ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0487.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: location routing; unmanned aerial vehicle; border patrol; heuristic
Online: 16 January 2019 (10:04:50 CET)
The location routing problem of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in border patrol for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance is investigated, where the location of UAV base stations and the UAV flying routes for visiting the targets in border area are jointly optimized. The capacity of the base station and the endurance of the UAV are considered. A binary integer programming model is developed to formulate the problem, and two heuristic algorithms combined with local search strategies are designed for solving the problem. The experiment design for simulating the distribution of stations and targets in border is proposed for generating random test instances. Also, an example based on the Sino-Vietnamese border is presented to illustrate the problem and the solution approach. The performance of the two algorithms are analyzed and compared through randomly generated instances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: geoportal; location intelligence; geospatial data; emergency response; health expert system; decision support system
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:42:06 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 is a public health emergency that caused disastrous results in many countries. The global aim is to stop transmission and prevent the spread of the disease. To achieve it, every country needs to scale up emergency response mechanisms, educate and actively communicate with the public, intensify infected case finding, contact tracing, monitoring, quarantine of contacts, and isolation of cases. Responding to an emergency requires efficient collaboration and a multi-skilled approach (medical, information, statistical, political, social, and other expertise), which makes it hard to define one interface for all. As actors from different perspectives and domain backgrounds need to address diverse functions, the possibility to exchange available information quickly would be desirable. Geoportal provides an entry point to access a variety of data (geospatial data, epidemiological data) and could be used for data discovery, view, download, and transformation. It helps to deal with challenges like data analysis, confirmed cases geocoding, recognition of disease dynamics, vulnerable groups identification, and capacity mapping. Predicting and modeling the spread of infection, along with application support for communication and collaboration, are the biggest challenges. In response to all these challenges, we have established the Epidemic Location Intelligence System (ELIS) using open-source software components in the cloud, as a working platform with all the required functionalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0159.v1
Online: 12 January 2022 (09:50:31 CET)
A new method for short circuit fault location is proposed based on instantaneous signal measurement and its derivatives, and is based on the retardation phenomena. The difference between the times in which a signal is registered in two detectors is used to locate the fault. Although a description of faults in terms of a lumped circuit is useful for elucidating the methods for detecting the fault. This description will not suffice to describe the fault signal propagation hence a distributed models is needed which is given in terms of the telegraph equations. Those equations are used to derive a transmission line transfer function, and an exact analytical description of the short circuit signal propagating in the transmission line is obtained. The analytical solution was verified both by numerical simulations and experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: location-based services; geosurveillance; social media; location data; geoprivacy; attitude; geolocation; geotagging
Online: 12 July 2018 (08:15:03 CEST)
Modern mobile devices are replete advanced sensors that expand the array of possible methods of locating users. This is often viewed in a positive light, as a tool to gather and use spatial information, but it also brings with it the problem of “geosurveillance” in which the “Location” becomes a product in itself. In the realm of software developers, this has been reduced and discretized to a set of coordinates, devoid of human experiences and meanings. To function in such digitally augmented realities, people need to adopt specific attitudes, often accompanied with anxiety. We explored attitudes toward locational data collection practices using questionnaire surveys (n = 280) from Poznan and Edinburgh. The prevailing attitude is neutral with a strong undertone of resignation, in which surrendering personal locational information is viewed as a digital currency. A smaller number of people had stronger, emotional views, either very positive or very negative, based on uncritical technological enthusiasm or fear of privacy violation. Such a wide spectrum of attitudes is not only produced by interaction with technology but can also be viewed as a result of different perceptions and values associated with space and place itself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: location; screening; interval estimation model
Online: 8 August 2019 (12:35:55 CEST)
With the focus of great concern of the sustainable development, its evaluation system has become an important operational strategy and practical values. For the purpose of obtaining the stronger indicators and the larger contribution ones, evaluation indicators screening is carried out using interval estimation model, which takes location of production and service facilities of company A as an example. And the weight value of each indicator is further explored, which can provide an direction of decision-making. The result shows that this screening method provides a more scientific evaluation method for enterprise location, decision-making basis for sustainable development of enterprises, and a solid foundation for the construction of the post-evaluation system. The present work implies that this screening method is affected, to different degrees, by the ability, knowledge reserve of the evaluators, which should be more systematic and standardized, and the concept of sustainable development should be strengthened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0252.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: alternative parameterization; normal distribution; dispersion estimators; location-invariance; scale-invariance; scale-and-location-invariance
Online: 19 September 2022 (02:06:09 CEST)
Location-and-scale transformation of a random variable underpins normal distribution, but it is however fundamentally incorrect for scale estimation such as relative dispersion. In this paper, a parametrized alternative to a normal distribution, called scaloc-normal distribution, is proposed that efficiently works and is fundamentally correct with absolute and relative dispersion estimators. The Monte Carlos simulation experiment was used to generate a total of 600,000 artificial datasets in 600 different simulation scenarios from loc-normal (normal) and scaloc-normal distributions. The absolute and relative dispersion were estimated and compared from the two distributions. The results show that scaloc-normal distribution is a good parametrized alternative to loc-normal distribution, fundamentally correct and efficient with both standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The key statistical advancement from loc-normal to scaloc-normal distribution is its fundamental correctness (i.e., scale-invariant property) with an efficient relative estimator of dispersion (i.e., coefficient of variation). Parametrically, the loc-normal and scaloc-normal distributions are very different, but both have linear transformations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0020.v1
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:41:30 CEST)
Euglenids are a group of algae of great interest for biotechnology, with a large and complex metabolic capability. To study the metabolic network, it is necessary to know the subcellular locations of the component enzymes, but despite a long history of research into Euglena, the subcellular locations of many major pathways are only poorly defined. Euglena is phylogenetically distant from other commonly studied algae, they have secondary plastids bounded by three membranes, and they can survive after destruction of their plastids. These unusual features make it difficult to assume that the subcellular organization of the metabolic network will be equivalent to that of other photosynthetic organisms. Moreover, we show here that the presence of the secondary chloroplast means that it is not possible to make reliable predictions of the subcellular locations of enzymes in Euglena using existing informatics tools. In order to generate a model of the central metabolic pathway operating in Euglena we analysed biochemical and proteomic information from a variety of sources to assess the subcellular location of relevant enzymes. We use these assignments to propose the compartmentation of the core metabolic pathways in Euglena, a prerequisite for the further study of the metabolic network of Euglena. This model of the metabolic network shows that, other than photosynthesis, all major pathways present in the chloroplast are duplicated elsewhere in the cell, and that several biosynthetic pathways confined to plastids in higher plants are localized elsewhere in Euglena. Our model demonstrates how this organism can synthesise all the metabolites required for growth from simple carbon inputs, and can survive in the absence of chloroplasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0064.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: tower crane; location; operating time; feasible area
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:50:41 CEST)
Due to a simple crane limited capacity; there is an urgent need to use high capacity cranes such as tower cranes. However, with regard to their high expense, we have to take into consideration selecting what type of cranes to be utilized which has been discussed by many researchers. In this research, a proposed technique was created to select the suitable type of crane and best place for crane erection, in addition to minimum radius for requested crane in order to minimize cost. To fulfill that target, a computer program is designed to numerate these problems, demonstrating an example explaining how to apply program and the result donated best place.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0215.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: RfA1; engineered peptides; spatiotemporal tunable; cyto/nucleoplasmic location
Online: 17 February 2022 (13:29:41 CET)
Proteins, as gifts from nature, provide structure, sequence, and function templates for designing biomaterials. Here, we reported an engineered toolkit derived from a natural block copolymer, RfA1. RfA1 is composed of positively charged polyelectrolyte linker regions interspersed with highly conserved polyampholyte motifs. These linkers and motifs are constructional fragments and ready-to-use building blocks for synthetic design and construction. One functional and editable feature of RfA1 derivatives is their preferential distribution to cytoplasm or nucleoplasm, in a fragment-replication-determined manner. Based on this property, a prices spatiotemporal Tet-on demo was established, which effectively transports cargo peptides into nuclei at selective time points. Moreover, the functional homogeneities of either motifs or linkers were also verified, making them standardized building blocks for synthetic biology. In summary, this study provides a modularized, orthotropic and well-characterized toolkit for precise and spatiotemporal regulation of protein nucleocytoplasmic localization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: respiratory symptoms; PM exposure; residential location; Namibia; Windhoek
Online: 10 October 2016 (09:59:29 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to assess respiratory health risks associated with Particulate Matter (PM) exposure among the residents of Windhoek, Namibia. Objectives: To measure particulate pollution concentration in Windhoek through monitoring of particulate matter concentration and to identify any associations between particulate pollution, individual location and respiratory health among the Windhoek resident’s. Methods: an adapted standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collect respiratory health related data as well as previous exposure, while PM monitoring was done using ASTM D1739 reference method. Results: A high prevalence was observed for cough (43%), breathlessness (25%), and Asthma (11.2%). PM was found to be a significant risk factor for episode of cough and phlegm, while high PM exposure category had increased odds ratio for episode of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-8.0). No association was observed between location and respiratory health outcomes. Conclusion: The study found high levels of PM concentration across all Windhoek suburbs which were above the German, American and EPA. Enactment of legislation relating to the control and monitoring of PM related emissions at point of generation is required at country and city level.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: commercial studies; commercial classification; retail location model; cluster analysis.
Online: 21 April 2021 (16:46:59 CEST)
Commercial classification is essential to spatially describe commerce. Although most of the proposed classifications have been classic functional analyses, rooted on qualitative studies, some recent classifications efforts are found to rely heavily on more quantitative methods, due eventually to increasing data availability and technological advancements. In this paper, a classification is proposed, using k-means clustering and a minimal set of variables (density, diversity and clustering) to derive the commercial structure of Lisbon. The classification is implemented for 1995, 2002 and 2010, using a 150m-sided square grid. The cross-sectional analysis of the results shows the rise of shopping-malls against city centre decline and gentrification, along with changes in cluster composition considering 9 different commercial categories (6 categories of retail, and restaurants, cafes and bars). These findings are in line with literature, thus supporting the obtained classification. Since the classification can be used to accurately describe the commercial structure of the city in different time periods, it is implied that it may also be generalized to different cities. Furthermore, the potential use of cluster membership in retail location models, which is an advantage of the proposed classification, could help strengthen the relationship between location modelling and commercial classification, thus reinforcing the role of commercial studies in urban planning and policymaking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0563.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: plant development rate; temperature-dependent; landscape; multi-location trials
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:33:34 CEST)
Understanding the detailed timing of crop phenology and their variability enhances grain yield and quality by providing precise scheduling of irrigation, fertilization, and crop protection mechanisms. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) provide a unique opportunity to develop agriculture-related tools that enhance wall-to-wall upscaling of data outputs from point-location data to wide-area spatial scales. Because of the heterogeneity of the worldwide agro-ecological zones where crops are cultivated, it is unproductive to perform plant phenology research without providing means to upscale results to landscape-level while safeguarding field-scale relevance. This paper presents an advanced, reproducible, and open-source software for plant phenology prediction and mapping (PPMaP) that inputs data obtained from multi-location field experiments to derive models for any crop variety. This information can then be applied consecutively at a localized grid within a spatial framework to produce plant phenology predictions at the landscape level. This software supports the development of process-oriented and temperature-driven plant phenology models by intuitively and interactively leading the user through a step-by-step progression to the production of spatial maps for any region of interest. Maize (Zea mays L.) was used to demonstrate the robustness, versatility, and high computing efficiency of the resulting modeling outputs of the PPMaP. The framework is implemented in R, providing a flexible and easy‐to‐use GUI interface. Since this allows appropriate scaling to the larger spatial domain, the software can effectively be used to determine the spatially explicit length of growing period (LGP) of any variety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0014.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: NDT Methods, Rebar location, Eddy-current method, GPR method
Online: 5 March 2019 (11:11:44 CET)
Currently, electromagnetic and radar methods are the most common non-destructive tests for non-destructive rebar location in structures.. Both methods have some advantages, disadvantages and limitations. This article is an attempt to describe possibilities of particular methods with emphasizing their advantages and limitations. The first stage of tests included results from tests conducted on a lintel beam made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and reinforced with small-diameter rebars and rebars placed close to each other. The second stage consisted in testing nine lightweight concrete specimens, each with three bars having a diameter of 10, 16 and 20 mm at three different space arrangements, to determine the effect of bar diameter and spacing on the measurement accuracy. The reinforcement of lintels and specimens was tested with two different electromagnetic scanners and a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) device. Received results from direct tests were compared with results from non-destructive tests (NDT). NDT tests conducted in such an element were found to perform the correct assessment of the concrete cover, and at the same time to give ambiguous results with reference to shape and number of rebars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0366.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Metering roundabout; Detector location; AIMSUN; Cucksoo search/Local search algorithm
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:41:42 CEST)
A metering roundabout where traffic is controlled by traffic lights with phase times influenced by queue detector occupancy might be the solution to enhance performance when there are unbalanced traffic flows at roundabouts. There have, however, been minimal studies on how the distance of the queue detector from the stop line affects signal phase time durations and the queuing lengths. This research, therefore, seeks to develop a Cuckoo Search/Local search Algorithm using parameters such as arrival volumes, conflicting volumes, detector distance and phase time to investigate the relationship of signal setting, detector location and queuing formulations. Also, some additional statistical tests were performed for the fitness of the data. In order to conduct solid model validations, model output data was compared against the AIMSUN model. The results from the analyses demonstrated that the queue detector distance can affect phase time durations and vehicle queuing lengths on the controlling approach as well as queuing lengths on the metered approach. This study showed that, based on the study for the Old Belair Road roundabout in Adelaide, South Australia, the total queue length (controlling + metered) will be minimized when the detector is relocated at 209 meters from the roundabout stop line, giving longer phase green times and resulting in decreased intersection queuing lengths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0227.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Location privacy; GDPR; European Union; inference; privacy cultures; African Union
Online: 25 February 2019 (14:33:17 CET)
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) protects the personal data of natural persons and at the same time allows the free movement of such data within the European Union (EU). Hailed as majestic by admirers and dismissed as protectionist by critics, the Regulation is expected to have a profound impact around the world, including in the African Union (AU). For European–African consortia conducting research that may affect the privacy of African citizens, the question is ‘how to protect personal data of data subjects while at the same time ensuring a just distribution of the benefits of a global digital ecosystem?’ We use location privacy as a point of departure, because information about an individual’s location is different from other kinds of personally identifiable information. We analyse privacy at two levels, individual and cultural. Our perspective is interdisciplinary: we draw from computer science to describe three scenarios of transformation of volunteered/observed information to inferred information about a natural person and from cultural theory to distinguish four privacy cultures emerging within the EU in the wake of GDPR. We highlight recent data protection legislation in the AU and discuss factors that may accelerate or inhibit the alignment of data protection legislation in the AU with the GDPR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: rice landscape; natural enemies; location; population dynamics; variography; LANDSAT 8
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:13:50 CEST)
Relationships among the population abundance of four predator groups for rice insect pests, namely: carabid beetles, staphylinid beetles, green mirid bugs, and spiders in three landscape categories were evaluated. Both rice plots and the associated bund margins of these rice plots found among three Bangladesh landscape categories were sampled by sweep net. The results revealed that the abundance significantly varied across landscapes. The rice landscape of one location harbored higher numbers of a specific predator than other location in other regions of Bangladesh. The results also showed a dependency on the width of the rice bund margins of the rice plots, where spiders populations increased with increased bund widths, but the population abundance of these predators did not depend on the diversity of the number of weed species found on the rice bund margins. The relative abundance of predator populations also significantly differed among the three landscapes, with the green mirid bug having the highest number among the four predators. This study indicates that predators of rice insect pests are highly landscape specific. In order to design integrated pest management systems for different Bangladeshi rice production locales, considerations unique to the characteristics of each locale are necessary. Preliminary efforts to apply variography analyses to the RED spectral band of LANDSAT 8 imagery from December 2016 are presented as first step toward learning a suite of methods which describe useful local characteristics affecting rice pest predators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0714.v1
Subject: Keywords: Location allocation problem; Cuckoo search algorithm; Automatic parking; MODM-based solution
Online: 30 November 2020 (10:53:26 CET)
Considering the significant advancements in autonomous vehicle technology, research in this field is of interest to researchers. To automatic parking, controlling steer angle, gas hatch, and brakes need to be learned. Due to the increase in the number of cars and road traffic, car parking space has decreased. Its main reason is information error. Because the driver does not receive the necessary information or receives it too late, he cannot take appropriate action against it. This paper uses two phases: the first phase, for goal coordination, was used genetic algorithms and the Cuckoo search algorithm was used to increase driver information from the surroundings. Using the Cuckoo search algorithm and considering the limitations, it increases the driver’s level of information from the environment. Also, by exchanging information through the application, it enables the information to reach the driver much more quickly and the driver reacts appropriately at the right time. The suggested protocol is called the MODM-based solution. Here, the technique is assessed through extensive simulations performed in the NS-3 environment. Based on the simulation outcomes, it is indicated that the parking system performance metrics are enhanced based on the detection rate, false-negative rate, and false-positive rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0193.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: location-based services; Vehicle-to-Everything(V2X); publish-subscribe; application protocol
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:43:11 CET)
Location-Based Services (LBS) have been widely deployed for the connected vehicle (CV) applications such as vehicle navigation,vehicle tracking and location-based augmented reality. The current LBS deployments have limitations in supporting time-critical CV use cases, including vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-people (V2P) safety applications. The paper presents the new LBS framework based on the publish-subscribe communication paradigm, to enable device-to-device (D2D) connections through use of selected application protocols in the application layer of the TCP/IP layered protocol model. Two publish-subscribe application protocols, Distributed Data Service (DDS) real-time publish and subscribe (DDS-RTPS) and Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), are introduced to support the LBS D2D applications. A number of test scenarios with Mosquitto MQTT and OpenDDS under 4G-mobile broadband (MBB) services are designed to assess the transmit/receive round-trip time (RTT) and packet-loss rate (PLR) with settings of a publisher to multiple subscribers, to simulate the connections to multiple vehicles. The transmission frequency is set for 10 Hz and the message sizes vary from 100 to 2000 Bytes. The PLRs are defined as the percentages of the delayed messages beyond a delay limit. Static test results with OpenDDS show that for the RTT delay beyond the limit of 100 ms, the total PLRs range between 5.25% and 8.76% for the message size of 50 to 2000 Bytes. Vehicle testing results with Mosquitto show that PLRs for the RTT delays between 200 ms and 1000 ms are 0.63%, 3.58% and 5.77%, for connections with 1, 4 and 10 vehicles, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the D2D LBS framework for medium-demanding CV safety applications such as V2P and V2I use cases, taking advantages of the 4G-MBB services and 5G extreme mobile broadband (eMBB) services and mobile devices generally available with all road users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0349.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Comparative Literature Keywords: garden of Eden; attempts at location; history of biblical exegesis; narrative strategies.
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:50:18 CEST)
A close analysis of the text of Gen. 2:8-15, pertaining to the garden of Eden, shows the structural differences between said text and others from ancient mythologies that mention or describe a paradise. Likewise, that analysis suggests that the data provided by the Bible to locate paradise is merely a narrative device meant to dissipate all doubts as to the existence of the garden where God put human beings. Similarly to other spaces that appear in the Bible, the garden of Eden is but an impossible place. Throughout the centuries, however, recurring proposals have been made that aim to find paradise. As time went by, those proposals were progressively modified by the intellectual ideas dominant at any given era, thus leading the representations of the location of Paradise further and further away from the information provided by the biblical text.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Rebar location, FRP reinforcement, NDT Methods, GPR Testing, Ultrasonic Testing, Electromagnetic Testing
Online: 3 January 2019 (13:10:29 CET)
An increasing use of non-metallic reinforcement is problematic as it has to be detected at the stage of accepting construction works, or later when expert opinions are prepared for the building. In contrast to metallic reinforcement, location of this type of reinforcement is difficult using non-destructive techniques. Small diameters of rebars and their location in a tested element were troublesome. This article describes an attempt to locate non-metallic reinforcement in a concrete element and the masonry. Tests were performed using an ultrasonic tomograph and GPR with a broad range of frequencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0682.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Indoor Location, Mobile App, Building Information Models, BLE, Beacon, Path Finding, A*.
Online: 29 October 2018 (12:38:10 CET)
This research work uses a simplified approach to combine location information from beacons propagation signal interaction with a mobile device with local building information to give real-time location and guidance to a user inside a building. This is an interactive process with visualisation information that can help user’s orientation inside unknown buildings and the data stored from different users can provide useful information about users movements inside a public building. Beacons installed on the building at specific pre-defined position emit signals that give a geographic position with an associated imprecision, related with Bluetooth’s range. This uncertainty is handled by building layout and users’ movement in a developed system that maps users’ position, gives guidance and store user movements. This system is based on an App (Find Me!) for Android OS (Operating System) which captures the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signal coming from the beacon(s) and shows, through a map, the location of the user ‘s smartphone and guide him to the desired destination. Also, the beacons can deliver relevant context information. The application was tested by a panel of new and habitual campus users against traditional wayfinding alternatives yielding navigation times about 30% smaller, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0439.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Index Terms—Distributed Generation; protection coordination; optimal DG location; optimal DG sizing
Online: 12 October 2018 (12:52:59 CEST)
The radial distribution networks are designed for unidirectional power flows and are passive in nature. However, with the penetration of Distributed Generation (DG), the power flow becomes bidirectional and the network becomes active. The integration of DGs into distribution network creates many issues with: system stability, protection coordination, power quality, islanding, proper placement and sizing etc. Among these issues, the two most significant are optimal sizing and placement of DGs and their protection coordination in utility network. The proper coordination of relays with high penetration of DGs placed at optimal location increases the availability and reliability of the network during abnormal operating conditions.This research addresses most of the available methods for efficient sizing and placement of DGs in distribution system (numerical, analytical and heuristic) as well as the developed protection coordination techniques for utility networks in the presence of DGs (Artificial Intelligence (AI), adaptive and non-adaptive, multi-agent, hybrid). This paper indicates the possible research gaps and highlights the applications possibilities and methods’ limitations in the area of DGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: location-aware; cooperative anti-jamming; Markov decision process; Markove game; reinforcement learning
Online: 13 September 2018 (03:26:04 CEST)
This paper investigates the cooperative anti-jamming distributed channel selection problem in UAV communication networks. Considering the existence of malicious jamming and co-channel interference, a location-aware cooperative anti-jamming scheme is designed for the purpose of maximizing the users' utilities. Users in the UAV group cooperate with each other via location information sharing. When the received interference energy is lower than mutual interference threshold, users conduct channel selection strategies independently. Otherwise, users take joint actions with a cooperative anti-jamming pattern under the impact of mutual interference. Aimed at the independent anti-jamming channel selection problem under no mutual interference, a Markov Decision Process framework is introduced, whereas for the cooperative anti-jamming channel selection case under the influence of co-channel mutual interference, a Markov game framework is employed. Furthermore, motivated by reinforcement learning with a ``Cooperation-Decision-Feedback-Adjustment" idea, we design a location-aware cooperative anti-jamming distributed channel selection algorithm (LCADCSA) to obtain the optimal anti-jamming channel strategies for the users with a distributed way. In addition, the channel switching cost and cooperation cost, which have great impact on the users' utilities, are introduced. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed algorithm converges to a stable solution with which the UAV group can avoid the malicious jamming as well as co-channel interference effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0346.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: artificial immune system; cellular networks; personal communication system; location management; mobility management
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:02:14 CEST)
In this paper, we are proposing a bio-inspired location management (LM) technique for personal communication system (PSC). It is based on artificial immune system (AIS), with self-adaptation and self-updates attributes in order to perform the location management, and work helps to achieve the better quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) for the mobile users. Here, we are suggesting a modified mobile switching center (MSC) architecture, and an adaptive self-modified location management procedure. The proposed mobile switching centre architecture has an advantage of rule-based and fact-based system to store the rules and fact related to location management procedure, and it shows the intelligent behavior of system. The mobile switching centre calculates the best method for location management and rule-base system trigged the rules to perform the techniques. The system stores the result (techniques for location management) in fact-base system for future use. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed techniques been analyzed, and it observed that the proposed system has 45-50% improvement in performance over the current location management techniques. Here, we are taking the performance parameters such as signaling cost, database update cost, overhead measurement, mobility management cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: geographical location; relief; climate; hydrographic; biological; comfort; grid index; 9 assessment; tourist route
Online: 13 September 2022 (13:39:08 CEST)
The article describes the methodology of the experimental analysis of operational and cost-effective assessment using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, as opposed to the assessment of the tourism potential of the nature of the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan using long term and costly classical approaches. Based on the ArcGIS (10.8) grid index approach of 20 natural geographical indicators of the valley, such as geographical location, relief, climate, hydrographic and biological, the level of tourism comfort was determined and the location of 6 tourist-recreation zones were defined. The level of accuracy of the tourist-recreational zones all situated utilizing GIS technologies was confirmed by field-expedition approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0307.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: randomly moving particles; effects of location aggregation; relaxed galaxy clusters; generalized diffusion equation
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:32:15 CEST)
Prior studies have focused on the overall behavior of randomly moving particle swarms. However, the characteristics of ubiquitous special particle swarms that form in these swarms remain unknown. This study demonstrates a generalized diffusion equation for randomly moving particles that considers the velocity and location aggregation effects in a special circumstance (that is, in a moving reference frame Ru relative to a stationary reference frame R0). This equation can be approximated as the Schrodinger equation in the microcosmic case and describes the kinetics of the total mass distribution in the macrocosmic case. The predicted density distribution of the particle swarm in the stable aggregation state is consistent with the total mass distribution of massive, relaxed galaxy clusters (at least in the range of r < rs), preventing cuspy problems in the empirical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. This article is helpful for inspiring people to think about the essence of universal gravitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0670.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: proteomics; peptide location fingerprinting; extracellular matrix; biomarkers; ageing; intervertebral disc; spine; mass spectrometry
Online: 29 July 2021 (15:46:49 CEST)
In ageing tissues, long-lived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are susceptible to the accumulation of structural damage due to diverse mechanisms including glycation, oxidation and protease cleavage. Peptide location fingerprinting (PLF) is a new mass spectrometry (MS) analysis technique capable of identifying proteins exhibiting structural differences in complex proteomes. PLF applied to published young and aged intervertebral disc (IVD) MS datasets (posterior, lateral and anterior regions of the annulus fibrosus), identified 268 proteins with age-related structural differences. For several ECM assemblies (collagens I, II and V and aggrecan), these differences were markedly conserved between degeneration-prone (posterior and lateral) and resistant (anterior) regions. Significant differences in peptide yields, observed within collagen I, II and V α-chains (COL1A2, COL2A1, COL5A1), were located within their triple helical regions and/or cleaved C-terminal propeptides, indicating potential accumulation of damage and impaired maintenance in ageing. Several proteins (COL5A1, COL2A1 and aggrecan) also exhibited tissue region (lateral)-specific differences in structure between aged and young, suggesting that some ageing mechanisms may act locally within tissues. This study not only provides evidence of age-related changes in ECM protein structures which are tissue-region specific, but also highlights the ability of PLF to identify potential protein biomarkers of localised tissue remodelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: WiFi sounder; CSI; MIMO; indoor location estimation; array signal processing; machine learning; SVM
Online: 17 March 2021 (10:57:38 CET)
In recent years, since the propagation channel characteristics have been effectively used for applications such as motion sensing, position detection, etc. A great deal of attention is attracted to channel sounding methods easy to utilize using low-cost devices. This paper presents a device-free indoor location estimation method using spatio-temporal features of radio propagation channels using the 2.4-GHz band 3-by-3 MIMO channel sounder developed using commodity wireless LANs. The measurement results demonstrated a reasonable performance of the proposed method with small number of antennas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: fault location; service restoration; particle swam optimization; microgrid; power flow; short-circuit fault
Online: 12 September 2019 (03:59:27 CEST)
This work aims to develop an integrated fault location and restoration approach for microgrids (MGs). This work contains two parts. Part I presents the fault location algorithm, and Part II shows the restoration algorithm. The proposed algorithms are implemented by particle swarm optimization (PSO). The fault location algorithm is based on network connection matrices, which are the modifications of bus-injection to branch-current and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices, to form the new system topology. The backward/forward sweep approach is used for the prefault power flow analysis. After the occurrence of fault, the voltage variation at each bus is calculated by using the Zbus modification algorithm to modify Zbus. Subsequently, the voltage error matrix is computed to search for the fault section by using PSO. After the allocation of the fault section, the multi-objective function is implemented by PSO for optimal restoration with its constraints. Finally, the IEEE 37-bus test system connected to distributed generations is utilized as the sample system for a series simulation and analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the proposed optimal algorithm can effectively solve the fault location and restoration problem in MGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0431.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: cell phone indoor positioning; scene recognition; building map; map location anchor; YOLOv5; geocoding matching
Online: 28 January 2022 (08:55:08 CET)
At present, indoor localization is one of the core technologies of location-based services (LBS), and there exist numerous scenario-oriented application solutions. Visual features, as the main semantic information to help people understand the environment and thus occupy the dominant part, many techniques about indoor scene recognition are widely adopted. However, the engineering application problem of cell phone indoor scene recognition and localization has not been well solved due to insufficient semantic constraint information of building map and the immaturity of building map location anchors (MLA) matching positioning technology. To address the above problems, this paper proposes a cell phone indoor scene recognition and localization method with building map semantic constraints. Firstly, we build a library of geocoded entities for building map location anchors (MLA), which can provide users with "immersive" real-world building maps on the one hand and semantic anchor point constraints for cell phone positioning on the other. Secondly, using the improved YOLOv5s deep learning model carried on the mobile terminal, we recognize the universal map location anchors (MLA) elements in building scenes by cell phone camera video in real-time. Lastly, the spatial location of the scene elements obtained from the cell phone video recognition is matched with the building MLA to achieve real-time positioning and navigation. The experimental results show that the model recognition accuracy of this method is above 97.2%, and the maximum localization error is within the range of 0.775 m, and minimized to 0.5 m after applying the BIMPN road network walking node constraint, which can effectively achieve high positioning accuracy in the building scenes with rich MLA element information. In addition, the building map location anchors (MLA) has universal characteristics, and the positioning algorithm based on scene element recognition is compatible with the extension of indoor map data types, so this method has good prospects for engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: weighted dissimilarity measure; feature-based indoor positioning; signals of opportunity; location-dependent standard deviation
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:37:55 CEST)
We propose an iterative scheme for feature-based positioning using a new weighted dissimilarity measure with the goal of reducing the impact of large errors among the measured or modeled features. The weights are computed from the location-dependent standard deviations of the features and stored as part of the reference fingerprint map (RFM). Spatial filtering and kernel smoothing of the kinematically collected raw data allow efficiently estimating the standard deviations during RFM generation. In the positioning stage, the weights control the contribution of each feature to the dissimilarity measure, which in turn quantifies the difference between the set of online measured features and the fingerprints stored in the RFM. Features with little variability contribute more to the estimated position than features with high variability. Iterations are necessary because the variability depends on the location, and the location is initially unknown when estimating the position. Using real WiFi signal strength data from extended test measurements with ground truth in an office building, we show that the standard deviations of these features vary considerably within the region of interest and are neither simple functions of the signal strength nor of the distances from the corresponding access points. This is the motivation to include the empirical standard deviations in the RFM. We then analyze the deviations of the estimated positions with and without the location-dependent weighting. In the present example the maximum radial positioning error from ground truth are reduced by 40% comparing to kNN without the weighted dissimilarity measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0326.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: clustering-based optimization; location optimization; flood-filling algorithm; marine accident; rescue ship; shortest distance
Online: 15 October 2018 (16:53:32 CEST)
Currently, maritime traffic is increasing with economic growth in several regions worldwide. However, this growth in maritime traffic has led to increased risk of marine accidents. These accidents have a higher probability of occurring in regions where geographical features, such as islands, are present. Further, the positioning of rescue ships in a particular ocean region with a high level of maritime activity is critical for rescue operations. This paper proposes a method for determining an optimal set of locations for stationing rescue ships in an ocean region with numerous accident sites in the Wando islands of South Korea. The computational challenge in this problem is identified as the positioning of numerous islands of varying sizes located in the region. Thus, the proposed method combines a clustering-based optimization method and an image processing approach that incorporates flood filling to calculate the shortest distance between two points in the ocean that detours around the islands. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method reduces the distance from rescue ships and each accident site by 5.0 km compared to the original rescue ship locations. Thus, rescue time is reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEAWAT; multi-criteria decision-making; seawater intrusion; recharge pond; control groundwater use; location prioritization
Online: 30 March 2018 (08:53:05 CEST)
Coastal areas are increasingly being damaged with the expansion of seawater intrusion areas. We suggest a three-step method for reducing seawater intrusion areas by predicting future damage to groundwater being used continuously. First, the area most vulnerable to seawater intrusion damage is selected from among 25 areas on the west coast of the Republic of Korea. Having identified the Taean area as the region in question in the second step, we use RCP 4.5 and 8.5 as future sea level rise scenarios and predict the future usage of groundwater using linear-regression analysis of data for the past 10 years. Consequently, for RCP 8.5 (groundwater-usage scenario 1.0), 68.5% of the total Taean area is projected to be influenced by seawater intrusion. In the third step, the effectiveness of seawater intrusion reduction measures is analyzed considering the projected future situation and the local characteristics of the Taean area. After considering the effects of alternative locations, as well as seawater intrusion related data, alternatives were prioritized using a multi-criteria decision-making method. Consequently, 3, 5, and 4 were prioritized in the listed order, and we judged that by applying seawater intrusion area reduction measures according to this result, we will achieve the biggest effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0075.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: image recognition bases location; indoor positioning; RGB-D images; LiDAR; DataBase; mobile computing; image retrieval
Online: 15 December 2016 (07:17:35 CET)
This paper describes the first results of an Image Recognition Based Location (IRBL) for mobile application focusing on the procedure to generate a Database of range images (RGB-D). In an indoor environment, to estimate the camera position and orientation, a prior spatial knowledge of the surrounding is needed. In order to achieve this objective a complete 3D survey of two different environment (Bangbae metro station of Seoul and E.T.R.I. building in Daejeon – Republic of Korea) was performed using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) instrument and the obtained scans were processed in order to obtain a spatial model of the environments. From this, two databases of reference images were generated using a specific software realized by the Geomatics group of Politecnico di Torino (ScanToRGBDImage). This tool allow to generate synthetically different RGB-D images) centered in the each scan position in the environment. Later, the external parameters (X, Y, Z, ω, φ, κ) and the range information extracted from the DB images retrieved, are used as reference information for pose estimation of a set of acquired mobile pictures in the IRBL procedure. In this paper the survey operations, the approach for generating the RGB-D images and the IRB strategy are reported. Finally the analysis of the results and the validation test are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: qlity of the environment; spatial location conditions; air pollution research; the problem of city ventilation; spending of EU funds to improve the quality of the environment
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:34:01 CET)
The article discusses determinants of living environment in Central and Eastern Europe. As an example, the city of Radzionkow was chosen, with 16 thousand inhabitants, located in the Silesia agglomeration in southern Poland, in the area where hard coal has been mined for almost two hundred years, which largely serves as a source of heating for houses and flats. 360 buildings in 6 groups of 60 buildings were examined in the selected city, which allowed to distinguish 3 different areas in terms of the quality of the living environment depending on the technical condition of buildings, the method of heating and location. To a large extent, determinants are the existing spatial and geophysical conditions of a given location. Many research and reports on the living environment do not take into account the factors mentioned, focusing only on the statistical data of pollution, excluding spatial factors. In the research presented, the author, taking into account location variables, shows differences in the measurements of air pollution in relation to the designated location zones depending on the morphological structure of the building, the degree of its modernization and the types of heating used in buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0479.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Wearable Healthcare kit; Composite IoT sensors; Trauma Scoring; TRISS; Prediction of Survival PoS; NEWS; RTS; HL7 FHIR; SNOMED-CT; Location Aware Healthcare kit; GIS GPS Healthcare kit
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:44:00 CEST)
With the availability of wearable health monitoring sensor modules like 3-Lead Electrocardiogram (ECG), Pulse Oximeter (SpO2), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Hall effect sensor (for measuring Respiratory Rate), Blood Pressure and Temperature measuring and sensing elements, it has now become possible to device a composite health status monitoring kit that can measure vital signs and other physiological parameters pertaining to human health in real time. Traditionally, the physiological parameters along with vital signs related examination was possible only in a hospitalized or ambulatory environment, however due to advances in sensing and embedded system technology and miniaturization of data acquisition and processing elements health monitoring has become possible even when individuals remain engaged in their day to day activities at the convenience of space and location. The patients or individuals subject to monitoring may suffer from a traumatic experience due to their medical condition and may need emergent incidence response and the critical care team may have to prepare for the treatment only after the patient arrives, which often is too late, as in case of cardiac arrests or severe injuries. The research focused on real-time health status monitoring and trauma scoring using standard physiological parameters along with standard telemetry protocols to make the critical care team aware of an emergent situation and prepare for a medical emergency. Vital signs and physiological parameters (heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and blood pressure, SpO2) were measured in real time from human subjects non-invasively. In order to enable monitoring of the patients engaged in day to day activities, errors due to the motion were removed using stationary wavelet transform correction (correlation coefficient of 0.9 after correction) and signals from various sensors were denoised, filtered and were encoded in a format suitable for further data analysis. A composite sensor kit capable of monitoring vital signs and physiological parameters can be very useful in incident response when an individual undergoes a traumatic experience related to stroke, cardiac arrest, fits or even injury, as along with monitoring information the kit can calculate scores related to trauma like the Injury Severity Score (ISS), National Early Warning Signs (NEWS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS). Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS), Probability of Survival (Ps) score. An open access database of vital signs and physiological parameters from Physionet, MIMIC 2 Numerics (mimicdb/numerics) database was used to calculate NEWS and RTS and to generate correlation and regression models using the vital signs/physiological parameters for a clinical class of patients with respiratory failure and admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). NEWS and RTS scores showed no significant correlation (r = 0.25, p<0.001) amongst themselves, however together NEWS and RTS showed significant correlation with Ps (blunt) (r = 0.70, p<0.001). RTS and Ps (blunt) scores showed some correlation (r = 0.63, p<0.001) and NEWS score showed significant correlation (r = 0.79, p<0.001) with Ps (blunt) scores. Furthermore, since individuals have to be monitored regardless of location, these kits have to have a built-in capability to locate the individual so that the incident response team can locate the individual based on Global Positioning System coordinates (GPS). A Quantum GIS (Geographical Information System) application using real-time GPS coordinates (OpenStreetMap coordinates) was used to calculate the shortest path using QGIS Network Analysis tool to demonstrate the calculation of shortest path and direction to locate the nearest service provider in shortest time. Along with locating the nearest healthcare service provider, it would help if the critical care team could be made aware of the physiological parameters and trauma scores using standard protocols accepted across the globe. The physiological parameters from the sensors along with the calculated trauma scores were encoded according to a standard Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) coding system and International Code of Diseases (ICD) codes and the trauma information was logged to Electronic Health Records (EHR) using Fast Health Interoperability Resources (FHIR) servers. FHIR servers provided interoperable web services to log the event information in real time. It could be concluded that analytical models trained on existing datasets can help in analyzing a traumatic experience or an injury and the information can be logged using a standard telemetry protocol as a telemedicine initiative. These scores enable the healthcare service providers to estimate the extent of trauma and prepare for medical emergency procedures and find applications in general and military healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Airspace Reconfiguration; irregular boundary smoothing; dynamic Monte Carlo method by changing location of flexible vertices; Monte Carlo method by radius changing; Voronoi diagram; graph cutting; multi-objective optimization
Online: 25 July 2019 (10:22:38 CEST)
With the growth of air traffic demand in busy airspace, there is an urgent need for airspace sectorization to increase air traffic throughput and ease the pressure on controllers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method framework that can perform airspace sectorization automatically, reasonably, which can be used as an advisory tool for controllers as an automatic system, especially for eliminating irregular sector shapes generated by simulated annealing algorithm (SAA) based on region growth method. Two graph cutting method, dynamic Monte Carlo method by changing location of flexible vertices (MC-CLFV) and Monte Carlo method by radius changing (MC-RC) were developed to eliminating irregular sector shapes generated by SAA in post-processing. The experimental results show that the proposed method framework of AS can automatically and reasonably generate sector design schemes that meet the design criteria. Our methodology framework and software can provide assistant design and analysis tools for airspace planners to design airspace, improve the reliability and efficiency of airspace design, and reduce the burden of airspace planners. In addition, this lays the foundation for reconstructing airspace with more intelligent method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor location; fine time measurement; round trip time; FTM; RTT; IEEE 802.11mc; IEEE 802.11-2016; time diversity; spatial diversity; bandwidth diversity; frequency diversity; Bayesian grid; observation model; transition model
Online: 8 January 2020 (04:18:02 CET)
Determination of indoor location based on fine time measurement (FTM) of the round trip time (RTT) of a signal between an initiator (smartphone) and a responder (Wi-Fi access point) enables a number of applications. However, the accuracy currently attainable — standard deviations of 1–2 meter in distance measurement under favorable circumstances — limits the range of possible application. A first responder, for example, may not be able to unequivocally determine on which floor someone in need of help is in a multi-story building. The error in location depends on several factors, including the bandwidth of the RF signal, delay of the signal due to the high relative permittivity of construction materials, and the geometry-dependent “noise gain” of location determination. Errors in distance measurements have unusual properties that are exposed here for the first time. Improvements in accuracy depend on understanding all of these error sources. This paper introduces “frequency diversity,” a method for doubling the accuracy of indoor location determination using weighted averages of measurements with uncorrelated errors obtained in different channels. The properties of this method are verified experimentally with a range of responders. Finally, different ways of using the distance measurements to determine indoor location are discussed and the Bayesian grid update method shown to be more useful than others, given the non- Gaussian nature of the measurement errors.