ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Medical ultrasound; Lossless compression; Universal code; Run-length encoding
Online: 17 August 2018 (12:55:05 CEST)
Software-based ultrasound imaging systems provide high flexibility that allows easy and fast adoption of newly developed algorithms. However, the extremely high data rate required for data transfer from sensors (e.g., transducers) to the ultrasound imaging systems is a major bottleneck in the software-based architecture, especially in the context of real-time imaging. To overcome this limitation, in this paper, we present a Binary cLuster (BL) code, which yields an improved compression ratio compared to the exponential Golomb code. Owing to the real-time encoding/decoding features without overheads, the universal code is a good solution to reduce the data transfer rate for software-based ultrasound imaging. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo data sets. It was demonstrated that the BL-beta code has a good stable lossless compression performance of 20 ~ 30% while requiring no auxiliary memory or storage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1955.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical education; gamified learning; knowledge retention; algorithm
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:22:22 CEST)
The aim of this review was to summarize the available literature regarding resident and medical student education utilizing the spaced repetition program Anki. This review enables current residents and medical students to recognize and utilize evidence-proven study techniques to increase learning efficacy. A systemic review of papers across all medical journals available on Pubmed was conducted to identify studies published without time constraints. The search was for (Anki) and (spaced repetition residency). Available outcome data was collected and discussed independently for students and residents. Many studies showed a statistically significant increase in exam performance associated with Anki use and high levels of satisfaction among residents and medical students. Further research is warranted to provide high-quality evidence of Anki’s applications and there is a need for exploration in additional residency specialties. Anki use has steadily increased with both medical students and residents. The application demonstrated consistent improvement on exam-based performance and was regarded highly by users. As burnout and time constrictions threaten educational workflow, Anki may serve as a powerful tool to improve the quality of learning. Further data needs to be collected and analyzed in specialties where Anki use may already exist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0464.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: genetic algorithms; trajectory planning; keyhole neurosurgery; risk assessment; medical imaging
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:40:10 CEST)
Keyhole neurosurgery implies reaching a target area inside the brain through an entry point specified by the neurosurgeon. In order to avoid complications, a risk assessment procedure must be done to establish the minimum risk trajectory from the entry point to the target area. The neurosurgeon establishes the risk values for the brain structure according to the type of intervention. The preset brain structure risk value is used to assess the risk value for each voxel of the brain. This paper proposes an improved risk assessment methodology based on the sum of N maximum risk values for each voxel. Then, risk assessment for a trajectory is done by adding the risk of all voxels that are part of the path. The safest trajectory is defined as the trajectory with the lower risk. Our proposed search trajectory methodology includes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for finding the safest trajectories. The use of a GA drastically reduces the number of trajectories to analyze, speeding up the planning procedure. The achieved results were qualified by expert neurosurgeons as satisfactory. Our proposed method allows neurosurgeons to calibrate the surgical planning system by allowing them to establish the risk brain structure and the risk value for each structure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis; CAD algorithms; deep neural networks; medical diagnosis; review
Online: 17 October 2017 (11:57:17 CEST)
With recent focus on deep neural network architectures for development of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), we provide a review of studies within the last 3 years (2015-2017) reported in selected top journals and conferences. 29 studies that met our inclusion criteria were reviewed to identify trends in this field and to inform future development. Studies have focused mostly on cancer-related diseases within internal medicine while diseases within gender-/age-focused fields like gynaecology/pediatrics have not received much focus. All reviewed studies employed image datasets, mostly sourced from publicly available databases (55.2%) and few based on data from human subjects (31%) and non-medical datasets (13.8%), while CNN architecture was employed in most (70%) of the studies. Confirmation of the effect of data manipulation on quality of output and adoption of multi-class rather than binary classification also require more focus. Future studies should leverage collaborations with medical experts to aid future with actual clinical testing with reporting based on some generally applicable index to enable comparison. Our next steps on plans for CAD development for osteoarthritis (OA), with plans to consider multi-class classification and comparison across deep learning approaches and unsupervised architectures were also highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: endoscopes; medical diagnostic imaging; microwave antenna arrays; microwave imaging; colorectal cancer
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:55:21 CEST)
This study assesses the efficacy of a microwave colonoscopy algorithm to detect colorectal cancer precursors or polyps in an ex-vivo human colon model. The algorithm works with a device composed of a cylindrical ring-shaped switchable antenna array, which can be attached to the tip of a conventional colonoscope as an accessory. The accessory is connected to an external processing unit that generates an acoustic signal when a polyp is detected. Nowadays, 22% of polyps go undetected with conventional colonoscopy and the risk of cancer after a negative colonoscopy can be up to 7.9%. Fifteen ex-vivo freshly excised human colons with cancer (n=12) or polyps (n=3) were examined with the microwave-assisted colonoscopy system simulating a real colonoscopy exploration. Successive measurements of the colon were taken with the microwave-based colonoscopy device and processed with a microwave imaging algorithm. After the experiment, the dielectric properties of the specimens were measured with a coaxial probe and finally the samples underwent a pathology analysis. The results show that all the neoplasms were detected with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.4%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Medical Device Regulation; wearable medical sensor; medical device; accessory
Online: 24 April 2019 (11:17:05 CEST)
Background: medical devices are designed, tested and placed on the market in a highly regulated environment. Wearable sensors are crucial components of various medical devices: design and validation of wearable sensors, if managed according to international standards, can foster innovation while respecting regulatory requirements. Material and methods: the purpose of this paper is to take into consideration the upcoming EU Medical Device Regulation 2017/245 and the current and future IEC and ISO standards that set methods for design and validation of medical devices, with a focus on wearable sensors. Risk classification according to the regulation is described. The international standards IEC 62304, IEC 60601, ISO 14971 and ISO 13485 are reviewed to define regulatory restrictions during design, pre-clinical validation and clinical validation of devices that include wearable sensors as crucial components. Results: current and future regulatory restrictions are described, and an integrated method for design planning, validation and clinical testing is described Discussion: application of this method to design wearable sensors should be evaluated in the future in order to assess its potentially positive impact to fostering innovation and to the time-to-market of the device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: medical education; medical ethics; autonomy; patients' perspectives
Online: 10 May 2022 (03:52:44 CEST)
There are complex ethical dilemmas inherent in medicine teaching, particularly in clinical prac-tice involving actual patients. Questions must be raised on fulfilling medical students' training needs while still respecting patients' fundamental rights to autonomy and privacy. We aimed to assess patients' perspectives regarding medical students' involvement in their medical care. An observational, cross-sectional study was developed, and an interview-like questionnaire was ap-plied randomly to patients waiting for a consult/admitted to three distinct departments: General Surgery, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, and Infectious Diseases. Of the 77% interviewed patients who reported previous experiences with medical students, only 59% stated that they were asked for consent for their participation and 28% that students had adequately introduced themselves. Pa-tients from Gynaecology/Obstetrics were the ones who reported lower rates of these practices and were also the ones who were most bothered by students' presence, stating that they would refuse students' participation in the future. Male patients received more explanations than female pa-tients regarding the same matters. 35% of patients stated they would feel more comfortable without the medical students' presence. The study shows a need to pay closer attention to ful-filling patients' fundamental rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Saudi Arabia; Lifestyles; Medical students; Medical education
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:17:35 CEST)
Background: This study was conducted to investigate medical students' lifestyle habits, including sleep quality, eating and drinking pattern, physical activity, and social status. Method: This research project is part two of a multi-institutional cross-sectional observational study conducted among medical students from six medical colleges in Saudi Arabia between September and December 2019. Results: 675 medical students were enrolled electively into the lifestyle study. About half of this number were male students, and the majority aged 18-24 years. Most students (87.6%) slept between 4-8 hours a day, and over 44% were dissatisfied with their sleep. Only 28.1% had three meals a day; about 40% of them usually or always skipped breakfast. While 44% usually or always eat fast food, 44.7% drink 2 liters of water per day. Moreover, male students were significantly consuming fast foods than females, p<0.001. The majority (63.3%) revealed they usually or always drink black coffee daily. Females were significantly more inclined to regular coffee consumption than males, p<0.001. Only 4.3% exercising for 30 minutes or more daily. The majority (65%) of the students were introverted; they had few close friends. Yet, 81% were somewhat satisfied or satisfied with their social life. Male students were predicted to be significantly more satisfied with their social life than females, p=0.001. Only 4.6% smoked cigarettes daily. Whereas 7.1% smoke e-cigarette daily. In contrast, only 0.3% use shisha (hookah) daily. Male medical students were substantially more predicted to be inclined to e-cigarette use than females (p <0.001. The top five leisure activities of a medical student are surfing social media (75.9%), watching movies (61.3%), hanging out with friends (58.1%), spent time with their family (55.4%), and browsing the internet (53.6%). Female medical students were significantly more inclined to surfing social media than male medical students, p=0.022; also, watching movies was preferred for females compared to males, p=0.006. Conclusion: This study revealed that the majority of medical students in Saudi Arabia exhibited healthy lifestyles to some extent, and these health-promoting behaviors differed based on gender, especially concerning physical activity and eating patterns. The findings of this study provide relevant information for future actions that will be geared towards effectively decreasing the occurrence of chronic illnesses and improving future doctor’s well-being.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0764.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: creative legal study; creativity; medical curriculum; medical student
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:15:46 CEST)
In Thailand, the topic of medical ethics and laws related to medical professions has been one part of the national competency assessment criteria. The objective of this article was to design legal issues into the medical curriculum and to share experiences of creative legal study. Legal contents were inserted into 10 subjects and taught for year 1 to year 6 medical students. Students were divided into multi-groups or received individual tasks and then, shared their knowledge and idea for solving legal problems. The results showed they could interpret and create novel ideas for legal and ethical reconstruction, including the topic of the principle of laws, criminal laws, civil and commercial laws, public health laws, organ donation/transplantation, end of life decisions, and legal liability for the medical profession. Finally, the creative legal study can be used as a novel approach to support creativity among medical students.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anatomy; Medical Education; Teaching; Students; Graduate Medical Education
Online: 14 June 2020 (04:20:42 CEST)
Background: During anatomy (topographic) chair, we prepared an anatomic piece of an older female pelvis (unknown causa mortis). Here, we present an anatomic piece prepared by medical students that helped us to better understand hypertrophic bladder pathophysiology. Methods: A traditional corpse dissection guided by an assistant professor. Results: Corpse dissection enhanced our personal experience during the medical course. It also helped us to better visualize how big a hypertrophic urinary bladder can become as the etiologic cause is not taken care. Conclusions: Despite virtual and 3D anatomy lessons, we believe corpse dissection must remain as a teaching strategy that can help to build a new generation of surgeons as well as honor the History of Medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0001.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: medical workforce shortage; rural and remote; recruitment and retention; sustainable rural medical workforce; medical school innitiatives.
Online: 1 December 2022 (01:05:35 CET)
.Abstract: Indonesia, one of the Asia Pacific LMICs, has suffered from a chronic medical workforce shortage. However, there are limited published studies describing the approaches implemented by the Indonesian government regarding the recruitment and retention of the medical workforce. This case study aimed to understand the current practices for recruitment and retention of the medical workforce in Indonesian rural and remote provinces. We conducted a case study of the Maluku Province of Indonesia with document analysis and key informant interviews with officials responsible for medical workforce recruitment and retention. We used the WHO’s guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the recruitment and retention practices under four domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and classified them into University/Medical School level and Government/Non-government level. Our findings suggest that Indonesia has implemented most of the WHO-recommended medical workforce recruitment and retention strategies. However, implementation is still problematic; hence, the aim of establishing an adequate, sustainable medical workforce has not been reached. Nationwide government intervention in educational aspects is important to magnify the impact of the regional medical school initiatives. Relevant programs must be re-evaluated and re-enforced concerning significance, comprehensiveness and effectiveness for sustainable rural and remote medical workforce.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: medical writing; research communication; biomedical publications; teaching; medical education; article introduction; faculty training; early-career researchers; medical authorship
Online: 10 December 2021 (15:01:35 CET)
Skilled academic/medical writing is critical to research communication. The fundamental sections of a scholarly manuscript are introduction, methods, results and discussion. The introduction of a medical manuscript is aimed at briefing readers on the clinical extent and public health context of the research problem. It must justify the essentialness of the research to the scientific community and reveal any underlying research novelty. Skillfully conceived, designed and performed research protocols that are unskillfully presented can lose scientific credibility and impact. Without research communication skills authors would not be able to display the usefulness of their research for the scientific community. Generally, research communication or medical writing training/skills is underrepresented in curricular systems of medical schools globally. This can challenge publication quality and quantity of early-career authors/researchers. The author presents the academic experience he accumulated through peer review and supervision of vast manuscripts and theses. This article aimed at presenting a comprehensive roadmap for academic writing of the introduction and at identifying its common pitfalls.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: deep learning; medical images; image registration; medical image analysis; survey; review
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:51:29 CEST)
Image registration (IR) is a process that deforms images to align them with respect to a reference space, making it easier for medical practitioners to examine various medical images in a standardized reference frame, such as having the same rotation and scale. This document introduces image registration using a simple numeric example. It provides a definition of image registration along with a space-oriented symbolic representation. This review covers various aspects of image transformations, including affine, deformable, invertible, and bidirectional transformations, as well as medical image registration algorithms such as Voxelmorph, Demons, SyN, Iterative Closest Point, and SynthMorph. It also explores atlas-based registration and multistage image registration techniques, including coarse-fine and pyramid approaches. Furthermore, this survey paper discusses medical image registration taxonomies, datasets, evaluation measures, such as correlation-based metrics, segmentation-based metrics, processing time, and model size. It also explores applications in image-guided surgery, motion tracking, and tumor diagnosis. Finally, the document addresses future research directions, including the further development of transformers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: quality of medical services; medical personnel; Patient Satisfaction Survey; Public hospitals
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:51:45 CEST)
The patient's satisfaction level concerning hospitalization has certain particularities, related to the geographical area, medical/non-medical assistance, the age, incomes, morbidity and mortality of the population. The objective of this study is to emphasize the degree of patients' satisfaction, depending on the specialty of the hospitalization department: surgical, medical, oncological, psychiatry, and to evidence the factors influencing the reliability and accuracy of patients' answers, such as: the patient's health condition upon admission, the duration of the admission, the level of physical pain and the emotional state. Patients and methods: The research was conducted between April and December 2021 on patients hospitalized in two public hospitals from the north-west of Romania, both of them being independent Legal Entities: the Municipal Clinical Hospital of Oradea (MCHO) and the County Clinical Emergency Hospital of Oradea (CCEHO). Results: The lowest score of PSS recorded in these two analyzed public hospitals from the north-western of Romania was appointed for the Pharmaceutical availability of patients medical treatment (2.24), attitude of the staff (2.56) and the quality of nursing care offered (2.58). Conclusions: The hospital management’s focus has been set to improve the communication skills among medical staff, to evidence their compassion, politeness, and to ensure the availability of essential drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0426.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Medical Things (IoMT); data exchange: healthcare; medical data; interoperability
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:12:36 CEST)
A medical entity (hospital, nursing home, rest home, revalidation center, etc.) usually includes a multitude of information systems that allow for quick decision-making close to the medical sensors. The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is an area of IoT that generates a lot of data of different natures (radio, CT scan, medical reports, medical sensor data). However, these systems need to share and exchange medical information in a seamless, timely, and efficient manner with systems that are either located within the same entity or located in other healthcare entities. The lack of inter and intra entity interoperability causes major problems in the analysis of patient records and leads to additional financial costs (e.g., redone examinations). In order to develop a medical data interoperability architecture model that will allow providers and different actors in the medical community to exchange patient summary information with other caregivers and partners in order to improve the quality of care, the level of data security, and the efficiency of care, we take stock of the state of knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0341.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: medical education; public health; medical schools; community; global health; human resource
Online: 25 May 2022 (04:03:49 CEST)
Background: With new challenges to the health system, many new competencies within the scope of teaching public health need to be addressed in medical schools’ curricula such as disaster risk management and health system science. The aims of this study were to identify the needs of public health competencies for medical doctors in Thailand and to assess the level of integration for technical collaboration in teaching public health. Method: A total of 17 out of 21 Thai medical schools participated in the national survey. Qualitative inquiries applied focus group interviews of community representatives from ten sample villages and in-depth interviews of representatives from stakeholder organizations particularly employers. The list of public health competencies framework recommended by WHO-SEARO was applied. Quantitative analysis applied descriptive analysis using STATA 15 and qualitative findings were validated by interrelating the meaning of themes from Word Clouds created in NVivo12. Data integration applied a mixed-method Quan-qual approach. Results: 17 medical schools returned the questionnaires (80.95 % yield). The most common regionally-defined public health competencies (in over 70% of schools) were shown to be: Biostatistics, Community Medicine, Epidemiology, Family Medicine, Medical Ethics and Professional Laws, Preventive Medicine, Health Promotion, Holistic Care, and Research. The curriculum in only one medical school lacked Health Economics, whilst Disaster Management was lacking in two other schools. Discipline-based subjects were found to be more prevalent than interdisciplinary competencies. A variety of methods were being applied for teaching public health. The majority of the schools applied lecture as the main teaching method and multiple-choice questions as the main assessment method. Thai communities expect the doctors to get in touch with the community more often, lead the primary health care team through training the health professionals and community health volunteers, and educate the community for better health. Conclusion: Human resource is the main challenge in addressing interdisciplinary competencies. It is necessary to establish a collaborating mechanism among the big and small medical schools and the faculties of public health to improve the teaching of public health to undergraduate students in medical schools. There is also a need to strengthen the health system science and leadership so that future MDs can lead health service delivery according to the needs of their employers such as the Ministry of Public Health and the Rural Doctors Association. The findings of this study may help to identify a national framework of public health core competencies for medical schools and create a common platform for interdisciplinary collaborations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Healthcare; Internet of Things; IoT; Medical Assistance; Medical Kiosk; Rural people
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:29:46 CET)
After conducting a detailed survey among the villagers of Pallissery and Karukutty, it was observed that in most of the villages the native people have to travel long distances for their basic health needs. Also most of the villagers lack knowledge regarding live health updates. At times, these problems have even resulted in death of many people including pregnant women and children. The objective of our research is to propose an integrated and easy to use Medical Kiosk that can be installed at various locations in rural areas. The Kiosk will provide an integrated environment for all medical related activities and would perform numerous functions like sending notifications regarding medical camps, mobile medical help, important dates for vaccinations, child care, insurance policies and provide other live medical updates to the villagers. It would also support the basic facilities for measurement of body parameters like height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, and heartbeat and also facilitate live consultation facilities with specialized doctors through video and voice chats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0209.v1
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:41:19 CEST)
ABSTRACT:This paper presents arguments for why it is important to include disability in the undergraduate medical curriculum. I, the first author am currently involved with my doctoral thesis proposal titled "Proposing clinician competency guidelines for the inclusion of disability in the undergraduate medical curriculum of South Africa. An exploratory study.” As part of my research, I conducted a literature search and developed arguments to strengthen the reasons why the research I propose in my thesis is necessary. It is important that I position myself in this research. I am a South African, Caucasian, female medical doctor, with an interest in physical rehabilitation medicine and I am a person with a physical disability. Although this research study will be conducted in South Africa, I am hopeful that the findings will be transferable to medical schools across the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0328.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: e-learning; automatic test generation; medical ontology; data mining for medical texts
Online: 14 November 2018 (09:45:38 CET)
The Medi-test system we developed was motivated by the large number of resources available for the medical domain, as well as the number of tests needed in this field (during and after the medical school) for evaluation, promotion, certification, etc. Generating questions to support learning and user interactivity has been an interesting and dynamic topic in NLP since the availability of e-book curricula and e-learning platforms. Current e-learning platforms offer increased support for student evaluation, with an emphasis in exploiting automation in both test generation and evaluation. In this context, our system is able to evaluate a student’s academic performance for the medical domain. Using as input medical reference texts and supported by a specially designed medical ontology, Medi-test generates different types of questionnaires for Romanian language. The evaluation includes 4 types of questions (multiple-choice, fill in the blanks, true/false and match), can have customizable length and difficulty and can be automatically graded. A recent extension of our system also allows for the generation of tests which include images. We evaluated our system with a local testing team, but also with a set of medicine students, and user satisfaction questionnaires showed that the system can be used to enhance learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0813.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ChatGPT, Artificial Intelligence, Medical Education
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:04:42 CEST)
Artificial intelligence-powered generative language models (GLMs), such as ChatGPT and Google Bard, have the potential to provide personalized learning, unlimited practice opportunities, and interactive engagement 24/7, with immediate feedback. However, to fully utilize GLMs, properly formulated instructions are essential. Prompt engineering is a systematic approach to effectively communicating with GLMs to achieve the desired results. Well-crafted prompts yield good responses from the GLM, while poorly constructed prompts will lead to unsatisfactory responses. Besides the challenges of prompt engineering, significant concerns are associated with using GLMs in medical education, including ensuring accuracy, mitigating bias, maintaining privacy, and avoiding excessive reliance on technology. Future directions involve developing more sophisticated prompt engineering techniques, integrating GLMs with other technologies, creating personalized learning pathways, and researching the effectiveness of GLMs in medical education.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ME/CFS; education; medical school; teaching; long Covid; patient safety, NICE Guidelines, Health Act 1983, General Medical Council, GMC, Medical Schools Council, MSC, Long Covid.
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:16:27 CET)
Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS is a common complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. This study was designed to ascertain the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities to inform the future of medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK Medical Schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%). 59% of respondents taught ME/CFS, led by specialists drawn from 6 medical disciplines. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; however, discussion case studies and e-learning were used. 7 schools included questions on ME/CFS in their examinations and 3 schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. 64% of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus so it was not possible to ascertain what students were being taught. Conclusions: UK medical school teaching in ME/CFS is shown to be inadequate. Several medical disciplines, with known differences about the disease, need to set these aside to give greater clarity in teaching undergraduates so they can more easily recognise and diagnose ME/CFS. Improvements are proposed in ME/CFS medical education consistent with the international paradigm shift in biomedical understanding of this disease. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge this need by expressing a strong appetite for the development of further teaching aids and materials. The GMC and MSC are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC should also consider creating a registered speciality encompassing ME/CFS, post viral fatigue and Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0364.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Medical images; Compression; CNN; LMCDP; Prediction
Online: 4 August 2023 (07:21:52 CEST)
The primary goal of picture compression is to reduce the amount of unused image data while still storing or transmitting it in a format that is appropriate. The compression of raw binary data is quite different from the compression of a picture, and these differences may be rather substantial. In light of this, compression is often regarded as an essential technique for the purposes of both data storage an d transmission in order to mitigate the excessive amounts of data that are generated by these images. In order to transmit enormous datasets, particularly for the purposes of telemedicine and teleradiology, one needs a significant amount of storage capacity as well as an expansive network. As a result, compression is an important aspect of medical imaging. In addition to the importance of compression, the quality of the photos themselves is also an essential factor in the success of analysis. In addition to this, the amount of time necessary to compress the photographs before sending them should be reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0056.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Emergency Medical Services; paramedics; gender; diversity
Online: 15 February 2023 (04:34:52 CET)
Introduction: Like other public safety professions, paramedicine has historically been a male-dominated occupation, both in the demography of its workforce and in its organizational culture. Although women are increasingly choosing paramedicine as a career, participation in leadership roles remains limited. Drawing on data from a recent comprehensive mental health survey, we describe the proportion of women in leadership in a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We distributed an in-person, paper-based survey during the fall 2019 - winter 2020 Continuing Medical Education (CME) sessions. Participating paramedics completed a demographic questionnaire alongside a battery of mental health screening tools. We assessed the demography of the workforce and explored differences in employment classification, provider level (e.g., primary vs. advanced care), and participation in formal leadership roles along self-reported gender lines. Results: Out of 607 paramedics attending CME, we received 600 completed surveys, with 11 excluded for missing data, leaving 589 for analysis and a 97% response rate. Women comprised 40% of the active-duty paramedic workforce, with an average of 8 years of experience. Compared to men, women were more than twice as likely to have a university degree (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.02), but almost half as likely to practice at the Advanced Care Paramedic level (OR 0.61), and somewhat less likely to be employed full-time (OR 0.77). Women were nearly 70% less likely to hold a leadership role in the service compared to men (OR 0.36), occupying just 20% of leadership positions. Conclusion: Although paramedicine is witnessing an encouraging shift in the demography of its workforce with greater participation from women, there is still work to be done, particularly in leadership. Future research should focus on identifying and ameliorating barriers to career advancement among women and other historically underrepresented people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Undergraduate; Medical; Online; Distance Education; Perception
Online: 9 June 2022 (10:53:43 CEST)
In 2020, students of Pakistan had to adapt to the online environment for the very first time. This study aims to analyze the perceptions of medical, dental, and allied health students about online education in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done to assess the level of acceptance of undergraduate students. A pre-validated questionnaire regarding demographics, past-experience of e-learning, advantages disadvantages of e-learning, and general perception of students towards e-learning was distributed. Descriptive statistics were computed for demographics, Mann-Witney-U test was used to compare the differences of perceptions between pre-clinical year and clinical years students. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the results of three specialties of students. Chi-square was used to compare overall category-wise positive and negative responses of students. 1200 students participated in the study. The major advantage identified by all students was the ‘comfortable environment’ in which they studied online. The major disadvantage selected by preclinical year students was ‘anxiety due to social isolation’ and that chosen by clinical year students was ‘lack of patient interaction’. Overall, 72% of students had a negative perception of e-learning. Student-teacher training, student counselling sessions, and innovative techniques need to be introduced to enhance student engagement and reduce pandemic stress.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0117.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; Medical Waste; Sustainability; Environment.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:22:55 CEST)
The situation in the world of pandemics is rapidly changing, and the second wave of COVID-19 has put a lot of pressure on the government and private sector, which are primarily responsible for controlling the situation. COVID-19 positive cases have increased in recent months relative to last year, and the number of patients admitted to hospitals has also increased, despite the fact that few of them were denied admission due to shortage of beds. Normal people who experience any symptoms immediately isolate themselves and begin taking the COVID medications prescribed by medical personnel and their team. During these times, all domestic people tossed the wrappers and boxes of medicines into the regular trash can, and the waste was handed over to the waste collector, who treated it like any other domestic waste and disposed of it using open dumping or other methods. The goal of this perspective is to suggest the collections of these types of waste from domestics, and protect the natural resources like water, soil, and even living beings like animals from pollution (from the effect of SARS-CoV-2). The main challenge for environmental waste management agencies is determining who has COVID positive and which houses generate these types of waste; thus, proposed strategy may be beneficial to the long-term sustainability of natural resources and animals.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: medical school; admissions; MCAT; COVID-19
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:21:35 CET)
As medical schools cope with the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new cohort of students will be admitted in the fall. Administrators are again challenged to make unprecedented enrollment decisions without standardized exams. This challenge provides unique opportunities to support holistic admissions but also abruptly bypasses a process that has been employed since 1928. This article highlights key factors that are being considered during current medical school admission cycles, including limited opportunities to take standardized exams, heightened student anxiety, and potential exam alternatives. These factors are framed and discussed within the context of the medical college admission test (MCAT) exam.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0116.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioinformatics; Graphs; Medical genetics; sequencing methods
Online: 6 January 2021 (12:06:39 CET)
High-quality chromosome-scale haplotype sequences— of diploid genomes, polyploid genomes and metagenomes — provide important insights into genetic variation associated with disease and biodiversity. However, whole-genome short read sequencing does not yield haplotype information that spans whole chromosomes directly. Computational assembly of shorter haplotype fragments is required for haplotype reconstruction, which can be challenging owing to limited fragment lengths and high haplotype and repeat variability across genomes. Recent advancements in long-read and chromosome-scale sequencing technologies, alongside computational innovations, are improving the reconstruction of haplotypes at the level of whole chromosomes. Here, we review recent methodological progress in these areas and discuss perspectives that could enable routine high-quality haplotype reconstruction in clinical and evolutionary studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: user characteristics; home medical devices; usability
Online: 13 September 2020 (23:58:42 CEST)
The Smart Angel connected medical device allows ambulatory surgery patients to monitor their health by taking their own blood pressure and oxygen levels and by answering a health questionnaire from home. This preventive device must necessarily be "usable" by patients with different profiles. The objective of this article is, therefore, to better understand the links between certain characteristics of potential patients and usability. We conducted an experimental study involving thirty-six participants, investigating the effects of four patient characteristics (i.e. age, education, technophilia and health literacy) on usability measured in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. The results show a moderate correlation between age, health literacy and usability. However, there is a weak correlation between technophilia and usability and no relationship between the level of education and usability. This study provides theoretical insights into the effects of user characteristics by means of personas in usability (ISO 9241-11).
Online: 10 July 2020 (15:59:53 CEST)
On the 30thanniversary of the Karolinska Institutet Summer Research School for High School students an evaluation was carried out of the school’s activities. The evaluation was performed by questionnaire sent to 533 former students and also by searching the KI course registration database for all former students who went on to register in under- or postgraduate education at KI. Approximately half of all former Summer School students performed their undergraduate studies at KI, predominantly in the medical program. Those were far more likely to choose a research-oriented education than their peers. KI Medical students who previously attended the Summer School were also more likely to later register for PhD education than their peers who did not attend the summer school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0137.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oral health; students; medical; behavior; iran
Online: 11 October 2019 (07:30:00 CEST)
Aim: The purpose of this examination is determining predictors to oral health behaviors predict in Iranian students in district 1 Tehran based on the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct. Methods: This cross-sectional study were randomly selected conducted on 351 eligible four grade female students in the first district of Tehran, Iran in 2017. The random Multi‑stage random cluster sampling method was used to recruit students. The inclusion criteria were being graded, four female students (aged 9-11 years), or education at the fourth grade of one of the elementary schools studied in the first district of Tehran and, The health of the student from a physical and psychological of view. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that predict oral health behaviors. To assess the predictors of oral health behaviors, all the expanded Health Belief Model constructs with the construct of “Commitment to Plan of Action” from “Health Promotion Model were examined as risk factors to see if they influence on the probability of brushing behavior and dental floss behavior occurrence and were interpreted through odds ratio (OR). SPSS version 19 was used to analyze the data. Results: Totally 308 four grade female students with mean age of 9.32 ± 0.81 years old took part in the study. The total 31.8% of the students reported that they were brushing behavior less than twice a day and 55.2% students claimed, use of dental floss behavior once a week or less than once a day. The results indicated that perceived self-efficacy (OR=1.46, 95% CI=0.57-3.78, P<0.001), Commitment to plan (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.04-1.23, P<0.001) and Cues to action (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.14–1.76, P=0.002) were the significant predicting variables which is the key factor of brushing twice a day, and use of dental floss once a day or more (OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.23-3.53, P=0.003). Conclusion: This study has shown the effectiveness of the health belief model with added commitment to plan construct to predict oral health behavior in female students. So, it seems that the model as a framework for designing training programs to improve students to improve oral health behavior can be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0605.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: deep learning; computed tomography; image classification; COVID-19; medical image analysis; pneumonia; CNN, LSTM, medical diagnosis
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:32:29 CEST)
Advancements in deep learning and availability of medical imaging data have led to use of CNN based architectures in disease diagnostic assisted systems. In spite of the abundant use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based tests in COVID-19 diagnosis, CT images offer an applicable supplement with its high sensitivity rates. Here, we study classification of COVID-19 pneumonia (CP) and non-COVID-19 pneumonia (NCP) in chest CT scans using efficient deep learning methods to be readily implemented by any hospital. We report our deep network framework design that encompasses Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (biLSTM) architectures. Our study achieved high specificity (CP: 98.3%, NCP: 96.2% Healthy: 89.3%) and high sensitivity (CP: 84.0%, NCP: 93.9% Healthy: 94.9%) in classifying COVID-19 pneumonia, non-COVID-19 pneumonia and healthy patients. Next, we provide visual explanations for the CNN predictions with gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM). The results provided a model explainability by showing that Ground Glass Opacities (GGO), indicators of COVID-19 pneumonia disease, were captured by our CNN network. Finally, we have implemented our approach in three hospitals proving its compatibility and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Dispatch; Emergency Medical Dispatch; Emergency Medical Communication Centre; Video Live; COVID19; Emergency Call; Video triage; Public Safety Answering Point; Telemedecine; Emergency Medical Services; Remote assessment; Triage
Online: 24 January 2023 (08:20:00 CET)
The COVID19 pandemic had a major impact on emergency medical communication centres (EMCC). A live video facility was made available to second-line physicians in an EMCC with a first-line paramedic to receive emergency calls. The objective of this study was to measure the contribution of live video to remote medical triage. The single-centre retrospective study included all telephone assessments of patients with suspected COVID19 symptoms from 01.04.2020 to 30.04.2021 in Geneva, Switzerland. The organisation of the EMCC and the characteristics of patients who called the two emergency lines (official emergency number and COVID19 number) with suspected COVID19 symptoms were described. A prospective web-based survey of physicians was conducted during the same period to measure the indications, limitations and impact of live video on their decisions. 8,957 patients were included. 2,157 (48.0%) of the 4,493 patients assessed on the official emergency number had dyspnoea. 4,045 (90.6%) of 4,464 patients assessed on the COVID19 number had flu-like symptoms. 1,798 (20.1%) patients were reassessed remotely by a physician, including 405 (22.5%) with live video, successfully in 315 (77.8%) attempts. The web-based survey (107 forms) showed that physicians used live video to assess mainly the breathing (81.3%) and general condition (78.5%) of patients. They felt that their decision was modified in 75.7% (n=81) of cases, and caught 7 (7.7%) patients in life-threatening emergency. Medical triage decisions for suspected COVID19 patients are strongly influenced by the use of live video.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ChatGPT; Medical Licensing Examination; Clinical Settings; Japan
Online: 10 March 2023 (09:33:21 CET)
ChatGPT is gaining widespread acceptance for its ability to generate natural language sentences in response to various inputs and is expected to become a supplementary tool for diagnosing and determining treatment policies in clinical settings. ChatGPT was used to evaluate its ability to perform clinical inference and accuracy in answering questions on the 117th Japanese National Medical Licensing Examination held in February 2023. The exam questions were manually inputted into ChatGPT's window, and the accuracy of ChatGPT's responses was determined based on answers provided by a preparatory school. ChatGPT provided answers for 389 out of 400 questions, and its overall correct answer rate was 55.0%. The correct answer rate for 5-choice-1, 5-choice-2, and 5-choice-3 were 57.8%, 42.9%, and 41.2%, respectively. The highest correct answer rate was for the compulsory exam (67.0%), followed by the specific knowledge exam (54.1%) and the cross category exam (47.9%). The correct answer rate for non-image questions was 56.2% and for image questions, it was 51.5%. The study suggests that ChatGPT has potential to support healthcare professionals in clinical decision-making in Japanese clinical settings, but caution should be exercised in interpreting and using the answers generated by ChatGPT due to room for improvement in performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0096.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Health; Policy; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:07:12 CEST)
Background: Health policy is a set of comprehensive principles and legislations that guide how healthcare should be effectively delivered in the community. Medical schools should prepare students to undertake managerial responsibilities by incorporating health policy in the curriculum to deal with the intricacies of healthcare systems and their clinical roles in their future professional careers. Objective: To examine medical students' perception at a Public University in Malaysia regarding teaching health policy and their participation in health policy roles. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study using universal sampling was carried out among the medical students using a paper-based questionnaire to collect the data. Results: Most respondents opined their willingness to learn health policy (80.9%) and that teaching health policy (83.6%) should be compulsory for medical students. The respondents thought health policy should be introduced earlier in Year 1 or 2. The student scores on their knowledge regarding health policy and year of study were significantly associated with their involvement in the health policy roles in both the simple and multiple logistic regression. Both statistical tests reported higher participation in health policy roles with the higher year of study, though only Year 4 and 5 were significant in the simple logistic regression and only Year 5 in the multiple logistic regression compared to Year 1. On the other hand, age and type of admission show significant results only in the simple logistic regression, while the race was only significant at the multivariate level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that most respondents showed their willingness to learn health policy, participate in the health policy programs, and recommend that health policy be considered an essential topic in the medical curriculum, which should be taught right from the first year of medical school. We recommend encouraging students’ participation in health policy activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Medical Cannabis; history of cannabis; medicine; cannabinoids
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:14:19 CEST)
The cannabis plant has been known for millennia for its properties such as textile fiber, food, recreational and medicinal use. Since the origin of its domestication in Asia, cannabis has been transported to the rest of the continents by merchants, nomads, settlers, and slaves, who have also carried with them valuable knowledge about its uses. Its medical use was one of the major contributions of this plant in the various civilizations through which it passed. This article aims to understand its origins, dissemination, and medical use over the years to the present day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0680.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: NEC; Surgical; Medical; Risk factor; Outcome; Neonate
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:11:09 CEST)
Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the leading causes of death in newborns, however, little is understood of which patients can be treated medically or require surgery. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associated factors of surgically treated patients compared to patients requiring only medical treatment. Methods: Patients diagnosed with necrotizing enterocolitis over a period of 14 years in a single children’s hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Demographics and clinical data patients were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 189 patients with NEC were included. Surgically treated patients had a lower gestational age (P = .018), body weight at birth (P = .034), and percentage of exclusive breast milk feeding (P= .001). They had increased comorbidity with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (P = .005), number of days of antibiotic use (P = .014), and length of hospital stay (P = .000). In multivariate logistic analysis, a lower percentage of exclusive breast milk feeding (OR = 0.366, 95% CI: 0.164-0.817) and a longer hospital stay (OR = 1.010, 95% CI: 1.001- 1.019) was associated with surgical NEC. Conclusion: Comparing medical and surgical NEC, a significantly lower percentage of surgical NEC patients were exclusively fed breast milk and their hospital stays were longer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0327.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; Medical waste; Environmental impac; China
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:09:57 CEST)
COVID-19 greatly challenges human beings in the health sector and leaves behind a large amount of medical waste that poses many potential threats to the environment. In this paper, we compiled relevant data released by official agencies and the media, and conducted data supplementation based on previous studies to calculate the net value of medical waste production in Hubei Province during COVID-19 with the help of a neural network model. Then, we reviewed the data related to the environmental impact of medical waste per unit and designed four scenarios to estimate the environmental impact of new medical waste generated during the epidemic. The results showed that at a medical waste generation rate of\ 0.\ 5\ kg/(\ bed\ \cdot\ d) COVID-19 resulted in a net increase in medical waste volume of about 3366.99 tons in Hubei Province. In the four scenario assumptions, if the medical waste brought by COVID-19 is completely incinerated, it will have a large impact on the air quality. If it is disposed by distillation sterilization, it will produce a large amount of wastewater and waste residue. Based on the results of the study, three policy recommendations are proposed in this paper: strict control of medical wastewater discharge, reduction and transformation of the emitted acidic gases, and attention to the emission of metallic nickel in exhaust gas and chloride in soil. These policy recommendations provide a scientific basis for controlling medical waste pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0598.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: caffeine; sleep habits; lifestyle; medical students; universities
Online: 23 November 2020 (20:15:40 CET)
Objectives: To determine the effects of caffeine consumption on the sleep habits and lifestyle of medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jinnah Sindh Medical University (JSMU) and Hamdard College of Medicine. On 422 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years, through random sampling. The duration of the study was from January 2019 to June 2019. The data was collected through self-administered questionnaire which included data regarding sleep habits and lifestyle of medical students. Results: Majority (81.6%) of the students consumed caffeine while only (18.4%) did not. One third of the participants (31.8%) reported caffeine consumption increased their academic performance and (57.3%) reported that it does not. More than half of the participants (63.3%) who consumed caffeine slept during class, whereas (47.2%) never had difficulty in falling asleep during the night. Conclusion: This research concluded that caffeine does have some role on sleep habits of medical students as they tend to have less sleep hours, experience day time dysfunction, average quality of sleep, and falling asleep during class. It has been concluded that caffeine has no effect on eating habits of medical students however, it does increase the screening time, keeping them active.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0308.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Colour Model; Steganography; Medical Image; C4S; distortion
Online: 27 May 2019 (10:13:02 CEST)
Visible light photography diagnostic images are coloured ex vivo medical images popularly used in Dermatology and Endoscopy for diagnosis and monitoring. The need to protect the integrity of these images as well as associated patient data calls for techniques such as image steganography and watermarking. This research explores and compares the effect of watermarking on the YIQ and YCbCr colour transforms used in processing digital coloured images and video in recent times. Using a new spread spectrum watermarking algorithm, it was found that YIQ has better distortion performance than YCbCr in the order of 3dB while YCbCr had lower BER for accurate watermark retrieval and tamper detection in the order of 1.3 x 10-3.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: inter-professional; education; pharmacist; medical; undergraduate; PSA
Online: 11 June 2018 (04:53:22 CEST)
Five years after the introduction of the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA) in the UK, the role pharmacists play to help prepare medical students for this challenge is uncertain. Our study explored pharmacists’ perceptions about their role in undergraduate medical training for the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA). Study participants were emailed a qualitative questionnaire aimed at ascertaining their current involvement in undergraduate medical education, particularly the preparation for PSA. Responses received were thematically-analysed. A total of 27 UK hospital pharmacists and 3 pharmacists from local education and training boards completed the questionnaire. Pharmacists were positive about their involvement in medical student training, recognising the added value they could provide in prescribing practice. However, respondents expressed concerns in relation to resource availability and the need for formal educational practice mentoring. This research highlights the potential value of pharmacists’ input into medical education and the need for a discussion on strategies to expand this role to maximise the benefit from pharmacist skill mix in teaching safe prescribing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0973.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: spine deformity; scoliosis diagnostic; image processing; medical images
Online: 14 August 2023 (03:38:50 CEST)
Spinal deformity refers to a range of disorders that are defined by anomalous curvature of the spine and may be classified as scoliosis, lordosis, or kyphosis. Among these, scoliosis stands out as the most common type of spinal deformity in human beings, and it can be distinguished by abnormal lateral spine curvature accompanied by axial rotation. Accurate identification of spinal deformity is crucial for a person's diagnosis, and numerous assessment methods have been developed by researchers. Therefore, the present study aims to systematically review recent works on spinal deformity as-assessment for scoliosis diagnosis, utilizing image processing techniques. To gather relevant studies, a search strategy was conducted on three electronic databases (Scopus, ScienceDirect, and PubMed) between 2012 and 2022, using specific keywords and focusing on scoliosis cases. A total of 17 papers fully satisfied the established criteria and were extensively evaluated. Despite variations in methodological designs across the studies, all reviewed articles obtained quality ratings higher than satisfactory. Various diagnostic approaches have been employed, including artificial intelligence mechanisms, image processing, and scoliosis diagnosis systems. These approaches have the potential to save time and, more significantly, can reduce the incidence of human error. While all assessment methods have potential in scoliosis diagnosis, they possess several limitations that can be ameliorated in forthcoming studies. Therefore, the findings of this study may serve as guidelines for the development of a more accurate spinal deformity assessment method that can aid medical personnel in the real diagnosis of scoliosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0738.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anatomy, Education Medical, Teaching, teaching and learning management
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:46:57 CEST)
Introduction: At the end of 2019 the Covid-19 pandemic caused a huge amount of restrictions across the world which affected teaching around the world as it was not prepared to move from traditional face-to-face to an online conversion overnight, so the aim of this paper is to determine the changes in undergraduate anatomy teaching strategies post-pandemic compared to pre-pandemic. Methods: A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA statement. Data were retrieved from the searches conducted in the different databases, and the articles to be retrieved were selected with the help of the Rayyan platform. Using the OPMER and JBI tools, the quality of evidence was assessed for the selection of the articles included in the review. Results: The teaching of medicine, specifically anatomy, presented serious problems due to the fact that throughout history it has been taught in the classroom by means of cadaveric dissection and when this ceased to be available, new methods arose through the use of digital resources to try to make up for the needs of the lack of dissection laboratories which lost a great deal of content in this restructuring, which have been improving with the passing of the courses taught and the development of new material that has been better adapted to the needs of the students. Discussion: The authors agree that in the future the best way to teach anatomy will continue to be face-to-face dissection without neglecting the strategies developed during this pandemic and to be taken if necessary to restructure curricula in the future to improve teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0273.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: medical image segmentation; talus; deep learning; nnU-Net
Online: 5 July 2023 (08:32:01 CEST)
Fractures of the talar neck and body are associated with spine fractures and scoliosis deformity, which affect cosmetic appearance and cause difficulty in ambulation. The implant design for talus surgery is thriving as a functional alternative in case of severe talar destruction, focusing on segmentation and reconstruction of the talus’s shape. However, manual segmentation of the talus is time-consuming and subjective. In this study we exploited the automatic segmentation framework to efficiently train a deep learning-based model to accurately segment the talus based on computed tomography imaging. We developed three model configurations with nnU-Net and investigated their Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and 95% Hausdorff distances (HD95) for talus segmentation on a CT image dataset. The three configurations performed well (DSC > 0.95, HD95 < 0.6). When tested on the same samples, one of the configurations was more efficient while ensuring higher accuracy. We propose to focus on talus anatomic variations with increasing age based on this framework and apply it to clinical trials at the next stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: prevalence; smoking; medical students; self-esteem; self-efficacy
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:31:33 CEST)
: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among students is a growing concern, particular-ly among medical students. Being associated with stress, competitiveness, and various social in-fluences, smoking can have detrimental effects on self-esteem and self-efficacy and may create a vicious cycle that may contribute to students’ well-being and academic performance out-comes.METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 456 medical students was conducted via an online survey using structured questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habits, nicotine dependence, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 31.1% The scores of self-esteem and self-efficacy were positively correlated with smoking habits (W1=0.957, W2=0.975, P<0.05). Students presented rather low smoking addiction with male stu-dents having slightly higher scores than female students on self-esteem and self-efficacy, mili-tary students had higher self-esteem scores than civilians with physical activity having a posi-tive correlation with non-smoking behavior. CONCLUSION: According to our results, self-esteem and self-efficacy were slightly positively correlated with smoking habits. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant association between other social factors and smoking. Our results may develop a theoretical basis for medical students’ psychological variables studying for further implementation of university educational programs and preventive interventions em-powering students towards an overall better quality of life, addressing, among others, smoking behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1753.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Chronic pain; Medical Devices; Neuromodulation; Clinical trials; Bayesian
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:27:31 CEST)
Chronic non-cancer pain is a highly debilitating condition affecting approximately 20% of the global population. Chronic pain may lead to significant physical disability, emotional distress, social isolation and financial burden. Whilst. pharmacological therapies remain the cornerstone of pain management in non-cancerous chronic pain, factors including the current opioid epidemic have led to non-pharmacological techniques becoming a more attractive proposition. We explored the prevalence of medical device use and their treatment efficacy in non-cancer pain management. A systematic methodology was developed, peer reviewed and published in PROSPERO (CRD42021235384). Key words of medical device, pain management devices, chronic pain, lower back pain, back pain, leg pain and chronic pelvic pain using Science direct, PubMed, Web of Science, PROSPERO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PorQuest and ClinicalTrials.gov. All clinical trials, epidemiology and mixed methods studies that reported the use of medical devices for non-cancer chronic pain management published between the 1st of January 1990 and the 30th of April 2022 were included. 13 studies were included in systematic review, of these 6 were used in the meta-analysis with 173 participants. Our meta-analysis for pain reduction in each study showed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization treatment and pulsed electromagnetic therapy produced significant treatment on chronic lower back pain patients. Pooled evidence revealed the use of medical device related interventions resulted in 0.7 degree of pain reduction under a 0-10 scale. Significant improvement in disability scores, with a 7.44 degree reduction in disability level compared to a placebo using a 50 score range was also seen. The application of medical devices in patients with chronic pain has gained popularity due to increasingly cost effective techniques, minimally invasiveness and greater awareness of risks associated with pharmacological management. Our analysis has shown that the optimal use of medical devices in a sustainable manner requires further extensive research, needing larger cohort studies with greater gender parity, in a more diverse range of geographical locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: anxiety; cardiac rehabilitation; depression; medical education; primary care
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:16:09 CEST)
Depression and anxiety in cardiovascular disease worsen the prognosis of patients. Treatments for these disorders often provide limited improvement. The present study aimed to test, for the first time, the impact of educational technology on anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A 12-month randomized controlled trial was conducted, in which 207 patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n=76) or control (n=69) groups. The intervention involved a structured patient education program provided by medical students who had undergone specially designed training in cardiac rehabilitation. The primary outcomes were death, hospitalization, heart failure, and recurrent myocardial infarction. The study also assessed anxiety and depression. A year later, the experimental group showed a statistically significant decrease in anxiety and depression on the HADS scale, with reductions of 2.0 and 1.9 points respectively (p<0.05). The control group showed reductions of 1.5 and 1.2 points (p<0.05). The difference in depression (HRDS) between the groups at 12 months was -1.29 in favor of the main group (95% CI, -0.7 to -1.88), and the standardized effect size (SMD) was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.69). No treatment-related adverse events were observed. The results suggest that educational interventions can have a positive impact on mental health. The study's strengths include a structured intervention, randomization, and long-term follow-up. Limitations include the lack of blinding of study participants and a relatively small sample size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0757.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; Vaccine; Medical Science Students; Mandatory Policy
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:01:57 CEST)
Introduction. Covid-19 faced the world with serious health and socioeconomic issues. At the very beginning of the pandemics, the vaccine was considered by health authorities and the medical community the only way to curb the spread of the virus. One of the measures that have been proposed to increase vaccinations was the mandatory policy. The purpose of this study was to compare determinants of voluntary and mandatory vaccination among students of Albanian University. Methodology: This cross-sectional study by means of an online survey, was conducted among students enrolled in the private University “Albanian University”, Tirana, Albania during the last week of winter semester 7-14 Feb 2022. Results: 878 students participated in this study, among them 612 (69.7%) were females, 266 (30%) were males. 506 (57%) of the participants were enrolled in Medical Sciences (MS), 372(42.3%) were Non-Medical Science (Non-MS) group. 773 (88%) was vaccinated against Covid-19, 105 (11.8%) were not vaccinated. 466 (53%) reported voluntary vaccination, 412 (46.9%) reported mandatory vaccination. Among students that vaccinated voluntary 266 (57%) were from MS group, 200(42.9%) from Non-MS group. 237(57.5%) of students in mandatory vaccination group were from MS group, 175 (42.4%) from Non-MS. Conlusion. Vaccine safety and efficacy were hindering factors of vaccination. Also, based on the results of this study, the students felt encouraged to vaccinate by the academic staff. This clearly demonstrates that the staff does not lack the skills to enhance stu-dents' knowledge about the risk of infectious diseases and the importance of vaccination. Therefore, to influence as much as possible students’ attitude toward vaccination, comprehensive educational programs including modification of existing curricula should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0044.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Federated Learning; Alzheimer’s Disease; medical imaging; MRI Image
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:49:41 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease has become a major concern in the healthcare domain as it is growing rapidly. Many researches have been conducted to detect it from MRI images through various deep-learning approaches. However, the problem of the availability of medical data and the privacy of the patients still exists. To mitigate this issue in Alzheimer’s disease detection, we have implemented the federated approach which is found to be more efficient, robust, and consistent compared to the conventional approach. For this, we needed deep excavation on various orientations of MRI images and transfer learning architectures. Then, we utilized the publicly available two datasets (OASIS, and ADNI), and designed various cases to evaluate the performance of the federated approach. In almost all of them, the federated approach achieved better accuracy and sensitivity. In distinguishing between two classes equally, the capability of the models was better in the found model when trained with federated approach compared to the conventional approach. In this approach. MobileNet, which is a low-cost transfer learning architecture, achieved the highest 95.24%, 81.94%, and 83.97% accuracy in OASIS, ADNI, and merged (ADNI+OASIS) test set, which was way higher than the achieved performance in Conventional approach. Moreover, in this approach, only the weights of the model were shared which keeps the original MRI images in their respective hospital or institutions, mitigating the privacy concern in the healthcare domain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Electronic Medical Record; American Healthcare System; Unified EMR
Online: 13 March 2023 (06:14:27 CET)
Innovation development in healthcare has paved the path towards the improvement in system efficiency, patient care and cost-effective healthcare services, increasing the overall efficiency of the healthcare system in a significant manner. Electronic medical record system has fostered interoperability and collaboration in healthcare departments by enabling different systems to exchange and use patient data. This trend has been accelerated dominantly by the pandemic, leading to increased use of telemedicine, referring specifically to the use of electronic communication to provide healthcare services remotely. Moreover, an increased prevalence towards the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in healthcare has contributed effectively towards the rigorous and informed analysis of large amounts of data as well as to identify patterns or trends that may be useful for improving care delivery or identifying potential issues. A unified electronic medical record System that will generate competitive opportunities and success prospects with reference to enhanced interoperability in US healthcare departments, can contribute towards the improvement in the quality and efficiency of care by making it easier for healthcare providers to access and share patient information as well as reducing the risk of errors in effective patient care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0229.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: medical knowledge graphs; knowledge graphs reuse; ontology modularization
Online: 17 October 2022 (05:13:53 CEST)
During the creation and integration of a health care system based on medical knowledge graphs, it is necessary to review and select the vocabularies and definitions that best fit the information requirements of the system being developed. This implies the reuse of medical knowledge graphs; however, full importation of knowledge graphs is not a tractable solution in terms of memory requirements. In this paper we present a modularization-based method for knowledge graph reuse. A case study of graph reuse is presented by transforming the original model into a lighter one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0408.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hesitancy; covid-19; post-covid; medical doctors; indonesia
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:13:14 CEST)
This study is a cross-sectional survey involving physicians around Indonesia aimed to explore physician hesitancy to treat COVID-19 patients after experiencing COVID-19 infection coupled with associated occupational risk factors. The questionnaire was distributed via contact information from the Indonesian Physician Association database. Out of 383 participants, 25.6% suffered from moderate symptoms of COVID-19 and 2.9% were admitted for critical care. Hesitancy to treat suspected, probable, or confirmed COVID-19 patients was found in 20.3% of physicians. A higher hesitancy rate was found in older physicians and those with less experience in treating COVID-19 patients. Specialist trainees and those who work in public hospitals were physicians with the lowest hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients. There is a significant hesitancy in treating COVID-19 patients among physicians who have suffered from COVID-19 which calls for further action by management and policy makers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0041.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Networks; Medical Image Segmentation
Online: 5 September 2022 (03:12:55 CEST)
Convolutional neural network architectures have become increasingly complex, which has improved the performance slowly on well-known benchmark datasets in the recent years. In this research, we have analyzed the true need for such complexity. We have introduced G-Net light, a lightweight modified GoogleNet with improved filter count per layer to reduce feature overlaps and complexity. Additionally, by limiting the amount of pooling layers in the proposed architecture, we have exploited the skip connections to minimize the spatial information loss. The investigations on the proposed architecture are evaluated on three retinal vessel segmentation publicly available datasets. The proposed G-Net light outperforms other vessel segmentation architectures by reducing the number of trainable parameters..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0175.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: survey; emergency medical services; training; stroke; prehospital care
Online: 16 June 2022 (10:58:04 CEST)
Background: Emergency medical services (EMS) are the first health care contact for the majority of stroke patients. However, there is a lack of data on the current paramedics’ hospital-directed feedback and training needs across different health care settings. We aimed to evaluate paramedics’ prehospital stroke care knowledge, training needs, and current status of feedback on suspected stroke patients. Methods: We surveyed paramedics from the Vilnius region from September to November 2019, and compared the answers between the city and the district agencies. The questionnaire content included questions on paramedics’ demographic characteristics, prehospital stroke care self-assessment, knowledge on stroke mimics, stroke training needs, and the importance of hospital-directed feedback on suspected stroke patients. Results: A total number of 161 paramedics were surveyed, with more district paramedics rating their prehospital stroke care knowledge as inadequate (44.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.8–57.6) vs 28.1% (95% CI 20.1–27.8), p = 0.028). In addition, more district paramedics indicated a need for additional stroke training (83.1% (95% CI 71.5–90.5) vs 69.8% (60.0–78.1), p = 0.043). However, respondents reported being the most confident while dealing with stroke (71.3%, 95% CI 63.8–77.7) compared to other time-critical conditions (p < 0.001). Vertigo (60.8%, 95% CI 53.0–68.0), brain tumours (56.3%, 95% CI 48.5–63.8), and seizures (54.4%, 95% CI 46.7–62.0) were indicated as the most common stroke mimics. Only 6.2% (95% CI 3.4–11.1) of respondents received formal feedback on the outcome of suspected stroke patients brought to the emergency department. Conclusion: A high proportion of paramedics self-perceive having inadequate stroke knowledge and an urgent need for further stroke training. The EMS staff indicate receiving an insufficient amount of feedback on suspected stroke patients, even though the usefulness is perceived to be paramount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Medical device; surgery; hip arthroplasty; acoustics; vibration emissions
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:43:22 CET)
The success of total hip arthroplasty depends on the experience of the surgeon, and one of the ways the surgeon currently determines the final implant insertion depth is to listen to the change in audible pitch of the hammering sound. We investigated the use of acoustic vibration emissions as a novel method for insertion quality assessment. A non-invasive contact microphone-based measurement system for insertion depth estimation, fixation and fracture detection was developed using a simplified in vitro bone/implant (n=5). 2583 audio recordings were analysed in vitro to obtain energy spectral density functions. Out of the four main resonant peaks under in vitro conditions, broach insertion depth statistically correlates to increasing 3rd and 4th peak frequencies. Degree of fixation was also observed as higher goodness of fit (0.26-0.78 vs. 0.12-0.51 between two broach sizes, the latter undersized). Finally, however, the moment of fracture could not be predicted. A cadaver in situ pilot study suggests comparable resonant frequencies in the same order of magnitudes with the bone model. Further understanding of the signal patterns are needed for an early warning system diagnostic system for imminent fractures, bone damage, improving accuracy and quality of future procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0471.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big data; Health prevention; Machine learning; Medical data
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:00:12 CEST)
CVDs are a leading cause of death globally. In CVDs, the heart is unable to deliver enough blood to other body regions. Since effective and accurate diagnosis of CVDs is essential for CVD prevention and treatment, machine learning (ML) techniques can be effectively and reliably used to discern patients suffering from a CVD from those who do not suffer from any heart condition. Namely, machine learning algorithms (MLAs) play a key role in the diagnosis of CVDs through predictive models that allow us to identify the main risks factors influencing CVD development. In this study, we analyze the performance of ten MLAs on two datasets for CVD prediction and two for CVD diagnosis. Algorithm performance is analyzed on top-two and top-four dataset attributes/features with respect to five performance metrics –accuracy, precision, recall, f1-score, and roc-auc – using the train-test split technique and k-fold cross-validation. Our study identifies the top two and four attributes from each CVD diagnosis/prediction dataset. As our main findings, the ten MLAs exhibited appropriate diagnosis and predictive performance; hence, they can be successfully implemented for improving current CVD diagnosis efforts and help patients around the world, especially in regions where medical staff is lacking.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0348.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Nutraceuticals; pharmaceuticals; medical approach; therapeutic; therapies; emerging companies
Online: 28 June 2020 (20:10:09 CEST)
Nutraceuticals are combination of nutrients and pharmaceuticals and these are derived from various plants, microbes and animals too. The food products that are considered as nutraceuticals are categorised based on the availability in the market. It is a medical approach to improve health and remedy for illness. Nowadays there is an increase in shift towards use of nutraceuticals as its usage provides preventive therapies to various chronic diseases. Various natural nutraceuticals are based on extracts from Ginger, turmeric, garlic, amla, cinnamon, aloe vera etc. A wide variety of therapeutic values are provided by them such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal properties, allergy relief, antidiabetic and cardiovascular problems. India is in its infancy stage but have many emerging companies that are trying to meet the demand of growing population. Overall ‘Nutraceuticals’ has been known as a new era of well being, in which the food industry has become a main player.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: continuing medical education; travel CME; ethnography; emergency medicine
Online: 10 February 2020 (04:05:21 CET)
Introduction: Travel-based continuing medical education (CME) has become a popular format for physicians looking to combine education with travel. Emergency Medicine Update Europe is a biennial accredited CME program combining high quality Emergency Medicine education with structured group activities including cycling, hiking and social activities. This unique design incorporates innovative educational practices but as a whole has not yet been evaluated. Methods: This was a participant observation-based, ethnographic-style case study of the Emergency Medicine Update Europe conference in Provence, France in 2015. Participant interviews and embedded observation methods were used to collect data. Data was then analyzed using thematic content analysis techniques. Results: We describe three phenomena from the data that we feel are highly influential in the success of the program and impact on learning. These include “social engagement and a sense of community”; “the value of a stimulating escape” and “the ‘flat’ faculty-learner relationships”. Discussion: These unique features, prioritized by participants, seem to be key to the apparent success of this model over more traditional CME approaches. To our knowledge this is the first empirical research in this area and improves our understanding of how to leverage these more sociologic components for more effective continuing medical education.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: metamaterial antennas; printed antennas; energy harvesting; medical systems
Online: 7 October 2019 (11:26:52 CEST)
Demand for green technologies and energy is in continuous growth in the last years. Compact efficient antennas are crucial for energy harvesting portable systems. Small antennas have low efficiency. The efficiency of communication and energy harvesting systems may be improved by using efficient passive and active antennas. The system dynamic range may be improved by connecting amplifiers to the printed antenna feed line. Design, design considerations, computed and measured results of wearable meta-materials antennas with high efficiency for energy harvesting applications are presented in this paper. All antennas were analyzed by using 3D full-wave software. The antennas electrical parameters on human body are presented. The directivity and gain of the antennas with Split-ring resonators, SRR, is higher by 2.5dB than the antennas without SRR. The resonant frequency of the antennas with SRR is lower by 5% to 10% than the antennas without SRR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0042.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: English proficiency, Earnings, Immigrants, MCMC, Medical Care Spending
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:37:52 CEST)
This paper investigates the role of English language proficiency (ELP) as a measure of cultural integration on U.S. immigrant families’ economic integration, as measured by annual earnings, and health care market integration, as captured by annual medical care spending. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation of a mixed bivariate ordered probit (MBOP) model of annual earnings and medical care spending is conducted using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional sample data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). The results reveal that limited English proficiency is associated with lower marginal earnings propensities (-$44.83, -$50.66, and -$56.97), and higher marginal medical care spending propensities ($8.09, $6.09, and $4.32) for each of the three decreasing levels of ELP. Furthermore, we find a small yet statistically significant positive 7.2% correlation between immigrant families’ annual earnings and medical care spending propensities. Therefore investing to raise immigrants’ families ELP in the U.S. would not only contribute to more effective socio-economic integration, but also strengthen the U.S. workforce and economy for decades to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0594.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: cheating behavior, cheating during exam, 2nd medical laboratory
Online: 30 August 2018 (13:46:11 CEST)
Cheating during examination is now day serious problem spatially in Ethiopia where many students sit in one class to exam. When cheating occurs in medical schools, it has serious consequences for human life, social values, and the economy. Even though, cheating on exams has existed in any department, with unknown reason, prevalence of cheater among 2nd year laboratory students were high. So that assessing factors and improving cheating behavior of the students are mandatory to create competitive graduated students. To identify factors and to improve cheating behavior action research study design was conducted among 2nd year medical laboratory student. Criterion sampling technique was used to selects sixteen cheater students among 2nd year laboratory students. To gather necessary data, we used focus group discussions, individual interview, open-ended questionnaire and observation and collected information by using hand writing notes. During exam different cheating methods used by students like using a system of signals, writing on hands, desks and copy the other students answer. While the compelling reasons for cheating were like hard courses, hard exams, time pressure and fear of failure. To improve cheating behavior of the student’s different action strategies were taken like prepared exam by using code, arrangement sitting style during exam and sit with brainy students during class, reading and discussion. Most students were trying to done exam by themselves but their results are not good as previously. So that, we need more future action plan to avoid cheating behavior of the students. During, the next action plan we will be taken the remaining main action strategies and action evaluation we will be expected 50% of participants will be avoided their cheater behavior and done exam independently without forced by the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: sepsis; dysregulation; adaptation; evolution; natural selection; medical reversal
Online: 25 July 2018 (13:19:58 CEST)
For decades, sepsis research has been motivated by the idea of a dangerous overreaction of the immune system in sepsis. But is it true that the response to sepsis is dysregulated? This review surveys the history of sepsis trials and found that evidence for dysregulation does not exist in many of the physiologic mechanisms of sepsis. It is time to consider the alternative hypothesis, that sepsis traits are often functional, and do more harm than good. This review discusses the implications of this perspective for the future of sepsis research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: electron beam; ethylene oxide; medical devices; polymers; sterilization
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:33:04 CEST)
In the last decades bioresorbable and biodegradable polymers have gained a very good reputation both in research and in industry thanks to their unique characteristics. They are, indeed, able to ensure high performances and biocompatibility, at the same time avoiding post-healing surgical interventions for devices removal. In the medical device industrial use of such biopolymers, it is widely known that product formulation and manufacturing need to follow specific procedures in order to ensure both proper mechanical properties and desired degradation profile. Moreover, also the sterilization method is crucial and its impact on physical properties is generally underestimated. In this work we focused our attention on the effect of different terminal sterilization methods on two commercially available poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) with equivalent chemical composition (70% PLA and 30% PCL) and relatively similar initial molecular weight, but different chains arrangement and crystallinity. Results obtained show that crystallinity plays a key role, helping in preserving the narrow distribution of chains and, as a consequence, defined physical properties. These statements can be used as guidelines for a better choice of the most adequate biodegradable polymers in the production of resorbable medical devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1831.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: machine learning; veterinary medical education; random forest; medical education; artificial intelligence; Python; R; veterinary educators; educational data mining; learning analytics
Online: 26 July 2023 (14:02:31 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) offers potential opportunities to enhance the learning, teaching and assessments within veterinary medical education including but not limited to assisting with admissions processes as well as student progress evaluations. The purpose of this primer is to assist veterinary educators in appraising and potentially adopting these rapid upcoming advances in data science and technology. In the first section, we introduce ML concepts and highlight similarities/differences between ML and classical statistics. In the second section, we provide a step-by-step worked example using simulated veterinary student data to answer a hypothesis driven question. Python syntax with explanations is provided within the text to create a random forest ML prediction model and within each step, specific considerations such as how to manage incomplete student records are highlighted when applying ML algorithms within the veterinary education field. The results from the simulated data demonstrate how decisions by the veterinary educator during ML model creation may impact the most important features contributing to the model. These results highlight the need for the veterinary educator to be fully transparent during the creation of ML models and future research is needed to establish guidelines for handling data not missing at random in medical education, and preferred methods for model evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; emergency physician; medical decision; asystole; advanced life support; Charlson comorbidity index; emergency medical service; prehospital emergency
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:48:59 CEST)
The objective of this study was to identify the key elements used by prehospital emergency physicians (EP) to decide whether or not to attempt advanced life support (ALS) in asystolic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). From 01.01.2009 to 01.01.2017, all adult victims of asystolic OHCA in Geneva, Switzerland, were retrospectively included. Patients with signs of "obvious death" or with a Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation order were excluded. Patients were categorized as having received ALS if this was mentioned in the medical record, or, failing that, if at least one dose of adrenaline had been administered during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prognostic factors known at the time of EP's decision were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. 784 patients were included. Factors favourably influencing the decision to provide ALS were witnessed OHCA (OR=2.14, 95%CI1.43–3.20) and bystander CPR (OR=4.10, 95%CI2.28–7.39). Traumatic aetiology (OR=0.04, 95%CI0.02–0.08), age >80 years (OR=0.14, 95%CI0.09–0.24) and a Charlson comorbidity index greater than 5 (OR=0.12, 95%CI0.06–0.27) were the factors most strongly associated with the decision not to attempt ALS. Factors influencing the EP’s decision to attempt ALS in asystolic OHCA are the relatively young age of the patients, few comorbidities, presumed medical aetiology, witnessed OHCA and bystander CPR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0031.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Convolutional Neural Network; Coronavirus; COVID-19; radiology; CT scan; Medical image analysis; Automatic medical diagnosis; lung CT scan dataset
Online: 5 September 2020 (03:36:20 CEST)
COVID-19 is a severe global problem, and AI can play a significant role in preventing losses by monitoring and detecting infected persons in early-stage. This paper aims to propose a high-speed and accurate fully-automated method to detect COVID-19 from the patient's CT scan images. We introduce a new dataset that contains 48260 CT scan images from 282 normal persons and 15589 images from 95 patients with COVID-19 infections. At the first stage, this system runs our proposed image processing algorithm to discard those CT images that inside the lung is not properly visible in them. This action helps to reduce the processing time and false detections. At the next stage, we introduce a novel method for increasing the classification accuracy of convolutional networks. We implemented our method using the ResNet50V2 network and a modified feature pyramid network alongside our designed architecture for classifying the selected CT images into COVID-19 or normal with higher accuracy than other models. After running these two phases, the system determines the condition of the patient using a selected threshold. We are the first to evaluate our system in two different ways. In the single image classification stage, our model achieved 98.49% accuracy on more than 7996 test images. At the patient identification phase, the system correctly identified almost 234 of 245 patients with high speed. We also investigate the classified images with the Grad-CAM algorithm to indicate the area of infections in images and evaluate our model classification correctness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0818.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: qSOFA; Emergency Medical Services; Screening; Scoring; Surviving Sepsis Campaign
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:28:15 CEST)
Early treatment is the mainstay of sepsis therapy. We suspected that early recognition of sepsis by prehospital healthcare providers may shorten time to antibiotic administration in the Emergency Department. We retrospectively evaluated all patients above 18 years of age that were diagnosed with sepsis or severe infection in our Emergency Department between 2018 and 2020. We recorded the suspected diagnosis at time of presentation, type of referring healthcare provider and time until initiation of antibiotic treatment. Differences between groups were calculated using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Of the 277 patients that were diagnosed with severe infection or sepsis in the emergency department, an infection was suspected in 124 (44.8%) patients and sepsis was suspected in 31 (11.2%) patients by referring healthcare providers. Time to initiation of antibiotic treatment was shorter in patients where sepsis or infection had been suspected prior to arrival for both patients with severe infections (p = 0.022) and sepsis (p = 0.004). Given the well described outcome benefits to early sepsis therapy, recognition of sepsis needs to be improved. Appropriate scores should be used as part of routine patient assessment to reduce time to antibiotic administration and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; vaccines; hesitancy; attitudes; medical students; healthcare workers
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:20:29 CEST)
University students, particularly those in the healthcare disciplines, constitute a category of particular interest in regard to COVID-19 vaccines and the attitudes to vaccination, as their future professional role will enable them to inform and educate citizens regarding vaccination. The objectives of the study were to investigate the vaccination coverage with a COVID-19 vaccine among students from different degree programs at the Medical universities in Bulgaria behaviors and attitudes toward vaccination with a COVID-19 vaccine. A prospective cross-sectional study in the period September 2021- March 2022 was conducted. Information on demographics, university program, year of study, general attitudes and behavior towards vaccines and attitudes and personal experience with COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines were collected. The chi-square test was used to test for associations and binominal logistic regression was used to identify possible predictors for vaccination. A total of 3050 students with a median age of 22 years, predominantly female took part in the study. Three-thirds of the students (73.5%) have been vaccinated against COVID-19. The main reasons for vaccine hesitancy in both group of students were the fear of side effects and the doubts about the safety of the vaccines although non-vaccinated students significantly more frequently express those fears. Respondents who considered to have: a) limited access to sufficient information to inform COVID-19 vaccine uptake; b) lack of public awareness and education campaigns about effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines; c) insufficient information about COVID-19 vaccines during the University education; and d) had a positive COVID-19 diagnosis were less likely to be vaccinated. Students who have not completed the mandatory immunization cycle according to country schedule were also less likely to have completed COVID-19 vaccination. The students showed an overall positive attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccines. Promoting informational campaigns that emphasize the vaccine's safety will be more effective to further increase the vaccination coverage with COVID-19 vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; Smart Cities; Internet-of-Medical-Things; Sensors; Security
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:27:23 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) technology and devices constitute an exciting field in computer science that is rapidly emerging worldwide. IoT devices function by connecting real-world objects to the internet, resulting in a higher number of interconnected devices than ever witnessed in history. Through internet connectivity, these devices can be utilized in various ways, such as monitoring and tracking. Their prevalence is increasing exponentially, coinciding with advancements in wireless networking technologies. The internet’s enhanced connectivity has played a vital role in fostering the proliferation of IoT devices. Presently, almost any everyday object can be network-connected. The demand for automation and efficiency has also been a contributing factor to the advancements in this technology. This paper aims to review the emergence of IoT devices, analyze their common applications, and explore the future prospects in this promising field of computer science. The examined applications encompass healthcare, agriculture, and smart cities. Although IoT technology exhibits similar deployment trends, this paper will explore different fields to discern the subtle nuances that exist among them. IoT technology can be applied to nearly any domain, and each use case has unique requirements. To comprehend the future of IoT, it is essential to comprehend the driving forces behind its advancements in various industries. By gaining a better understanding of the emergence of IoT devices, readers will develop insights into the factors that have propelled their growth and the conditions that led to technological advancements. Moreover, a comprehensive understanding of the prevalent methodologies will enable readers to distinguish between current practices and future methods. Given the rapid rate at which IoT technology is advancing, this paper aims to provide researchers with an understanding of the factors that have brought us to this point and the ongoing efforts to shape the future of IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0853.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: burnout; anxiety; depression; health professionals; medical staff; nursing staff
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:52:35 CEST)
The presence of burnout, anxiety and depression among health professionals is a crucial issue that must be carefully addressed. The aim of the present study is to investigate levels of burnout, anxiety and depression among health professionals (medical and nursing staff) during the pandemic crisis, the association of burnout with anxiety and depression as well as the impact of occupational and demographic factors. One hundred twenty-five health professionals (medical and nursing staff) participated who were working in a public hospital in the broader area of Athens (sample of convenience). Specifically, 41 males and 84 females with the majority of them being in the category of 36-45 years of age. For the data collection, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the HADS questionnaire were used. The results showed that there was a statistically significant and negative correlation of emotional exhaustion to HADS total (r= -0,377, p=0,000) as well as HADS anxiety (r= -0,417, p=0,000). Also, there was a statistically significant and negative correlation of depersonalization to HADS total (r= -0,370, p=0,000) as well as HADS anxiety (r= -0,431, p=0,000). Moreover, there was a statistically significant effect (p<0,05) of occupational and demographic characteristics.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0637.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Lightning; lightning casualties; Casualty mechanism; First aid; medical treatment
Online: 20 April 2023 (09:34:54 CEST)
Currently, the number of lightning casualties and casualty rates have significantly reduced in developed countries, but there has been no significant reduction in developing countries. On the one hand, this is due to the high frequency of lightning; on the other hand, the vulnerability of people in developing countries is also an influencing factor. Through case analysis and summary, this paper expounds on lightning injury’s mechanism and clinical manifestations. It points out that lightning injury is mainly related to heart problems and the impact on the nervous system, rather than burns, which usually cause fewer consequences. Medical treatment needs to pay attention to the order and principles of treatment. Implementing CPR and auxiliary AED is the most effective way to save lives. Attention should be paid to the practical and effective treatment and nursing of lightning stroke sequelae. Finally, combined with the situation of lightning casualties in china, the existing problems are put forward during the process of early treatment, post-hospital treatment, and nursing observation, which provides an objective basis for the cognition of the scientific nature of the lightning injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0401.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Strawman fallacy; UK General Medical Council; autism; regression; MMR
Online: 22 March 2023 (14:39:30 CET)
Background: Articles published in scholarly journals form part of the scientific evidence base. It is the responsibility of the scientific community to maintain its integrity. In 2011 the BMJ commissioned a feature article to draw attention to an article that had appeared in another journal- The Lancet 13 years previously. The Lancet had already retracted the article. These actions exemplify the best traditions of scientific record-keeping. Objective: This submission examines whether the main claims summary made in the BMJ were factual. Method: We examine what was published in the Lancet against what was published in the BMJ and verify against the findings in the GMC hearings transcripts and verdict of the UK High Court. Results: The 6 points highlighted in BMJ had errors and need to be corrected. Conclusions: There are significant differences between what was reported in the Lancet paper and what was alleged to be there by the BMJ. This article aims only to point to errors in the BMJ article, to set the record straight. It does not show there was a causal association between MMR vaccination and autism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: laser beam characterization; laser therapy; medical devices; sports medicine
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:51:11 CET)
Laser therapy devices (LTDs) operating with near-infrared laser light are increasingly being used in sports medicine. For several reasons the users cannot evaluate whether or not such devices emit laser beams according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer and the settings of the device. In this study the laser beams from two different LTDs that can be used in sports medicine were thoroughly characterized by measuring the emitted power, pulse shapes and lengths, and spatial intensity distributions using professional, high-fidelity laser measurement technology. This was repeated for three units of each LDT independently to distinguish problems of individual units from potential intrinsic instrument design errors. The laser beams from the units of one LTD agreed with the settings at the device, with the measured average power for these units being within 3.3% of the set power. In contrast, the laser beams from the units of the other LTD showed large deviations between the settings and the actual emitted light. This device came with three laser diodes that could be used independently and simultaneously. The average power differed greatly between the units as well as between the laser diodes within each unit. Some laser diodes emitted essentially no light, which could lead to a lack of treatment of patients. Other laser diodes emitted much more power than set at the device (up to 230%) that could result in skin irritations or burnings of patients. These findings indicate a need for better standardization and consistency of therapeutic laser light sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Substance Use Disorder; Attitudes; Medical Students; Education; Assessment; Stigma
Online: 10 January 2023 (11:40:26 CET)
To evaluate the impact of a new Substance Use Disorder (SUD) education program on medical students' representations, we selected the Substance Abuse Attitude Survey (SAAS) questionnaire, which we adapted to our curriculum and cultural context. To validate this adapted version, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis following the administration of our 29-items bSAAS questionnaire to 657 medical students in Belgium (response rate: 71,1%). 23 items correlated to 3 factors namely "Stereotypes and moralism", "Treatment optimism" and "Specialised treatment" were retained (70% of total variance explained, Cronbach's alpha= 0.80) and constituted the new questionnaire called beSAAS. The factor "Specialised treatment", stood out from previous studies which could be explained by our target population and the impact of the formal, informal, and hidden curriculum in medical education. This study highlighted certain factors influencing stereotypical representations such as age, gender, origin, and personal or professional experience with substance use. Our study allowed us to retain the beSAAS as a good questionnaire to evaluate SUD stigma and highlighted interesting findings to improve SUD training in medicine. Further studies are needed to complete its validity and reliability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0140.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: breast cancer; stage-wise costs; direct medical costs; modeling
Online: 8 July 2022 (10:50:29 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease representing a substantial economic burden. In order to develop policies that successfully decrease this burden, the factors affecting costs need to be fully understood. Evidence suggests that early detection in Stage I has a lower cost than late detection. We aim to provide conservative estimates of BC's stage-wise medical costs from German healthcare and the payer's perspective. To this end, we conducted a literature review of articles evaluating stage-wise costs of BC in Germany through PubMed, Web of Science, and Econ Lit databases supplemented by Google Scholar. We developed a decision tree model to estimate BC related medical costs in Germany using available treatment and cost information. The review generated seven studies; none estimated the stage-wise costs of BC. The studies were classified into two groups: (1) case scenarios (five studies) and two studies based on administrative data. The first sickness funds data study (Gruber, Stock, et al. 2012) used 1999 information to approach BC attributable cost; their results suggest a range between €3,929 and €11,787 depending on age. The second study (Kreis, Plöthner, et al. 2020) used 2011-2014 data and suggested an initial phase incremental cost of €21,499, an intermediate phase cost of €2,620, and a terminal phase cost of €34,513 per incident case. Our decision tree model based BC stage-wise cost estimates were €21,523 for Stage I, €25,679 for Stage II, €30,156 for Stage III, €42,086 for Stage IV. Alternatively, the modeled cost estimates are €20,284 for the initial phase of care, €851 for the intermediate phase of care, and €34,963 for the terminal phase of care. Our estimates for phases of care are consistent with recent German estimates provided by Kreis and Plöthner et al. Furthermore, the data collected by sickness funds are collected primarily for reimbursement purposes, where the German ICD-10 classification system defines a cancer diagnosis. As a result, claims data lack the clinical information necessary to understand stage-wise BC costs. Our model-based estimates fill the gap and inform future economic evaluations of BC interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0205.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: pollutants; microplastics; heavy metals; PAH; pesticide residues; medical waste
Online: 21 April 2022 (10:53:10 CEST)
A quality marine ecosystem if it is free from GTP contaminants. Accuracy and caution are needed in the exploitation of marine resources as marine tourism destinations so that in the future, there will be no ecological hazards that cause chain effects, not only on aquatic ecosystems but also on humans. This article identifies exposure to GTP (MP, PAH, PR, HM, MW) in marine ecosystems in the MTA area and BCI waters. The combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods uses a combination of analytical instruments and mathematical formulas. The search results show the average total abundance of MP in seawater and fish samples (5.47 units/m3) and (7.03 units/m3), respectively, while in sediment and sponge samples (8.18 units/m3) and (8.32 units/m3). Based on the analysis of the polymer structure, it was identified that the dominant light group MP (PE, PP and PS), followed by PA and PC. Several PAH pollutants were identified in the samples, especially NL types found in all samples, followed by PN and AZ. BCI sea waters are suspected to be exposed to MW and PR. Pollutants of Pb+2 and Cu+2 around BCI were successfully calculated with average concentrations in seawater 0.164 mg/L and 0.294 mg/L, respectively, while in fish, 1.8110 µg/g and 2,452 µg/g, respectively. Based on these findings, the BCI area is not recommended as a marine tourism destination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Antimicrobial; Prescribing; Drug Resistance; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 16 March 2022 (14:44:53 CET)
Background: Worldwide, microbes are becoming more dangerous by acquiring virulent skills to adapt and develop antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This is a concern as this increases morbidity, mortality, and costs. Consequently, physicians need to be trained inappropriate prescribing, starting with medical students. Objective: Evaluate medical students' confidence in antimicrobial agent prescribing and drug resistance Methods: Cross-sectional study assessing medical students' knowledge, perception, and confidence in prescribing antimicrobial agents and drug resistance in a Malaysian University. A universal sampling method was used. Results: Most respondents believe that educational input regarding overall prescribing was sufficient. Regarding the principle of appropriate and accurate prescriptions, female medical students had less knowledge [Odds Ratio (OR)=0.51; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.25-0.99; p=0.050]. Year-IV and Year-V students had more excellent knowledge than Year-III students regarding confidence in antibiotic prescribing. Year-V students also showed appreciably higher confidence in the broad principles of prescribing, including infectious diseases, compared to those in other years. Conclusion: Overall, medical students, gain more excellent knowledge and confidence regarding prescribing, including antimicrobials, as their academic careers progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: medical fear; children; psychometric properties; cross-cultural adaptation; Spanish
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:33:48 CET)
Having valid and reliable tools that help health professionals to assess fear in children undergoing medical procedures is essential to offer humanized and quality of care in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to develop the cross-cultural adaptation and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the “Child Medical Fear Scale” in its shortened version (CMFS-R). The design consisted of two phases, first of cross-cultural adaptation and second of the psychometric validation of the CMFS-R with a sample of 262 children from Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity and the Cronbach alpha and the adjusted item-total score correlation coefficients were performed to study reliability. The results confirmed internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the CMFS-R, indicating that the scale has an acceptable level of validity and reliability. Therefore, this study brings a new version of the scale to assess fear related to medical procedures for use in the Spanish paediatric population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: medical moulage; low-cost; healthcare simulation; simulation-based learning
Online: 8 September 2021 (12:39:35 CEST)
Background: Simulation plays a crucial role in health studies, as it helps medical students apply their theoretical knowledge in real-life situations. Moulage is one of the techniques that helps in making simulation more realistic or high-fidelity. It uses special effects to emulate wounds for a better understanding of what the wound is like visually. Still, moulage is expensive, time-consuming, resource-intensive, and requires the training of staff, which is why we need to find low-cost substitutes for moulage materials. Method: When searching the database “PubMed” for the terms “Low-cost and Medical moulage”, we retrieved 222 studies, out of which when excluding results not related to low-cost, we obtained 62 studies, from which when removing studies that do not contain information regarding moulage, we found two papers, after referring to citations and cited articles of those papers, we ended up with six studies. Based on the selected articles and additional articles sourced from their reference list, a total of 11 studies were included in the review. Results: We understand that moulage is a technique that helps make simulations come alive, but the resources required to use it are at times, expensive, which is why we need to find methods to do low-cost moulage, and many studies address that it can be as simple as using homemade ingredients. Students from a previous study have talked about their opinions regarding the realistic component of moulage and whether if it is any different from other moulages. Most of the students agreed that the moulage ranked well in face and content validity. However, further innovations must be introduced in the field to be widely spread and lead to newer opportunities. Conclusion: Although the research done under moulage is limited, it is accepted that moulage is helpful for simulation-based studies and that low-cost moulage can help make medical studies a better experience for students studying it. Students have a favorable opinion on the realistic aspect of the low-cost moulage applied to them. Newer methods can be introduced to moulage, and it can be implemented in low-income countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Medical Education; Simulation; Low-Cost; Task trainers; procedural trainers
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:06:27 CEST)
Background: Simulations have historically aided training programs by providing a realistic and holistic replication of professional scenarios and procedures. Simulations have developed over the past 40 years to include varying fidelities and modalities of simulation. Learning in a simulation-centered environment has benefits, ranging from improved patient care to specific skills acquisition while catering to students’ numerous and varied learning approaches. Simulation is a multifaceted field that benefits all parties, the teachers, the learners, and the patients. The application of simulation to medical education and its amalgamation with other modes and substitutes allows for a more integrated learning and testing curriculum that advances the current trajectory of medical education. Such developments, however, are limited to resource rich areas, leaving behind low-middle income countries to use traditional, less evolved methodologies and practices. This review aimed to explore different aspects of simulation and focus specifically on low-cost task trainers and their accessibility. Method: The purpose of the study was to assess the accessibility of low-cost task trainers in terms of cost-effectiveness, distribution, validation, and frequency within specific specialties. To do so, 84 PubMed publications have been screened, and 39 filtered research studies have collected the necessary data. After analyzing the papers, we classified the following information – process, specialization, validation (y/n), costs, development location, and year of publication. Results: After carefully analyzing the accumulated data from the selected 39 publications, we found that most studies (i.e., 6 out of 39) were published in 2020. Emergency Medicine was the most common specialty for which low-cost trainers were developed (9 out of 39 procedural simulators); Otolaryngology followed this with 8 out of 39 trainers and general surgery with 7/39 of the task-trainers. The price ranges fluctuated and fell within the price bracket of USD 0 to USD 400 collectively. Our review also uncovered the concentration of development of such innovations solely in high income countries (HICs). Conclusion: Simulation is an invaluable tool applicable to a diverse range of phases of medical education. Future conjunction of simulation with low-cost substitutes along with increased encouragement and enthusiasm towards developing cost effective simulation-based learning environments (SBLEs) with the reserves and requirements of these areas in mind may prove to be a reliable option for low and middle resource settings
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Marijuana, cannabis, opioid epidemic, medical marijuana, opioids, pain management
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:58:52 CEST)
The US opioid overdose epidemic has risen to an all-time high. Prescription opioids often serve as a gateway to illicit opioids which have appreciable overdose potential. Recent investigations have highlighted the efficacy and safety of marijuana-based products for pain management. Providing alternative pain treatment options may help mitigate the opioid epidemic. The distribution of codeine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, morphine, and oxycodone per 100K people and by 3-digit zip codes and overdose rates from 2014 to 2018 in California, which legalized recreational marijuana in 2016, were compared to Texas, where marijuana is functionally prohibited. Drug weights were obtained from the Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System and converted to oral morphine milligram equivalents. Overdose data was retrieved from the Centers for Disease Control’s WONDER database. California (-43.7%) and Texas (-27.3%) showed significant reductions in cumulative opioid distribution from 2014 to 2018. Opioid distribution per 100K people decreased -38.9% in California relative to -26.4% in Texas. Opioid and heroin overdoses increased between 1999 and 2019 by +11.6% in California but +272.7% in Texas. This evidence supports marijuana legalization as a mitigating factor to the opioid epidemic and opioid misuse.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0043.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Theater Keywords: Epilepsy, Theatre, Neurology, Cultural History, Drama, Engagement, Medical Communication
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:12:17 CEST)
The theatre has a tremendous ability to influence public discourse and shape societal opinions. And medical conditions can provide writers with a rich scope for plot development and characters with challenges to overcome. In particular, the neurological condition epilepsy has many possibilities with historical beliefs that people were possessed by gods and devils and the sudden, disabling seizures characteristic of the condition. But used unsympathetically, it can promote misunderstanding within audiences, resulting in discrimination for people with the condition. This review looks back at how epilepsy has been portrayed throughout history. How the Greeks portrayed epilepsy as a punishment from the gods. Then later, how Shakespeare utilised epilepsy to suggest characters as uncontrollable. However, we finish on a message of hope as modern writers look to collaboration to ensure accurate and honest portrayals of epilepsy, improving public understanding and removing many of the stigmas that have dogged the condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; medical staff; vaccine
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:36:41 CET)
Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the need for developing rapidly effective and safety vaccines to prevent infection, particularly in those at-risk populations such as medical personnel. The objective of this study was to assess perception of COVID-19 vaccination amongst Colombian physicians featuring two different sceneries of COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out through an online survey, directed at medical staff in several cities in Colombia. The percentage of physicians who have a positive perception to be vaccinated and the associated factors that determine that decision were determined. A binomial regression analysis adjusted for age and sex was carried out, taking as a dependent variable the acceptance of free vaccination with an effectiveness of 60 and 80%. The most significant factors were determined in the non-acceptance of vaccination. Results: Between 77.1% and 90.8% of physicians in Colombia, accept COVID-19 vaccination, according to the scenario evaluated where the effectiveness of the vaccine was 60 or 80%, respectively. Medical specialty, have ever paid for a vaccine, recommend administrating the vaccine to their parents or people over 70 years and dispense the vaccine to their children were the factors to be vaccinated for free with an effectiveness of 60% and 80%. Conclusions: There is a high perception of the intention to vaccinate physicians in Colombia against COVID-19. But it is very similar to that of the general population, according to results reported in other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0624.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: medical record systems; cutaneous malignant melanoma; survival analysis; immunotherapy
Online: 29 October 2020 (16:02:44 CET)
Background: Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is one of the most aggressive types of skin cancer. Currently, innovative approaches such as target therapies and immunotherapies have been introduced in clinical practice for the treatment of metastatic CMM. Data of clinical trials and real life studies that evaluate the outcomes of these therapeutic associations are necessary to establish their clinical utility. The aim of this study is to investigate the types of oncological treatments employed in the real-life clinical management of patients with advanced CMM in several Italian centers which are part of the Clinical National Melanoma Registry (CNMR), and the oncological outcomes obtained. Methods: CNMR collects data of patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of primary CMM treated in one of the 38 Italian institutions (hospitals, research institutes, etc.) participating in the network. Melanoma-specific survival and Overall survival were calculated. Kaplan-Meier curves and medians of OS and 95% CI are presented overall and by immunotherapy and target treatments. The Log-rank test compared curves by treatments. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios adjusting for confounders and other prognostic factors. Results: The median follow-up time was 36 months (range 1.2-185.1). 787 CMM were included in the analysis with completed information about therapies.Global immunotherapy showed a significant improved survival compared with all other therapies (p=0.001). 75% was the highest reduction of death reached by nivolumab/pembrolizumab immunotherapy (anti-PD1 HR=0.25 95% CI 0.14-0.42), globally immunotherapy was significantly associated with improved survival, either for anti-CTL A4 monotherapy or combined with anti-PD1 (HR=0.47;95% CI 0.33-0.66 and HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.15-0.46, respectively). Conclusions: The nivolumab/pembrolizumab and the combination of ipilimumab can be considered the best therapy to improve survival in a real-world-population. The CNMR can complement clinical registries with the intent of improving cancer management and standardizing cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0480.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: healthcare system; medical network; trust; mathematical modeling; complex network
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:33:20 CEST)
Medical Trust-Network is one of the most promising fields of study in network science. Establishment of trust within medical entities ensures better treatment and increases better medical facilities. The word ‘Trust’ signifies a very important behavioral aspect between any human entities, especially among doctors and patients. To represent such relationships Trust Network Models are built to express the interactions between human entities within such networks. Though the idea of a Trust-Network has traditionally been one of the major areas of research, yet the concept of a medical trust network model is relatively a new domain. In this paper, we introduce an overall multilayered Trust Network to represent the entire healthcare architecture. More specifically our model is based on an evolutionary graph system with a discrete relationship between the three most important entities of any healthcare system, namely – Doctors, Departments, and Hospitals. Observations indicate that based on our model, the medical healthcare system is a multilayered model unlike a feed-forward model as indicated by previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; ACE2 receptor; medical cannabis; CBD
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:45:50 CEST)
With the rapidly growing pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the new and challenging to treat zoonotic SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease spread and reduce mortality. Inhibition of viral entry and thereby spread constitute plausible therapeutic avenues. Similar to other respiratory pathogens, SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through respiratory droplets, with potential for aerosol and contact spread. It uses receptor-mediated entry into the human host via angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) that is expressed in lung tissue, as well as oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes, and the gastrointestinal tract. Modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may prove a plausible strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility. Cannabis sativa, especially one high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been proposed to modulate gene expression and inflammation and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Working under the Health Canada research license, we have developed over 800 new Cannabis sativa lines and extracts and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to modulate ACE2 expression in COVID-19 target tissues. Screening C. sativa extracts using artificial human 3D models of oral, airway, and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high CBD C. sativa extracts that modulate ACE2 gene expression and ACE2 protein levels. Our initial data suggest that some C. sativa extract down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is crucial for the future analysis of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful and novel high CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy. They can be used to develop easy-to-use preventative treatments in the form of mouthwash and throat gargle products for both clinical and at-home use. Such products ought to be tested for their potential to decrease viral entry via the oral mucosa. Given the current dire and rapidly evolving epidemiological situation, every possible therapeutic opportunity and avenue must be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0370.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: polyurethane; polylactide; tissue engineering; skin scaffold; antibacterial; degradable; medical
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:52:06 CET)
The aim of performed studies was to fabricate an antibacterial and degradable scaffold that may be used in the field of skin regeneration. To reach the degradation criterion the biocompatible polyurethane (PUR), obtained by using amorphous macrodiol α,ω-dihydroxy(ethylene-butylene adipate) macrodiol (PEBA), was used and processed with so-called “fast-degradable” polymer polylactide (PLA) (5 wt% or 10 wt%). To meet the antibacterial requirement obtained hybrid PUR-PLA scaffolds (HPPS) were modified with ciprofloxacin (Cipro) (2 wt% or 5 wt%), the fluoroquinolone antibiotic inhibiting growth of bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are main cause of wound infections. Obtained unmodified and Cipro-modified HPPS were studied towards their chemical composition to detect presence or absence of characteristic functional groups of PUR, PLA and Cipro, and as well to indicate the participation of hydrogen bonds in the HPPS structure in dependence on PLA addition and ciprofloxacin modification. Mechanical properties were studied to determine the possible application of HPPS as a skin tissue scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of unmodified and Cipro-modified HPPS and to performed elementary analysis by using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of obtained materials. Finally, the microbiological tests were performed to indicate the antibacterial effect of Cipro-modified HPPS on S.aureus growth. Performed studies showed that Cipro-modified HPPS, obtained by using 5 % of PLA, possess suitable mechanical characteristic, morphology, degradation rate and demanded antimicrobial properties to be further developed as a potential scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0323.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cyber-physical systems; WBAN security; biometric authentication; medical systems
Online: 14 November 2018 (08:03:19 CET)
A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a network of wirelessly connected sensing and actuating devices. WBANs used for recording biometric information and administering medication are classified as part of a Cyber Physical System (CPS). Preserving user security and privacy is a fundamental concern of WBANs, which introduces the notion of using biometric readings as a mechanism for authentication. Extensive research has been conducted regarding the various methodologies (e.g. ECG, EEG, gait, head/arm motion, skin impedance). This paper seeks to analyze and evaluate the most prominent biometric authentication techniques based on accuracy, cost, and feasibility of implementation. We suggest several authentication schemes which incorporate multiple biometric properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0816.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: wearables; smart textiles; textile strain sensor; motion monitoring; medical applications
Online: 10 August 2023 (05:46:24 CEST)
Recently, there has been remarkable progress in the development of smart textiles, especially knitted strain sensors, to achieve reliable sensor signals. Stable and reliable electro-mechanical properties of sensors are essential for using textile-based sensors in medical applications. How-ever, challenges associated with significant hysteresis and low gauge factor (GF) values remain for using strain sensors for motion capture. To evaluate these issues, a comprehensive investiga-tion of the cyclic electro-mechanical properties of weft-knitted strain sensors was conducted in the present study to develop a drift-free elastic strain sensor with a robust sensor signal for mo-tion capture for medical devices. Several variables were considered in the study, including the variation of the basic knit pattern, the incorporation of the electrically conductive yarn, and the size of the strain sensor. The effectiveness and feasibility of the developed knitted strain sensors are demonstrated through experimental evaluation, by determining the gauge factor, its non-linearity, hysteresis and drift. The developed knitted piezoresistive strain sensors have a GF of 2.4, a calculated drift of 50 %, 12,5 % hysteresis, and 0.3 % nonlinearity in parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Boron neutron capture therapy; BNCT; radiation oncology; medical physics; Canada
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:09:25 CEST)
Background: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an emerging radiotherapy. There are ongoing efforts to develop a Canadian accelerator-based BNCT center. However, it remains unclear how Canadian radiation oncologists (RO), medical physicists (MP), and their trainees perceive BNCT and its impact on radiation oncology as a discipline. Methods: A survey was created to explore knowledge of BNCT, its clinical role, and support for Canadian research. It was distributed through the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology (CARO) and Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP). Results: We received 118 valid responses from all 10 provinces, from 70 RO (59.3%) and 48 MP (40.7%), including 9 residents. Most knew of BNCT and its indications (60.2%). Although many were unaware of reasons behind early failures (44.1%), common reasons were lack of clinical trials and inaccessibility of neutron sources (42.4%) and reactor unsuitability (34.7%). Additionally, 90.6% showed definite (66.9%) or possible (23.7%) support for Canadian BNCT research, while 89% indicated definite (56.8%) or possible (32.2%) willingness for BNCT referrals. Conclusions: Most RO and MP supported Canadian BNCT research and would refer patients. However, limited awareness and lack of experiences remain a challenge. Educational sessions are needed to realize this innovative cancer treatment in Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1704.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Force control; haptic; upper limb; rehabilitation; shoulder movements; medical rehabilitation
Online: 24 May 2023 (05:33:21 CEST)
This paper describes the design and development of an active device that was applied to shoulder rotation rehabilitation. It implements a force control in a similar way to the haptic devices that reflect a force on the user’s hand according to the rehabilitation parameters. This device was tested with patients, combining clinician manipulation and programmed exercises. The results were excellent, given that the range of movement of the shoulder increased in most of the pa-tients. The results of the Usability Scale questionnaire were also promising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0366.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: medical tests, accuracy, cost-effectiveness analysis, matching intervention, lower bound
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:48:27 CEST)
Medical tests' cost-effectiveness analysis reveals a strong correlation between their accuracy and analysis results. Theoretically, we provide two lower bounds that medical tests' accuracy must exceed to be considered cost-effective. Theoretically, we provide two lower bounds that the accuracy of medical tests meeting cost-effectiveness must exceed. First, medical tests' accuracy should surpass the lower bound of matching requirements for each patient to receive the most appropriate intervention based on their test results. Second, the overall lower limit should be exceeded for the medical testing to be cost-effective for the patients as a whole. Furthermore, the conclusions from this model also provide an economic explanation for the under-diagnosis of rare diseases and the challenges faced in implementing precision medicine for minority patients. A numerical simulation example validates the conclusions of this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0763.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Community-based medical education; primary healthcare physicians; Bisha; Saudi Arabia
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:17:14 CEST)
Background: Community-based medical education (CBME) is an essential component of medical education, where primary healthcare physicians (PHPs) play a crucial role. This study explores PHPs' awareness and engagement in CBME and investigates the factors influencing their participation. Methods: This mixed study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a qual-itative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with PHPs, and thematic analysis related to their awareness and engagement in CBME. In the second phase, a quantitative survey was conducted among 72 PHPs pre- and post-training programs. Results: Primary healthcare physicians had a positive attitude toward community-based medical education. The participants have an acceptable level of awareness and engagement, which increased substantially (p-value = 0.03) and (p-value = 0.003), respectively. Logistic analysis indicated that non-Saudi physicians were likelier to participate in the CBME (p-value=0.001). Professions and academic experiences influence their willingness and engagement to participate in CBME (OR= 7.5, p-value=0.001) and (OR=0.21, p-value=0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The study findings highlighted the importance of increased awareness and the factors that enhance PHPs' engagement in CBME. This positive perspective of the PHPs helps build effective partnerships and facilitates the extension of the curriculum to apply CBME.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0177.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Digital Health; Mobile; mobile-based applications; medical apps; Saudi Arabia
Online: 11 April 2023 (02:58:44 CEST)
This study aimed at assessing the extent to which the Saudi general population has embraced digital health medical applications to meet their health-related needs so that the Saudi Ministry of Health and government can appropriately be guided on scaling up of digital health across the country. As such, this study was guided by the question of to what extent do the Saudi people use digital health mobile-based applications?. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing snowballing sampling approach. Frequencies, Chi-square, and Spearman rank correlation statistics were used to offer descriptive and inferential analysis of the variables. The majority of the participants were economically able to afford smart devices that have medical apps, had at least an app on such devices, and highly regarded the benefits of the apps. Unfortunately, their understanding of how to use such apps was limited and this posed a barrier to embracing digital health alongside difficulty downloading apps, and medical ethical concerns. Although there is a willingness, extra effort is needed from the Saudi Ministry of Health and government to promote the uptake of digital health in Saudi Arabia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0169.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: paramedic; Emergency Medical Services; competency; competency framework; professional com-petency
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:12:02 CET)
The National Occupational Competency Profile (NOCP) – the competency framework for paramedics in Canada – is presently undergoing revision. Since the NOCP was published in 2011, paramedic practice, healthcare and society have changed dramatically. To inform the revision, we sought to identify emerging concepts in the literature that would inform the development of competencies for paramedics. We conducted a restricted literature review and content analysis of all published and grey literature pertaining to or informing Canadian paramedicine from 2011 to 2022. Three authors performed a title and abstract, and full-text review to identify and label concepts informed by existing findings. A total of 302 articles were categorized into eleven emerging concepts related to competencies: Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Accessibility (IDEA) in paramedicine; Social responsiveness, justice, equity and access; Anti-racism; Healthy Professionals; Evidence Informed Practice and Systems; Complex Adaptive Systems; Learning Environment; Virtual Care; Clinical Reasoning; Adaptive Expertise; and Planetary Health. This review identified emerging concepts to inform the development of the 2023 National Occupational Standard for Paramedics (NOSP). These concepts will inform data analysis, development group discussions, and competency identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: near-infrared; spectroscopy; tissue; medical imaging; diffuse optical tomography; fNIRS
Online: 12 December 2022 (03:26:45 CET)
The optical properties and physiology of biological tissue, as well as how near-infrared (NIR) light interacts with the tissue, both play a significant role in interpreting the tissue probing optical measurements, and in solving the inverse problem of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based medical imaging modalities such as diffuse optical tomography and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. This paper discusses the optical properties of tissue, specifically in the NIR wavelength range, which influence NIRS measurements in NIRS-based medical imaging. There is an easy-to-understand explanation given in this paper of the NIR light-tissue interaction phenomenon. The mathematical explanation, the processes involved in the interaction, and the rationale for a few approximations are described. Various types of chromophores present in the tissue, their composition in the tissue, and how these chromophores overall affect the scattering and absorption of NIR light are presented. The absorption spectra of these chromophores are shown. Finally, the paper concludes with the author’s perspective on two NIRS-based medical imaging modalities, diffuse optical tomography, and functional near-infrared spectroscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0506.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Integration; Medical and disease prevention; Mediating effect; Public health; Symbiotic
Online: 28 November 2022 (08:56:17 CET)
Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has accelerated the huge difference between medical care and disease prevention in Chinese medical institutions. This study aimed to investigated the relationship between the symbiotic units, environments, models, and effects of the integration of medical and disease prevention. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 762 employees of public hospitals in 11 cities in Zhejiang Province by random stratified sampling. We analyzed the influence paths of elements in the mechanism of integration of medical and disease prevention and the mediating effect of symbiotic models among symbiotic units, symbiotic environments, and effects for on this integration. Results: The path coefficient of symbiotic unit on the symbiosis model was 0.46 (p<.001), the path coefficient of symbiotic environment on symbiosis model was 0.52 (p<.001). The path coefficient of the symbiotic unit and environment was 0.91 (p<.001). The symbiotic models exhibited a partial mediation effect between symbiotic units and the effect of this integration. Sobel test = 3.27, β = 0.152, and the mediating effect accounted for 34.6%. Conclusions: It is suggested that Health policy-makers and public hospital managers should provide sufficient symbiotic units, establish collaborative symbiotic models, and improve the effects of integration of medical and disease prevention in public hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0411.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: self-care; stress; medical students; doctors; public, drug/alcohol misuse
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:17:05 CEST)
This study examines demographic factors which may influence opinions concerning medical students’ self-care and substance use behaviors as a means of providing insights into how future doctors view these issues compared to Australian doctors and members of the public. We conducted national, multicenter, prospective, on-line cross-sectional surveys using hypothetical scenarios to three cohorts- Australian medical students, medical doctors, and the public. Participants’ responses were compared for the different contextual variables within the scenarios and the participants’ demographic characteristics. In total 2,602 medical students, 809 doctors and 503 members of the public participated. Compared with doctors and the public, medical students were least tolerant of alcohol intoxication, and most tolerant of using stimulants to assist with study, and cannabis for anxiety. Doctor respondents more often aligned with the public’s opinions on the acceptability of the medical students’ behaviors. Although opinions are not equivalent to behaviour, Australian students’ views on the acceptability for cannabis to help manage anxiety, and inappropriate use of prescription-only drugs are concerning; these future doctors will be responsible for prescribing drugs and managing patients with substance abuse problems. However, if current Australian medical student’s opinions on alcohol misuse persist, one of the commonest substance addictions amongst doctors may decrease in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Covid-19; SARs-CoV-2; burnout; stress; resilience; medical students
Online: 11 January 2022 (16:57:30 CET)
Following the WHO's declaration of a public health emergency due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the subsequent quarantine and confinement measures that were adopted, including distance learning measures, were shown to have caused a significant deterioration in the mental health of medical students. The goal of this study was to explore the mediating role of resilience and life satisfac-tion in the relationship between perceived stress and burnout among medical students in the con-text of COVID-19. A transversal assessment was performed using an online questionnaire, to which 462 students responded. The instruments applied were the Perceived Stress Scale-10, the Resilience Scale-25 items, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Burnout Scale (Olden-burg Inventory). A regression model was estimated for each dimension of burnout. The results revealed that resilience and life satisfaction play a mediating role in the association between stress and the dimensions of burnout. This suggests that measures of promoting mental health based on resilience and improving perceptions of life should be implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; medical residency; virtual interviews; satisfaction; survey; faculty member
Online: 10 December 2021 (20:17:44 CET)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, conducting face-to-face medical residency interviews was challenging due to infection prevention precautions, social distancing and travel restrictions. Virtual interviews were implemented by the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS) as an alternative process for residency matching while striving to maintain the same quality standards. This national survey was conducted to assess the satisfaction and perceptions of faculty members’ virtual interviews performance in the assessment for the medical training residency programs. Among the participating 173 faculty members (34.1%) did not have previous experience with video-conferencing. Zoom application was the most commonly used platform (65.9%). Most (89.6%) of the faculty perceived virtual interviews as “adequate” for the candidates to express themselves, while almost half of the faculty (53.8%) agreed that virtual interviews allowed them to accurately reach an impression about the candidates. Overall, 73.4% of faculty felt comfortable ranking the virtually interviewed candidates. We conclude that the acceptance of participating faculty members in the first Saudi medical residency training matching cycle virtual interviewing event was well perceived. This study provides evidence for future application and research of virtual interviews in residency candidates' assessment, especially after the pandemic crisis resolves.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Role-play; medical roleplay; teddy bear hospital; teddy bear clinic
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:54:09 CEST)
Background: Role-playing is often used as a pedagogical method for learning communication in medical education. Therefore, medical play using the Teddy Bear Hospital (TBH) is a concept that can quickly familiarize children with health care and help them develop positive experiences in these areas. This review aims to assess the strengths of TBH, as a form of directed medical role play, in improving health outcomes and well-being in children, along with implanting an awareness of preventive health care in young children.Methods: For this scoping review, we examined the list of recommendations, including 11 studies from two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar. We incorporated pre/post quasi-experimental studies, ANOVA, qualitative research studies, systematic reviews, and control group studies that deliberately utilize the teddy bear hospital as an intervention.Results: The results of individual studies were further categorized into three sections. The first being upon the analysis of 11 studies, the Teddy Bear Hospital was mainly conducted in Europe and Asia. It is evident that regardless of the different approaches and strategies used to implement the Teddy Bear Hospital, they all ultimately share the same intent: to raise health care awareness and alleviate young children's anxiety over medical treatment while focusing on the promotion of positive healthy lifestyle. All studies portray the teddy bear hospital as an intervention of medical roleplay which analyzed the children's feelings, behaviors, and health awareness after visiting the Teddy Bear Hospital.Conclusion: The application of the teddy bear hospital has overwhelmingly positive results, with lower levels of anxiety and improved health knowledge. Its reported efficacy calls for future studies on aspects that lead to its efficacy and potential effectiveness.