ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0993.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy; Gene sequencing; Whole transcriptome profiles; Septic animal models; Cecal ligation and puncture; Lipopolysaccharide
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:36:05 CEST)
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, with septic cardiomyopathy being a common and severe complication. Despite its significant clinical impact, the molecular mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) remain incompletely understood. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of whole transcriptome profiles in two widely used mouse models of septic cardiomyopathy, the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model. Our aim was to identify key genes and pathways involved in the development of septic cardiomyopathy and to evaluate the similarities and differences between the two models. Our findings suggested that 1) both methods can induce septic heart dysfunction within 24 hours; 2) distinct whole transcriptome expression profiles are revealed; 3) potentially different pathways are involved in causing heart failure in sepsis. The comprehensive comparison provides valuable insights into the molecular basis of septic cardiomyopathy and contributes to the ongoing search for effective treatment strategies, triggered by different factors for SICM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1512.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cannabidiol; delta-9-hydrocannabinol; CBD; THC; THP-1 macrophages; Cannabis sativa; inflammation; lipopolysaccharide
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:00:01 CEST)
Inflammation is the response of the innate immune system to any type of injury. Although acute inflammation is critical for survival, dysregulation of innate immune response leads to chronic in-flammation. Many synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs have side effects, and thus, natural an-ti-inflammatory compounds are still needed. Cannabis sativa L. may provide a good source of in-flammation-reducing molecules. Here, we tested the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis ex-tracts and pure cannabinoids in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in human THP-1 macrophages. We found that pre-treatment with cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or extracts containing high levels of CBD or THC reduce the level of induction of various cytokines. The CBD was more efficient than THC, and the extracts were more efficient than pure cannabinoids. Finally, IL-6, IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were most sensitive to pre-treatments with CBD and THC, while IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α were less responsive. Thus, our work demonstrates the potential of use of cannabinoids or/and cannabis extracts for the reduction of inflammation and establishes IL-6 and MCP-1 as the sensitive markers for the analysis of the effect of cannabinoids on inflammation in macrophages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: apoptosis; gynecologic cancer; lipopolysaccharide; proliferation; Toll-like receptor
Online: 20 December 2016 (11:12:07 CET)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a member of the TLR family. Members of the TLR family play an important role in innate immune responses and are induced by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. They are also involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in cancer. We investigated the role of TLR4 in apoptotic cell death in gynecological cancer cells; gynecological cancer is associated with infertility and spontaneous abortion. To examine the effect of TLR4 activation on apoptotic signaling in cancer cells, cultured primary cancer cells were treated with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The morphology of cancer cells was compared with normal myometrial cells. Enhanced growth rate and loss of contact inhibition with cellular overlap was observed in the cancer cells. The molecular mechanism analysis revealed differential expression of tumor suppressor genes in LPS-treated cancer cells. The expression of apoptosis-related caspase-3 was increased significantly in cancer cells with TLR4 activation after exposure to LPS. Taken together, these results suggest the pro-apoptotic activity of TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gynecological cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0426.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Ginsenoside Rh2; Lipopolysaccharide; Acute lung injury; MEK; Nrf-2;
Online: 23 July 2018 (13:05:06 CEST)
The anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is one of the most important ginsenosides. The purpose of this study is to identify the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GRh2 after LPS challenge lung injury animal model. GRh2 reduced LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 productions in lung tissues. GRh2 treatment decreased the histological alterations in the lung tissues and BALF protein content and total cells number also diminished in LPS-induced lung injury mice. Moreover, GRh2 blocked iNOS, COX-2, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK, JNK, p38, Raf-1 and MEK protein expression which is corresponded to the growth of HO-1, Nrf-2, catalase, SOD and GPx expressions in LPS-induce lung injury. An experimental study has suggested that GRh2 has provided with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment lung diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0289.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; Cyclosporin A; pro-inflammatory cytokines; anti-inflammatory cytokines; rabbit
Online: 13 November 2018 (03:47:12 CET)
In this study, we evaluated the effects of Cyclosporine A (CsA) on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production in the genital tract of female rabbits. Twelve sexually mature and healthy female rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (n = 3 each). The rabbits in the LPS group were given an intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli LPS (4 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Rabbits in the CsA group were given CsA (20 mg/kg BW). Rabbits in the LPS + CsA group were given LPS (4 mg/kg BW) and CsA (20 mg/kg BW). The control group received only LPS and CsA carrier. The gene expression and protein levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed using qRT-PCR and immuno-histochemical (IHC) assay, respectively. Our study showed that IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-β were expressed in female genital organs. The LPS challenge increased the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in the uterine body and IL-1β in the uterotubal junction compared to the control group. CsA increased the basal mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 in the uterine body, uterotubal junction, and oviductal ampulla; IL-10 in the cervix, oviductal isthmus, and ampulla; and TGF-β in the uterotubal junction and oviductal ampulla) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6 and IL-8 in the cervix; IL-1β in the oviductal isthmus; TNF-α in the oviductal ampulla; and IFN-γ in the uterine body compared to the control group). In addition, CsA inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 in the uterine body, uterotubal junction, and oviductal isthmus; TNF-α in the uterine body; and IFN-γ in the uterotubal junction and oviductal isthmus induced by the LPS challenge. The IHC assay showed the LPS-induced increase in protein production of IL-6 in the uterine body and oviductal isthmus. CsA increased the protein production of IL-10 in the cervix, uterine body, oviductal ampulla, and isthmus. Moreover, CsA decreased the protein production of IL-6 in the uterine body and oviductal isthmus induced by LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0085.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: microglia; cyanobacterium; Scytonema; lipopolysaccharide; cytokine; chemokine; superoxide; MMP-9; rat
Online: 10 January 2018 (08:52:56 CET)
Cosmopolitan Gram-negative cyanobacteria may affect human and animal health by contaminating terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments with toxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cyanobacterial genus Scytonema (S) produces several toxins, but to our knowledge the bioactivity of genus Scytonema LPS has not been investigated. We recently reported that cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of rat microglia in vitro . Thus, we hypothesized that treatment of brain microglia in vitro with either cyanobacteria S. javanicum or S. ocellatum LPS might stimulate classical and alternative activation with concomitant release of superoxide anion (O2−), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and cytokines and chemokines. Microglia were isolated from neonatal rats and treated in vitro with either S. javanicum LPS, S. ocellatum LPS, or E. coli LPS (positive control) in a concentration-dependent manner for 18 hours at 35.9 °C. We observed that treatment of microglia with either E. coli LPS, S. javanicum or S. ocellatum LPS generated statistically significant and concentration-dependent O2−, MMP-9 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, pro-inflammatory chemokines MIP-2/CXCL-2, CINC-1/CXCL-1 and MIP-1α/CCL3, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Thus, our results provide experimental support for our working hypothesis because both S. javanicum and S. ocellatum LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of microglia and concomitant release of O2-, MMP-9 and cytokines and chemokines in a concentration-dependent manner. To our knowledge this is the first report on the toxicity of cyanobacteria S. javanicum and S. ocellatum LPS to microglia, an immune cell type involved in neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the central nervous system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; minocycline; memantine; medial prefrontal cortex; locomotor deficit; anxiety-like behaviour
Online: 31 August 2022 (13:37:35 CEST)
Introduction: Neuroinflammation following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration induces locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior. In this study, minocycline was compared to memantine, the NMDA receptor antagonist, for its effects on LPS-induced locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats. Methodology: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were administered either two different doses of minocycline (25 or 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or 10 mg/kg/day of memantine (i.p.) for 14 days four days prior to LPS (5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. The locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were assessed using the open field test (OFT). The phosphorylated tau protein level was measured using ELISA while the expression and density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) protein in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were measured using immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. Results: In the mPFC, minocycline treatment reduced the locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior, reduced phosphorylated tau protein level, and upregulated BDNF/CREB protein expression comparable to memantine, with the higher dose of minocycline having better benefits. Conclusion: Minocycline treatment attenuated LPS-induced locomotor deficit and anxiety-like behavior in rats, possibly via a decrease in phosphorylated tau protein levels and an increase in the expression of the BDNF/CREB proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Kidney; hypertonicity; osmotic stress; lipocalin-2; lipocalin-2 receptor; lipopolysaccharide; TonEBP; CREB
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:24:49 CEST)
The rodent collecting duct (CD) expresses a 24p3/NGAL/lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) receptor (Slc22a17) apically to possibly mediate high-affinity reabsorption of filtered proteins by endocytosis, yet its functions remain uncertain. Recently, we showed that hyperosmolarity/-tonicity upregulates Slc22a17 in cultured mouse inner medullary CD cells, whereas activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) via bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) downregulates Slc22a17. This is similar to the upregulation of Aqp2 by hyperosmolarity/-tonicity and arginine vasopressin (AVP) and downregulation by TLR4 signaling that occur via the transcription factors Nfat5 (TonEBP or OREBP), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor-kappa B, respectively. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of osmolarity/tonicity via Nfat5, AVP via CREB and TLR4 signaling on the expression of Slc22a17 and its ligand Lcn2 in the mouse (m) cortical collecting duct cell line mCCD(cl.1). Normosmolarity/-tonicity was 300 mosmol/l whereas addition of 50-100 mmol/l NaCl for up to 72 h induced hyperosmolarity/-tonicity (400-500 mosmol/l). RT-PCR, qPCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy detected Slc22a17 and Lcn2 expression. RNAi silenced Nfat5, and the pharmacological agent 666-15 blocked CREB. Activation of TLR4 occurred with LPS. Similar to Aqp2, hyperosmotic/-tonic media and AVP upregulated Slc22a17 via activation of Nfat5 and CREB, respectively, and LPS/TLR4 signaling downregulated Slc22a17. Conversely, though Nfat5 mediated hyperosmolarity/-tonicity induced downregulation of Lcn2 expression, AVP reduced Lcn2 expression and predominantly apical Lcn2 secretion evoked by LPS, but through a posttranslational mode of action that was independent of cAMP signaling. In conclusion, the hyperosmotic/-tonic upregulation of Slc22a17 in mCCD(cl.1) cells via Nfat5 and by AVP via CREB suggests a contribution of Slc22a17 to adaptive osmotolerance, whereas Lcn2 downregulation could counteract increased proliferation and permanent damage of osmotically stressed cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes; angiotensinogen; nuclear factor-kappa B; lipopolysaccharide; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:28:00 CEST)
Central adiposity is one of the significant determinants of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the abdominal fat depot's pathogenic inflammatory nature. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines up-regulation through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in adipose tissue has been considered an essential function in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. This study aimed to ascertain the NF-κB inhibitor (SN50) effect on TNF-α and angiotensinogen (AGT) secretion and expression in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect through its impact on NF-κB activity in humans adipose tissue. Primary human adipocytes were isolated from 20 subjects among 10 overweight and 10 obese with and without hypertension and treated with 10ng/ml LPS in the presence and absence of NF-κB inhibitor, SN50 (50μg/ml). TNF-α secretion and NF-κB p65 activity were detected in supernatants extracted from cultured cells treated and untreated with LPS (10ng/ml) and SN50 (50μg/ml) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The western blot technique detected the protein of NF-κB p65 and AGT. Gene expression of TNF-α and AGT was detected in cells and performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with LPS (10ng/ml) caused a significant increase in NF-κB p65 among overweight and obese subjects with and without hypertension (P= 0.001) at 24 hours incubation. In contrast, SN50-NF-κB inhibitor causes a reduction of NF-κB p65 in overweight (P= <0.001) and obese subjects with and without hypertension (P= 0.001) at 24 hours incubation. Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with 10ng/ml LPS caused a significant increase in TNF-α secretion in overweight and obese subjects at all-time points (P= <0.001), whereas SN50 leads to a decrease in TNF-α secretion at 3 and 12 hours incubation. Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with LPS (10ng/ml) caused increased TNF-α and AGT gene expression twofold compared with untreated cells, whereas, in the presence of SN50, it reduces mRNA AGT levels in both groups. Taken together, these adipokines with NF-κB activation may represent essential biomarkers to evaluate hypertension risk and to provide insight into the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0231.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cyanotoxin; cyanobacterial bloom; cylindrospermopsin; microcystin; inflammation; diarrhea; gastrointestinal illness; lipopolysaccharide; innate immune system
Online: 26 March 2019 (09:31:44 CET)
Cyanobacterial blooms occur with increasing frequency in freshwater ecosystems, posing a hazard to human and environmental health. Exposure of human to cyanobacterial metabolites occurs mostly via accidental ingestion through contaminated drinking water or during recreational activities and, most frequently, results in gastrointestinal symptoms. Despite the clinical manifestation, cyanobacterial metabolites are rather investigated for their toxicity towards specific organs or tissues, especially hepato-, nephro- and neurotoxicity, then for effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the associated lymphoid tissue. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize available literature on the effects on the gastrointestinal tract and the mucosal innate immune system and compile the data from both, in vitro and in vivo studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies. studies, focusing on human-health relevant models. Our systematic literature review revealed significant data gaps in the understanding on metabolites breaching the gastrointestinal barrier and the role of the immune system in the establishment of clinical symptoms. Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin were linked to gastrointestinal symptoms, immune system effects or both. Furthermore, implications for cyanobacterial bloom lipopolysaccharides in gastrointestinal inflammation were reported in several cases, while other metabolites received only minor attention. The collected data indicate the need for a reassessment of potential enterotoxicity of microcystins and cylindrospermopsin. Additionally, the carcinogenic potential of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins, has to be clarified, as an increasing amount of epidemiological studies show correlations between cyanobacterial blooms and gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Furthermore, other, often highly abundant bioactive metabolites like aeruginosins, have to be toxicologically evaluated at levels also accounting for (sub-)chronic exposure to low concentrations and in combination with naturally co-occurring metabolites, as can be expected in drinking water supplies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Caco2/HT-29 cells; lipopolysaccharide(LPS); mucins; focal adhesion pathway; ECM receptor in-teraction pathway
Online: 8 April 2022 (14:04:17 CEST)
Endotoxins are toxic substances that widely exist in the environment and can enter the intestine with food and other substances. Intestinal epithelial cells are protected by a mucus layer that contains MUC2 as its main structural component. However, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the function of the mucus barrier in endotoxin penetration is lacking. Here, we established the most suitable proportion of Caco-2/HT-29 co-culture cells as a powerful tool to evaluate the intestinal mucus layer. Our findings significantly advance current knowledge as focal adhesion and ECM-receptor interaction were identified as the two most significantly implicated pathways in MUC2 small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfected Caco-2/HT-29 co-culture cells after 24 h of LPS stimulation. When the mucus layer was not intact, LPS was found to damage the tight junctions of Caco-2/HT29 co-cultured cells. Furthermore, LPS was demonstrated to inhibit the integrin-mediated focal adhesion structure and damage the matrix network structure of the extracellular and actin microfilament skeletons. Ultimately, LPS inhibited the interactive communication between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton for 24 h in the siMUC2 group compared with the LPS(+) and LPS(-) groups. Overall, we recognized the potential of MUC2 as a tool for barrier function in several intestinal bacterial diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs); dendritic cells (DCs); M1 macrophages; M2 macrophages; xenograft tumor; allograft tumor; lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
Online: 27 March 2018 (12:03:56 CEST)
Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) acquire functionally distinct properties in response to various environmental stimuli; the interaction of these cells with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor microenvironments regulates cancer progression. Immunodeficient mice lacking T cells are less likely to reject human cancer cells because of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatches. The xenograft tumor microenvironment, comprising human cancer and mouse host cells, exhibits more complex bidirectional signaling and function than a syngeneic tumor microenvironment. Here human and mouse colorectal cancer cells were transplanted into nude mice to elucidate differences in macrophage, DC, and MDSC functions in human xenograft and mouse allograft tumor models. Plasma interferon-γ and interleukin-18 concentrations in the former model after intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were significantly higher than those in the latter model and non-transplanted control group. Splenic MHC class I, II, and CD80 expression increased in CD11b+ and MDSC populations after LPS administration in only the xenograft tumor model. The number of CD80- and MRC1-expressing cells decreased upon LPS administration in only the xenograft tumor. These results suggxest that macrophages and DCs function normally in xenograft tumor models, whereas their functions in response to LPS administration vary in allograft tumor models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute lung injury; mycelium of Sanghuangporus sanghuang; lipopolysaccharide; KAP1/Nrf2 pathway; PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways; HO-1; HNGB1
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:15:30 CET)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1), believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit MPO activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit HNGB1 activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and Trx-1 in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KAP1/Nrf2/Keap1 pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced (ALI) in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: adult neurogenesis; dentate gyrus; diet; microglia; bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide; LPS; Omega 3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; sexual dimorphism; systemic inflammation
Online: 22 February 2022 (09:44:55 CET)
Maternal intake of the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 (n-3 PUFA) and omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) impacts hippocampal neurogenesis during development, an effect that may extend to adulthood by altering adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA are precursors of inflammatory regulators that potentially affect AHN and glia. Additionally, n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation may present a sexually dimorphic action in the brain. Therefore, we postulated that dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA balance shapes the adult DG in a sex-dependent manner influencing AHN and glia. We test our hypothesis by feeding adult female and male mice with n-3 PUFA balanced or deficient diets. To analyze the immunomodulatory potential of the diets, we injected mice with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS reduced neuroblast number, and its effect was exacerbated by the n-3 PUFA deficient diet. The n-3 PUFA deficient diet reduced the DG volume, AHN, microglia number and surveilled volume. Diet effect on most mature neuroblasts was exclusively significant in female mice. Colocalization and multivariate analysis revealed an association between microglia and AHN, and the sexual dimorphic effect of diet. Our study reveals that female mice are more susceptible than males to the effect of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on AHN and microglia.