ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: lumped parameter simulation; aircraft hybrid propulsion; fuel fconomy; propulsion and propellant systems
Online: 30 June 2018 (15:04:34 CEST)
This paper describes a case study for applying of hybrid-electric propulsion system for a general aviation aircraft. The work was performed by a joint team of CIRA and the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Naples “Federico II”. Electric and hybrid electric propulsion for aircraft has gained widespread and significant attention over the past decade. The driver for industry interest has principally been the need to reduce emissions of combustion engine exhaust products and noise, but increasingly studies revealed potential for overall improvement in energy efficiency and mission flexibility of new aircraft types. The project goal was to demonstrate feasibility of aeronautic parallel hybrid-electric propulsion for a Light aircraft varying the mission profiles and the electric configuration. Through a creation, and application, of a global model, with software AMESim®, in which it can be represented everything about the components chosen by the industrial partners, some interesting considerations are carried out. In particular, it was confirmed that with the only integration of state of the art technologies, for some particular missions, the advantages of aircraft hybrid-electric propulsion, for light aircraft, are notable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Francis turbine; crack; dynamic behavior; vibration localization; lumped parameter mode; localization factor; forced response
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:14:30 CEST)
The crack in the blade is the most common type of fatigue damage for Francis turbines. However, the crack sometimes is difficult to be detected in time using the current monitoring system even when the crack is very large. To better monitor the crack, it is imperative to research the effect of a crack on the dynamic behavior of a Francis turbine. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a Francis turbine runner model with a crack was researched numerically. The intact numerical model was first validated by the experimental data available. Then, a crack was created at the intersection line between one blade and the crown. The change in dynamic behavior with increasing crack length was investigated. Crack-induced vibration localization theory was used to explain the dynamic behavior changes due to the crack. Modal analysis showed that the adopted theory could basically explain the modal behavior change due to the crack. The FFT results of the modal shapes and the localization factors (LF) were used to explain the forced response changes due to the crack. Based on the above analysis, the challenge of crack monitoring was analyzed. This research can also provide some references for more advanced monitoring technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0050.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Coronary vasculature; lumped parameter model; fractional flow reserve; computational cardiology
Online: 2 March 2022 (12:34:43 CET)
Background. The treatment of coronary stenosis relies on invasive high risk surgical assessment to generate the fractional flow reserve diagnostics index, a ratio of distal to proximal pressures in respect of coronary atherosclerotic plaque causing stenosis. Non-invasive methods are therefore a need of the times. This study proposes an extensible mathematical description of the coronary vasculature that permits rapid estimation of the coronary fractional flow reserve. Methods. By adapting an existing closed loop model of human coronary blood flow, the effects of large vessel stenosis and microvascular disease on fractional flow reserve were quantified. Several simula-tions generated flow and pressure information which was used to compute fractional flow re-serve under a spectrum of conditions including focal stenosis, diffuse stenosis, and microvascular disease. Sensitivity analysis stratified the influence of model parameters on the index. The model was simulated as coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and numerically solved us-ing an implicit higher order method. Results. Large vessel stenosis affected fractional flow re-serve. The model predicts that the presence, rather than severity, of microvascular disease affect coronary flow deleteriously. Sensitivity analysis revealed that heart rate may not affect the index. Conclusions. The model provides a computationally inexpensive instrument for future in silico coronary blood flow investigations as well as clinical-imaging decision making. A combination of focal and diffuse stenosis appears to be essential in reducing the index. In addition to pressure measurements in the large epicardial vessels, diagnosis of microvascular disease is essential. The independence of the index with respect to heart rate suggests that computationally inexpensive steady state simulations may provide sufficient information to reliably compute the index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: piecewise lumped parameters; finite element analysis; dynamic crush; acceleration severity index
Online: 3 September 2018 (04:57:24 CEST)
Estimating the vehicle crashworthiness parameters experimentally is expensive and time consuming. For these reasons different modelling approaches are utilized to predict the vehicle behaviour and reduce the need for full-scale crash testing. The earlier numerical methods used for vehicle crashworthiness analysis were based on the use of lumped parameters models (LPM), a combination of masses and nonlinear springs interconnected in various configurations. Nowadays, the explicit nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) is probably the most widely recognized modelling technique. Although informative, finite element models (FEM) of vehicle crash are expensive both in terms of man-hours put into assembling the model and related computational costs. A simpler analytical tool for early analysis of vehicle crashworthiness could greatly assist the modelling and save time. In this paper a simple piecewise LPM composed of a mass-spring-damper system, is used to estimate the vehicle crashworthiness parameters, focusing on the dynamic crush and the acceleration severity index (ASI). The model is first calibrated against a full-scale crash test and a FEM, post-processed with the LS-DYNA software, at an impact velocity of 56 km/h. The genetic algorithm is used to calibrate the model by estimating the piecewise lumped parameters (stiffness and damping of the front structure of the vehicle). After calibration, the LPM is applied to a range of velocities (40, 48, 64 and 72 km/h). The predictions for crashworthiness parameters from the LPM were compared with the predictions from the FEA and the results are much similar. It is shown that the LPM can assist in crash analysis, since LPM has some predictive capabilities and requires less computation time in comparison with the explicit nonlinear FEA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: synthetic jets; Lumped Element Model (LEM); piezo-driven actuators; flow control
Online: 7 March 2017 (08:51:39 CET)
In the last decades synthetic jet actuators have gained much interest among the flow control techniques due to their short response time, high jet velocity and absence of traditional piping, that matches the requirements of reduced size and low weight. A synthetic jet is generated by the diaphragm oscillation (generally driven by a piezoelectric element) in a relatively small cavity, producing periodic cavity pressure variations associated with cavity volume changes. The pressured air exhausts through an orifice, converting diaphragm electrodynamic energy into jet kinetic energy. This review paper faces the development of various lumped-element models (LEMs) as practical tools to design and manufacture the actuators. LEMs can quickly predict device performances such as the frequency response in terms of diaphragm displacement, cavity pressure and jet velocity, as well as the efficiency of energy conversion of input Joule power into useful kinetic power of air jet. The actuator performance is analyzed also by varying typical geometric parameters such as cavity height and orifice diameter and length, through a suited dimensionless form of the governing equations. A comprehensive and detailed physical modeling aimed to evaluate the device efficiency is introduced, shedding light on the different stages involved in the process. Overall, the influence of the coupling degree of the two oscillators, the diaphragm and the Helmholtz’s one, on the device performance is discussed throughout the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: semi-analytical solutions; hydrodynamic characteristics; piezoelectric cantilever beam; wave energy harvesters; lumped and structural parameters.
Online: 11 December 2017 (15:25:30 CET)
We mainly describe the influence factors of captured power by huge wave energy harvesters, which the vertical motion of buoy can transform ocean’s potential energy into piezoelectric energy power by waves. By means of semi-analytical solutions and theoretical analysis, related environmental coefficients are analyzed firstly and find the most appropriate wave frequency and geometric structure as reference. Secondly, the numerical results also discuss the impact trend of hydrodynamic parameters and geometric volume on motion, voltage and power with qualitative agreement. The simulation data confirm that structure parameters of the modified model could markedly deliver sufficient power to ocean high electrical equipment with long-time stability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: CARDIOSIM©; numerical simulator; lumped parameter model; e-learning; mechanical circulatory support; ventilatory; cardiovascular system; heart failure; clinician
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:07:19 CEST)
This review is devoted to present the history of CARDIOSIM© software simulator platform, which was developed in Italy to simulate the human cardiovascular and respiratory system. The first version of CARDIOSIM© was developed at the Institute of Biomedical Technologies of the National Research Council in Rome. The first platform version published in 1991 ran on PC with disk operating system (MS-DOS) and was developed using the Turbo Basic language. The last version runs on PC with Microsoft Windows 10 operating system; it is implemented in Visual Basic and C++ languages. The platform has a modular structure consisting of seven different general sections, which can be assembled to reproduce different pathophysiological conditions. The software simulator can reproduce the most important circulatory phenomena in terms of pressure and volume relationships. It represents the whole circulation using a lumped-parameter model and enables the simulation of different cardiovascular conditions according to Starling’s law of the heart and a modified time-varying elastance model. Different mechanical ventilatory and circulatory devices have been implemented in the platform including thoracic artificial lung, ECMO, IABP, pulsatile and continuous right and left ventricular assist devices, biventricular pacemaker and biventricular assist devices. CARDIOSIM© is used in clinical and educational environment.