Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mindfulness; mindfulness-based stress reduction; mindfulness-based stroke recovery; stroke recovery; social support for stroke survivors; medical education; stroke rehabilitation
Online: 12 September 2020 (11:29:22 CEST)
Decades of research suggest that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training supports a greater capacity to live with chronic medical conditions and contributes to lowering stress levels. This paper introduces a model for a Mindfulness-Based Recovery from Stroke (MBRfS) for promoting stroke recovery, informed by the lived experience of the author (a stroke survivor and certified MBSR instructor), the research literature regarding MBSR training, and the specific challenges of stroke recovery. Four themes emerged from the autoethnographic analysis that informed the proposed model: Readiness to accept the stroke event and the acquired brain injury; Navigating uncertainties of stroke recovery with awareness and self-responsibility for outcomes; Trusting the inherent wisdom of the body as a stroke recovery “teacher”; and Increased capacity to integrate complex emotions with self-compassion, and a sense of wholeness. A four component MBRfS model is offered, which consists of an integration amongst a modified MBSR framework, emergent attitudinal themes, and insights from the autoethnographic vignettes. The MBRfS model offers a path for providing participants with a supportive experience within stroke recovery. Recommendations and suggestions for future studies are offered to support the development of MBRfS for stroke survivors and their caregivers, as well as contributing to health care providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Burnout; Doodling; Team Mindfulness; Anxiety; Depression
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:03:22 CET)
Pre-COVID-19, doodling was identified as a measure of burnout in researchers attending a weekly, in-person health narratives research group manifesting team mindfulness. Under the group’s supportive conditions, variations in doodling served to measure change in participants’ reported depression and anxiety—internal states directly associated with burnout, adversely affecting healthcare researchers, their employment, and their research. COVID-19 demanded social distancing during the group’s 2020/21 academic meetings. Conducted online, the group’s participants who chose to doodle did so alone during the pandemic. Whether the sequestering of group participants during COVID-19 altered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of depression and anxiety was investigated. Participants considered doodling during the group’s online meetings increased their enjoyment and attention level—some expressed it helped them to relax. However, unlike face-to-face meetings during previous non-COVID-19 years, solitary doodling during online meetings was unable to reflect researchers’ depression or anxiety. COVID-19 limitations necessitating doodling alone maintained the benefits group members saw in doodling but hampered the ability of doodling to act as a measure of burnout in contrast to previous in-person doodling. This result is seen to correspond to one aspect of the group’s change in team mindfulness resulting from COVID-19 constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0156.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mindfulness; Autism Spectrum Disorders; Parental Stress; Parent Anxiety
Online: 4 March 2021 (12:26:04 CET)
This study aims to develop a clinical trial to test the efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Re-duction (MBSR) and Self Compassion (SC) Program on self-reported values of anxiety, depres-sion, and stress in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in primary school, in order to assess their integration into the framework of community intervention programs in Spain. Methods: A brief 8-week training program using Mindfulness based intervention (MBSR) and self-compassion (SC) has been applied to ten parents from the Valencian ASD parents’. Partici-pants were assigned to two groups, both groups received the same treatment but at two different measurement moments. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Satisfaction with Life and Mindful Atten-tion Awareness measurements were assessed, in all participants, in three testing moments. Results: Analysis of Variance results suggested that MBSR and SC training reduces stress and anxiety and increases Mindful Attention Awareness. No significant changes were found in Life Satisfaction measurements. Conclusions: The small number of participants prevents us from generalising the results found. More MBSR and SC clinical trials are needed in parents of ASD with results on anxiety, depression and stress in order to demonstrate the relevance of the inclusion of these programmes in community-based early intervention services.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mindfulness; cognitive control; dual mode mechanisms; dual mode control
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:26:55 CET)
Recent years have seen a massive increase in research on mindfulness as both a therapeutic practice as well as a protective health factor. While many associations have been made between mindfulness and clinical outcomes, understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes is still in its infancy. In this review, associations between mindfulness and other established frameworks in cognitive control are explored—in particular the dual modes of control framework in cognitive control theory. Studies in mindfulness providing evidence towards a dual-mode mindfulness model are reviewed and compared with the proactive and reactive modes of cognitive control to identify common underlying principles. Studies involving cognitive testing, advanced neuroimaging, and neurotransmitter levels and their associations with proactive and reactive control are reviewed in the context of the dual modes of mindfulness. While evidence supporting relationships between proactive and reactive modes of mindfulness and cognitive control are preliminary, existing literature on mindfulness already supports the notion of two components of mindfulness and is in line with the hypothesis that cognitive control and mindfulness are closely related. Since preliminary evidence suggests that proactive forms of mindfulness are more associated with improvement in clinical outcomes, mindfulness programs could be modified to target proactive mindfulness practices to maximize outcomes. The implications of proactive and reactive mindfulness on therapy, limitations of the framework, and necessity of studies providing direct evidence are further discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dispositional mindfulness; cognitive defusion; anxiety; mindfulness based on interventions; mental health; experiential avoidance; children and adolescents
Online: 30 October 2019 (10:11:48 CET)
Nowadays, mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have experimented a remarkable development of studies among childhood and adolescent interventions. For this reason, dispositional mindfulness (DM) measures for children and adolescents have been developed to determine the effectiveness of MBI at this age stage. However, little is known about how key elements of DM (f. e., cognitive de/fusion or experiential avoidance that both conform psychological inflexibility) are involved in the mechanisms of the children and adolescents’ mental health outcomes. This research examined the mediating effect of cognitive fusion between DM and anxiety and other negative emotional states in a sample of 318 Spanish primary-school students (aged between 8 and 16 years, M=11.24, SD=2.19, 50.8% males). Participants completed the AFQ-Y, which is a measure of psychological inflexibility that encompasses cognitive defusion and experiential avoidance; CAMM (DM for children and adolescents), PANAS-N (positive and negative affect measure for children, the Spanish version of PANASC), and STAIC (an anxiety measure for children). The study accomplished ethical standards. As MBI relevant literature has suggested, cognitive defusion was a significant mediator between DM and symptoms of both negative emotions and anxiety in children and adolescents. However, experiential avoidance did not show any significant mediating relationship. Probably, it is needed improvement of the assessment of experiential avoidance. MBI programs for children and adolescents may include more activities for reducing the effects of the cognitive defusion on their emotional distress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0545.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: qualitative, mindfulness, meditation, chronic illness, adolescents, eHealth
Online: 27 July 2018 (15:34:58 CEST)
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to improve health and well-being in adolescents with chronic illnesses. Because they are most often delivered in person in a group setting, there are several barriers that limit access to MBIs for youth with limited mobility or who cannot access in-person MBIs in their communities. The objective of this study was to determine if eHealth is a viable platform to increase accessibility to MBIs for teens with chronic illnesses. This study reports the qualitative results of a mixed method randomized trial describing the experience of the Mindful Awareness and Resilience Skills for Adolescents (MARS-A) program, an 8-week MBI, delivered either in person or via eHealth. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 with a chronic illness recruited at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Toronto, Canada. Individual semi-structured post-participation audio-video interviews were conducted by a research assistant. A multiple-pass inductive process was used to review interview transcripts and interpret emergent themes from the participants’ lived experiences. Fifteen participants completed post-participation interviews. Four distinct themes emerged from participants in both the in-person and eHealth groups: creation of a safe space, fostering peer support and connection, integration of mindfulness skills into daily life and improved well-being through the application of mindfulness. Results from this study suggest that eHealth may be an acceptable and feasible mode of delivery for MBIs in adolescents with chronic illnesses. EHealth should be considered in future studies as a promising avenue to increase access to MBIs in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: savoring; mindfulness; depressive symptoms; emerging adults; positive experiences
Online: 2 March 2023 (04:11:09 CET)
The links between mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms have been well-established in the literature. Nevertheless, little has been done to disentangle the prospective relations among these constructs. Clarifying the longitudinal relations is crucial, as it enables researchers and practitioners to discern potential trajectories of mental health interventions. In this study, 180 emerging adults between 18 and 27 years old were recruited twice at 3 months apart to complete self-reported measures including mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms. Cross-lagged path analysis indicated that savoring the moment was predictive of mindfulness three months later, whereas depressive symptoms were predictive of both mindfulness and savoring the moment three months later, above and beyond the effects of age, gender, and family income. Additionally, mindfulness, savoring positive experiences, and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated at baseline. The present study evidenced short-term inversed effects of depressive symptoms on mindfulness and savoring the moment, as well as a positive effect of savoring the moment on mindfulness. Hence, interventions gearing towards symptom reduction of depression are likely to carry concurrent and prospective benefits of psychological functioning, namely the ability to be present in the moment and to savor. Taken together, reducing depressive symptoms may be crucial in fostering psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: stress; resilience; mindfulness; psychological well-being; university students
Online: 23 December 2022 (06:10:38 CET)
Purpose: Using an identical experimental structure with both Thai and Singaporean undergraduates, we investigated relationships (interactions) among social support, stress, resilience, mindfulness, and self-efficacy on psychological well-being (PWB). Stress indicated a negative influence on PWB, but mindfulness, resilience, self-efficacy, and social support indicated positive influences. Methods: A cross-sectional predictive design was used with 966 Thai and 673 Singaporean university students. After calculating an adequate sample size and performing convenience sampling, we administered the following six standard scales: the Perceived Stress Scale, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, the Mindfulness Awareness Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Psychological Well-being Scale—along with a demographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed for participants’ PWB. Results: Mindfulness had significant effects for both factors of PWB, including autonomy and growth, and cognitive triad, across two samples. In the Thai sample, resilience most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and perceived stress did so the cognitive triad, whereas in the Singaporean sample, perceived control most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and support from friends did so the cognitive triad. Conclusion: These findings provide specific knowledge toward enhancing psychosocial interventions and toward promoting PWB to strengthen mindfulness, resilience, perceived control of stress, and social support. stress, resilience, mindfulness, psychological well-being, university students
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mindfulness; meditation; sexual satisfaction; sexual activity; sexual/erotic fantasies
Online: 15 January 2021 (14:15:18 CET)
The goal of this study is to better understand the relation between the practice of Mindfulness and the sexual activity, sexual satisfaction and erotic fantasies of Spanish-speaking participants. This research focuses on the comparison between people who practice Mindfulness versus naïve people, and explores the practice of Mindfulness and its relation with the following variables about sexuality: body awareness and bodily dissociation, personal sexual satisfaction, partner and relationship-related satisfaction, desire, subjective sexual arousal, genital arousal, orgasm, pain, attitudes towards sexual fantasies and types of sexual fantasies. The sample consisted of 106 selected adults, 32 men and 72 women, who completed six measures on an online survey platform: a) Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), b) Scale of Body Connection (SBC), c) New Sexual Satisfaction Scale (NSSS), d) Scale of Sexual Activity in Women (SSA-W) and Men (SSA-M), e) Hurlbert Index of Sexual Fantasy (HISF), f) Wilson's Sex Fantasy Questionnaire. In the MAAS, Body Awareness subscale (SBC), NSSS, SSA-W and SSA-M, HISF and intimate fantasies subscale (Wilson’s questionnaire), people in the Mindfulness condition showed higher scores and these differences were statistically significant. These results may have relevant implications in the sexuality of clinical and non-clinical samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: life habits; mindfulness; flow meditation; university students; controlled trial
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:33:25 CEST)
The present study explored the effects of a Second-generation mindfulness-based intervention known as Flow Meditation (Meditación-Fluir) in the improvement of life habits. A sample of university students (n = 51) in Spain were randomly assigned to a seven-week mindfulness treatment or a waiting list control group. Results showed that compared to the control group, individuals in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant improvements across all outcome measures, including healthy eating habits (balanced diet, intake rate, snacking between meals, decrease in consumption by emotional states negative, increased consumption by negative emotional states, amount of consumption, meal times, consumption of low-fat products), tobacco, alcohol and cannabis consumption, and resting habits. There were differences between males and females in some of these variables and a better effect of the treatment was evident in the females of the experimental group as compared to males. The Flow Meditation program shows promise for fostering healthy life habits, thus decreasing behaviors related to maladaptive eating, tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption, as well as negative resting habits, in university students. This mindfulness program can significantly contribute in the treatment of eating disorders and addictions, wherein negative emotional states and impulsivity are central features of the condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Teachers; Mindfulness; Emotion regulation; COVID-19; Work engagement; Emotional distress
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:28:23 CET)
The COVID-19 has dramatically affected mental health and work environment of many labor sectors, including the educational sector. Our primary aim was to investigate preschool teachers’ psychological distress and work engagement during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, while examining the possible protective role of participating in mindfulness-based intervention (C2C-IT) and emotion regulation. Emotional distress, work engagement and COVID-19 concerns’ prevalence were evaluated among 165 preschool teachers in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in Israel, using self-report questionnaires. Findings show that preschool teachers have experienced increased emotional distress. Teachers who had participated in the C2C-IT intervention six month before the pandemic outbreak (N=41) reported lower emotional distress, higher use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies and higher work engagement, compared to their counterparts that had not participated in the mindfulness training (N = 124). Emotion regulation strategies mediated the link between participating in the CTC-IT intervention and emotional distress and work engagement. Teaching is a highly demanding occupation, especially during a pandemic, therefore it is important to invest resources in empowering this population. According to the findings of the current study, implementation of mindfulness-based intervention during the school year, may benefit teachers’ well-being, even during stressful events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: burnout; team mindfulness; work engagement; online meetings; academic meetings; writing prompts; doodling; COVID-19; online games
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:55:37 CET)
Burnout, a negative job-related psychological state particularly associated with the health professions, equates to a loss of valuable research in healthcare researchers. Team mindfulness, recognized to enhance personal fulfilment through work engagement, represents one important aspect found effective in reducing burnout. In a specific series of diverse membership academic meetings intended to reduce research burnout—employing writing prompts, doodling and continuous developmental feedback to do so—team mindfulness was demonstrated when conducted in person. Therefore, determining if team mindfulness is evident when holding such academic meetings online is relevant. When COVID-19 limitations required moving these academic meetings online, it was previously noted and reported that team mindfulness was affected in no longer being present during the first eighteen months of restrictions. To discover if this result persisted, question asking, doodles submitted and feedback responses were analyzed of the following year’s academic meetings for the same group, both quantitively and qualitatively. In finding the team mindfulness of these meetings additionally compromised the second full year, online practices actually found successful at creating and supporting team mindfulness—online games—are identified and considered. Concluding implications are noted and recommendations made regarding team mindfulness in reducing burnout for future online academic meetings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mindfulness; stress; COVID-1; CSQ-8; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning; Embedding; IMDB; Swivel; Neural Networks.
Online: 2 June 2021 (08:40:48 CEST)
The aim of this study was to build a tool to analyze, using artificial intelligence, the sentiment perception of users who answered two questions from the CSQ – 8 questionnaires with raw Spanish free-text. Their responses are related to mindfulness, which is a novel technique used to control stress and anxiety caused by different factors in daily life. As such, we proposed an online course where this method was applied in order to improve the quality of life of health care professionals in COVID 19 pandemic times. We also carried out an evaluation of the satis-faction level of the participants involved, with a view to establishing strategies to improve fu-ture experiences. To automatically perform this task, we used Natural Language Processing (NLP) models such as swivel embedding, neural networks and transfer learning, so as to classify the inputs into the following 3 categories: negative, neutral and positive. Due to the lim-ited amount of data available - 86 registers for the first and 68 for the second - transfer learning techniques were required. The length of the text had no limit from the user’s standpoint, and our approach attained a maximum accuracy of 93.02 % and 90.53 % respectively based on ground truth labeled by 3 experts. Finally, we proposed a complementary analysis, using com-puter graphic text representation based on word frequency, to help researchers identify relevant information about the opinions with an objective approach to sentiment. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that the application of NLP techniques in small amounts of data using transfer learning is able to obtain enough accuracy in sentiment analysis and text classification stages
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: intermittent food-restriction; mindfulness; self-efficacy; well-being; mixed methods; health behaviour; coping ability; religiously motivated fasting
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:58:32 CET)
Background / Objective: Historically, fasting has not only been practiced for medical but also for religious reasons. Bahá’ís follow an annual religious fast of 19 days. We assessed motivation behind and subjective health impacts of Bahá’í fasting. Methods: A convergent parallel mixed methods design was embedded in a clinical single arm observational study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six fasters before, during and after fasting. Three months after the fasting period, two focus group interviews were conducted. 146 Bahá’í volunteers answered an online survey at five time points before, during and after fasting. Results: Interviews: Fasting was found to play a central role for the religiosity of interviewees, implying changes in daily structures, spending time alone, engaging in religious practices, and experiencing social belonging. Results show an increase in mindfulness and well-being, accompanied by behavioural changes and experiences of self-efficacy and inner freedom. Survey: Scores point to an increase in mindfulness and well-being during fasting, while stress, anxiety and fatigue decreased. Mindfulness remained elevated even three months after the fast. Conclusion: Bahá'í intermittent dry fast seems to enhance participants’ mindfulness and well-being, lowering stress levels and reducing fatigue. Some of these effects lasted more than three months after fasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0108.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academic meetings; video conferencing; Zoom; private Facebook group; narrative research; COVID-19; self-directed learning; team mindfulness; democratic meetings
Online: 21 October 2021 (12:10:57 CEST)
The online learning necessitated by COVID-19 social distancing limitations has resulted in the utilization of hybrid online formats focused on maintaining visual contact among learners and teachers. The preferred option of video conferencing for academic meetings has become that of Zoom. The needs of one voluntary, democratic, self-reflective university research group—grounded in responses to writing prompts—differed in learning focus. Demanding a safe space to encourage and record both self-reflection and creative questioning of other participants, the private Facebook group was chosen over video conferencing to maintain the concentration on group members’ written responses rather than how they saw themselves (and thought others saw them) on screen. A narrative research model initiated in 2015, the 2020/21 interaction of the group in the year’s worth of Facebook entries, and the yearend feedback received from group participants, will be compared with previous years when the weekly group met in-person. The results in relation to COVID-19 limitations indicate that an important aspect of self-directed learning related to trust that comes from team mindfulness is lost when face-to-face interaction is eliminated regarding the democratic nature of these meetings. With online meetings the new standard, maintaining trust requires improvements to online virtual meeting spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: self; course; self-reflection; self-rumination; self-knowledge; mindfulness; prospection; autobiography; self-regulation; self-recognition; self-esteem; culture; inner speech; traumatic brain injury; Theory-of-Mind
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:32:55 CEST)
In this paper I tentatively answer 50 questions sampled from a pool of over 10,000 weekly questions formulated by students in a course entitled “The Self”. The questions pertain to various key topics about self-processes, such as self-awareness, self-knowledge, self-regulation, self-talk, self-esteem, and self-regulation. The students’ weekly questions and their answers highlight what is currently know about the self. Answers to the student questions also allow for the identification of some recurrent lessons about the self. Some of these lessons include: all self-processes are interconnected (e.g., prospection depends on autobiography), self-terms must be properly defined (e.g., self-rumination and worry are not the same), inner speech plays an important role in self-processes, controversies are numerous (are animals self-aware?), measurement issues abound (e.g., self-reflection as an operationalization of self-awareness), deficits in some self-processes can have devastating effects (e.g., self-regulatory deficits may lead to financial problems), and there are lots of unknowns about the self (e.g., gender differences in Theory-of-Mind).
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC); the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA); Survival Analysis; Optimal Cutoff; Surgical Margin; Holistic Cancer Care; Therapeutic Relationship; Mindfulness Meditation; Transcriptomic Analysis; Effect Size; CAMK2N1; CALML5; FCGBP
Online: 7 July 2021 (08:48:26 CEST)
The survival analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset is a well-known method to discover the gene expression-based prognostic biomarkers of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A cutoff point is usually used in survival analysis for the patients' dichotomization in the continuous gene expression. There is some optimization software for cutoff determination. However, the software's predetermined cutoffs are usually set at the median or quantiles of gene expression value to perform the analyses. There are also few clinicopathological features available on their pre-processed data sets. We applied an in-house workflow, including data retrieving and pre-processing, feature selection, sliding-window cutoff selection, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard modeling for biomarker discovery. In our approach for the TCGA HNSCC cohort, we scanned human protein-coding genes to find optimal cutoff values. After adjustment with confounders, the clinical tumor stage and the surgical margin involvement are independent risk factors for patients' prognosis. According to the resulting tables with Bonferroni-adjusted P value under the optimal cutoff and the hazard ratio, three biomarker candidates, CAMK2N1, CALML5, and FCGBP, are significantly associated with the patients' overall survival. We validated this discovery by using the other independent HNSCC dataset (GSE65858). Thus, we suggest the transcriptomic analysis could help for biomarker discovery.