REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0024.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: GAPDH; metabolism; moonlighting protein; redox regulation; oxidative PTMs; S-thiolation
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:14:47 CET)
Glyceraldehyde 3–phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key glycolytic enzyme, which is crucial for the breakdown of glucose to provide cellular energy. Over the past decade, GAPDH has been reported to be one of the most prominent cellular targets of post-translational modifications (PTMs), which divert GAPDH towards different non-glycolytic functions. Hence, it is termed a moonlighting protein. During metabolic and oxidative stress, GAPDH is a target of different oxidative PTMs (oxPTM), e.g. sulfenylation, S-thiolation, nitrosylation and sulfhydration. These modifications alter the enzyme’s conformation, subcellular localization and regulatory interactions with downstream partners, which impact its glycolytic and non-glycolytic functions. In this review, we discuss the redox regulation of GAPDH by different redox writers, which introduce the oxPTM code on GAPDH to instruct a redox response; the GAPDH readers, which decipher the oxPTM code through regulatory interactions and coordinate cellular response via the formation of multi-enzyme signaling complexes; and the redox erasers, which are the reducing systems that regenerate the GAPDH catalytic activity. Human pathologies associated with the oxidation-induced dysregulation of GAPDH are also discussed, featuring the importance of the redox regulation of GAPDH in neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0065.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: memory formation; moonlighting protein; protein-protein interaction; astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle
Online: 5 May 2020 (06:09:47 CEST)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a molecular basis of memory formation. Here, we demonstrate that LTP critically depends on muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (Fbp2) – a glyconeogenic enzyme and moonlighting protein protecting mitochondria against stress. We show that LTP induction regulates Fbp2 association with neuronal mitochondria and Camk2, and that the Fbp2-Camk2 interaction correlates with Camk2 autophosphorylation. Silencing of Fbp2 expression or simultaneous inhibition and tetramerization of the enzyme with a synthetic effector mimicking the action of physiological inhibitors (NAD+ and AMP) abolishes Camk2 autoactivation and blocks formation of the early phase of LTP and expression of the late phase LTP markers. Astrocyte-derived lactate reduces NAD+/NADH ratio in neurons and thus, diminishes the pool of tetrameric and increases the fraction of dimeric Fbp2. We therefore hypothesize that this NAD+-level-dependent increase of the Fbp2 dimer/tetramer ratio might be a crucial mechanism in which astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle stimulates LTP formation.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs); moonlighting proteins; drug target; biofilm; specificity determination; phylogenetic analysis
Online: 7 June 2020 (09:07:56 CEST)
Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) play an architectural role by bending, bridging, and wrapping the DNA along with a regulatory role of controlling various transcriptional units in the cell. Previews reviews have highlighted the role of HU and its paralog IHF plays in intracellular function as a transcriptional regulator, nucleoid bending protein and sometimes also moonlights in other functions. This review highlights along with the canonical functions of HU and IHF which affects genes responsible for translational machineries, cell wall biosynthesis, aerobic respiration and virulence ; other non-canonical roles which HU plays outside the cellular milieu, notably in acting as an adhesin and playing role in host-cell adhesion, its role in biofilm architecture and its association with cationic low complexity region, resembling histone like H1 proteins. HU and IHF thus has evolved as a hub protein performing a vast type of functions which makes it a important drug target for antibacterial therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0097.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: base modification; methyltransferases; flavoenzymes; tRNA; rRNA; mycoplasmas; spiroplasmas; acholeplasmas; evolution; minimal cell; moonlighting function
Online: 6 March 2020 (02:28:12 CET)
The C5-methylation of uracil to form 5-methyluracil (m5U) is a ubiquitous base modification of nucleic acids. Four enzyme families have converged to catalyze this methylation using different chemical solutions. Here, we investigate the evolution of 5-methyluracil synthase families in Mollicutes, a class of bacteria that has undergone extensive genome erosion. Many mollicutes have lost some of the m5U methyltransferases present in their common ancestor. Cases of duplication and subsequent shift of function are also described. For example, most members of the Spiroplasma subgroup, use the ancestral tetrahydrofolate-dependent TrmFO enzyme, to catalyze the formation of m5U54 in tRNA, while a TrmFO paralog (termed RlmFO) is responsible for m5U1939 formation in 23S RNA. RlmFO has replaced the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-enzyme RlmD that adds the same modification in the ancestor and which is still present in mollicutes from the Hominis subgroup. Another paralog of this family, the TrmFO-like protein, has a yet unidentified function that differs from the TrmFO and RlmFO homologs. Despite having evolved towards minimal genomes, the mollicutes possess a repertoire of m5U modifying enzymes that is highly dynamic and has undergone horizontal transfer. This emphasizes the necessity for combining bioinformatics predictions with empirical testing and structural information to get a reliable functional annotation of these enzymes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0059.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Metallothionein (MT); Scientific discovery; Scientific pursuit; Research strategies; upward looking research; Exploratory research; Protein function; Compensation; Moonlighting; multifunctional proteins; Vestiges
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:39:39 CET)
In the mid-1950s, Bert L. Vallee and his colleague Marvin Margoshes discovered a molecule known today as metallothionein (MT). Meanwhile MTs have been shown to be common in many biological organisms. Despite their prevalence, however, it remains unclear to date what exactly MTs do and how they contribute to the biological function of an organism or organ. Honoring Dr. Vallee’s sometimes innovative approach to research, this contribution sets out to show how philosophy of science can help us gain a clearer picture of biochemical research. We shall look into both the discovery of as well as recent research on Dr. Vallee’s beloved family of MT proteins to illustrate (i) how exploratory and upward-looking research play important roles in biochemical discoveries although they do not fit the paradigmatic approach of decomposition and struc-ture-function mapping. Besides, we shall suggest (ii) that while other biochemical molecules ex-hibit a clearly identifiable function, other research hypotheses might be worthy of pursuit in the case of MTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); moonlighting metalloproteinase; extracellular vesicles; oncosome; genome editing; cell communication network factor 2 (CCN2/CTGF); transcription factor; cancer
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:52:42 CET)
Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) plays multiple roles in pro-tumorigenic proteolysis and in intracellular transcription. These include inducing connective tissue growth factor [CTGF, also known as cellular communication network factor 2 (CCN2)] and prompting a new definition of MMP3 as a moonlighting metalloproteinase. Members of the MMP family have been found within tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as oncosomes or exosomes. We here investigated the roles of MMP3-rich oncosomes in tumor progression, molecular transmission, and gene regulation. MMP3 and CCN2/CTGF were significantly co-expressed in tumor samples derived from patients suffering from colorectal adenocarcinoma. We found that oncosomes derived from a rapidly metastatic colon cancer cells (LuM1) were enriched in MMP3 and a C-terminal half fragment of CCN2/CTGF. MMP3-rich oncosomes were highly transmissive into recipient cells and were pro-tumorigenic in an allograft mouse model. Oncosome-derived MMP3 was transmissive into recipient cell nuclei, trans-activated CCN2/CTGF promoter, and induced CCN2/CTGF production at 1 to 6 hours after the addition of oncosomes to culture media. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of MMP3 showed significant anti-tumor effects, including inhibition of migration and invasion of LuM1 cells in vitro, inhibition of tumor growth in vivo, and reduction of CCN2/CTGF and its promoter activity in vitro. These data newly demonstrate that the oncosome-derived moonlighting metalloproteinase promotes metastasis and is pro-tumorigenic at distant sites as well as a transmissive trans-activator for the cellular communication network gene.