ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0426.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Crop layout; Nutrient balance; Chemical fertilizer; Nutrient surpluses; Nutrient use efficiency
Online: 18 May 2021 (12:59:36 CEST)
Abstract: Estimating regional soils Nitrogen and phosphorus balance in cropland is essential to improve management practices, reduce environmental risks and develop sustainable agriculture. In this study,spatial and temporal variations in crop layout, the impact on soil N and P nutrient balance were assessed from 2000 to 2015 in the West Liaohe River Basin between 2000 and 2015. The result shows that the area of cropland is on the rise, and the spatial distribution of arable land is consistent with the distribution of the main tributaries of the West Liaohe River basin. The change in planting layout for maize and soybeans has a significant impact on the nutrient balance of farmland, which plays a critical role in modifying surplus nutrients. Nutrient surpluses on farmland were mostly concentrated in areas where maize planting layout changed between 2000 and 2015. The N nutrient surplus rate decreased by 39.3%, N utilization efficiency, increased by 70.7%; P nutrient surplus rate decreased by 3.8%, and P utilization efficiency increased by 49.3%. The average utilization efficiencies of N and P nutrients were 27.8% and 9.1%, respectively, and the utilization efficiency was low. Chemical manure is the main source of nutrients. The risk of phosphorus pollution was higher than the risk of nitrogen pollution in the West Liaohe River Basin. The lower Liaohe River Basin (below the Sujiapu) was the region with the most violent changes in nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balance. It is recommended that reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer application, especially, reduce the amount of P application, improve the ef-ficiency of nutrient use, and focus on strengthening pollution control in key areas such as the West Liaohe River lower reaches basin (below Sujiabao), reducing the risk of agricultural nonpoint source pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0494.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: soil stoichiometry; soil nutrient; nutrient limitations; natural grassland; natural forest
Online: 20 November 2018 (09:35:23 CET)
The Loess Plateau is an important region for vegetation restoration in China, however, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), soil nutrients, and stoichiometry after restoration in this vulnerable ecoregion are not well understood. Typical restoration types, including orchardland (OL), grassland (GL), shrubland (SL), and forestland (FL) were chosen to examine changes in the stocks and stoichiometry of SOC, soil total nitrogen (TN), and soil total phosphorus (TP) at different soil depths and recovery times. Results showed that SOC stocks first increased and then stabilized in OL, GL, and SL at 0–30 cm depth, while in FL, stocks gradually increased. Soil TN stocks first increased and then decreased in OL, SL, and FL with vegetation age at 0–30 cm depth, while soil TP stocks showed little variation between restoration types. In the later stages of restoration, the stocks of SOC and soil TN at 0–30 cm soil depth were still lower than those in natural grassland (NG) and natural forest (NF). The overall C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios increased with vegetation age. Additionally, the SOC, soil TN and soil TP stocks, and C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios decreased with soil depth. The FL had the highest rate of change in SOC and soil TN stocks, at 0-10 cm soil depth. These results indicate a complex response of SOC, soil TN, and soil TP stocks and stoichiometry to vegetation restoration, which could have important implications for understanding C, N, and P changes and nutrient limitations after vegetation restoration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0725.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: dry matter yield; nutrient uptake; soil nutrient reserves; co-application; grain yield; dryland
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:18:06 CEST)
Most smallscale farmers still use the traditional way of agricultural crop farming, and relay mostly use of chemical fertilizers (CF). Recently CF have become expensive and could in some way have a negative impact on soil quality after long term application. However, co-application of biogas slurry (BGS) with CF could help reduce farming costs while improving dry matter yields, grain yields, primary macronutrient uptake of (Nitrogen) N, (Phosphorus) P, (Potasium) K, (Calcium) Ca and (Magnesium) Mg and soil concentration of pH, (organic carbon) OC, N, P, K, Ca and Mg after crop harvest. The study was a field experiment conducted in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 growing seasons. The field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The treatments were based on percentages of recommended N rates of 120 kg N ha-1 for maize production. The BGS/CF treatments were (i) 0/0, (ii) 0/120, (iii) 24/96, (iv) 48/72, (v) 72/48, (vi) 96/24, (vii) 120/0 kg N ha-1. The spreading of the combination of BGS/CF treatments was performed by hand and incorporated into the top soil (0-10 cm) in each experimental plots. BGS/CF (48/72) treatment resulted into higher dry matter yield in 2016-2017, which was higher than all other treatment combinations, while in the 2017-2018 season, treatment of (0/120) resulted into higher dry matter than all other treatment combinations. The 48/72 and 0/120 treatments resulted into similar grain yield in 2016-2017 season which were higher than all other treatments. Treatments of 48/72, 72/48 and 120/0 had higher N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake than 0/0, 0/120, 24/96 and 96/24 treatments in both seasons. Soil pH, total N, K, and Mg were high from the treatment of (120/0) than all other treatments in 2016-2017 while in the 2017-2018 season, treatment of (48/72) had higher OC, P and K after maize harvest. The findings of his study show that co-application of BGS/CF at 48/72 and 72/48 have maize yield benefits compared to the two resources, BGS/CF (120/0) and BGS/CF (0/120), applied separately in soil especially in the arid and semi-arid regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0158.v1
Online: 7 December 2020 (13:14:25 CET)
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between objective chewing ability and nutritional status of Japanese community-dwelling elders. Design: Cross sectional study. Participants: In total, 509 community-dwelling elders living in the Tokyo metropolitan area participated in a comprehensive survey occurring in October 2013. Measurements: Basic characteristics referred to sex, age, and body mass index. Undernutrition was examined through serum albumin levels. Chewing ability was examined through a color-changeable xylitol gum. By evaluating color changes in the chewing gum. Nutritional intake was examined through the semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Results: In the poor chewing ability group, all nutrient intake levels were significantly low, except for carbohydrates and all food groups intake levels were significantly low, except for cereals, confectionery, sugars, seasonings, and spices. Additionally, after adjusting for covariates, chewing ability showed a significant association with undernutrition. Conclusion: We concluded that chewing ability was closely associated with nutrient and different food groups intake as well as undernutrition among Japanese community-dwelling elders. Thus, in order to ensure a comprehensive nutritional management, nutritionists and dentists should collaborate when treating the same patients.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0033.v1
Online: 2 February 2022 (12:55:42 CET)
Reducing overall food intake or lowering the proportion of protein relative to other macronutrients, can extend lifespan in diverse organisms. A number of mechanistic theories have been developed to explain this phenomenon, mostly assuming that the molecules connecting diet to lifespan are evolutionarily conserved. A recent study using Drosophila melanogaster females has pinpointed a single essential micronutrient that can explain how lifespan is changed by dietary restriction. Here, we propose a likely mechanism for this observation, which involves a trade-off between lifespan and reproduction, but in a manner that is conditional on the dietary supply of an essential micronutrient – a sterol. Importantly, these observations argue against previous evolutionary theories that rely on constitutive resource reallocation or damage directly inflicted by reproduction. Instead, they are compatible with a model in which the inverse relationship between lifespan and food level is caused by the consumer suffering from varying degrees of malnutrition when maintained on lab food. The data also indicate that animals on different lab foods may suffer from different nutritional imbalances and that the mechanisms by which dietary restriction benefits the lifespan of different species may vary. This means that translating the mechanistic findings from lab animals to humans will not be simple and should be interpreted in light of the range of challenges that have shaped each organism’s lifespan in the wild and the composition of the natural diets they would feed on.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0301.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: glyphosate; herbicide degradation; crop health; nutrient availability
Online: 26 September 2019 (12:07:03 CEST)
Glyphosate-based herbicide products are the most widely used broad-spectrum herbicides in the world for post-emergent weed control. There are ever-increasing concerns that glyphosate, if not used judiciously, may cause adverse non-target impacts in agroecosystems. The purpose of this brief review is to present and discuss the state of knowledge with respect to its persistence in the environment, possible effects on crop health, and impacts on crop nutrition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0167.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental pollution; wastes; nutrient recovery; biochar; composting
Online: 12 July 2019 (11:46:12 CEST)
Nutrients management is a mainspring in agricultural systems for sustained productivity, economy sustainability and environmental quality. Excessive and lesser nutrient application caused environmental pollution and reduced production, respectively impacting socio-economics of the entire ecosystems. Sustainable agricultural production thus demands supplementation of nutrients either through natural processes, application of animal by-products, and mineral fertilizers to crop fields. Technology application for treating useless agricultural wastes into useful source is a management strategy that prevents environment pollution. Crude animal manures triggered soil degradation, attenuation air and water quality, and resulted in higher concentrations of heavy metals. Primary nutrients, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are used globally and are non-renewable. Augmented upsurge in prices of inorganic fertilizers and required discharge restrictions on nutrient has stimulated the technological developments including biochar, composting, vermicomposting, composting with biochar, pyrolysis, forward osmosis, and electro-dialysis to recover nutrients. Therefore, outlining the research gaps considering the present and imminent potential of these technologies for adaptation of nutrient recycling is of great importance. Thus, it’s need of an hour to fix our environment and for that scientists are trying to introduce and renovate the technologies which have immense potential to mitigate the negative effects of technology adversities on our environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0002.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Extreme Pathways, Nutrient Removal, C. vulgaris, P.aeruginosa
Online: 1 March 2019 (07:20:22 CET)
Anthropogenic activities have increased the amount of urban wastewater discharged into natural aquatic reservoirs confining in them a high amount of nutrients and organics contaminants. Several studies have reported that an alternative to reduce those contaminants is using consortiums of microalgae and endogenous bacteria. In this research, a genome-scale biochemical reaction network is reconstructed for the co-culture between the microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the bacterium Pesudomonas aeruginosa. Metabolic Pathway Analysis (MPA), is applied to understand the metabolic capabilities of the co-culture and to elucidate the best conditions in removing nutrients such as Phosphorus (inorganic phosphorous and phosphate) and Nitrogen (nitrates and ammonia). Theoretical yields for Phosphorus removal under photoheterotrophic conditions are calculated, determining their values as 0.042 mmol of PO4/ g DW of C. vulgaris, 19.53 mmol of inorganic Phosphorus /g DW of C. vulgaris and 4.90 mmol of inorganic Phosphorus/ g DW of P. aeruginosa. Similarly, according to the genome-scale biochemical reaction network the theoretical yields for Nitrogen removal are 10.3 mmol of NH3/g DW of P. aeruginosa and 7.19 mmol of NO3 /g DW of C. vulgaris. Thus, this research proves the metabolic capacity of these microorganisms in removing nutrients and their theoretical yields are calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0201.v1
Online: 21 February 2019 (10:01:04 CET)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) function may depend on its anatomical location and developmental origin. Interscapular BAT (iBAT) regulates acute macronutrient metabolism, whilst perivascular BAT (PVAT) regulates vascular function. Although phenotypically similar, whether these depots respond differently to acute nutrient excess is unclear. Given their distinct anatomical locations and developmental origins and we hypothesised that iBAT and PVAT would respond differently to brief period of nutrient excess. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 weeks (n = 12) were fed either a standard (10% fat, n = 6) or high fat diet (HFD: 45% fat, n = 6) for 72 h and housed at thermoneutrality. Following an assessment of whole body physiology, fat was collected from both depots for analysis of gene expression and the proteome. HFD consumption for 72 h induced rapid weight gain (c. 2.6%) and reduced serum NEFA with no change in either total adipose or depot mass. In iBAT, an upregulation of genes involved in insulin signalling and lipid metabolism was accompanied by enrichment of lipid-related processes and functions, plus glucagon and PPAR signalling pathways. In PVAT, HFD induced a pronounced down-regulation of multiple metabolic pathways which was accompanied with increased abundance of proteins involved in apoptosis (e.g. Hdgf and Ywaq) and toll-like receptor signalling (Ube2n). There was also an enrichment of DNA-related processes and functions (e.g., nucleosome assembly and histone exchange) and RNA degradation and cell adhesion pathways. In conclusion, we show that iBAT and PVAT elicit divergent responses to short-term nutrient excess highlighting early adaptations in these depots before changes in fat mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0293.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: altitudinal variation; nutrient composition; Quercus leucotrichophora; seasonal variation
Online: 20 July 2022 (05:12:55 CEST)
Quercus leucotrichophora leaves were collected for assessment of nutritive composition between four seasons i.e. spring season (March-April), summer season (June-July), autumn (September-October), winter December-January) respectively, in 2017. The experiment was conducted within the laboratory of Shoolini University campus. Leaves samples were collected from 12 different provenances starting from 1189 to 2578 m a.s.l. Crude protein, ash content, ether extract, phenol content, total sugar and tannin content were expressively higher within middle to higher altitudinal populations. Crude fiber, ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre, saponin content were higher in winter month while crude protein, ash content, phenol content, tannin content were higher in autumn season. Total sugar was higher in summer season and nitrogen free extract was higher in spring season. Q. leucotrichophora leaves were harvested at the right stage of maturity (winter months) offers considerable potential as good quality forage for livestock to meet the deficiency of nutritive components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: ultra-processed products; school feeding; nutrient profiling model
Online: 3 December 2021 (14:57:38 CET)
Unhealthy diet is an important health problem in the region of the Americas, and Uruguay does not escape this reality. Nutritional problems in Uruguayan school-age children are overweight and obesity. Caloric intake is excessive for 60% of children and 28% of calories come from ultra-processed products (UPP) [CODICEN 2021] [MIDES 2020) (Köncke, Toledo, 2021). In 2018, an evaluation of food intake was conducted in a representative sample of public schools in the city of Montevideo. Food and preparations were categorized according to the NOVA system, later they were analyzed according to the Pan American Health Oganization nutrient profile model (PAHO NPM). Only 0.52% of children consumed exclusively natural foods, unprocessed, minimally processed or culinary ingredients. Twenty-five percent of children consumed ≥ 4 products categorized with excessive content of free sugars, total fat or saturated fat according to the PAHO NPM; in the case of excessive sodium this was 40%. In general, children who included products with excessive free sugars, sodium or saturated fat in their diet exceeded the limits established by PAHO and as a result their diet is of poorer nutritional quality compared to children who did not consume such products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0266.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: hypogenous ectomycorrhizal fungi; truffles; soil nutrient; fungal community
Online: 12 September 2020 (08:04:07 CEST)
Truffles contribute to crucial dynamics in the soil systems, being involved in plentiful ecological functions important for ecosystems. Despite this, the interactions between truffles and surrounding mycobiota remain unknown. Here, we aimed to shed light on how much truffle species could affect its surrounding soil mycobiota. Using traditional chemical analysis and Illumina ITS amplicon sequencing, we compared soil nutrients and mycobiota surrounding two truffle species: Tuber indicum (Ti) and T. pseudohimalayense (Tp) inhabit in the same Pinus armandii forest in southwestern China. Tp soil was more acidic and had higher nutrients (total C, N, P contents) than Ti soil. Fungal richness and diversity of truffle ascomata and surrounding soils were significantly higher in Tp than in Ti. Redundancy analysis showed relationships between soil fungal taxa and soil properties had changed from negative (Tp) to positive (Ti) and shifted from a moisture-driving (Tp) to a total N-driving (Ti). Overall, our results showed that the interactions between truffle and soil system had been altered with species variation, although the causative peculiarity of these associations needs to be further studied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dairy; Health; Matrix; Metabolism; Nutrient; Composition; Saturated Fats
Online: 27 August 2020 (09:46:06 CEST)
Milk and dairy foods are naturally rich sources of a wide range of nutrients, and when consumed according to recommended intakes contribute essential nutrients across all stages of the life cycle. Since then, seminal studies recommendations with respect to intake of saturated fat have been consistent and clear; limit total fat intake to 30% or less total dietary energy, with a specific recommendation for intake of saturated fat to less than 10% of total dietary energy. However, recent work has re-opened the debate on intake of saturated fat in particular, with suggestions that recommended intakes be considered not at a total fat intake within the diet, but at a food specific level. A large body of evidence exists examining the impact of dairy consumption on markers of metabolic health, both at a total dairy intake and also at a food level, with mixed findings to date, but suggests that the impact of saturated fat intake on health differs both across food groups and even between foods within the same good group such as dairy. Milk and dairy foods contain a range of nutrients and bioactive components in different levels, housed within very different food structures. The interaction of the overall food structure and the nutrients describes the concept of the ‘food matrix effect’ which has been well documented for dairy foods. Studies show that nutrients from different dairy food sources can have different effects on health and for this reason, they should be considered individually rather than grouped as a single food category in epidemiological research. This review examines the current evidence from randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses, with respect to dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese on aspects of metabolic health, and summarises some of the potential mechanisms for these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sustainable diet; carbon footprint; recommended nutrient intake; Malaysia
Online: 2 August 2020 (09:29:46 CEST)
A sustainable diet which is healthy and environmental friendly is a climate change mitigation option in addition to being a health promoting diet. However, there is a scarcity of information if the Asian diets are sustainable. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if the diet of the Malaysian population is healthy and sustainable. This is a cross sectional study using dietary data generated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). The carbon footprint data were linked with the food items/ food groups in the FFQ. The nutrients of the participants’ diet were computed and the proportions of those who met the recommended nutrients intake were established. Contribution of carbon footprint for different food groups and total carbon footprint for each participant’s diet were computed and expressed as kgCO2eq. Comparison of carbon footprint from participants’ diets between age, sex and ethnicity were carried out. A total of 4825 participants were included in the analysis. Majority were Malays (66.4 %), females (84.0%), married (80.0%) and in the age groups of 30s to 40s (68.8%). The mean total energy intake was 2485+1000 kcal/day. Only 40 to 60% of all participants achieved the Malaysia Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for calcium and less than half of the female participants who were aged 50 years and below fulfilled the RNI for iron. The most commonly consumed food groups were vegetables (270g/day), wheat, rice, fruits, sugar, seafood, poultry, legumes, snacks, milk and beef (46g/day). Total carbon footprint from the participants’ diets were 2.96 kgCO2eq/day, with the highest contributions of carbon footprint from rice, vegetables, beef, sugar, other cereals, poultry, seafood, wheat, milk, fruits, legume and snacks. Subgroups such as males, Malays and younger participants were more likely to consume diets with higher carbon footprint, compared to their counterparts. The participants’ diet was low in carbon footprint and environmentally friendly, however the quality of diet may need to be improved. Education measures should be targeted for all population and specifically for the sub-groups that consumed diets with higher carbon footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0072.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioretention; fly ash; structures; submerged zone; nutrient removal
Online: 7 April 2019 (12:50:05 CEST)
Both sand and fly ash were found to be promising for phosphorus removal in bioretention systems. However, nutrient removal in bioretention systems with sand, soil and fly ash was still uncertain due to a lack of data about the influence of layer structure and submerged zone. In this study, a mixture with sand, soil and fly ash (1:1:1) was selected as the base in bioretention systems with different packed layer structures and heights of submerged zone. The comparison of multi-layered structure with mixed structure implied that the used bioretention system with multi-layered structure was superior to that with mixed structure for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The investigation of the influence of submerged zones on nutrient removal indicated that the submerged zone could significantly improve nitrate removal efficiency with 67.52%-86.32%, while sharply reduce the removal of ammonia nitrogen (from 95.15% to 51.81%) and TP (from 88.66% to 44.50%). Overall evaluation of the effect of packed layer structures and submerged zones suggested that the bioretention system with multi-layered structure at the height of submerged zone at 20-40cm was the most satisfactory, due to its microbial environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: secondary macronutrients; micronutrients; maize; use efficiency; nutrient uptake
Online: 17 December 2018 (05:23:39 CET)
To close the nutrient-related yield gaps in maize, balanced nutrition using primary and secondary macronutrients as well as micronutrients is recommended. Multi-nutrient diagnostic field trials were conducted in Guinea Savanna of Nigeria to assess the interactive effects of macronutrients and micronutrients on maize grain yields, nutrient uptake as well as N, P and K use efficiencies. The treatments consisted of a control (zero fertilizer applied), an NPK treatment and 10 other treatments in which macronutrient (Mg, S) and/or micronutrients (B, and Zn) were added to the NPK. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. Data collected were subjected to mixed model with nutrient management strategy as fixed effects while replication nested in location and interaction between location and nutrient management strategy as random effects. The results revealed significant effects (P < 0.05) of nutrient management strategy on maize yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiencies of N, P and K. The study revealed that yield advantage over the recommended NPK fertilizer as a result of application macronutrients and micronutrients were highest with Mg in Lere (2.4 t ha−1), S + B + Zn in Faskari (2.8 t ha−1), S + B in Doguwa (1.5 t ha−1) and S + Zn in Toro (2.4 t ha−1). Addition of Mg, S and B significantly increases macronutrient uptakes over the recommended NPK only. Agronomic use efficiency, internal utilization efficiency, apparent recovery efficiency and partial factor productivity were significantly increased with the addition of S, Mg, and B but were not improved with Zn application. It was concluded that nutrient limitations to maize in the Guinea Savanna go beyond N, P and K. This study recommends that S, Mg, and B are needed to improve maize productivity and engender improve the use efficiency of NPK fertilizers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: rice; nutrient elements; toxic elements; phenotypic variance; genetic basis
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:31:22 CEST)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is primary dietary source for half of the global population that comprising both essential nutrients and toxic heavy metal elements for human health. A number of nutrients are required within the diet and generally lacking in human diets, and need to biofortify into the rice grains, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), iodine (I), selenium (Se), and Sulphur (S). Meanwhile, some elements are toxic to human, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) which need to be eliminated from the rice grains. This article reviews the aspects of phenotypic variation of grain elemental concentration in the diverse rice genotypes, relationship of environmental conditions and rice grain elemental accumulation, correlation between rice grain elemental content and others agronomic traits, and also genetic basis of grain elemental concentration in rice. All of these aspects are important to develop rice varieties with a balanced elemental nutrients and lower toxic heavy metal elements. Enhancing the concentration of essential mineral elements and reducing the accumulation of toxic elements in the rice grain are important to improve the rice quality for human health in addressing mineral deficiency and toxicity that could be accomplished by using plant breeding, agronomic, and genetic engineering approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hydrolysate; Chlorella sorokiniana; lipid; biomass productivity; nutrient amended media.
Online: 21 January 2021 (12:39:53 CET)
Hydrolysate prepared from water hyacinth biomass, containing a considerable amount of solubilised carbohydrate and nutrients, was utilised as a medium for the cultivation of two strains of Chlorella sorokiniana. These strains were isolated from an oxidation pond using two different media, i.e., BG-11 and Knop's media maintained at pH-9. Different light intensities, light-dark cycles, and various concentrations of external carbon sources (monosaccharides and inorganic carbon) were used to optimise the microalgal growth. It was observed that in the presence of organic carbon (glucose), biomass productivity increased significantly (~300 mgL-1day-1) as compared to that in the presence of only inorganic carbon (~100 mgL-1day-1). For the accumulation of stress products (lipids and carbohydrates), the microalgal strains were transferred to nutrient-amended media (N-amended and P-amended). The combined effects of glucose, inorganic carbon, and a 12h:12h light-dark cycle proved to be optimum for biomass productivity. For Chlorella sp. isolated from BG-11, maximum carbohydrate content (22%) was found in the P-amended medium, whereas high lipid content (17.3%) was estimated in the N-amended medium. However, for Chlorella sp. isolated from Knop's medium, both the lipid (17%) and carbohydrate accumulation (12.3%) were found maximum in the N- amended medium. Kinetic modelling of the lipid profile revealed that kinetic coefficients obtained for strain isolated from BG-11 media were statistically significant from each other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0358.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; oxidative stress; salinity; nutrient deficiency; osmolytes; methylglyoxal
Online: 28 November 2019 (09:49:35 CET)
This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of trehalose (Tre) in mitigating oxidative stress under salinity and low P in maize. Eight-day-old maize seedlings of two maize varieties, BARI Hybrid Maize-7 and BARI Hybrid Maize-9 were subjected to salinity (150 mM NaCl), low P (5 µM KH2PO4) and their combined stress with or without 10 mM Tre for 15-d.Salinity and combined stress significantly inhibited the shoot length, root length, and root volume, whereas, low P increased the root length and volume in both genotypes. Exogenous Tre in the stress treatments increased all of the growth parameters as well as decreased the salinity, low P and combined stress-mediated Na+/K+, ROS, MDA, LOX activity and MG in both genotypes. Under salinity and low P stress, the SOD activity increased in both genotypes, but the activity decreased in combined stress. POD activity increased in all stress treatments. Interestingly, Tre application enhanced the SOD activity in all the stress treatments but inhibited the POD activity. Both CAT and GPX activity were increased by saline and low P stress while the activities inhibited in combined stress. Similar results were found for APX, GR, and DHAR activities in both genotypes. However, MDHAR activity was inhibited in all the stresses. Interestingly, Tre enhanced CAT APX, GPX, GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities suggesting the amelioration of ROS scavenging in maize under all the stresses. Increased GST activity in presence or absence of Tre might involve in detoxification of hydroperoxides as well as leaf senescence. On the other hand, increased glyoxalase activities in saline and low P stress in BHM-9 suggested better MG detoxification system because of down-regulation of Gly-I activity in BHM-7 in those stresses. Tre also increased the glyoxalase activities in both genotypes under all the stresses. Tre improved the growth in maize seedlings by decreasing Na+/K+, ROS, MDA, and MG through regulating antioxidant and glyoxalase systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0077.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: compost; compost quality; soil remediation; urban soil; nutrient leaching
Online: 4 July 2019 (11:36:40 CEST)
Poor soil health is a critical problem in many urban landscapes. Degraded soil restricts plant growth and microorganism activity, limiting the ability of urban landscapes to perform much needed ecosystem services. Incorporation of approximately 33% compost by volume into degraded soil has been proven to improve soil health and structure over time while avoiding the financial and environmental costs of importing soil mixes from elsewhere. However, additions of high volumes of compost could potentially increase the risk of nutrient loss through leaching and runoff. The objective of our study was to consider the effects of different compost amendments on soil health, plant health and susceptibility to nutrient leaching in order to identify ranges of acceptable compost characteristics that could be used for soil remediation in the urban landscape. We conducted a bioassay with Phaseolus vulgaris (Bush Bean) to measure the effect of nine composts from different feedstocks on various plant health parameters. We collected leachate prior to planting to measure nutrient loss from each treatment. We found that all compost amendments improved soil health. Nutrient-rich, manure-based composts produced the greatest plant growth, but also leached high concentrations of nitrate and phosphorus. Some treatments provided sufficient nutrients for plant growth without excess nutrient loss. We concluded, when incorporating as much as 33% compost by volume into a landscape bed, the optimal compost will generally have a C:N ratio of 10-20, P-content <1.0% and a soluble salt content between 1.0 and 3.5 mmhos/cm. These recommendations should ensure optimal plant and soil health and minimize nutrient leaching.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0003.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: grazed grassland, rangelands, grazing management, soil carbon, nutrient cycles
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:08:14 CEST)
The sustainability of grazing lands lies in the nexus of human consumption behavior, livestock productivity, and environmental sustainability. Due to fast growing global food demands, many grazing lands have suffered from overgrazing, leading to soil degradation, air and water pollution, and biodiversity losses. Multidisciplinary efforts are required to understand how grazing lands can be better monitored, assessed and managed to attain predictable outcomes of optimal benefit to society. This paper synthesizes our understanding based on previous work done on impacts of grazing on ecosystem goods and services, identifies current knowledge gaps, and formulates a plan forward. We review the impacts of two contrasting grazing systems, continuous and multi-paddock rotational grazing, on soil carbon (C), nutrient cycling and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). We then extend our review to explore challenges of incorporating spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability into monitoring and modelling C and nutrient cycling in grazing lands. We revisit two process-based models (i.e., DNDC and DayCent) and two watershed models (i.e., SWAT and VIC) widely used to simulate C, nutrient and water cycles of these lands. Finally we identify research directions for improving the knowledge base which is essential to conserve grazing lands and maintain their ecosystem goods and services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: compost, nutrient leaching; pollutant removal; stormwater quality, system modeling
Online: 2 April 2019 (15:35:29 CEST)
Filter Media (FM) sourced from recycled organic and mineral material offers a low cost and effective means of treating urban stormwater. Using recycled materials rather than from an increasingly scarce source of virgin materials (typically sandy loam soil) can ensure a sustainable long-term economy and environment. This paper presents results from the laboratory analysis and mathematical modeling to highlight the performance of recycled organic and mineral material in removing nutrients and metals from stormwater. Analysis included physical and chemical characterisation such as particle size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, effective cation exchange capacity, and pollutant removal performance. Design mixes (DM), comprising a combination of organic and mineral materials, were characterised and used to develop/derive modelling design within the Model for Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC v6) . Comparison is made to the Adoption Guidelines for Stormwater Biofiltration Systems - Summary Report  which were based on the Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB) guidelines to assist in the development of biofiltration systems, including the planning, design, construction and operation of those systems. An observed outcome from over two decades of biofiltration guideline development has been the exclusion of alternative biofilter materials due to claims of excessive leaching. Results from this study indicate that high nutrient and metal removal rates can be achieved over a range of hydraulic conductivities using design mixes of recycled organic and mineral materials that have a demonstrated equivalence to existing guideline specifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0088.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: nutrient profiling; simulated gastrointestinal digestion; antioxidant activity; fish soup
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:51:14 CEST)
Different kinds of freshwater fish soups show a diverse range of health functions, due to their different nutritional substances and corresponding bioactivities. Crucian carp soup and snakehead soup have different dietotherapy functions, crucian carp soup is suitable for lactating women and snakehead soup is suitable for postoperative patients. In the current study, the changes of nutrient profiles in the different fish soups, such as chemical composition, free amino acids, mineral and fatty acid contents, were investigated. The antioxidant activities of the fish soups were evaluated by using the DPPH radical scavenging activity, the ferrous ion chelating activity, the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and the reducing power effect. In order to learn the theoretical basis of the potential role fish soup plays in diet therapy functions after being digested by the human body, the nutrient profiling and bioactivities of the fish soup samples after simulated gastrointestinal digestion were also explored. The intensive profiles of nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of these two kinds of fish soups were expected to partly provide the theoretical basis of therapeutic effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0237.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biochar; compost; nutrient retention; highly weathered soil; Chinese cabbage
Online: 14 June 2018 (15:46:36 CEST)
Highly weathered soils in the tropics are low in fertility, negatively affecting plant growth. The potential of biochar for improving soil nutrient retention is reportedly promising, triggering this study to assess the nutrient retention capacities of two biochars when applied at 2% in combination with two composts also applied at 2% to an Ultisol (Ustic Kanhaplohumult, Leilehua series) and an Oxisol (Rhodic haplustox, Wahiawa series) of Hawai’i. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa cv. Bonsai) was used as the test plant in two greenhouse plantings, which had a factorial completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. The results indicated that the combined additions of biochar and compost significantly increased the pH, EC, P and K of the soils; improved Ca, Mg and Fe uptake; and increased shoot and total cabbage fresh and dry matter. Exchangeable aluminum in the Ultisol was decreased from 2.5 cmol+/kg to virtually zero. Extractable Mn and Fe in the high Mn-Oxisol were decreased by 55 and 42%, respectively. Chinese cabbage growth in the Ultisol amended with the lac tree (Schleichera oleosa) wood biochar and vermicompost was almost twice over lime at 2 cmol+/kg. Essential nutrients in the plant tissues, with the exception of N and K, were sufficient for the cabbage growth, suggesting increases in nutrients and reduced soil acidity by the additions of biochar combined with compost were the probable cause.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0270.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: nitrogen; phosphorus; nutrient cycling; biogeochemistry; geochemistry; geophysics; wetlands; catchment management
Online: 24 November 2019 (05:05:30 CET)
The impact of riparian wetlands on the cycling, retention and export of nutrients from land to water varies according to local environmental conditions and is poorly resolved in catchment management approaches. To determine the role a specific wetland might play in a catchment mitigation strategy, an alternative approach is needed to the high frequency and spatially detailed monitoring programme that would otherwise be needed. Here, we present a new approach using a combination of novel and well-established geochemical, geophysical and isotope ratio approaches. This was developed and tested against a 2-year high-resolution sampling programme in a lowland permeable wetland in the Lambourn catchment, UK. The monitoring programme identified multiple pathways and water sources feeding into the wetland, generating large spatial and temporal variations in nutrient cycling, retention and export behaviours within the wetland. This complexity of contributing source areas and biogeochemical functions within the wetland were effectively identified using the new toolkit approach. We propose that this technique could be used to determine the likely net source/sink function of riparian wetlands prior to their incorporation into any catchment management plan, with relatively low resource implications when compared to a full high frequency nutrient speciation and isotope geochemistry-based monitoring approach.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dietary diversity; nutrient adequacy; metabolic syndrome; aging; PREDIMED-Plus study
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:25:48 CET)
Dietary guidelines emphasizes the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, the aging is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the relationship between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient adequacy and to identify associated demographic variables related with DD. We analysed cross-sectional baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study: 6587 Spanish adults, aged 55–75 years, with overweight/obesity and MetS. Using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), we calculated an energy-adjusted score of DD (DDS). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the recommended dietary intake at least of ≥4 of 17 nutrients. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between nutritional inadequate intakes and DDS. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake OR=28.56 (95% C.I. 20.80-39.21). When we estimated diversity for each one of the food groups, participants in the first quartile of diversity had a higher risk of nutrient deficiency: for vegetables, OR= 14.03 (IC 95% 10.55-18.65), fruits OR=11.62 (IC 95% 6.81-19.81), dairy products OR= 6.54 (IC 95% 4.64-9.22) and protein foods OR=6.60 (IC 95% 1.96-22.24). As DDS decreases, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rises. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0521.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: phosphorus; nutrient budget; non-point source pollution; Korea; monsoon climate
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:28:35 CET)
Despite increased awareness of and attention to the need for sustainable agriculture, fertilizers and compost application in excess of crop requirements remain common agricultural practices in South Korea, causing eutrophication of freshwater and coastal ecosystems. In this study, a phosphorus (P) budget was developed to quantify P inputs, outputs, and retention in a forested- agricultural watershed. The P budget showed that chemical fertilizers and organic compost were the largest source of P (97.6% of the total) followed by atmospheric deposition (2.1% of the total P), whereas forest export (0.2% of the total) and sewage treatment plants (STPs) (0.1% of the total) were negligible. The dominant P outputs were crop harvesting and hydrologic export to surface water. The P balance showed a significant accumulation of P in the watershed; approximately 87% of the total P input was retained in the soils within the watershed. However, P concentrations in drainage water were still high enough to cause eutrophication of downstream reservoirs. The results provide useful information on the proportion of P export and retention in soils and will help support efforts to improve water quality and design better management of agricultural non-point source pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0011.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: plant nutrition; chemical fertilization; nutrient diagnosis; forest plantation; foliar nutrients
Online: 2 January 2018 (10:25:46 CET)
Pinus patula is one of the most planted wood conifer species worldwide; however, no foliar nutrient standards exist for this species up to date. The objective of the present study was to generate and verify two sets of foliar nutrient standards for nearly ten-year-old P. patula trees: critical nutrient concentrations and DRIS norms. Nutrients studied were N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, and B. The reference standards were verified experimentally by installing two fertilization trials; one of them located in Huayacocotla, state of Veracruz and the other one in Aquixtla, state of Puebla, Mexico. Nutrient status of each fertilization trial was correctly predicted by critical nutrient values and DRIS as well. Both standards were able to detect the secondary growth-limiting nutrient deficiency in the Huayacocotla trial, where the primary limitation for growth was scarcity of solar radiation within tree crowns. The limiting nutrient in both experimental trials was K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: human urine; K-struvite precipitation; nutrient recovery; operation parameters; solid phases
Online: 14 December 2021 (11:46:20 CET)
The impact of nutrients on the environment, particularly on water bodies, has led to extensive studies for nutrient control. Within this context, studies have been focused on source separation of human urine from domestic wastewater to recover nutrients. Potassium is one of the most important components of human urine. However, data on potassium removal or recovery are quite limited except for some indirect information through use of zeolites for mostly ammonia removal. Potassium struvite or K-struvite (MgKPO4·6H2O) is a sparingly soluble salt belonging to struvite and has the potential of being used as a means of potassium and phosphate recovery from segregated human urine. This study aimed to assess the potential of K-struvite precipitation for control and recovery of nutrients. Within this context, K-struvite precipitation experiments were performed on both synthetically prepared samples and synthetic human urine solution to determine effect of operation parameters i.e. pH, stoichiometry, and temperature on potassium recovery performance. Results indicated that process performance as well as type of solid phases co-precipitated with K-struvite were closely related to initial potassium concentration, pH and reaction stoichiometry. At pH 10, the potassium recovery efficiency was maximized up to 87% by application of 100% excess dose of Mg and P for both synthetic samples and synthetic human urine solution. On the other hand, application of excess dose of K did not provide any improvement in K recovery efficiency. The effect of temperature on solubility of K-struvite was insignificant at the temperature of 24-90°C. Solid phase analyses confirmed that K-struvite was co-precipitated with either Mg3(PO4)2, MgNaPO4·7H2O, or MgHPO4·7H2O depending on pH and stoichiometry instead of a pure compound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0173.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Multi-copper oxidase; copper-transporter; nutrient-sufficient conditions, white-rot fungus
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:39:50 CET)
This research aimed to establish the relationship between carbon-nitrogen nutritional factors and copper sulfate on laccase activity (LA) by Pleurotus ostreatus. Culture media composition was tested to choose the nitrogen source. Yeast extract (YE) was selected as a better nitrogen source than ammonium sulfate. Then, the effect of glucose and YE concentrations on biomass production and LA as response variables was evaluated using central composite experimental designs with and without copper. The results showed that the best culture medium composition was glucose 45 gL-1 and YE 15 gL-1, simultaneously optimizing these two response variables. The fungal transcriptome was obtained in this medium with or without copper, and the differentially expressed genes were found. Main up-regulated transcripts included three laccase genes (lacc2, lacc6, and lacc10) regulated by copper, whereas the principal down-regulated transcripts included a copper transporter (ctr1) and a regulator of nitrogen metabolism (nmr1). These results suggest that Ctr1, which facilitates the entry of copper in the cell, is regulated by nutrient-sufficiency conditions. Once inside, copper induces transcription of laccase genes. This finding could explain why a 10 to 20-fold increase in LA occurs with copper compared to cultures without copper when using the optimal concentration of YE as nitrogen sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0158.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Cinnamomum camphora; chemotype; soil nutrient; soil bacterial community diversity and structure
Online: 8 November 2021 (15:20:35 CET)
Abstract: Plant types and soil bacterial communities had a close relationship, understanding the profound association between them contributes to better learn bacterial ecological function for plant growth. In this study, rhizosphere soil of six different chemotype Cinnamomum camphora trees were collected, including C. bodinieri var. citralifera, [C. camphora (Linn.) Presl], camphora-type, cineole-type, linalool-type and isoborneol-type. Soil properties content and bacterial communities were analyzed. Two chemotype C. camphora, including [C. camphora (Linn.) Presl] and linalool-type, shaped similar bacterial community structure, decreased Firmcutes relative abundance. richness estimators (Chao1 index and Ace index) of [C. camphora (Linn.) Presl] were decreased compared with the others. Furthermore, soil bacterial community structure was also similar among bodinieri var. citralifera, camphora-type, cineole-type and isoborneol-type. Hence, different chemotype C. camphora altered soil nutrient and shaped rhizosphere bacterial communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nutrient patterns; Obesity; Sex differences; Total and regional adiposity; South Africa
Online: 20 October 2021 (10:17:40 CEST)
The study evaluated the association between nutrient patterns and body fat and regional adiposity in middle-aged black South African (SA) men and women and determined if this differed by sex. Body fat and regional adiposity (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and dietary intake (7-day quantified food frequency questionnaire) were measured in black SA men (n=414) and women (n=346). Using principal component analysis, nutrient patterns were computed from 25 nutrients in the combined sample. Four nutrient patterns were extracted, explaining 67% of the variance in nutrient intake. Animal and fat, as well as the vitamin C, sugar and potassium driven patterns, were positively associated with total adiposity. In contrast, the retinol and vitamin B12 pattern was associated with the centralisation of fat. Notably, the strength of the association between the animal-driven nutrient pattern and BMI was greater in men (1.14 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.63-1.66)) than women (0.81 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.25-1.36)) (Pint=0.017). In contrast, the plant driven pattern was associated with higher abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in women (44 cm2, 95%CI (22-67)) but not men (Pint =1.54 x 10-4). These interactions suggest that although men and women have similar nutrient patterns, the associations with the whole body and regional body fat are different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: feeding trial; growth; maintenance; nutrient evaluation; protein utilization; Thai swamp buffalo
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:23:11 CET)
Interpretation of increased gain in the bovine animals is difficult to be validated due to inherent genetic variation to meet their requirement for energy and protein, and those may relate to the bull species, e.g., Thai swamp buffalo. Therein, the study aimed at investigating and predicting protein requirement systems, with providing abundant energy intake 2.20 Mcal/kg DM for maintenance and growth of Thai swamp buffaloes using the comparative prolonged feeding trial for 90 days. Sixteen bull Thai swamp buffaloes at the initial (Age: 18-24 months; BW: 233 ± 25.0 kg) were as-signed into four treatment groups, four buffaloes each, fed 5.42, 6.96, 8.94, and 10.71% DM crude protein (CP). CP intake, BW, and physiological fluid were determined. The net CP requirements for maintenance and growth of Thai swamp buffaloes were 5.41 g CP/kg W0.75 and 0.46 g CP/g average daily gain (ADG), respectively. Our results indicated that CP requirement increases, when BW increases. An increased dietary CP resulted in an increased number at blood urine nitrogen (N), N absorption, total volatile fatty acid, urinary purine derivative, and the microbial N. Notably, the net CP requirement for growth of Thai swamp buffalo was higher than it reported in NRC, but the maintenance was lower.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: nutrient loading; geospatial model; dissolved inorganic nitrogen; water quality; island management
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:23:41 CET)
Excessive nutrient discharge to tropical island coastlines drives eutrophication and algal blooms with significant implications for reef ecosystem condition and provision of ecosystem services. Management actions to address nutrient pollution in coastal ecosystems include setting water quality standards for discharging surface waters. However, these standards do not account for the effects of groundwater discharge, variability in flow, or dilution, all of which may influence assessment of true nutrient impacts on nearshore reef habitats. We developed a method to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loads to coastal zones by integrating commonly available datasets within a geospatial modeling framework for Tutuila, American Samoa. The DIN loading model integrated an open-source water budget model, water sampling results, and publically available streamflow data to predict watershed-scale DIN loading to the island’s entire coastline. When compared to surface water pathways, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was determined to be the most important coastal delivery mechanism of terrigenous DIN, which supports findings from other tropical islands. Onsite wastewater disposal systems were also found to be the primary anthropogenic sources DIN to coastal waters. Our island-wide DIN loading model provides a simple and robust metric to define spatially-explicit sources and delivery mechanisms of nutrient pollution to nearshore reef habitats. Understanding the sources and primary transport modes of inorganic nitrogen to nearshore reef ecosystems can have significant implications for place-based management interventions aimed at increasing the adaptive capacity of unique island ecosystems to environmental variation and disturbances.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: breakfast; linear programming; NHANES; NRF9.3; nutrient density; food groups; nutrients; optimization
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:42:42 CEST)
The quality of dietary patterns can be optimized using a mathematical technique known as linear programming (LP). LP methods have rarely been applied to individual meals. The present LP models optimized the breakfast meal for those participants in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 who ate breakfast (n=11,565). The Nutrient Rich Food Index (NRF9.3) was a measure of diet quality. Breakfasts in the bottom tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T1) were LP-modeled to meet nutrient requirements without deviating too much from current eating habits. Separate LP models were run for children and for adults. The LP-modeled breakfasts resembled the existing ones in the top tertile of NRF9.3 scores (T3), but were more nutrient-rich. Favoring fruit, cereals, and dairy, the LP-modeled breakfasts had less meat, added sugars and fats but more whole fruit and 100% juices, more whole grains, and more milk and yogurt. LP modeling methods can build on existing dietary patterns to construct food-based dietary guidelines and identify individual meals and/or snacks that need improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0133.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: aging; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; nutrient metabolism; genetic background; nutritional stress
Online: 29 October 2018 (10:33:59 CET)
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a peptidase that is involved in the synthesis of Angiotensin II, the bioactive component of the renin-angiotensin system. A growing body of literature argues for a beneficial impact of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) on age-associated metabolic disorders, mediated by cellular changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that improve mitochondrial function. Yet, our understanding of the relationship between ACEi therapy and metabolic parameters is limited. Here, we used three genetically diverse strains of Drosophila melanogaster to show that Lisinopril treatment reduces thoracic ROS levels and mitochondrial respiration in young flies, and increases mitochondrial content in middle-aged flies. Using untargeted metabolomics analysis, we also showed that Lisinopril perturbs the thoracic metabolic network structure by affecting metabolic pathways involved in glycogen degradation, glycolysis, and mevalonate metabolism. The Lisinopril-induced effects on mitochondrial and metabolic parameters, however, are genotype-specific and likely reflect the drug’s impact on nutrient-dependent fitness traits. Accordingly, we found that Lisinopril negatively affects survival under nutrient starvation, an effect that can be blunted by genotype and age in a manner that partially mirrors the drug-induced changes in mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, our results provide novel and important insights into the role of ACEi in cellular metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0169.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; nutrient enrichment; akinetes; harmful algal blooms; PCR; phylogenetic analyses
Online: 10 May 2018 (15:37:51 CEST)
The presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and cyanotoxins in drinking water sources poses a great threat to human health. The current study employed molecular techniques to determine the occurrence of non-toxic and toxic cyanobacteria species in the Limpopo River basin based on the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene. The bottom sediments samples were collected from selected rivers: Limpopo, Crocodile, Mokolo, Mogalakwena, Nzhelele, Lephalale, Sand Rivers (South Africa); Notwane (Botswana), Shashe River and Mzingwane River (Zimbabwe). The physical-chemical analysis of the bottom sediments showed the availability of nutrients, nitrates and phosphates, in excess of 0.5 mg/l for most of river sediments, alkaline pH and salinity in excess of 500 mg/l. The FlowCam showed the dominant cyanobacteria species identified from the samples were Microcystis species, followed by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Phormidium and Planktothrix species and this was confirmed by molecular techniques. Nevertheless, two samples showed the amplification of cylindrospermopsin polyketide synthetase gene (S3 and S9) while two samples showed amplification for microcystin/nodularin synthetase gene (S8 and S13). Thus these findings may imply the presence of toxic cyanobacteria species in the river sediments. The presence of cyanobacteria may be hazardous to human because rural communities and farmers who abstract water from Limpopo river catchment for human consumption, livestock and wildlife watering and irrigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: crown of thorns starfish; Great Barrier Reef; nutrient enrichment; larval survivorship
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:18:50 CET)
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is currently experiencing widespread crown of thorns starfish (CoTS) outbreaks as part of the fourth wave of outbreaks since 1962. It is believed that outbreaks have become more frequent on the GBR and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific associated with anthropogenic causes. The two widely accepted potential causes are (1) anthropogenic nutrient enrichment leading to increased biomass of phytoplankton, the food of the planktonic stage of larval CoTS; and (2) overfishing of predators on the juvenile to adult stages of CoTS, for example, commercial fished species such as coral trout. In this study, we show the evidence for the nutrient enrichment causation hypothesis is strong based on a large number of recent studies in the GBR. We also hypothesise that secondary outbreaks in the region between Cairns and Townsville can also be enhanced by nutrient enriched conditions associated with the annual nutrient discharge from Wet Tropics rivers.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: carbon cycling; nutrient cycling; soil amendment; manure; biochar; corn; maize; soybeans; fertilizer
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:58:58 CET)
Plant and animal agriculture is a part of a larger system where the environment, soil, water, nutrient management interact. Biochar (a pyrolyzed biomass) has been shown to affect the single components of this complex system positively. Biochar is a soil amendment, which has been documented for its benefits as soil enhancer particularly to increase soil carbon, improve soil fertility, and better nutrient retention. These effects have been documented in the literature. Still, there is a need for a broader examination of these single components and effects that aims at the complementarity and synergy attainable with biochar and the animal and crop production system. Thus, we report a comprehensive dataset documenting the interactions of biochar with manure, soil, and plants. We evaluated three biochars mixed with manure alongside both manure and soil controls for improvement in soil quality, reduction in nutrient movement, and increase in plant nutrient availability. We explain the experiments and the dataset which contains the physicochemical properties of each biochar-manure mixture, the physicochemical properties of soil amended with each biochar-manure mixture, and the biomass and nutrient information of plants grown in biochar-manure mixture amended soil. This dataset is useful for continued research examining both the short and long-term effects of biochar-manure mixtures on both plant and soil systems. In addition, these data will be beneficial to extent the findings to field settings for practical and realized gains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0093.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: microarthropods; decomposition; nutrient mineralization; multi-channel feeding; predation; alternate prey; detrital shunting
Online: 8 November 2019 (10:39:16 CET)
Two desirable functions of healthy soil are nutrient cycling and pest suppression. We review recent literature on the contributions of soil microarthropods to soil health through their intersecting roles in decomposition and nutrient cycling and direct and indirect suppression of plant pests. Microarthropods can impact soil and plant health directly by feeding on pest organisms or serving as alternate prey for larger predatory arthropods, and indirectly, by mediating the ability of crop plants to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases through interactions with the decomposition food web in support of plant nutrition. Soil fauna, including microarthropods, are key regulators of decomposition at local scales but their role at larger scales is unresolved. Future research priorities include the incorporation of multi-channel omnivory into food web modeling and understanding the vulnerability of our soil carbon to increased global temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0216.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: nutrient use efficiency; grain yield; nitrogen, phosphorus; potassium; green super rice; BC breeding
Online: 12 July 2018 (11:05:46 CEST)
To develop green super rice varieties with high and stable yields under the rainfed conditions and improved nutrient use efficiency (NuUE), a modified backcross (BC) breeding approach was adopted using a high yielding and widely adaptable Xian variety, WTR1, as the recipient and a Geng variety, HAN, as the donor. Starting from the BC1F2 generation, the BC population had gone through one generation of selection under the IG, LI and RF conditions, followed by consecutive four generations of screening and selection for high GY under six different nutrient conditions, leading to the development of 230 BC1F6 introgression lines (ILs). The final evaluation of the 230 ILs under the six nutrient conditions identified many ILs with improved yields under various combinations of nutrient deficient conditions, including 12 promising lines that had significantly improved NuUE under two or more nutrient deficiency conditions. Our results demonstrated an efficient inter-subspecific BC breeding procedure with first round selection under the rainfed-drought condition followed by four generations of progeny testing for yield performances under six different nutrient conditions. The promising ILs were studied under replicated yield trials under 75N and -NPK conditions for developing high yield rice varieties with improved NuUE. Our results indicated that NuUE in rice was controlled by complex genetic and physiological mechanisms and the developed ILs provided useful materials for genetic and molecular dissection of NuUE in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hydroponics; interdigitated electrodes; molecularly imprinted polymer; nutrient monitoring; phosphate; polymer sensor; precision agriculture
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:22:17 CET)
An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N-allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a combination of a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0757.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: habitat connectivity; movements of organisms; nutrient transport; offshore ecological restoration; artificial habitat; biodiversity conservation
Online: 31 March 2021 (10:12:41 CEST)
Ecological connectivity, as a research method related to spatial ecology and conservation biology, has attracted increasing attention from researchers at home and abroad in recent years. Habitat connectivity, as a key link in ecological connectivity, is of great significance to promote offshore ecological restoration and protection. However, there has been less systematic research about habitat connectivity, which lacks corresponding theories and practices. Therefore, this paper discusses habitat connectivity from three aspects: (1) the concept of habitat connectivity is introduced and clarified, (2) the application of connectivity in artificial habitat and adjacent waters and its relationship with biodiversity conservation are reviewed and illustrated with examples, and (3) the future development trends of this research direction are summarized and prospected, in order to provide a scientific basis and useful reference for the related work of offshore restoration projects in China. Generally, this paper argues that an increase in human behavior irreversibly destroys the connectivity of marine habitats and threatens the temporal scales of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, the theoretical research results and practical experience of ecological connectivity should be fully applied to marine ecosystems, and the restoration of degraded ecosystems should be encouraged and supported in ways that promote natural recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0313.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Asiatic swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis); large ruminant production; Laos; dairy; molasses nutrient blocks; supplementation
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:18:15 CET)
Milk production from Asiatic swamp buffalo is a new enterprise in Laos. As yields are limited, provision of high-quality Cow-Calf molasses nutrient blocks containing 10% urea (UMNB10) may improve productivity. A trial in a recently established commercial buffalo dairy examined dietary supplementation of lactating buffalo cows with UMNB10, with 3 groups of 9 cows in mid-lactation randomly selected. Two groups received ad-libitum access to UMBs with the remaining group free of block supplements. All animals were daily fed fresh Napier grass (30kg), corn (750gm), rice bran (1.45kg), plus accessed fresh Mulatto grass. Daily milk production (DMP) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded for the 2 months of access to UMB. Average DMP for the 2 supplemented groups were 1.02 litres and 0.96 litres, compared to 0.78 litres for the control group, suggesting improved milk productivity of 31% and 24% from accessing UMB. Partial budget analysis identified a strong incentive for use of the molasses blocks, with a net profit of USD408 and USD295 over a 30-day period for the supplemented groups. Molasses nutrient blocks may be a simple motivator for smallholder farmers in developing countries to increase the efficiency of large ruminant production, improving rural livelihoods, food security and potentially, reducing GHG emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0077.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; phosphorus XANES; fertilizer microdosing; African leafy vegetables; synchrotron; sustainability; nutrient stewardship
Online: 6 December 2019 (04:48:26 CET)
This study investigated the speciation, transformation and availability of P during indigenous vegetable production by employing a combination of chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The study focused upon sites in two ecozones of SSA, the Dry Savanna (lna, Benin Republic) and Rainforest (Ilesha, Nigeria). Both sites were cultivated with two indigenous vegetable species; local amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus (AV)) and African eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon (SM)). The soils were treated with 5 t/ha poultry manure and urea fertilizer at the rate of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg N/ha. Soil samples were collected before planting and after harvest. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to determine P speciation in these soils. Quantitative analysis showed that adsorbed and organic P were the two dominant P species in the manure amended Dry Savanna (DS) soils before planting and after harvest in soils cultivated with both AV and SM, with the addition of urea (40 kg N/ha) causing an increase in the organic P form in Dry Savanna soils cultivated with AV. Soils of the Rainforest (RF) cultivated with AV initially had large amounts of apatite P in the manure amended soils prior to planting which was transformed to adsorbed and organic P after harvest. Urea addition to the Rainforest soils shifted the dominant P species from organic P to adsorbed and apatite P, which is likely to limit P availability. Soils cultivated with SM had similar proportions of both organic and adsorbed P forms, with 40 kg N/ha addition slightly increased the proportion of adsorbed P.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0008.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Sustainable dryland farming; clay soil amendment; soil water use; organic matter; enzyme activity; nutrient turnover
Online: 1 March 2022 (08:27:33 CET)
Degraded soils causing from natural and human affects are universal in arid and semi-arid regions all over the world. Bentonite and humic acid (BHA) are increasingly being tested to remediate these degraded lands with potential benefits on crop production and soil health. The objective of this paper was to determine the residual effects four to five years after a one-time BHA application at six rates on (i) dynamic changes in soil properties, and (ii) oat crop productivity parameters, in a dryland farming ecosystem. With increasing rates of one-time BHA application, soil profile water storage displayed a piecewise linear increase plus plateau, whereas soil electrical conductivity, pH and bulk density were all reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the 0-20 cm and 20-60 cm layers. The improved soil environments gave rise to an increased activity of soil enzymes urease, invertase and catalase that respectively reached the peak values of 97%, 37% and 32% at the rates of 21 to 24 Mg BHA ha-1. These conversely boosted soil nutrient turnover, leading to a 40% higher soil available P. Compared with the control treatment, application of BHA at the estimated optimum rate (roughly 24 Mg ha-1) increased grain yield by 20%, protein yield by 62%, water use efficiency by 41%, and partial factor productivity of N by 20%. Results of this study showed for the first time that a one-time BHA application would be a new and effective strategy to combat land degradation, drought, and promote a sustainable soil micro-ecological environment in dryland agroecosystem under a varying climate scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0276.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: life cycle assessment; sisal production; circular economy; nutrient depletion; anaerobic digestion; waste management; bioenergy; biogas.
Online: 12 July 2021 (23:02:10 CEST)
Nutrient depletion in Tanzanian sisal production has led to yield decreases over time. We use nutrient mass balances embedded within a life cycle assessment to quantify the extent of nutrient depletion for different production systems, then used circular economy principles to identify potential cosubstrates from within the Tanzanian economy to anaerobically digest with sisal wastes. The biogas produced is then used to generate bioelectricity and the digestate residual can be used as a fertilizer to address the nutrient depletion. If no current beneficial use of the cosubstrate was assumed, then beef manure and marine fish processing waste were the best cosubstrates. If agricultural wastes were assumed to have a current beneficial use as fertilizer, then marine fish processing waste and human urine were the best cosubstrates. The largest reduction in environmental impacts resulted from bioelectricity replacing electricity from fossil fuels in the national electricity grid and improved onsite waste management practices. There is significant potential to revitalize Tanzanian sisal production by applying circular economy principles to sisal waste management and bioenergy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0551.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: C-mineralization; carbon sequestration; nutrient cycling; sustainability; waste management; animal agriculture; N-immobilization; N-mineralization
Online: 24 September 2020 (09:02:34 CEST)
Biochar application to the soil can improve soil quality and nutrient leaching loss. Recent studies have reported that surficial application of biochar to stored swine manure can reduce emissions of odorous compounds and reduce the volatilization loss of ammonia. Our working hypothesis was that the biochar-treated manure application to the soil would decrease nutrient leaching from manure and increase plant-available nutrients. The study objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and other major and minor nutrients. Three biochars (i) neutral pH red-oak (RO), (ii) highly alkaline autothermal corn (Zea mays) stover (HAP), and (iii) mild acidic Fe-treated autothermal corn stover (HAPE) were incubated with swine manure for a month. The biochar-manure mixture was applied in triplicate to soil columns with application rate determined by the P2O5-P content in manure or manure-biochar mixtures after the incubation. The ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), and reactive P concentrations in soil column leachates were recorded for eight leaching events. Soil properties and plant-available nutrients were compared between treatments and control manure & soil. Manure-(HAP&HAPE) biochar treatments significantly increased soil organic matter (OM) and increased soil total C, N, and improved soil bulk density. Concentrations of KCl-extractable NH4+ and NO3- significantly increased in HAPE column leachates during this 4-week study and in the soil after the experiment. A significant reduction in soil Mehlich3 Cu was also observed for the manure-HAPE mixture compared with the control. Overall, the manure-biochar incubation enabled biochar to sorb nutrients from manure, and the subsequent manure-biochar mixture application to soil improved soil quality and plant nutrient availability in comparison to conventional manure application to soil. This proof-of-the-concept study suggests that biochars could be used to solve both environmental and agronomic challenges and further improve the sustainability of animal and crop production agriculture.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0073.v2
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: ecological stoichiometry; predator; spider; sex; nutrition; nutritional ecology; arthropod; nutrient cycling; trophic link; food web
Online: 29 July 2020 (09:40:28 CEST)
Nutritional limitations may shape populations and communities of organisms. This phenomenon is often studied by treating populations and communities as pools of homogenous individuals with average nutritional optima and experiencing average constraints and trade-offs that influence their fitness in a standardized way. However, populations and communities consist of individuals belonging to different sexes, each with specific nutritional demands and limitations. Taking this into account, we used the ecological stoichiometry framework to study sexual differences in the stoichiometric phenotypes, reflecting stoichiometric niches, of four spider taxa differing in hunting mode. The species and sexes differed fundamentally in their elemental phenotypes, including elements beyond those most commonly studied (C, N and P). Both species and sexes were distinguished by the C:N ratio and concentrations of Cu, K and Zn. Species additionally differed in concentrations of Na, Mg and Mn. Phosphorous was not involved in this differentiation. Sexual dimorphism in spiders’ elemental phenotypes, related to differences in their stoichiometric niches, suggests different nutritional optima and differences in nutritional limitation experienced by different sexes and species. This may influence the structure and functioning of spider populations and communities.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sub-surface flow constructed wetland; nutrient removal; wastewater treatment; Lactuca sativa; Medicago sativa; Phragmites australis
Online: 28 November 2016 (10:34:49 CET)
The main objective of this study was to compare the removal efficiency of nutrients using Lactuca sativa, Medicago sativa and Phragmites australis in subsurface flow constructed wetlands with horizontal flow. In order to test water quality, fabricated reactors designed and the plants cultivated in the soil while their root were inside the wastewater. A long time study carried out from spring till end of autumn (9 months) in order to evaluate the difference in removal rate based on the seasonal changes. The highest removal rate was during summer which followed by spring and autumn. Thus, the effect of plants on the removal efficiency of organic matter (COD, BOD), TSS and nutrient (P and TN) appeared to be dependent on the seasonal growth. Phragmites australis the most sensitive species in order the removal of nutrient from wastewater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0417.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nutrient use efficiency; plant uptake; N-mineralization; carbon sequestration; manure management; animal-crop production systems; sustainability
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:49:16 CET)
The use of swine manure as a source of plant nutrients is one alternative to synthetic fertilizers. However, conventional manure application with >90% water and a low C:N ratio results in soil C loss to the atmosphere. Our hypothesis was to use biochar as a manure nutrient stabilizer that would slowly release nutrients to plants upon biochar-swine manure mixture application to soil. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and plant-available macro and micronutrients in greenhouse-cultivated corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Neutral pH red oak (RO), highly alkaline autothermal corn stover (HAP), and mild acidic Fe-treated autothermal corn stover (HAPE) biomass were pyrolyzed to prepare biochars. Each biochar was surface-applied to swine manure at a 1:4 (biochar wt/manure wt) ratio to generate mixtures of manure and respective biochars (MRO, MHAP, and MHAPE). Conventional manure (M) control and manure-biochar mixtures were then applied to the soil at a recommended rate. Corn and soybean were grown under these controls and treatments (S, M, MRO, MHAP, and MHAPE) to evaluate the manure-biochar impact on soil quality, plant biomass yield, and nutrient uptake. Soil OM significantly (<0.05) increased in all manure-biochar treatments; however, no change in soil pH or N was observed under any treatment. No difference in soil ammonium between treatments was identified. There was a significant decrease in soil M3-P and soil NO3- for all manure-biochar treatments compared to the conventional M. However, the plant biomass nutrient concentrations were not significantly different from control manure. Moreover, an increasing trend of N and decreasing trend of P in the plant under all biochar-manure treatments than the controls were noted. This observation suggests that the presence of biochar is capable of influencing the soil N and P in such a way as not to lose those nutrients at the early growth stages of the plant. In general, no statistical difference in corn or soybean biomass yield and plant nutrient uptake for N, P, and K was observed. Interestingly, manure-biochar application to soil significantly diluted the M3-extractable soil Cu and Zn concentrations. The results attribute that manure-biochar has the potential to be a better soil amendment than conventional manure application to the soil.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agricultural soils; carbon dioxide (CO2), energy; forests; methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nutrient leaching; peat; traffic
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:19:26 CET)
rdinary people and political leaders must know the sources of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global climate change before they have ability to make decisions to reduce emissions and increase sinks of these gases. These people must, however, understand where greenhouse gas emissions are formed and how reductions can be made: they must understand where carbon dioxide sinks are and how to preserve or increase these sinks. North Savo is the example used in this work to describe the present emissions and sinks. There are proposals on what should and could be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by traffic, heating, forests and agriculture. There are possibilities of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in traffic and heating in spite of the fact that the province has a low population density with long distances between homes and workplaces and schools, and a cold climate. We believe that research will also find solutions for reducing greenhouse gases and protecting waters, which are used for recreational purposes and for raw water of drinking water in many places. Luckily forests cover large areas of North Savo and their growth is an important carbon dioxide sink. In addition, forest soils serve as a valuable storage of carbon. Besides carbon dioxide emissions, emissions of nitrous oxide and methane must also be considered since they are more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide and land use can thus influence these gas emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; cardiac surgery; antioxidant therapy; nutrient; oxidative stress; organ dysfunction; multi organ failure
Online: 27 June 2018 (12:29:23 CEST)
The pleiotropic biochemical and antioxidant functions of Vitamin C (Vit C) have recently sparked interest in its application in intensive care. Vit C protects important organ systems such as the cardiovascular, neurologic and renal system during inflammation and oxidative stress. Vit C also influences the systems of coagulation and inflammation and its application might prevent the development of organ damage. The current evidence of Vit C’s effect on the pathophysiological reactions during various acute stress events, such as sepsis, shock, trauma, burn and ischemia-reperfusion injury imposes the question, if the application of Vit C might be especially beneficial for cardiac surgery patients, who are routinely exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and subsequent inflammation, systematically affecting different organ systems. This review covers current knowledge about the role of Vit C in cardiac surgery patients with focus on its influence on organ dysfunctions. The relationships between Vit C and clinical health outcomes are reviewed with special emphasis on its application in cardiac surgery. Additionally, this review pragmatically discusses evidence regarding the administration of Vitamin C in every day clinical practice, tackling the issues of safety, monitoring, dosage and most the appropriate application strategy.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; clary sage; nutrient uptake; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; phytoremediation; phytostabilization; photosynthetic pigments; phenolic content; Zn toxicity
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:36:30 CET)
The responses of the aromatic and medicinal plant Salvia sclarea (clary sage) to 900 µM Zn exposure for 8 days in a hydroponic culture were investigated. The tolerance mechanisms under excess Zn exposure were assessed by changes in nutrient uptake, photosynthetic characteristics and leaf structure. The uptake and the distribution of Zn, as well as some essential nutrient elements such as: Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu, were examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results revealed that Salvia sclarea is a Zn accumulator plant that tolerates significantly high toxic levels of Zn in the leaves by increasing the leaf content of Fe, Ca and Mn ions to protect the photosynthetic function and even stimulate photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) activities. Additionally, the leaf photosynthetic pigments and the total phenolic and anthocyanin content were also studied. Data showed that the exposure to excess Zn significantly increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds in the leaves which plays an important role in the Zn detoxification and protection against oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in leaves used as clear indicators for heavy metal damage were slightly increased. All these data highlight that Salvia sclarea is an economically interesting plant for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization of Zn contaminated soils.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: obesity; eating context; nutrient-poor foods; nutritional surveillance; adolescents; survey data analysis; data-mining; correspondence analysis; biplots
Online: 9 June 2020 (13:52:45 CEST)
Obesity is a global public health problem and the environment as its major determinant. To identify interventions an evidence base is warranted. To this aim we investigate the relationship between the consumption of foods and eating locations (like home, school/work and others) in British adolescents, using data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (2008–2012 and 2013-2016). Cross-sectional analysis of 62,523 food diary entries from this nationally representative sample then focused on foods contributing up to 80% total energy to the daily adolescent´s diet. Correspondence Analysis (CA) was first used to generate food-location relationship hypotheses and Logistic Regression (LR) to quantify the evidence in terms of odds ratios and formally test those hypotheses. The less-healthy foods that emerged from CA were chips, soft drinks, chocolate and meat pies. Adjusted Odds Ratios (99% CI) for consuming specific foods at a location “Other” than home (H) or school/work (S) in the 2008-12 survey sample were: for soft drinks 2.8 (2.1 to 3.8) vs. H and 2.0 (1.4 to 2.8) vs. S; for chips 2.8 (2.2 to 3.7) vs. H and 3.4 (2.1 to 5.5) vs. S; for chocolates 2.6 (1.9 to 3.5) vs. H and 1.9 (1.2 to 2.9) vs. S; and for meat pies 2.7 (1.5 to 5.1) vs. H and 1.3 (0.5 to 3.1) vs. S. These trends were confirmed in the 2013-16 survey sample. Interactions between location and BMI were not significant in either sample. In conclusion, our study showed that adolescents are more likely to consume specific less-healthy foods at locations away from home and school/work, irrespective of BMI. Such locations include leisure places, food outlets and “on the go”, hence public health policies to discourage less-healthy food choices in these locations is warranted for all adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0096.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: fish assemblages; community dynamics; alternate stable states; eutrophication; submerged aquatic vegetation; nutrient load reduction; point-source pollution
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:54:59 CEST)
After a local pollution control plant significantly reduced phosphorus loading into a phytoplankton-dominated tributary of the Potomac River in the early 1980’s, water quality and biological communities were monitored bi-weekly from April-September. After a 10-year time-lag, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), once abundant in this freshwater tidal embayment, returned to the area in 1993. After additional reductions in nitrogen load starting in 2000, the system completely switched to a SAV-dominated state in 2005. Fish abundance didn’t change during these distinct phase changes, but the fish community structure did. Increases in SAV provided refuge and additional spawning substrate for species with adhesive eggs such as Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), which is now the most abundant species in the embayment. Other changes seen were a decrease in the relative contribution of open water dwelling species such as White Perch (Morone americana), and an increase of visual predators such as Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). The 30-year record of data from this Potomac River tributary has revealed many important long-term trends that validate the effectiveness of initiatives to improve water treatment, and will aid in the continued management of the watershed and point source inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0217.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Site-specific K management, Soil K supply, Maize yield response to K, Maize Crop Manager, Nutrient Expert for Maize.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:05:00 CEST)
Increased nutrient withdrawal by rapidly expanding intensive cropping systems, in combination with imbalanced fertilization, is leading to potassium (K) depletion from agricultural soils in Asia. There is an urgent need to better understand the soil K-supplying capacity and K-use efficiency of crops to address this issue. Maize is increasingly being grown in rice-based systems in South Asia, particularly in Bangladesh and North East India. The high nutrient extraction, especially K, however, causes concerns for the sustainability of maize production systems in the region. The present study was designed to estimate, through a plant-based method, the magnitude, and variation in K-supplying capacity of a range of soils from the maize-growing areas and the K-use efficiency of maize in Bangladesh. Eighteen diverse soils were collected from several upazillas (or sub-districts) under 11 agro-ecological zones to examine their K-supplying capacity from the soil reserves and from K fertilization (@ 100 mg K kg-1 soil) for successive seven maize crops grown up to V10-V12 in pots inside a net house. A validation field experiment was conducted with five levels of K (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1) and two fertilizer recommendations based on “Nutrient Expert for Maize-NEM” and “Maize Crop Manager-MCM” decision support tools (DSSs) in 12 farmers’ fields in Rangpur, Rajshahi and Comilla districts in Bangladesh. Grain yield and yield attributes of maize responded significantly (P < 0.001) to K fertilizer, with grain yield increase from 18 to 79% over control in all locations. Total K uptake by plants not receiving K fertilizer, considered as potential K-supplying capacity of the soil in the pot experiment, followed the order: Modhukhali >Mithapukur >Rangpur Sadar >Dinajpur Sadar >Jhinaidah Sadar >Gangachara >Binerpota >Tarash >Gopalpur >Daudkandi >Paba >Modhupur >Nawabganj Sadar >Shibganj >Birganj >Godagari >Barura >Durgapur. Likewise in the validation field experiment, the K-supplying capacity of soils was 83.5, 60.5 and 57.2 kg ha-1 in Rangpur, Rajshahi, and Comilla, respectively. Further, the order of K-supplying capacity for three sites was similar to the results from pot study confirming the applicability of results to other soils and maize-growing areas in Bangladesh and similar soils and areas across South Asia. Based on the results from pot and field experiments, we conclude that the site-specific K management using the fertilizer DSSs can be the better and more efficient K management strategy for maize.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0721.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: eutrophication; water management; hypolimnetic warming; boundary mixing; mixing events; internal waves; long-term series; Valle de Bravo; biogeochemistry; nutrient flux
Online: 28 October 2021 (16:12:32 CEST)
Physical processes play important roles in controlling eutrophication and oligotrophication. In stratified lakes, internal waves can cause vertical transport of heat and nutrients without breaking the stratification, through boundary mixing events. Such is the case in tropical Valle de Bravo (VB) lake, where strong diurnal winds drive internal waves, boundary mixing and hypolimnetic warming during stratification periods. We monitored VB during 18 years (2001-2018) when important water-level fluctuations (WLF) occurred, affecting mixing and nutrient flux. Mean hypolimnetic temperature increase (0.06–1.04°C month-1) occurred in all the stratifications monitored. We analyzed temperature distributions and modeled the hypolimnion heat budget to assess vertical mixing between layers (26,618–140,526 m-3h-1), vertical diffusivity coefficient KZ (6.2x10-7–3.3x10-6 m2s-1) and vertical nutrient entrainment to epilimnion on monthly scale. Stability also varied as a function of WLF. Nutrient flux to the epilimnion ranged 0.36–5.99 mg m-2d-1 for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and 5.8–97.1 mg m-2d-1 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). During low water-level years, vertical nutrient fluxes increase and can account for up to >40% of the total external nutrients load to the lake. Vertical mixing changes related to WLF affect nutrient recycling, their flux to sediments, ecosystemic metabolic balance and planktonic composition of VB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nutrient resources recovery , chemical oxygen demand (COD), carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), co-composting, wastewater sludge, municipal solid wastes (MSW)
Online: 8 March 2019 (04:06:02 CET)
The purpose of this study is nutrient resources recovery by achieving the optimal chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in co-composting wastewater treatment plant sludge with Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). In this effort, the co-composting has been conducted in form of a case study in the northern region of Iran. In this research, 192 tests were carried out on four series of samples examined in terms of waste to sludge ratio, different aeration period, the percent of porous materials and the moisture content. This study was carried out at a temperature of 50 °C for a 15 day period by application of the in-vessel system and shows that the best ratio for waste to sludge is 2:1, while the 8 hour period is the best aeration period. The porous material which can be added to the composting process is limited to 15% in weight. In other words, any more or less amount of this material will adversely impact the process. Moreover, this research suggests that the sludge dewatering is not required in such processes. In Addition, the efficiency of both COD and C/N reductions equals to about 40%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Human serum albumin; COVID-19 vulnerabilities; fluid therapy; albumin binding deficiency; lymphatic nutrient pump; colloid pressure; interstitial spaces; albumin infusion; hepatic portal vein
Online: 8 September 2022 (13:40:16 CEST)
COVID-19 and long COVID-19 vulnerabilities may be caused indirectly by albumin binding deficiency (ABD) which can be corrected by the correct administration of human serum albumin (HSA). The liver is the primary site of nutrient regulation and fluid volume maintenance, control of both is by changes to albumin concentration. In healthy subjects the HSA lymphatic nutrient pump (HSALNP) ensures continual pumping of nutrients from the liver are appropriately distributed to organs. Nutrients are delivered to cells according to the availability of binding to HSA. The HSALNP therefore maintains the correct nutrients and colloidal pressure balance in all tissues independently. In unhealthy tissues, following COVID-19 infection, the passage of HSA/nutrients through the interstitial spaces and lymph will be impeded. Fluid therapy into the periphery leads to dilution of essential nutrients attached to the protein-carriers such as albumin. The levels of albumin being charged by the liver with nutrients is critical in maintaining immune stability by maintaining nutrient support and colloidal pressure of cellular structures. The site of HSA binding by the liver is of great importance and direct infusion of albumin into the Hepatic Portal Vein is the most appropriate method of maintaining colloid pressure and cellular nutrient levels.