naturelly, a suite of benchmarks are established with several popular detectors. In addition, we design a carton detector based on RetinaNet by embedding our proposed Offset Prediction between Classification and Localization module (OPCL) and Boundary Guided Supervision module (BGS). OPCL alleviates the imbalance problem between classification and localization quality which boosts AP by 3.1%∼4.7% on SCD at the model level while BGS guides the detector to pay more attention to boundary information of cartons and decouple repeated carton textures at the task level. To demonstrate the generalization of OPCL to other datasets, we conduct extensive experiments on MS COCO and PASCAL VOC. The improvements of AP on MS COCO and PASCAL VOC are 1.8%∼2.2% and 3.4%∼4.3% respectively. Source dataset is available here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0511.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: real sea surface; object detection; performance detection
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:16:15 CET)
The video images captured at long range usually have low contrast floating objects of interest on a sea surface. A comparative experimental study of the statistical characteristics of reflections from floating objects and from the agitated sea surface showed the difference in the correlation and spectral characteristics of these reflections. The functioning of the recently proposed modified matched subspace detector (MMSD) is based on the separation of the observed data spectrum on two subspaces: relatively low and relatively high frequencies. In the literature the MMSD performance has been evaluated in generally and moreover using only a sea model (additive Gaussian background clutter). This paper extends the performance evaluating methodology for low contrast object detection and moreover using only the real sea dataset. This methodology assumes an object of low contrast if the mean and variance of the object and the surrounding background are the same. The paper assumes that the energy spectrum of the object and the sea are different. The paper investigates a scenario in which an artificially created model of a floating object with specified statistical parameters is placed on the surface of a real sea image. The paper compares the efficiency of the classical Matched Subspace Detector (MSD) and MMSD for detecting low-contrast objects on the sea surface. The article analyzes the dependence of the detection probability at a fixed false alarm probability on the difference between the statistical means and variances of a floating object and the surrounding sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0641.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: foraminifera; instance segmentation; object detection; deep learning
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:33:54 CEST)
Foraminifera are single-celled marine organisms that construct shells that remain as fossils in the marine sediments. Classifying and counting these fossils are important in e.g. paleo-oceanographic and -climatological research. However, the identification and counting process has been performed manually since the 1800s and is laborious and time-consuming. In this work, we present a deep learning-based instance segmentation model for classifying, detecting, and segmenting microscopic foraminifera. Our model is based on the Mask R-CNN architecture, using model weight parameters that have learned on the COCO detection dataset. We use a fine-tuning approach to adapt the parameters on a novel object detection dataset of more than 7000 microscopic foraminifera and sediment grains. The model achieves a (COCO-style) average precision of 0.78±0.00 on the classification and detection task, and 0.80±0.00 on the segmentation task. When the model is evaluated without challenging sediment grain images, the average precision for both tasks increases to 0.84±0.00 and 0.86±0.00, respectively. Prediction results are analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively and discussed. Based on our findings we propose several directions for future work, and conclude that our proposed model is an important step towards automating the identification and counting of microscopic foraminifera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: YOLOv2; transfer learning; pig farming; object detection
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:59:03 CEST)
Generic object detection is one of the most important and flourishing branches of computer vision and has real-life applications in our day to day life. With the exponential development of deep learning-based techniques for object detection, the performance has enhanced considerably over the last 2 decades. However, due to the data-hungry nature of deep models, they don't perform well on tasks which have very limited labeled dataset available. To handle this problem, we proposed a transfer learning-based deep learning approach for detecting multiple pigs in the indoor farm setting. The approach is based on YOLO-v2 and the initial parameters are used as the optimal starting values for train-ing the network. Compared to the original YOLO-v2, we transformed the detector to detect only one class of objects i.e. pigs and the back-ground. For training the network, the farm-specific data is annotated with the bounding boxes enclosing pigs in the top view. Experiments are performed on a different configuration of the pen in the farm and convincing results have been achieved while using a few hundred annotated frames for fine-tuning the network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation; object-based image analysis (OBIA); APEX hyperspectral imagery; Random forest (RF) classifier; multiresolution segmentation (MRS); tree species classification
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:55:07 CEST)
Tree species composition is an important key element for biodiversity and sustainable forest management, and hyperspectral data provide detailed spectral information, which can be used for tree species classification. There are two main challenges for using hyperspectral imagery: a) Hughes phenomena, meaning by increasing the number of bands in hyperspectral imagery, the number of required classification samples would increase exponentially, and b) in a more complex environment, such as riparian mixed forest, focusing on spectral variability per pixel may not be adequate for definability of tree species. Therefore, the focus of this study is to assess spectral-spatial dimensionality reduction of airborne hyperspectral imagery by using minim noise fraction (MNF) transformation, and object-based image analysis (OBIA). An airborne prism experiment (APEX) hyperspectral imagery was used. A study area was a riparian mixed forest located along the Salzach river, and six tree species including Picea abies, Populus (canadensis and balsamifera), Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, and Salix alba were selected. A machine learning algorithm random forest (RF) was used to train and apply a prediction model for classification. Using a spectral dimensionality reduced APEX, a pixel-level classification was also done. According to a confusion matrix, the object-level classification of MNF-derived components achieved the overall accuracy of 85 %, and kappa coefficient of 0.805. The performance of classes according to producer’s accuracy varied between 80% for Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, and Populus canadensis to 90% for Salix alba and Picea abies. Comparison the results to a pixel-level classification, showed a better performance of object-level classification (an overall accuracy of 63% and Kappa coefficient of 0.559 were achieved for pixel-level classification). The performance of classes using pixel-based classification varied 45 % for Alnus incana to 80% for Picea abies. In general, Spectral-spatial complexity reduction using MNF transformation and object-level classification yielded a statistically satisfactory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Project Based Learning; Scientific education; Preservice primary teacher; Emotions; Active Methodologies; Higher Education for Sustainable Development
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
The emotional dimension in education has become increasingly important in recent decades. Enhancing the emotional dimension of prospective teachers in science subjects is higher education stuff responsibility. The implementation of active methodologies could modify the traditional student-teacher roles that are encouraged by the educational policies implemented in the Bologna Process. The principal aim of this work is to describe a Project Based Learning methodology and to introduce it as potential resource for the emotional and cognitive improvement of 19 prospective primary teachers enrolled in a scientific subject. This is a qualitative study with a transversal sustainability approach in the context of a research line focused on Higher Education for Sustainable Development. A questionnaire was designed and filled by the students at two different times, before and after implementation of the activity. The initial feedback from students was surprisingly enthusiastic by the fact that they were working with rockets, despite of this is not a common emotion in the science field. The results show the emotional improvement of prospective teachers after the implementation. It is concluded that a correct science education is necessary during the training of teachers taking into account their emotional dimension and the social repercussion due to the future transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0326.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cellular agriculture; cell-based seafood; fish tissue culture; bioreactor; serum-free media; ocean conservation; marine cell culture; aquaculture
Online: 25 January 2019 (11:36:58 CET)
Cellular agriculture is defined as the production of agricultural products from cell cultures rather than from whole plants or animals. With growing interest in cellular agriculture as a means to address the public health, environmental, and animal welfare challenges of animal agriculture, the concept of producing seafood from fish cell- and tissue-cultures is emerging as a means to address similar challenges with industrial aquaculture systems and marine capture. Cell-based seafood - as opposed to animal-based seafood - can combine developments in biomedical engineering with modern aquaculture techniques. Biomedical engineering developments such as closed-system bioreactor production of land animal cells create a basis for large scale production of marine animal cells. Aquaculture techniques such as genetic modification and closed system aquaculture have achieved marked gains in production that can pave the way for innovations in cell-based seafood production. Here, we present the current state of innovation relevant to the development of cell-based seafood across multiple species as well as specific opportunities and challenges that exist for advancing this science. The authors find that the physiological properties of fish cell- and tissue- culture may be uniquely suited to cultivation in vitro. These physiological properties, including hypoxia tolerance, high buffering capacity, and low-temperature growth conditions, make marine cell culture an attractive opportunity for scale production of cell-based seafood; perhaps even more so than mammalian and avian cell cultures for cell-based meats. This, coupled with the unique capabilities of crustacean tissue-friendly scaffolding such as chitosan, a common seafood waste product and mushroom derivative, presents great promise for cell-based seafood production via bioreactor cultivation. To become fully realized, cell-based seafood research will require more understanding of fish muscle culture and cultivation; more investigation into serum-free media formulations optimized for fish cell culture; and bioreactor designs tuned to the needs of fish cells for large scale production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0564.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK); Drugs; environmental chemicals; Adverse outcome pathway (AOP); machine learning
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:30:07 CET)
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models (PBPK) are mechanistical tools generally employed in the pharmaceutical industry and environmental health risk assessment. These models are recognised by regulatory authorities for predicting organ concentration-time profile, pharmacokinetic and daily intake dose of xenobiotics. Extension of PBPK models to capture sensitive populations like pediatric, geriatric, pregnant females, fetus etc. and diseased population like renal impairment, liver cirrhosis etc. is a must. However, the current modelling practice and existing models are not mature enough to confidently predict the risk in these populations. A multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, experimental and modeler scientist is vital to improve the physiology, and calculation of biochemical parameters for integrating the knowledge and refining existing PBPK models. Specific PBPK covering compartments like cerebrospinal fluid, and hippocampus are required to gain mechanistic understanding about xenobiotic disposition in these sub-parts. The PBPK model assists in building quantitative adverse outcome pathways (qAOPs) for several endpoints like developmental neurotoxicity (DNT), hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Machine learning algorithms can predict physicochemical parameters required to develop in-silico models where experimental data is unavailable. Integrating machine learning with PBPK carries the potential to revolutionize the field of drug discovery and development and environmental risk. Overall, this review tried to summarize the recent developments in the in-silico models, building qAOPs, use of machine learning for improving existing models along with a regulatory perspective. This review can act as a guide for toxicologists who wish to build their careers in kinetic modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0070.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: scene recognition; object detection; scene classification; TF-IDF
Online: 5 July 2022 (08:38:17 CEST)
Indoor scene recognition and semantic information can be helpful for social robots. Recently, in the field of indoor scene recognition, researchers have incorporated object-level information and shown improved performances. This paper demonstrates that scene recognition can be performed solely using object-level information in line with these advances. A state-of-the-art object detection model was trained to detect objects typically found in indoor environments and then used to detect objects in scene data. These predicted objects were then used as features to predict room categories. This paper successfully combines approaches conventionally used in computer vision (YOLO) and Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF). These approaches could be further helpful in the field of embodied research and dynamic scene classification, which we elaborate on.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0679.v1
Online: 27 May 2021 (14:14:20 CEST)
The study aimed to identify different molds that grow on various food surfaces. As a result, we conducted a case study for the detection of mold on food surfaces based on the “you only look once (YOLO) v5” principle. In this context, a dataset of 2050 food images with mold growing on their surfaces was created. The dataset was trained using the pre-trained YOLOv5 algorithm. In comparison to YOLOv3 and YOLOv4, this current YOLOv5 model had better precision, recall, and average precision (AP), which were 98.10%, 100%, and 99.60%, respectively. The YOLOv5 algorithm was used for the first time in this study to detect mold on food surfaces. In conclusion, the proposed model successfully recognizes any kind of mold present on the food surface. Using YOLOv5, we are currently conducting research to identify the specific species of the detected mold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0279.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxy morphology, machine learning; data analysis; object classification
Online: 22 October 2018 (13:01:42 CEST)
Automated machine classifications of galaxies are necessary because the size of upcoming surveys will overwhelm human volunteers. We improve upon existing machine classification methods by adding the output of SpArcFiRe to the inputs of a machine learning model. We use the human classifications from Galaxy Zoo 1 (GZ1) to train a random forest of decision trees to reproduce the human vote distributions of the Spiral class. We prefer the random forest model over other black box models like neural networks because it allows us to trace post hoc the precise reasoning behind the classification of each galaxy. We find that, across a sample of 470,000 Sloan galaxies that are large enough that details could be seen if they were there, the combination of SpArcFiRe outputs with existing SDSS features provides a better machine classification than either one alone on comparison to Galaxy Zoo 1. We suggest that adding SpArcFiRe outputs as features to any machine learning algorithm will likely improve its performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: image segmentation; object labeling; color space; fruit counting
Online: 23 November 2017 (10:37:25 CET)
Identifying the total number of fruits on trees has long been of interest in agricultural crop estimation work. Yield prediction of fruits in practical environment is one of the hard and significant tasks to obtain better results in crop management system to achieve more productivity with regard to moderate cost. Utilized color vision in machine vision system to identify citrus fruits, and estimated yield information of the citrus grove in-real time. Fruit recognition algorithms based on color features to estimate the number of fruit. In the current research work, some low complexity and efficient image analysis approach was proposed to count yield fruits image in the natural scene. Semi automatic segmentation and yield calculation of fruit based on shape analysis is presented. Color and shape analysis was utilized to segment the images of different fruits like apple, pomegranate obtained under different lighting conditions. First the input sectional tree image was converted from RGB colour space into the colour space transform (i.e., YUV, YIQ, or YCbCr). The resultant image was then applied to the algorithm for fruit segmentation. After it is applied Morphological Operations which is enhanced image then execute Blob counting method which identify the object and count the number of it. Accuracy of this algorithm used in this thesis is 82.21% for images that have been scanned.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mild virus-infected flu; home-based treatment; inhalation of volatile chemicals; onion; garlic
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:38:20 CET)
Virus-infected Flu is a common disease. To date, no specific drugs are available to manage the symptoms of cough, headache and sputum production. An alternative Chinese herb medicine is introduced for virus-infected Flu or similar infection. Before hospitalization, some of patients may scare for cross-infection with mild symptoms or hardly go to hospital if encountered a temporary lockdown or quarantine. Some Chinese practice self-treatment of cough, headache and sputum production by inhalation of volatile chemicals from onion and garlic. Author used to take the same alternative approach of inhalation of onion, garlic or scallions for self-treatment when suffered virus caused flu with cough, headache and sputum production at onset disease. In this article, the biomedical effects of onion and garlic are reviewed. To help patients with mild symptoms of virus infected Flu, a simple home-based treatment was suggested to self-treatment because of temporary isolation and hardly going to hospitalization. The alternative approach may also suggest for some mild virus infected respiratory diseases caused by virus at onset disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0352.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: artificial intelligence; color naming; color constancy; cognitive science; computer vision; object-based image analysis (OBIA); physical and statistical data models; radiometric calibration; semantic content-based image retrieval; spatial topological and spatial non-topological information components
Online: 28 August 2018 (07:57:02 CEST)
The European Space Agency (ESA) defines as Earth observation (EO) Level 2 information product a single-date multi-spectral (MS) image corrected for atmospheric, adjacency and topographic effects, stacked with its data-derived scene classification map (SCM), whose thematic map legend includes quality layers cloud and cloud-shadow. ESA EO Level 2 product generation is an inherently ill-posed computer vision (CV) problem never accomplished to date in operating mode by any EO data provider at the ground segment. Herein, it is considered: (I) necessary not sufficient pre-condition for the yet-unaccomplished dependent problems of semantic content-based image retrieval (SCBIR) and semantics-enabled information/knowledge discovery (SEIKD) in multi-source EO big data cubes. (II) Synonym of EO Analysis Ready Data (ARD) format. (III) Equivalent to a horizontal policy for background developments in Space Economy 4.0. In compliance with the GEO-CEOS Quality Assurance Framework for EO Calibration/Validation guidelines, to contribute toward filling an analytic and pragmatic information gap from multi-sensor EO big data to timely, comprehensive and operational EO value-adding information products and services, this work presents an innovative AutoCloud+ CV software toolbox for cloud and cloud-shadow quality layer detection in ESA EO Level 2 product. In vision, spatial information dominates color information. Inspired by this true-fact, the inherently ill-posed AutoCloud+ CV software was conditioned, designed and implemented to be “universal”, meaning fully automated (no human-machine interaction is required), near real-time, robust to changes in input data and scalable to changes in MS imaging sensor’s spatial and spectral resolution specifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0665.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Delft3D; Object Mobility Model; Munitions Mobility and Burial; Object Shields Parameter; Sediment Shields Parameter; Equilibrium Burial Percentage; Sediment Supporting Point
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:24:25 CEST)
Coupled Delft3D-object model has been developed to predict object’s mobility and burial on sandy seafloor. The Delft3D model is used to predict seabed environment such as currents, waves (peak period, significant wave height, wave direction), water level, sediment transport, and seabed change, which are taken as the forcing term to the object model consisting of three components: (a) object‘s physical parameters such as diameter, length, mass, and rolling moment, (b) dynamics of rolling cylinder around its major axis, and (c) empirical sediment scour model with re-exposure parameterization. The model is compared with the observational data collected from a field experiment from 21 April to 23 May 2013 off the coast of Panama City, Florida funded by the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The experimental data contain both objects’ mobility using sector scanning and pencil beam sonars and simultaneous environmental time series data of the boundary layer hydrodynamics and sediment transport conditions. Comparison between modeled and observed data clearly show the model capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Modal-based model updating, Bayesian model updating, System identification, Damage identification, Operational health monitoring, I-girder, Bridge, Aging.
Online: 15 December 2022 (10:10:39 CET)
The average age of in-service bridges has increased in recent years in the United States. To address this issue, structural health monitoring and damage identification approaches can be employed to prioritize maintenance/replacement of aging bridges. Among the damage identification and operational health monitoring approaches, finite element (FE) model updating methods can offer a solution to evaluate the mechanics-based characteristics of bridges. However, in a real-world setting, unidentifiability and mutual dependency between model parameters, modeling errors, especially due to boundary conditions, as well as ill-conditioning of updating algorithms can pose challenges to the application of FE model updating methods. To address these challenges, this study presents a two-step FE model updating approach. In the first step, modal-based model updating is used to estimate linear model parameters mainly related to the stiffness of boundary conditions and material properties. In the second step, in order to refine parameter estimation accounting for nonlinear response behavior of the bridge, a time-domain model updating is carried out. In this step, boundary conditions are fixed at their final estimates using modal-based model updating. To prevent the convergence of updating algorithm to local solutions, the initial estimates for nonlinear material properties are selected based on their corresponding final estimates in the modal-based model updating. To validate the applicability of the two-step FE model updating approach, a series of forced-vibration experiments are designed and carried out on a pair of decommissioned and deteriorated prestressed bridge I-girders. After carrying out the two-step FE model updating, the final estimates of concrete compressive strength are shown to provide reasonable assessment of the damage extent in the girders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Decarbonization Methodology; Urban Traffic; Agent-Based Transport Simulation; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainability; Total Cost of Ownership; Charging Concepts; Conceptual Vehicle Design; Battery Electric Vehicles; Vehicle Routing Problem
Online: 6 December 2020 (18:16:16 CET)
This paper presents a new methodology to derive and analyze strategies for a fully decarbonized urban transport system which combines conceptual vehicle design, a large-scale agent-based transport simulation, operational cost analysis, and life cycle assessment for a complete urban region. The holistic approach evaluates technical feasibility, system cost, energy demand, transportation time and sustainability-related impacts of various decarbonization strategies. In contrast to previous work, the consequences of a transformation to fully decarbonized transport system scenarios are quantified across all traffic segments, considering procurement, operation and disposal. The methodology can be applied to arbitrary regions and transport systems. Here, the metropolitan region of Berlin is chosen as a demonstration case. First results are shown for a complete conversion of all traffic segments from conventional propulsion technology to battery electric vehicles. The transition of private individual traffic is analyzed regarding technical feasibility, energy demand and environmental impact. Commercial goods, municipal traffic and public transport are analyzed with respect to system cost and environmental impacts. We can show a feasible transition path for all cases with substantially lower greenhouse gas emissions. Based on current technologies and today’s cost structures our simulation shows a moderate increase in total systems cost of 13-18%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: close range photogrammetry; 3D linear control network; object dimensioning
Online: 7 March 2022 (19:57:21 CET)
In surveying engineering tasks, close-range photogrammetry belongs to leading technology considering different aspects like the achievable accuracy, availability of hardware and software, accessibility to measured objects, or the economy. Hence, constant studies on photogrammetric data processing are desirable. Especially in industrial applications, the control points for close-range photogrammetry are usually measured using total stations. In the case of small objects, more precise positions of control points can be obtained by deploying and adjusting a three-dimensional linear network set up on the object. The article analyzes the accuracy of the proposed method, based on the measurement of the linear network using a tape with a precision of ±1 mm. The experiment shows that the adjusted positions of the network control points can be determined with high, one-millimeter accuracy. The photogrammetric 3D model derived referring to such control points and stereo-images captured with a non-metric camera is also characterized by the highest possible precision, which qualifies the presented method to accurate measurements used in surveying engineering. The authors prove that the distance between two randomly optional points derived from the 3D model of a dimensioned object is equal to the actual distance measured directly on it with one-millimeter accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0170.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; semantic segmentation; computer vision; automatic check-out
Online: 14 June 2020 (12:51:26 CEST)
Auto checkout has received more and more attention in recent years and this system automatically generates a shopping bill by identifying the picture of the products purchased by the customers. However, the system is challenged by the domain adaptation problem, where each image of the training set contains only one commodity, whereas the test set is a collection of multiple commodities. The existing solution to this problem is to resynthesize the training images to enhance the training set. Then the composite images are rendered using CycleGAN to make the image distribution of the training set and the test set more similar. However, we find that the detection boxes given by the ground truth of the common dataset contain a large part of the background area, the area will affect the training process as noise. To solve this problem, we propose a mask data priming method. Specifically, we redo the large scale Retail Product Checkout (RPC) dataset and add segmentation annotation information to each item in the training set image based on the original dataset using pixel-level annotation. Secondly, a new network structure is proposed in which we train the network using joint learning of detectors and counters, and fine-tune the detection network by filtering out suitable images from the test set. Experiments on the RPC dataset have shown that our method yields better results. we used an approach that reached 81.87% compared to 56.68% for the baseline approach which demonstrates that pixel-level information helps to improve the detection results of the network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0155.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: object-oriented technique; change detection; eCognition® software; landuse
Online: 29 September 2017 (12:51:40 CEST)
This study compared two object-oriented land use change detection methods—detection after classification (DAC) and classification after detection (CAD) —based on a digital elevation model, slope data, and multi-temporal Landsat images (TM image for 2000 and ETM image for 2010). We noted that the overall accuracy of the DAC (86.42%) was much higher than that of the CAD (71.71%). However, a slight difference between the accuracies of the two methods exists for deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen coniferous forest, mixed wood, upland, paddy, reserved land, and settlement. Owing to substantial spectrum differences, these land use types can be extracted using spectral indexes. The accuracy of DAC was much higher than that of CAD for industrial land, traffic land, green shrub, reservoir, lake, river, and channel, all of which share similar spectrums. The discrepancy was mainly because DAC can completely utilize various forms of information apart from spectrum information during a two-stage classification. In addition, the change-area boundary was not limited at first, but was adjustable in the process of classification. DAC can overcome smoothing effects to a great extent using multi-scale segmentations and multi-characters in detection. Although DAC yielded better results, it was more time-consuming (28 days) because it uses a two-stage classification approach. Conversely, CAD consumed less time (15 days). Thus, a hybrid of the two methods is recommended for application in land use change detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0190.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: wireless sensor network; object tracking; dual sink; data collection
Online: 26 May 2017 (04:58:00 CEST)
Continuous object tracking in WSNs, such as monitoring of mud-rock flows, forest fires etc., is a challenging task due to characteristic nature of continuous objects. They can appear randomly in the network field, move continuously, and can change in size and shape. Monitoring such objects in real-time generally require tremendous amount of messaging between sensor nodes to synergistically estimate object’s movement and track its location. In this paper, we propose a novel twofold-sink mechanism, comprising of a mobile and a static sink node. Both sink nodes gather information about boundary sensor nodes, which is then used to uniformly distribute energy consumption across all network nodes, thus helping in saving residual energy of network nodes. Numerous object tracking schemes, using mobile sink, have been proposed in the literature. However, existing schemes employing mobile sink cannot be applied to track continuous objects, because of momentous variation of network topology. Therefore, we present in this paper a mechanism, transformed from K-means algorithm, to find the best sensing location of the mobile sink node. It helps to reduce transmission load on the intermediate network nodes situated between static sink node and the ordinary network sensing nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can distinctly improve life time of the network, compared to one-sink protocol employed in continuous object tracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0159.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: object detection; background subtraction; video surveillance; Kinect sensor fusion
Online: 20 March 2017 (10:21:40 CET)
Depth-sensing technology has led to broad applications of inexpensive depth cameras that can capture human motion and scenes in 3D space. Background subtraction algorithms can be improved by fusing color and depth cues, thereby allowing many issues encountered in classical color segmentation to be solved. In this paper, we propose a new fusion method that combines depth and color information for foreground segmentation based on an advanced color-based algorithm. First, a background model and a depth model are developed. Then, based on these models, we propose a new updating strategy that can eliminate ghosting and black shadows almost completely. Extensive experiments have been performed to compare the proposed algorithm with other, conventional RGB-D algorithms. The experimental results suggest that our method extracts foregrounds with higher effectiveness and efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0233.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: primate hand use; primate grooming; manual grooming; object manipulation; primate evolution; oral grooming; object play; tool use; Machiavellian Intelligence; Bayesian decision theory
Online: 20 September 2019 (06:39:59 CEST)
The evolution of manual grooming and its implications have received little attention in the quest to understand the origins of simian primates and their social and technical intelligence. All simians groom manually, whereas prosimians groom orally despite comparable manual dexterity between some members of the two groups. Simians also exhibit a variable propensity for the manipulation of inanimate, non-food objects, which has culminated in tool making and tool use in some species. However, lemuriform primates also seem capable of tool use with training. Furthermore, lemuriforms appear to understand the concept of a tool and use their own body parts as “tools”, despite not using inanimate objects. This suggests that prosimian primates are pre-adapted for proprioceptive object manipulation and tool use, but do not express these cognitive abilities by default. This essay explores the paleontological, anatomical, cognitive, ethological, and neurological roots of these abilities and attempts to explain this behavioural divide between simians and prosimians. Common misconceptions about early primate evolution and captive behaviours are addressed, and chronological inconsistencies with Machiavellian Intelligence are examined. A “licking to picking” hypothesis is also proposed to explain a potential link between manual grooming and object manipulation, and to reconcile the inconsistencies of Machiavellian Intelligence. Bayesian decision theory, the evolution of the parietal cortex and enhanced proprioception, and analogies with behavioural changes resulting from artificial selection may help provide new insights into the minds of both our primate kin and ourselves.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Collaborative robotics; Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC); Knowledge-Based Approach (KBA); collaborative workplace design; systematic layout planning; digital layout optimization; what-if analysis.
Online: 12 November 2021 (17:17:02 CET)
The innovation driven Industry 5.0, in agreement with Industry 4.0, leads to consider human in a prominence position as the center of manufacturing field. This pushes towards the hybridization of manufacturing plants promoting a fully collaboration between human and robot. Furthermore, the new paradigm of "human centred design" and "anthropocentric design" allows enabling a synergistic combination of human and robot skills. However, properly collaborative workplaces are currently very few. Industry is still not confident, and systems integrators hesitate to venture into Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC). Despite the effort in collaborative robotics, a general solution to overcome the current limitations in designing of collaborative workplaces still misses. In the current work, a Knowledge-Based Approach (KBA) is adopted to face collaborative workplace designing problem. The framework resulting from the KBA allows developing a modelling paradigm that enable to define a streamlined approach for the layout designing of a collaborative workplace. Finally, a what-if analysis and a ANOVA analysis are performed to generate and evaluate a set of scenarios related to a collaborative workplace for quality inspection of welded parts. Facing the high complexity and multidisciplinary of HRC can be conveyed to develop a general design approach aimed at overcoming the difficulties that limit the spread of HRC in the manufacturing field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040061
Subject: Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 24 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
In this work, a hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, it shines the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using three-fold cross validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. This is followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, and the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time-series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0548.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:26:41 CEST)
In this work, A hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, spotting the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using 3-fold cross-validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. Followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data, in order to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, as well as the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous Driving; Deep Learning; LIDAR Data; Wavelets; 3D Object Detection
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:03:00 CEST)
3D object detection is crucial for autonomous driving to understand the driving environment. Since the pooling operation causes information loss in the standard CNN, we have designed a wavelet multiresolution analysis-based 3D object detection network without a pooling operation. Additionally, instead of using a single filter like the standard convolution, we use the lower-frequency and higher-frequency coefficients as a filter. These filters capture more relevant parts than a single filter, enlarging the receptive field. The model comprises a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and an inverse wavelet transform (IWT) with skip connections to encourage feature reuse for contrasting and expanding layers. The IWT enriches the feature representation by fully recovering the lost details during the downsampling operation. Element-wise summation is used for the skip connections to decrease the computational burden. We train the model for the Haar and Daubechies (Db4) wavelets. The two-level wavelet decomposition result shows that we can build a lightweight model without losing significant performance. The experimental results on the KITTI’s BEV and 3D evaluation benchmark show our model outperforms the Pointpillars base model by up to 14 \% while reducing the number of trainable parameters. Code will be released.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: computer vision; image processing; medication adherence; object detection; pill detection
Online: 17 February 2022 (08:45:14 CET)
Objective tools to track medication adherence are lacking. A tool to monitor pill intake that can be implemented in mHealth apps without the need for additional devices was developed. We propose a pill intake detection tool that uses digital image processing to analyze images of a blister to detect the presence of pills. The tool uses the circular Hough transform as a feature extraction technique and is therefore primarily useful for the detection of pills with a round shape. This pill detection tool is composed of two steps. First, the registration of a full blister and storing of reference values in a local database. Second, the detection and classification of taken and remaining pills in similar blisters, to determine the actual number of untaken pills. In the registration of round pills in full blisters, 100% of pills in gray blisters or blisters with a transparent cover were successfully detected. In counting of untaken pills in partially opened blisters, 95.2% of remaining and 95.1% of taken pills were detected in gray blisters, while 88.2% of remaining and 80.8% of taken pills were detected in blisters with a transparent cover. The proposed tool provides promising results for the detection of round pills. However, the classification of taken and remaining pills need to be further improved, in particular for the detection of pills with non-oval shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: smart environment; smart sensors; distributed architectures; object detection; information integration
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:45:21 CET)
Objects recognition is a necessary task in smart city environments. This recognition can be used in processes such as the reconstruction of the environment map or the intelligent navigation of vehicles. This paper proposes an architecture that integrates heterogeneous distributed information to recognize objects in intelligent environments. The architecture is based on the IoT / Industry 4.0 model to interconnect the devices, called Smart Resources. Smart Resources can process local sensor data and send information to other devices. These other devices can be located in the same operating range, the Edge, in the same intranet, the Fog, or on the Internet, the Cloud. Smart Resources must have an intelligent layer in order to be able to process the information. A system with two Smart Resources equipped with different image sensors has been implemented to validate the architecture. Experiments show that the integration of information increases the certainty in the recognition of objects between 2\% and 4\%. Consequently, in the field of intelligent environments, it seems appropriate to provide the devices with intelligence, but also capabilities to collaborate closely with other devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0244.v1
Subject: Keywords: salient object; local binary pattern; histogram features; conditional random field
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:40:11 CEST)
We propose a novel method for salient object detection in different images. Our method integrates spatial features for efficient and robust representation to capture meaningful information about the salient objects. We then train a conditional random field (CRF) using the integrated features. The trained CRF model is then used to detect salient objects during the online testing stage. We perform experiments on two standard datasets and compare the performance of our method with different reference methods. Our experiments show that our method outperforms the compared methods in terms of precision, recall, and F-Measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0238.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Multiple object tracking; Airborne video; Tracklet confidence; Hierarchical association framework
Online: 13 July 2018 (14:27:22 CEST)
Multi-object tracking (MOT) in airborne videos is a challenging problem due to the uncertain airborne vehicle motion, vibrations of the mounted camera, unreliable detections, size, appearance and motion of the moving objects as well as occlusions due to the interaction between the moving objects and with other static objects in the scene.To deal with these problems, this work proposes a four-stage Hierarchical Association framework for multiple object Tracking in Airborne video (HATA). The proposed framework combines data association-based tracking (DAT) methods and target tracking using a Compressive Tracking approach, to robustly track objects in complex airborne surveillance scenes. In each association stage, different sets of tracklets and detections are associated to efficiently handle local tracklet generation, local trajectory construction, global drifting tracklet correction and global fragmented tracklet linking. Experiments with challenging airborne video datasets show significant tracking improvement compared to existing state-of-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0509.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; deep learning; data augmentation; object detection; ship detection
Online: 26 August 2021 (12:00:22 CEST)
Maritime ship monitoring plays an important role in maritime transportation. Fast and accurate detection of maritime ship is the key to maritime ship monitoring. The main sources of marine ship images are optical images and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Different from natural images, SAR images are independent to daylight and weather conditions. Traditional ship detection methods of SAR images mainly depend on the statistical distribution of sea clutter, which leads to poor robustness. As a deep learning detector, RetinaNet can break this obstacle, and the problem of imbalance on feature level and objective level can be further solved by combining with Libra R-CNN algorithm. In this paper, we modify the feature fusion part of Libra RetinaNet by adding a bottom-up path augmentation structure to better preserve the low-level feature information, and we expand the dataset through style transfer. We evaluate our method on the publicly available SAR dataset of ship detection with complex backgrounds. The experimental results show that the improved Libra RetinaNet can effectively detect multi-scale ships through expansion of the dataset, with an average accuracy of 97.38%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0423.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicles; SWOT analysis; 3D object detection; artificial intelligence; market dominance
Online: 21 January 2021 (14:50:05 CET)
Scientific and technological advances in telecommunications and onboard electronics, and advances in sustainability standards, dictated major changes to various industrial sectors, including the automotive industry, where hard and soft approaches to manufacturing are vying for market dominance. This work presents a prospective analysis of the autonomous vehicle (AV) market, analyzing three of the main US AV technology firms, Tesla, Waymo and Apple. Their designs and solutions are compared, and prospective scenarios were constructed based on an analysis of their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). The results suggest that Tesla currently exhibits the greatest market leadership in the group studied. However, it was concluded that in the medium term, Waymo would surpass Tesla and assume market leadership. In the long run, it was concluded that Apple will overcome its rivals and dominate this market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0161.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Navier-Stokes solver; multi-object tracking; collision risk assessment; road scenes
Online: 14 August 2019 (09:26:07 CEST)
Prediction of the likely evolution in the traffic scenes is a challenging task because of high uncertainty of sensing technology and dynamic environment. It leads to failure of planning for intelligent agents like autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we propose a fluid-based physical model to present the influence of surrounding object's motion on driving safety. In our pipeline, the input sensor could be LiDAR, camera, or multi-modal data. We use a Kalman filter to estimate the state space of each detected object, and adopt the properties of stable fluid to build a riskmap based on the density field. The noisy state space are then modeled as the boundary conditions in the simulation of advection and diffusion process. We test our approach on the public KITTI dataset and find this model could handle the short-term prediction in case of misdetection and tracking failure caused by object occlusion, which shows promising in collision risk assessment on road scenes.
Subject: Keywords: system-analysis; complex systems; system-theory; biological systems; object oriented programming
Online: 11 April 2019 (11:24:35 CEST)
The following series of Articles about a contextual system-theory, with focus on biological systems, shall give a guideline of how to explore complex systems. It is written not only for scientists, and therefore I will try to describe part of the way of understanding as an intuitive approach. This approach will also help scientists to get a deeper understanding of complexity. Some definitions and rules may seem at first simple and obvious. If practiced in a multidimensional complex system, one will see the difficulties. Even without mathematization or computer modeling the multidimensional sub space, which we try to describe phenomenologically for approaching the understanding of this Subsystem, will need a lot of training. Easily we get lost in the multidimensional world. Some of the chapters here and in the following publications of this series are written for specialists, but it will always come back to the essence of a phenomenological description. Concepts like Symbolic programming, Object oriented modeling, simulation and optimizing as well as experimental and mathematical approaches are the described tools to unpuzzle a complex scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0471.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Deep learning; Convoluted Neural Networks; LSTM; MediaPipe; Google Cloud; Object detection; Classification
Online: 26 December 2022 (04:10:07 CET)
The Median American Sign Language Interpretation Software (ASL) Interpretation Software is a web application that is capable of interpreting American Sign Language in real-time, utilizing an internet connection and a primary web camera, complete with basic phrases and letters. Extensive use of Deep Learning and Neural Networks, specifically Convoluted Neural Networks, enables Median to interpret video inputs and generate accurate results directly displayed to the user in text format. The ultimate goal for Median is to have it act as a bridge between hearing people and members of the deaf community, allowing deaf people to communicate with non-signing people using American Sign Language. Furthermore, Median has been designed to benefit people who lack access to a human ASL Translator, as its format as a website allows it to be accessible anywhere at any time, giving increased availability over human interpreters. Median is designed to be a very versatile program with great potential for growth and expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bicycle Behavior; Naturalistic Cycling Data; Car/Bike Interactions; Computer Vision; Object Detection
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:22:00 CEST)
As machine learning and computer vision techniques and methods continue to advance, the collection of naturalistic traffic data from video feeds is becoming more and more feasible. That is especially true for the case of bicycles, for which the collection of naturalistic data is not achievable in the traditional vehicle approach. This study describes a research effort that aims to extract naturalistic cycling data from a video dataset for use in safety and mobility applications. The used videos come from a dataset collected in a previous Virginia Tech Transportation Institute study in collaboration with SPIN in which continuous video data at a non-signalized intersection on the Virginia Tech campus was recorded. The research team applied computer vision and machine learning techniques to develop a comprehensive framework for the extraction of naturalistic cycling trajectories. In total, this study resulted in the collection and classification of 619 bicycle trajectories based on their type of interactions with other road users. The results confirm the success of the proposed methodology in relation to extracting the locations, speeds, and accelerations of the bicycles at a high level of precision. Furthermore, preliminary insights into the acceleration and speed behavior of bicyclists around motorists are determined.
Subject: Keywords: 3D object reconstruction, depth cameras, Kinect sensors; open source, signal denoising, SLAM
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:24:34 CEST)
3D object reconstruction from depth image streams using Kinect-style depth cameras has been extensively studied. In this paper, we propose an approach for accurate camera tracking and volumetric dense surface reconstruction assuming a known cuboid reference object is present in the scene. Our contribu¬tion is three-fold. (a) We maintain drift-free camera pose tracking by incorporating the 3D geometric constraints of the cuboid reference object into the image registration process. (b) We reformulate the problem of depth stream fusion as a binary classification problem, enabling high-fidelity surface reconstruction, especially in the con¬cave zones of objects. (c) We further present a surface denoising strategy to mitigate the topological inconsistency (e.g., holes and dangling triangles), which facilitates the generation of a noise-free triangle mesh. We extend our public dataset CU3D with several new image sequences, test our algorithm on these sequences and quantitatively compare them with other state-of-the-art algorithms. Both our dataset and our algorithm are available as open-source content at https://github.com/zhangxaochen/CuFusion for oth-er researchers to reproduce and verify our results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0400.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: standard interpretation; Bohmian mechanics; quantum uncertainty; determinism; subject-object relations; systems theory
Online: 20 September 2018 (05:40:07 CEST)
For more than eighty years the standard interpretation (SI) has dominated quantum physics. Perspectives that have tried to challenge this domination have been remarkably unsuccessful. As a result, quantum theory (QT) has remained remarkably stagnant. The article offers a critical examination of SI and provides an explanation for its continued domination. It also uses Bohmian mechanics—a theoretical perspective advanced by American physicist David Bohm—as a case study for why alternative interpretations have failed to displace SI. The article sees the main reason for the failure to achieve much progress beyond SI in the unresolved philosophical problem of subject-object relation that continues to plague our study of physics. The article sketches a path to a possible solution and outlines a new science practice that this solution will require.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; biodiversity; ecosystem-based adaptation
Online: 23 October 2021 (14:19:30 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. These outcomes are interdependent, and both rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to function normally despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of nature-based interventions for climate change mitigation is growing, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood with evidence scattered across multiple disciplines. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g. diversity, biomass, ecosystem functioning and population dynamics). We showed that 88% of interventions with positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported measurable benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in local species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a triple win. However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two major limitations of research to date. First, only a limited selection of metrics are used to assess ecosystem health and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is poor: 67% of outcomes assessed only plants and 57% did not distinguish between native and non-native species. Future research addressing these issues will allow the design and adaptive management of NbS to support healthy and resilient ecosystems, and thereby enhance their effectiveness for meeting both climate and biodiversity targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0212.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge Graphs; Link Prediction; Semantic-Based Models; Translation Based Embedded Models
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:49:24 CET)
For disciplines like biological science, security, and the medical field, link prediction is a popular research area. To demonstrate the link prediction many methods have been proposed. Some of them that have been demonstrated through this review paper are TransE, Complex, DistMult, and DensE models. Each model defines link prediction with different perceptions. We argue that the practical performance potential of these methods, having similar parameter values, using the fine-tuning technique to evaluate their reliability and reproducibility of results. We describe those methods and experiments; provide theoretical proofs and experimental examples, demonstrating how current link prediction methods work in such settings. We use the standard evaluation metrics for testing the model's ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0025.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object detection; semi-supervised learning; Mask R-CNN; floor-plan images; computer vision
Online: 1 September 2022 (15:16:43 CEST)
Research has been growing on object detection using semi-supervised methods in past few years. We examine the intersection of these two areas for floor-plan objects to promote the research objective of detecting more accurate objects with less labelled data. The floor-plan objects include different furniture items with multiple types of the same class, and this high inter-class similarity impacts the performance of prior methods. In this paper, we present Mask R-CNN based semi-supervised approach that provides pixel-to-pixel alignment to generate individual annotation masks for each class to mine the inter-class similarity. The semi-supervised approach has a student-teacher network that pulls information from the teacher network and feeds it to the student network. The teacher network uses unlabeled data to form pseudo-boxes, and the student network uses both unlabeled data with the pseudo boxes and labelled data as ground truth for training. It learns representations of furniture items by combining labelled and unlabeled data. On the Mask R-CNN detector with ResNet-101 backbone network, the proposed approach achieves mAP of 98.8%, 99.7%, and 99.8% with only 1%, 5% and 10% labelled data, respectively. Our experiment affirms the efficiency of the proposed approach as it outperforms the fully supervised counterpart using only 10% of the labels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: object detection; contour; polygonal approximation; piecewise split-merge algorithm; Coupled Hidden Markov Model
Online: 26 July 2022 (02:27:17 CEST)
Since the conventional split-merge algorithm is sensitive to the object scale variance and splitting starting point, a piecewise split-merge polygon approximation method is proposed to extract the object contour features. Specifically, the contour corner is used as the starting point for the contour piecewise approximation to reduce the sensitivity of the contour segment on the starting point; then, the split-merge algorithm is used to implement the polygon approximation for each contour segments. Both the distance ratio and the arc length ratio instead of the distance error are used as the iterative stop condition to improve the robustness to the object scale variance. Both the angle and length as two features describe the shape of the contour polygon, and affect each other along the contour order relationship. Since they have a strong coupling relationship. To improve the description correction of the contour, these two features are combined to construct a Coupled Hidden Markov Model to detect the object by calculating the probability of the contour feature. The proposed algorithm is validated on ETHZ Shape Classes and INRIA Horses standard datasets. Compared with other contour-based object detection algorithms, the proposed algorithm reduces the complexity of contour description, improves the robustness of contour features to scale variance, and has a higher object detection rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0390.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Object detection; Feature fusion network; Multiple feature selection; Angle prediction; Pixel Attention Mechanism
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:09:52 CEST)
The object detection task is usually affected by complex backgrounds. In this paper, a new image object detection method is proposed, which can perform multi-feature selection on multi-scale feature maps. By this method, a bidirectional multi-scale feature fusion network is designed to fuse semantic features and shallow features to improve the detection effect of small objects in complex backgrounds. When the shallow features are transferred to the top layer, a bottom-up path is added to reduce the number of network layers experienced by the feature fusion network, reducing the loss of shallow features. In addition, a multi-feature selection module based on the attention mechanism is used to minimize the interference of useless information on subsequent classification and regression, allowing the network to adaptively focus on appropriate information for classification or regression to improve detection accuracy. Because the traditional five-parameter regression method has severe boundary problems when predicting objects with large aspect ratios, the proposed network treats angle prediction as a classification task. The experimental results on the DOTA dataset, the self-made DOTA-GF dataset and the HRSC 2016 dataset show that, compared with several popular object detection algorithms, the proposed method has certain advantages in detection accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0085.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: object segmentation; LiDAR-camera fusion; autonomous driving; artificial intelligence; semi-supervised learning; iseAuto
Online: 4 March 2022 (21:43:06 CET)
Object segmentation is still considered a challenging problem in autonomous driving, particularly in consideration of real world conditions. Following this line of research, this paper approaches the problem of object segmentation using LiDAR-camera fusion and semi-supervised learning implemented in a fully-convolutional neural network. Our method is tested on real-world data acquired using our custom vehicle iseAuto shuttle. The data include all-weather scenarios, featuring night and rainy weather. In this work, it is shown that LiDAR-camera fusion with only a few annotated scenarios and semi-supervised learning, it is possible to achieve robust performance on real-world data in a multi-class object segmentation problem. The performance of our algorithm is measured in terms of intersection over union, precision, recall and area-under-the-curve average precision. Our network achieves 82% IoU in vehicle detection in day fair scenarios and 64% IoU in vehicle segmentation in night rain scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0335.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Object perception; Reflection symmetry; Saliency Symmetry Model; Isotropic symmetry operator; Multi-scale implementation
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:32:18 CEST)
This paper presents an optimized feature-centered reflection symmetry axis detection and localization framework for object perception. The proposed framework is formed to obtain an improved reflection symmetry axis based on the salient symmetry feature. It starts with a refined Multi-scale Saliency Symmetry Model (MSSM), which is realized by applying isotropic symmetry operator on salient points in scale-space rather than all pixels. In each scale, salient points are initially extracted as local extremal from an image, and they are further refined by a multi-scale implementation for generating salient symmetry feature maps. A Symmetric Transformation Matrix is then computed using the optimal feature matching pairs, which can be explicitly used as an abstract representation of the constraint regions of symmetry objects in an image to optimize the performance of the potential symmetry axis detection. The framework has been investigated experimentally both on the classical dataset from a symmetry detection challenge and the latest dataset. It has shown that the framework can get a better or comparative result and also can be further adapted into terminated human--computer equipment for reflection symmetry object perception and tracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0148.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sustainable Teaching; multidisciplinary; multicultural; teams; Case-based Learning; Problem-based Learning; teamwork
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:38:20 CEST)
This article investigates the prospect of implementing multidisciplinary and multicultural student teamwork (MMT) involving Case-based Learning (CBL) and Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a sustainable teaching practice. Based on a mixed methods approach, which includes direct observation (both physical and virtual), questionnaire distribution and focus-group interviews the study reveals that MMT through CBL and PBL can both facilitate and hinder sustainable learning. Our findings show that while MMT enhances knowledge sharing, it also poses a wide range of challenges, raising questions about its social significance as a sustainable teaching practice. The study suggests the implementation of certain mechanisms, such as ‘Teamwork Training’ and ‘Pedagogical Mentors’, aiming to strengthen the sustainable orientation of MMT through CBL and PBL.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Model-based systems engineering (MBSE); Model informatics and analytics; Model-based collaboration
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:52:34 CET)
In MBSE there is yet no converged terminology. The term ’system model’ is used in different contexts in literature. In this study we elaborated the definitions and usages of the term ’system model’, to find a common definition. 104 publications have been analyzed in depth for their usage and definition as well as their meta-data e.g., the publication year and publication background to find some common patterns. While the term is gaining more interest in recent years it is used in a broad range of contexts for both analytical and synthetic use cases. Based on this three categories of system models have been defined and integrated into a more precise definition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: game-based learning; game design; project-based teaching; informatics and society, cybersecurity
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:38:48 CEST)
This article discusses the use of game design as a method for interdisciplinary project-based teaching in secondary school education to convey informatics and society topics. There is a lot of knowledge about learning games but little background on project-based teaching using game design as a method. We present the results of an analysis of student-created games and an evaluation of a student-authored database on learning contents found in commercial off-the-shelf games. We further contextualise these findings using a group discussion with teachers. Results underline the effectiveness of project-based teaching to raise awareness for informatics and society topics. We further outline informatics and society topics that are particularly interesting to students, genre preferences and potentially engaging game mechanics stemming from our analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0131.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Adversarial examples; Remote sensing images; Universal adversarial patch; Object detection; Joint optimization; Scale factor.
Online: 11 October 2022 (02:34:23 CEST)
Although deep learning has received extensive attention and achieved excellent performances in various of scenarios, it suffers from adversarial examples to some extent. Especially, physical attack poses more threats than digital attack. However, existing researches pay less attention to physical attack of object detection in remote sensing images (RSIs). In this work, we systematically analyze the universal adversarial patch attack for multi-scale objects in the remote sensing field. There are two challenges for adversarial attack in RSIs. On one hand, the number of objects in remote sensing images is more than that of natural images. Therefore, it is difficult for adversarial patch to show adversarial effect on all objects when attacking a detector of RSIs. On the other hand, the wide range of height of photography platform causes that the size of objects diverse a lot, which brings challenges for generating universal adversarial perturbation for multi-scale objects. To this end, we propose an adversarial attack method on object detection for remote sensing data. One of the key ideas of the proposed method is the novel optimization of adversarial patch. We aim to attack as many objects as possible by formulating a joint optimization problem. Besides, we raise a scale factor to generate a universal adversarial patch that adapts to multi-scale objects, which ensures the adversarial patch is valid for multi-scale objects in the real world. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our method against state-of-the-art methods on YOLO-v3 and YOLO-v5. In addition, we also validate the effectiveness of our method in real-world applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0081.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: CNN; AI; Causality; Understandability; Object Features; Excitation Weight; Multi-model Neural Network; Model Selection
Online: 7 October 2022 (14:58:09 CEST)
Object recognition is an essential element of machine intelligence tasks. However, one model cannot practically be trained to identify all the possible objects it encounters. An ensemble of models may be needed to cater to a broader range of objects. Building a mathematical understanding of the relationship between various objects that share comparable outlined features is envisaged as an effective method of improving the model ensemble through a pre-processing stage, where these objects' features are grouped under a broader classification umbrella. This paper proposes a mechanism to train an ensemble of recognition models coupled with a model selection scheme to scale-up object recognition in a multi-model system. An algorithmic relationship between the learnt parameters of a trained classification model and the features of input images is presented in the paper for the system to learn the model selection scheme. The multiple models are built with a CNN structure, whereas the image features are extracted using a CNN/VGG16 architecture. Based on the models' excitation weights, a neural network model selection algorithm, which links a new object with the models and decides how close the features of the object are to the trained models for selecting a particular model for object recognition is developed and tested on a five-model neural network platform. The experiment results show the proposed model selection scheme is highly effective and accurate in selecting an appropriate model for a network of multiple models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: spectrogram data set; wireless network monitoring; spectrum analysis; frame detection; object detection; deep learning
Online: 4 October 2022 (09:56:48 CEST)
Automated spectrum analysis serves as a troubleshooting tool that helps to diagnose faults in wireless networks like difficult signal propagation conditions and coexisting wireless networks. It provides a higher monitoring coverage while requiring less expertise compared to manual spectrum analysis. In this paper, we introduce a data set that can be used to train and evaluate deep learning models, capable of detecting frames from different wireless standards as well as interference between single frames. Since manually labelling a high variety of frames in different environments is too challenging, an artificial data generation pipeline has been developed. The data set consists of 20 000 augmented signal segments, each containing a random number of different Wi-Fi and Bluetooth frames, their spectral image representations and labels that describe the position and type of frame within the spectrogram. The data set contains results of intermediate processing steps that enables the research or teaching community to create new data sets for specific requirements or to provide new interesting examination examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0068.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: blind; visually impaired; assistive devices; object recognition; navigation; virtual assistants; Smart Cities; Saudi Arabia
Online: 5 July 2022 (08:24:38 CEST)
Visually impaired people encounter many impediments and challenges in their lives such as related to their mobility, education, communication, use of technology, and others. This paper reports the results of an online survey to understand the requirements and challenges blind and visually impaired people face in their daily lives regarding the availability and use of digital devices. The survey was conducted among the blind and visually impaired in Saudi Arabia using digital forms. A total of 164 people responded to the survey most of them using the VoiceOver function. People were asked about the use of smart devices, special devices, operating systems, object recognition apps, indoor and outdoor navigation apps, virtual digital assistive apps, the purpose (navigation, education, etc.) of and difficulty in using these apps, the type of assistance needed, the reliance on others in using the assistive technologies, and the level of satisfaction from the existing assistive technologies. The majority of the participants were 18 – 65 years old with 13% under 18 and 3% above 65. Sixty-five percent of the participants were graduates or postgraduates and the rest only had secondary education. White Cane, mobile phones, Apple iOS, Envision, Seeing AI, VoiceOver, and Google Maps were the most used devices, technologies, and apps used by the participants. Navigation at 39.6% was the most reported purpose of the special devices followed by education (34.1%) and office jobs (12.8%). The information from this survey along with a detailed literature review of academic and commercial technologies for the visually impaired was used to establish the research gap, design requirements, and a comprehensive understanding of the relevant landscape, which in turn was used to design smart glasses called LidSonic for visually impaired.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0319.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: YOLOv4; Faster RCNN; Deep-SORT; pig posture detection; object tracking; greenhouse gas; animal welfare
Online: 21 October 2021 (23:06:30 CEST)
Pig behavior is an integral part of health and welfare management, as pigs usually reflect their inner emotions through behavior change. The livestock environment plays a key role in pigs' health and wellbeing. A poor farm environment increases the toxic GHGs, which might deteriorate pigs' health and welfare. In this study a computer-vision-based automatic monitoring and tracking model was proposed to detect short-term pigs' physical activities in a compromised environment. The ventilators of the livestock barn were closed for an hour, three times in a day (07:00-08:00, 13:00-14:00, and 20:00-21:00) to create a compromised environment, which increases the GHGs level significantly. The corresponding pig activities were observed before, during, and after an hour of the treatment. Two widely used object detection models (YOLOv4 and Fast-er R-CNN) were trained and compared their performances in terms of pig localization and posture detection. The YOLOv4, which outperformed the Faster R-CNN model, coupled with a Deep-SORT tracking algorithm to detect and track the pig activities. The results showed that the pigs became more inactive with the increase in GHG concentration, reducing their standing and walking activities. Moreover, the pigs also shortened their sternal-lying posture increasing the lateral lying posture duration at higher GHG concentration. The high detection accuracy (mAP: 98.67%) and tracking accuracy (MOTA: 93.86% and MOTP: 82.41%) signify the models’ efficacy in monitoring and tracking pigs' physical activities non-invasively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: angle-based outlier detection: percentile-based outlier detection; multiphilda, noise; irrelevant software requirements
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:25:24 CEST)
Noise in requirements has been known to be a defect in software requirements specifications (SRS). Detecting defects at an early stage is crucial in the process of software development. Noise can be in the form of irrelevant requirements that are included within a SRS. A previous study had attempted to detect noise in SRS, in which noise was considered as an outlier. However, the resulting method only demonstrated a moderate reliability due to the overshadowing of unique actor words by unique action words in the topic-word distribution. In this study, we propose a framework to identify irrelevant requirements based on the MultiPhiLDA method. The proposed framework distinguishes the topic-word distribution of actor words and action words as two separate topic-word distributions with two multinomial probability functions. Weights are used to maintain a proportional contribution of actor and action words. We also explore the use of two outlier detection methods, namely Percentile-based Outlier Detection (PBOD) and Angle-based Outlier Detection (ABOD), to distinguish irrelevant requirements from relevant requirements. The experimental results show that the proposed framework was able to exhibit better performance than previous methods. Furthermore, the use of the combination of ABOD as the outlier detection method and topic coherence as the estimation approach to determine the optimal number of topics and iterations in the proposed framework outperformed the other combinations and obtained sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, and G-mean values of 0.59, 0.65, 0.62, and 0.62, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0196.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: crocodilian; animal welfare; animal-based measure; animal-based indicator; welfare assessment; welfare measure
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:46:54 CET)
Animal-based measures are the measure of choice in animal welfare assessment protocols as they can often be applied completely independently to the housing or production system employed. Although there has been a small body of work on potential animal-based measures for farmed crocodilians [1-3], they have not been studied in the context of an animal welfare assessment protocol. Potential animal-based measures, that could be used to reflect the welfare state of farmed crocodilians, were identified and aligned with the Welfare Quality® principles of good housing, good health, good feeding and appropriate behaviour. A consultation process with a panel of experts was used to evaluate and score the potential measures in terms of validity and feasibility. This resulted in a toolbox of measures being identified for further development and integration into animal welfare assessment on the farm. Animal-based measures related to ‘good feeding’ and ‘good health’ received the highest scores for validity and feasibility by the experts. There was less agreement on the animal-based measures that could be used to reflect ‘appropriate behaviour’. Where no animal-based measures were deemed to reliably reflect a welfare criterion nor be useful as a measure on the farm, additional measures of resources or management were suggested as alternatives. Future work in this area should focus on the reliability of the proposed measures and involve further evaluation of their validity and feasibility as they relate to different species of crocodilian and farming system.