ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0312.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: lipids; phospholipids; sphingolipids; triglycerides; FTIR; mass spectrometry; chemical contaminants
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:03:24 CEST)
Despite the increasing popularity of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based lipidomics, there is a lack of accepted and validated method for lipid extract quality and quantity assessment prior to LC-MS. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has been reported for quantification of pure lipids, however, the sample complexity and purity complex lipid extract quantification in lipidomics experiments could be impact quantification accuracy. Here, we report comprehensive assessment of the sample matrix on the accuracy of lipid quantification using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Pure lipids are characterized by CH-and C=O-stretching vibrations on FTIR, with quantitative range of 40–3000 ng and a limit of detection of 12 ng. Sample extraction method and local baseline subtraction during FTIR spectral processing significantly impact lipid quantification by CH-stretching. To facilitate sample quality screening, we developed the Lipid Quality (LiQ) score from a spectral library of common contaminants, using a ratio of peak heights between CH-stretching vibrations maxima and the collective vibrations from amide/amine, CH-stretching minima and sugar moieties. We evaluated LiQ score as a rapid sample quality control method by comparing to total LC-MS intensity of targeted lipidomics of 107 human plasma lipid extracts. Exclusion of poor-quality samples based on LiQ score improved the correlation between FTIR and LC-MS quantification. Finally, the uncertainty of absolute quantification by FTIR was estimated using a 795 ng SPLASH LipidoMix standard to be <10%. In summary, this study identified key parameters for accurate FTIR-based quantification of complex lipid mixture, and developed a rapid workflow requiring only 1 µL of MS-ready sample and < 5 minutes for routine lipidomics sample quality and quantity assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0090.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Laminaria hyperborean; lipids; fatty acids; GC-MS
Online: 21 October 2016 (08:59:13 CEST)
A thorough analysis and comparison of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from Laminaria hyperborea, a kelp species found in the northern Atlantic, is presented. Lipids were extracted and fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids and polar lipids, then derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters prior to GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. An n-6/n-3 ratio of 0.8:1 was found in blade and 3.5:1 in stipe, respectively. The ratios vary between the lipid fractions within stipe and blade, with the lowest ratio in the polar lipid fraction of blade. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe, and the highest amounts of n-3 fatty acids are found within the neutral lipid fractions. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids are 3.4 times higher in blade than stipe. This study highlights the compositional differences between the lipid fractions of stipe and blade from L. hyperborea. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, compared to saturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as the n-6/n-3-ratio, is known to influence human health. In the pharmaceutical, food, and feed industries this can be of importance for production and sale of different health products. Additionally, lipids are today among the unused by products of alginate production, exploiting this material for commercial interest should give both economical and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: glycine transporter; glycine receptor; analgesics; lipids
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:46:31 CET)
Reduced inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission is implicated in a number of neurological conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, epilepsy and hyperekplexia. Restoring glycinergic signalling may be an effective method of treating these pathologies. Glycine transporters (GlyTs) control synaptic and extra-synaptic glycine concentrations and slowing the reuptake of glycine using specific GlyT inhibitors will increase glycine extracellular concentrations and increase glycine receptor (GlyR) activation. Glycinergic neurotransmission can also be improved through positive allosteric modulation (PAM) of GlyRs. Despite efforts to manipulate this synapse, no therapeutics currently target it. We propose that dual action modulators of both GlyTs and GlyRs may show greater therapeutic potential than those targeting individual proteins. To show this, we have characterized a co-expression system in Xenopus laevis oocytes consisting of GlyT1 or GlyT2 co-expressed with GlyRα1. We use two electrode voltage clamp recording techniques to measure the impact of GlyTs on GlyRs and the effects of modulators of these proteins. We show that increases in GlyT density in close proximity to GlyRs diminish receptor currents. Reductions in GlyR mediated currents are not observed when non-transportable GlyR agonists are applied or when Na+ is not available. GlyTs reduce glycine concentrations across different concentration ranges, corresponding with their ion-coupling stoichiometry, and full receptor currents can be restored when GlyTs are blocked with selective inhibitors. We show that partial inhibition of GlyT2 and modest GlyRα1 potentiation using a dual action compound, is as useful in restoring GlyR currents as a full and potent single target GlyT2 inhibitor or single target GlyRα1 PAM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: lipids; regulation; microalgae; transcription factors
Online: 1 June 2022 (11:09:11 CEST)
Microalgae biomass is considered a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high productivity of neutral lipids, specially under abiotic stress conditions. Among the unicellular microalgae that show this characteristic, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii appears as one of the most important model species that have increased lipids production under abiotic stress conditions. In this study, we show that cells cultivated under mixotrophic condition supplemented with 0.1 M of NaCl rapidly raises their amount of neutral lipids in C. reinhardtii without reduction of their cellular growth rate, being therefore a promising condition for biomass towards bioenergy production. The nuclear proteome of these cells was investigated where we identified 323 proteins with an enrichment of almost 60% of nuclear proteins in the total dataset. We found 61 proteins differentially regulated upon salt treatment, including proteins annotated in functional categories related to translation and nucleosome assembly functions, among others. Additionally, we identified Transcription factor proteins (TFs) and analyzed their likely Transcription factors-binding regulatory elements identifying target genes related to lipids metabolism and kinase functions, indicating possible regulatory pathways of lipids biosynthesis. Together these data can help understand regulatory nuclear mechanisms leading to an increase of lipids in the first 24h of salt stress 0.1M NaCl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0264.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Metabolome; TCA; Lipids; e-cigarette; cigarette; biomarkers
Online: 9 April 2021 (14:30:42 CEST)
Metabolites are essential intermediate products in metabolism, and metabolism dysregulation indicates different types of diseases. Previous studies have shown that cigarette smoke dysregulated metabolites; however, limited information is available with electronic cigarette (E-cig) vaping. We hypothesized that E-cig vaping and cigarette smoking altered systemic metabolites, and we propose to understand the specific metabolic signature between E-cig users and cigarette smokers. Plasma from non-smoker controls, cigarette smokers, and e-cig users were collected, and metabolites were identified by UPLC–MS (Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer). Nicotine degradation was activated by e-cig vaping and cigarette smoking with increased concentrations of cotinine, cotinine N-oxide, (S)-nicotine, and (R)-6-hydroxynicotine. Additionly, we found significant decreased concentrations in metabolites associated with tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle pathways in e-cig users verses cigarette smokers, such as: D-glucose, (2R,3S)-2,3-dimethylmalate, (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate, O-phosphoethanolamine, malathion, D-threo-isocitrate, malic acid, and 4-acetamidobutanoic acid. Cigarette smoking significant up-regulated sphingolipid metabolites, such as D-sphingosine, ceramide, N-(octadecanoyl)-sphing-4-enine, N-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sphing-4-enine, and N-[(13Z)-docosenoyl]sphingosine, verses e-cig vaping. Overall, e-cig vaping dysregulated TCA cycle realted metabolites while cigarette smoking altered sphingolipid metabolites. Both e-cig and cigarette smoke increased nicotinic metabolites. Therefore, specific metabolic signature altered by e-cig vaping and cigarette smoking could serve as potential systemic biomarkers for early cardiopulmonary diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0485.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: aggression; cholesterol; impulsivity; lipids; neurobiology; suicide; suicidal behavior
Online: 31 May 2020 (17:44:27 CEST)
Previous incidental findings of an increase of suicidal risk among subjects with low cholesterol levels have drawn attention to the role of lipids in suicidal behavior. To date, multiple lines of evidence acquired from clinical studies have confirmed an association between low cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior, but the involvement of dimensional traits including impulsivity and aggression in this association remains elusive. In this narrative review, we aimed to address and synthesize the literature regarding the involvement of lipids in the neurobiology of suicidal behavior and its underlying psychological substrates, impulsivity and aggression. An electronic database search was performed using different combinations of relevant keywords. Both preclinical and clinical studies matching the scope of this article were reviewed and filtered through an inspection of the abstracts to recruit the most suitable articles that contributed essential and substantial findings to the literature. Although subject characteristics and study designs vary across studies, current research has demonstrated that impulsivity and aggression might have shared neurobiologic substrates involved in altered serotonergic neurotransmission. Despite the association between low serum lipid levels and suicidal behavior being well documented, the involvement of lipid subtypes in the pathophysiology of impulsive and aggressive traits remains elusive. Further work is warranted to recognize the roles of lipids in neuronal membrane functions and serotonin metabolism, promote a greater appreciation of identifying biomarkers that could be used to determine at-risk individuals, and develop potential interventions to disrupt the pathogenesis of behavioral phenotypes of suicide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0039.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Mixed-chain lipids; Neutron scattering; X-ray scattering; MD simulations
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:26:58 CEST)
We addressed the frequent occurrence of mixed-chain lipids in biological membranes and their impact on membrane structure by studying several chain-asymmetric phosphatidylcholines and the highly asymmetric milk sphingomyelin. Specifically, we report trans-membrane structures of the corresponding fluid lamellar phases using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, which were jointly analyzed in terms of a membrane composition-specific model, including a headgroup hydration shell. Focusing on terminal methyl groups at the bilayer center we found a linear relation between hydrocarbon chain length mismatch and the methyl-overlap for phosphatidylcholines, and a non-negligible impact of the glycerol backbone-tilting, letting the sn1-chain penetrate deeper into the opposing leaflet by half a CH2 group. That is, penetration-depth differences due to the ester-linked hydrocarbons at the glycerol backbone, reported previously for gel phase structures also extend to the physiological more relevant fluid phase, but are significantly reduced. Moreover, milk sphingomyelin was found to follow the same linear relationship suggesting a similar tilt of the sphingosine backbone. Complementary performed molecular dynamics simulations revealed that there is always a part of the lipid tails bending back, even if there is a high interdigitation with the opposing chains. This suggests that hydrocarbon chain interdigitation plays only a minor role in transbilayer coupling. For both cases of adaption to chain length mismatch, chain-asymmetry has a large impact on hydrocarbon chain ordering, inducing disorder in the longer of the two hydrocarbons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0254.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: siRNA; ionizable lipids; nanoparticles; in vivo; QSAR; machine learning
Online: 11 August 2021 (11:12:00 CEST)
In silico prediction of the in vivo efficacy of siRNA ionizable-lipid nanoparticles is desirable yet never achieved before. This study aims to computationally predict siRNA nanoparticles in vivo efficacy, which saves time and resources. A data set containing 120 entries was prepared by combining molecular descriptors of the ionizable lipids together with two nanoparticles formulation characteristics. Input descriptor combinations were selected by an evolutionary algorithm. Artificial neural networks, support vector machines and partial least squares regression were used for QSAR modeling. Depending on how the data set is split, two training sets and two external validation sets were prepared. Training and validation sets contained 90 and 30 entries respectively. The results showed the successful predictions of validation set log(dose) with R2val = 0.86 – 0.89 and 0.75 – 80 for validation sets one and two respectively. Artificial neural networks resulted in the best R2val for both validation sets. For predictions that have high bias, improvement of R2val from 0.47 to 0.96 was achieved by selecting the training set lipids lying within the applicability domain. In conclusion, in vivo performance of siRNA nanoparticles was successfully predicted by combining cheminformatics with machine learning techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: brain tumor; glioma; SPME; heterogeneity; lipids; chemical biopsy
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:13:07 CET)
The development of a fast and accurate intraoperative method that enables the differentiation and stratification of cancerous lesions is still a challenging problem in laboratory medicine. Therefore, it is important to find and optimize a simple and effective analytical method that enables the selection of distinctive metabolites. This study aims to assess the usefulness of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) probes as a sampling method for the lipidomic analysis of brain tumors. To this end, SPME was applied to sample brain tumors immediately after excision, followed by lipidomic analysis via liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The results showed that long fibers were a good option for extracting analytes from an entire lesion to obtain an average lipidomic profile. Moreover, significant differences between tumors of different histological origin were observed. In-depth investigation of the glioma samples revealed that malignancy grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status impact the lipidomic composition of the tumor, whereas 1p/19q co-deletion did not appear to alter the lipid profile. This first on-site lipidomic analysis of intact tumors proved that chemical biopsy with SPME is a promising tool for the simple and fast extraction of lipid markers in neurooncology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular risk; lipids; NMR spectroscopy; pulse wave velocity; retinal vessel diameters
Online: 22 June 2022 (03:37:53 CEST)
Lipoproteins are important cardiovascular (CV) risk biomarkers. This study aimed to investigate the associations of lipoprotein subclasses with micro- and macrovascular biomarkers to better understand how these subclasses relate to atherosclerotic CV diseases. One hundred fifty-eight serum samples from the EXAMIN AGE study, consisting of healthy individuals and CV risk patients, were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to quantify lipoprotein subclasses. Microvascular health was quantified by measuring retinal arteriolar and venular diameters. Macrovascular health was quantified by measuring carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Nineteen lipoprotein subclasses showed statistically significant associations with retinal vessel diameters and nine with PWV. These lipoprotein subclasses together explained up to 26% of variation (R2=0.26, F(29,121)=2.80, p<0.001) in micro- and 12% (R2=0.12, F(29,124)=1.70, p=0.025) of variation in macrovascular health. High-density (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as triglycerides together explained up to 13% (R2=0.13, F(3,143)=8.42, p<0.001) of micro and 8% (R2=0.08, F(3,145)=5.46, p=0.001) of macrovascular variation. Lipoprotein subclasses seem to reflect micro- and macrovascular end organ damage more precisely as compared to only measuring HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides. Further studies are needed to analyse how the additional quantification of lipoprotein subclasses can improve CV risk stratification and CV disease prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0449.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: green algae; biomass; fatty acids; Tetraselmis straiata; lipids; carotenoids; raceway ponds
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:09:56 CEST)
In the process of modernization and development, a human being always needed energy, which increased the dependency on the available sources of fossil fuel. Tetraselmis, a green algal genus belong to the order Chlorodendrales, are described by their strong green coloured chloroplast, flagellated cell bodies, and the occurrence of a pyrenoid within the chloroplast. In this study, four different strains of Tetraselmis species were successfully isolated from the saltpans Kovelong, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The isolated strains were cultured in the normal basal medium and their morphological features were subsequently studied. The species of Tetraselmis straiata (T. straiata) Butcher BBRR1 was confirmed using molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene analysis and its observed systematic position. Among the four different isolates, T. straiata Butcher BBRR1 recorded a highest biomass concentration of 0.58 ± 0.021 g L-1, 15% lipids, 19% proteins and 17% carbohydrates when it grown under laboratory condition. Whereas, in open raceway ponds, T. straiata BBRR1 produced 0.95 ± 0.06 g L-1 biomass, 19% lipids, 28% proteins and 21% carbohydrates in an modified CFTRI I medium. The fatty acids profile of T. straiata Butcher BBRR1showed the presence of 33.14 % Palmitic acid, 22.64% 11- Octadecenoic acid and 21.94% Heptadecanoic acid. Since T. straiata BBRR1 can be cultivated in open ponds without a major contaminations, this species can be used as novel biomass feedstock to produce biofuels. This study may suggest the potential of T. straiata BBRR1 for biofuel production and could compete the energy demand in the future. In addition, this species contains healthful components of carotenoids, lipids and proteins, all these may provide a health benefits beyond basic nutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0179.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Cyperus rotundus rhizomes; Diabetes; Lipids Profile; Hepatorenalprotective; Oxidative marker
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:11:59 CET)
Objective: The hypoglycemic, hepatorenalprotective, and antioxidant Activities of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes extract in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model were investigated in this work.Methods: 25 Male rats were divided into 5 groups: normal control, diabetic control, diabetic of C. rotundus (200 mg/kg b.w), diabetic of C. rotundus (400 mg/kg b.w), diabetic of glibenclamide (0.6mg/kg).Treatments were administered orally for 6 weeks.Results: A single injection of alloxan to rats (150mg/kg b.w) caused pathological alterations in all studied parameters and histological structure of the pancreas. On the other hand, results showed that oral administration of C. rotundus rhizomes extract in dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg caused significant reduction in glucose, HbA1C%, α-amylase level and plasma lactate together with significant elevation in serum insulin, serum pyruvate with an improvement in insulin resistance. In line with amelioration of the diabetic state, C. rotundus rhizomes extract improved of the liver and kidney functions, and oxidative marker levels. Moreover, the extract succeeded to reduce the elevated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and to elevate the reduced high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C) level of diabetic rats.Conclusion: The investigation data concluded that C. rotundus rhizomes extract could be used as alternative treatments as antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic, and agent as well as in liver and kidney protective in alloxan induced-diabetic rats. This may be related to the presence of saponin glycosides, polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids in the ethanolic extract of C. rotundus rhizomes, which was discovered by phytochemical screening in this study to be present in the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0324.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: lipids; cerebrospinal fluid, parkinson´s disease, mass-spectrometry, lipidomics
Online: 12 April 2021 (21:16:21 CEST)
Lipid metabolism is clearly associated to Parkinson´s disease (PD). Although lipid homeostasis has been widely studied in multiple animal and cellular models as well as in blood derived from PD individuals, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lipidomic profile in PD remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have characterized the CSF lipidomic imbalance between neurologically intact controls (n=10) and PD subjects (n=20). The combination of dual extraction with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-qToF-MS/MS) allowed to monitor 257 lipid species across all samples. Complementary multivariate and univariate data analysis pointed out that glycerolipids (mono-, di-, and triacylglycerides), saturated and mono/polyunsaturated fatty acids, primary fatty amides, glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines), sphingolipids (ceramides, sphingomyelins), N-acylethanolamines and sterol lipids (cholesteryl esters, steroids) were significantly increased in the CSF of PD compared to control group. These results, despite the limitation of being obtained in a small population, demonstrate and extensive CSF lipid remodelling in PD, shedding new light on the deployment of CSF lipidomics as a promising tool to identify potential lipid markers as well as discriminatory lipid species between PD and other atypical parkinsonisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0449.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: oleaginous microorganisms; microbial lipids; lignocellulose pretreatment; enzymatic hydrolysis; inhibitors
Online: 19 September 2020 (05:16:42 CEST)
The microorganisms able of accumulating lipids in high percentages, known as oleaginous microorganisms, have been widely studied as an alternative for producing oleochemicals and biofuels. Microbial lipid, so called Single Cell Oil (SCO), production depends on several growth parameters, including the nature of the carbon substrate, which must be efficiently taken up and converted into storage lipid. Οn the other hand, substrates considered for large scale applications must be abundant and of low acquisition cost. Among others, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable substrate containing high percentages of assimilable sugars (hexoses and pentoses). However, it is also highly recalcitrant and therefore it requires specific pretreatments in order to release its assimilable components. The main drawback of lignocellulose pretreatment is the generation of several by-products that can inhibit the microbial metabolism. In this review, we discuss the main aspects related to the cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms using lignocellulosic biomass as substrate, hoping to contribute to the development of a sustainable process for SCO production in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cholesterol; cross-sectional study; dyslipidemia; lipids; Mali; type 2 diabetes
Online: 28 January 2023 (01:29:07 CET)
Dyslipidemia is a disorder where abnormally lipid concentrations circulate in the bloodstream. The disorder is common in type 2 diabetics (T2D) and is linked with T2D comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia in T2D is typically characterized by elevated plasma triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding dyslipidemia in rural parts of Africa, where lipid profiles may not be routinely captured through standard surveillance activities. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and demographic profile of dyslipidemia in T2D patients in the rural community of Ganadougou, Mali. We performed a cross-sectional study of 104 subjects with T2D in Ganadougou between November 2021 and March 2022. Demographic and lipid profiles were collected through cross-sectional surveys and blood tests. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in T2D patients was 87.5% (91/104), which did not differ by sex (p = .368). High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was the most common lipid abnormality (78.9%, [82/104]). Dyslipidemia was associated with age and hypertension status (p = .013 and p = .036, respectively). High total and high LDL-C parameters were significantly associated with hypertension (p = .029 and p = .006, respectively). In low-resource settings such as rural Mali, there is a critical need to improve infrastructure for routine dyslipidemia screening to guide its prevention and intervention approaches. The high rates of dyslipidemia observed in Gandadougou, consistent with concomitant increases in cardiovascular diseases in Africa suggest that lipid profile assessments should be incorporated into routine medical care for T2D patients in African rural settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0031.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: primary fatty acid amides; microfluidics; laser induced fluorescence, bioactive lipids
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:16:13 CEST)
The inherent trace quantity of primary fatty acid amides found in biological systems presents challenges for analytical analysis and quantitation, requiring a highly sensitive detection system. The use of microfluidics provides a green sample preparation and analysis technique through small-volume fluidic flow through micron-sized channels embedded in a PDMS device. Microfluidics provides the potential of having a micro total analysis system where chromatographic separation, fluorescent tagging reactions, and detection are accomplished with no added sample handling. This study describes the development and optimization of a microfluidic-laser indued fluorescence (LIF) analysis and detection system that can be used for the detection of ultra-trace levels of fluorescently tagged primary fatty acid amines. A PDMS microfluidic device was designed and fabricated to incorporate droplet-based flow. Droplet microfluidics have enabled on-chip fluorescent tagging reactions to be performed quickly and efficiently, with no additional sample handling. An optimized LIF optical detection system provided fluorescently tagged primary fatty acid amine detection sub-fmol (436 amol) LODs. The use of this LIF detection provides unparalleled sensitivity, with detection limits several orders of magnitude lower than currently employed LC-MS techniques and might be easily adapted for use as a complementary quantification platform for parallel MS-based -omics studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0492.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: membranes; vesicles; lipids; proteins; mesophase separation; domains; lipid rafts; clusters
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:50:38 CEST)
Cell plasma membranes display a dramatically rich structural complexity characterized by functional sub-wavelength domains with specific lipid and protein composition. Under favorable experimental conditions, patterned morphologies can also be observed in vitro on model systems such as supported membranes or lipid vesicles. Lipid mixtures separating in liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases below a demixing temperature play a pivotal role in this context. Protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions also contribute to membrane shaping by promoting small domains or clusters. Such phase separations displaying characteristic length-scales falling in-between the nanoscopic, molecular scale on the one hand and the macroscopic scale on the other hand, are named mesophases in soft condensed matter physics. In this Review, we propose a classification of the diverse mechanisms leading to mesophase separation in biomembranes. We distinguish between mechanisms relying upon equilibrium thermodynamics and those involving out-of-equilibrium mechanisms, notably active membrane recycling. In equilibrium, we show that the mechanisms generically dwell on an up-down symmetry breaking between the upper and lower bilayer leaflets. Symmetry breaking is an ubiquitous mechanism in condensed matter physics at the heart of several important phenomena. In the present case, it can be either spontaneous (domain buckling) or explicit, i.e. due to an external cause (global or local vesicle bending properties). Whenever possible, theoretical predictions and simulation results are confronted to experiments on model systems or living cells, which enables us to identify the most realistic mechanisms from a biological perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0039.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: stable carbon isotope analysis; lipids; fatty acids; Cordyceps sinensis; the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
Online: 11 September 2017 (08:06:30 CEST)
Cordyceps sinensis is one rare medicinal fungus produced in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Its quality and price varies hugely with different habitat, and its numerous substitutes have sprung up in functional food markets. This paper aims to discriminate the geographic origin of wild C. sinensis and its substitutes via the element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ13C values of major fatty acids in the lipids of Cordyceps sinensis are characterized unanimously by the variation relation C18:0 ﹤ C18:2 ≈ C16:0 ﹤ C18:1; while their fluctuation intervals are notably different between those of neutral and polar lipids. The comparative analysis of the δ13C ratios of major fatty acids in lipids of Cordyceps sinensis suggests that the δ13C patterns may be sensitive potential indicators to discriminate its geographical origin. The δ13C values of individual major fatty acids of lipids from the cultivated stromata of Cordyceps militaris (SCM), the fermented mycelia of Hirsurella sinensis (FMH) and Paecilomyces epiali (FMP) range from −31.2‰ to −29.7‰, −16.9‰ to −14.3‰, and −26.5‰ to −23.9‰, respectively. Their δ13C pattern of individual major fatty acids may be used as a potential indicator to discriminate the products of natural C. sinensis and its substitutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: psoriasis, arthritis, inflammation, granulocytes, redox signaling, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal, lipids, endocannabinoid system
Online: 12 September 2018 (13:43:16 CEST)
Inflammatory granulocytes are characterized by oxidative burst, which may promote oxidative stress and lipid modification both in affected tissues and on systemic level. On the other hand, redox signaling involving lipid peroxidation products acting as second messengers of free radicals play important, not yet fully understood, roles in pathophysiology of inflammation and various stress-associated disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the onset of oxidative stress and alterations of enzyme-dependent lipid metabolism resulting from redox imbalance in granulocytes and plasma obtained from patients with psoriasis vulgaris or psoriatic arthritis, in comparison to the healthy subjects. The results obtained revealed enhanced activity of pro-oxidant enzymes NADPH and xanthine oxidases in granulocytes, with a decrease of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in plasma of psoriatic patients. The Nrf2 and its regulators were increased in both forms of psoriasis, while HO-1 levels were increased only in psoriasis vulgaris. Redox imbalance was associated with decreased levels of phospholipids and of free PUFAs, but with enhanced activity of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (PLA2, PAF-AH COX1/2) and increased lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), isoprostanes and neuroprostanes. Increased endocannabinoids and GPR55 were observed in both forms of the disease, while expression of CB1 was increased only in pateints with psoriatic arthritis, opposite to CB2, which was increased only in psoriasis vulgaris. Protein modifications by ROS and lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE promoted apoptosis of granulocytes by increased caspases in both forms of psoriasis. This study indicates that excessive activation of granulocytes, causing oxidative stress and lipid modifications, is an important pathophysiology of psoriasis. Consequently, lower Nrf2 activity and CB2 expression may promote progression of psoriasis into advanced, arthritic form of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: almonds; lipids; heart disease; cardiovascular disease; nuts; dyslipidaemia; cholesterol; low density lipoprotein; high density lipoprotein
Online: 21 November 2017 (05:40:00 CET)
Background: Several preventive strategies to reduce dyslipidaemia, have been suggested of which dietary modification features as an important one. Addition of almonds in our daily diets has been proposed to beneficially impact the lipid profile. This review critically examines the available evidence assessing the effect of almonds on dyslipidaemia in the South Asian (particularly Indian) context. Methods: An extensive review comprising of epidemiological studies, clinical trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews was conducted from published literature from across the world. Studies examining the effect of almonds on different aspects of dyslipidaemia viz. high LDL-C, low HDL-C, triglyceridaemia, high total cholesterol levels have been included. Results: Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and strategies to manage dyslipidaemia have been shown to reduce the incidence of CVD. Although there are proven pharmacological therapies to help manage this condition, there are not many nutritional interventions which can impact dyslipidaemia. Almonds have been shown to reduce LDL-C which is a known risk factor for CHD, in several studies and the effect of almonds has been well documented in systematic reviews and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Conclusions: Addition of almonds in the diet has been shown to not only to reduce LDL-C levels, but also to maintain HDL-C levels. This review informs about the use of this simple nutritional strategy which may help manage known major risk factors for heart disease such as high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels especially in the context of South Asians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0696.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: microalgae; carotenoids; chlorophylls; lipids; mycosporin-like amino acids; antioxidants; UV-screen
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:15:07 CET)
A prominent feature of stress-tolerant microalgae is their versatile metabolism allowing then to synthesize a broad spectrum of molecules with beneficial effects on many aspects of human body functioning. This is in line with the current understanding that many stress-induced deleterious processes in the human body and in photosynthetic cell are mediated by the same mechanisms such as free-radical attacks and lipid peroxidation. These related risks are kept at bay by optical screening of harmful UV, enzymatic ROS elimination systems, and potent low-molecular antioxidants. Microalgae synthesize a broad spectrum of compounds exerting antioxidant and/or UV-absorbing properties. In microalgae, they increase stress-resilience of these organisms. In human body, they exhibit photoprotective, antiaging, and sunscreen activities. Therefore, these algal metabolites were recognized as promising ingredients for innovative cosmetics and cosmeceutical formulations. Ever increasing effort is being invested into the search for new natural biologically active substances from microalgae. This trend is also fueled by the growing demand for natural raw materials for food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetology associated with the global transition to a "greener" lifestyle. Here, we review the currently accumulated knowledge about the main groups of cosmeceutical compounds from microalgae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0236.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: biorefining; by-products; enzymatic hydrolysis; essential fatty acids; green-extraction; lipids; sustainability
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:37:03 CEST)
The main intention of the present work was to investigate the ability of cellulose-degrading enzymes (C-DE) to release fatty acids (FAs) from complex matrices of cereal by-products during enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). For this purpose, three types of cereal bran (CB), i.e., wheat, rye, and oat were used as a lignocellulose substrate for three commercially available hydrolytic enzymes, i.e., Viscozyme L, Viscoferm, and Celluclast 1.5 L. The yield and composition of FAs after EH was assessed and confronted with the yield obtained after either conventional Soxhlet extraction or alkaline-assisted hydrolysis (A-AH) with 10% KOH in 80% MeOH and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction. The experimental results demonstrated that up to 6.3% and 43.7% higher total FAs yield can be achieved within EH of rye bran using Celluclast 1.5 L than by A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. However, the application of Viscoferm for EH of wheat bran ensured up to 7.7% and 13.4% higher total FAs yield than A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. The concentration of essential linolenic acid (C18:3) in lipids extracted after EH of rye bran with Celluclast 1.5 L was up to 24.4% and 57.0% higher than in lipids recovered by A-AH and Soxhlet extraction, respectively. In turn, the highest content of linolenic in wheat bran lipids was observed after EH with Viscoferm and Viscozyme L, ensuring 17.0 and 13.6% higher yield than after A-AH, respectively. SEM analysis confirmed substantial degradation of CB matrix promoted by the ability of C-DE to act specifically on 1,4-β-D-glycosidic bonds in cellulose and on 1,2-α-,1,3-α-, and 1,5-α-L- arabinofuranoside and 1,4-β-D-xylosidic bonds in arabinoxylans, arabinans, and other arabinose-containing hemicelluloses. Structural alteration in cells integrity greatly contributed to the release of bound FAs and their better transfer into the extraction solvent. It has been shown that the proposed process of EH can be used for the efficient release of FAs from the CB matrix more sustainably and with a safer profile, thereby representing the further sustainable production of FAs for certain purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gas chromatography assay; cardiovascular diseases; feeding patterns; lipids; nutritional status; vegan diet
Online: 19 June 2019 (15:47:29 CEST)
The vegan diet excludes animal-derived products consumption. The objective of the present study is to analyze dietary lipid intake, nine plasmatic fatty acids concentrations (from C14:0 [lauric acid] to C20:4 [arachidonic acid]), and conventional clinical lipid profile among vegan individuals with omnivore controls. A case-control and cross-sectional study was performed between 2016 and 2017. Vegans were paired in a 1:1 ratio with omnivores from Merida, Mexico. A 150-item Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted to evaluate eating patterns. Serum fatty acids were determined from total blood with a gas chromatography assay. Lower cholesterol, stearic, arachidonic and trans fatty acids intake, but higher consumption of lauric acid were observed in the vegan group (p= <0.001, 0.014, <0.001, 0.005, respectively). Decreased plasma concentrations of stearic, arachidonic and linoleic acids were found (p= 0.017, <0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Following a vegan diet for more than three years generate modifications in serum concentrations of saturated and polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acids, which could lower inflammatory markers’ biosynthesis. Potential benefits regarding cardiovascular risk may be assumed in favor of vegan individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: Human Milk Fat; TAG; DHA; Fatty Acids; Nutrients; Food Industry; Structured Lipids; LCPUFA; Interesterification; Acidolysis; PA
Online: 18 May 2020 (05:47:46 CEST)
Maternal milk, from well-nourished and healthy mothers, is a source of several bioactive compounds and balanced nutrients required for proper growth and development of the infant. Hence it is regarded as the optimal form of nourishment. Human milk fat from human milk is the most crucial component and is a necessity for the growing infant. However, in certain cases, the breast milk may fulfill the nutritional needs or the breast-feeding of the infant is not feasible; infant formulae are then considered as the best alternative as nutritional support. It becomes essential for the infant formula to behave and provide nutritive support in the same way as human milk. In order to achieve so, the most crucial components of all should also be prepared precisely, i.e., the analogue of human milk fat. This analogue, which mimics the actual human milk fat, can be then used as a prime ingredient while designing the infant formula. Significant research and several advances have been made in preparing the infant formula enriched with adequate fat content, and more studies are still being conducted in order to achieve a more sound product in the most economical and simplest way possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: dry eye; lacrimal gland; lipids and lipidomics; Meibomian gland; ocular surface disorders; proteins and proteomics; tear film
Online: 22 May 2017 (07:54:47 CEST)
The alteration of the delicate balance that regulates the secretion and distribution of the tear film determines the dry eye (DE) syndrome, because the tear film represents the interface between the eye and the environment. Despite having a multifactorial origin, the main risk factors for the emergence of the ocular disease are female gender and advanced age. Likewise, morphological changes in several glands and in chemical composition of their secretions such as proteins, mucins, lipidics, aqueous tears, and salinity, are highly relevant factors to maintain a condition of good health of the ocular anterior segment. Another key factor of recurrence and onset of the disease is the presence of local and/or systemic infiammation that reflex on the ocular surface. However, it is one of the most commonly encountered disease in clinical practice and many other causes related to daily life and to lengthen the average life will contribute to the beginning. This review will consider how and what disorders of the ocular surface are responsible for a widespread pathology so. In the end, the most appropriate and new therapies will be briefly exposed according to the specific pathology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0231.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway; photosynthesis; isoprenoids; lipids; biofuels; gene editing; CRISPR; riboswitch; riboregulators; nanocompartments
Online: 13 December 2022 (07:22:52 CET)
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms capable of using solar energy to convert CO2 and H2O into O2 and energy-rich organic compounds, thus enabling sustainable production of a wide range of bio-products. More and more strains of cyanobacteria are identified that show great promise as cell platforms for the generation of bioproducts. However, strain development is still required to optimize their biosynthesis and increase titers for industrial applications. This review describes the most well-known and newest most promising strains available to the community and gives an overview of current cyanobacterial biotechnology and the latest innovative strategies used for engineering cyanobacteria. We summarize advanced synthetic biology tools for modulating gene expression and their use in metabolic pathway engineering to increase the production of value-added compounds, such as terpenoids, fatty acids, and sugars, to provide a go-to source for scientists starting research in cyanobacterial metabolic engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0372.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: gene therapy; non-viral vectors; gene delivery; cancer; nucleic acid delivery; nanoparticles; lipids; lipid nanoparticles; mRNA; siRNA
Online: 25 January 2022 (09:01:41 CET)
The research and development of non-viral gene therapy has been extensive over the past decade and has received a big push thanks to the successful approval of non-viral gene therapy products in recent times. Despite these developments, gene therapy applications in cancer have been limited. One of the main causes of this has been the imbalance in development of delivery vectors as compared to nucleic acid payloads. This paper reviews non-viral vectors that can be used to deliver nucleic acids for cancer treatment. It discusses various types of vectors and highlights their current applications. Additionally, it also discusses perspective on regulatory landscape to facilitate commercial translation of gene therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: preterm infant; enteral nutrition; lipids; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-6 fatty acids; Docosahexaenoic acid; Arachidonic acid; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:34:53 CEST)
Human milk fat is a concentrated source of energy and provides essential and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to previous experiments, human milk fat is partially lost during continuous enteral nutrition. However, these experiments were done over relatively short infusion times, and a complete profile of the lost fatty acids was never measured. Whether this lost happens considering longer infusion times or if some fatty acids are lost more than others remain unknown. Pooled breast milk was infused through a feeding tube by a peristaltic pump over a period of 30 minutes and 4, 12 and 24 hours at 2 ml/hour. Adsorbed fat was extracted from the tubes, and the fatty acid composition was analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total fat loss (average fatty acid loss) after 24 hours was 0.6 ± 0.1%. Short-medium chain (0.7%, p=0.15), long chain (0.6%, p=0.56) saturated (0.7%, p=0.4), monounsaturated (0.5%, p=0.15), polyunsaturated fatty (0.7%, p=0.15), linoleic (0.7%, p=0.25), and docosahexaenoic acids (0.6%, p=0.56) were not selectively adsorbed to the tube. However, very long chain fatty (0.9%, p=0.04), alpha-linolenic (1.6%, p=0.02) and arachidonic acids (1%, p=0.02) were selectively adsorbed and therefore lost in a greater proportion than other fatty acids. In all cases, the magnitude of the loss was clinically low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cancer; DNA damage; digestive tract diseases; fat profile; lipids; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase; PARP; poly(ADP-ribose); PAR
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:09:03 CET)
Background: Beyond risk factors such as smoking, obesity and others, gastrointestinal cancer often occurs in families and the risk of getting cancer is passed down from parents to offspring. About 5%-10% of gastrointestinal cancers are hereditary (inherited by a gene mutation from one or both parents, predisposing them to develop cancer in their lifetime). Here we describe the clinical history of family members affected by gastrointestinal pathologies which often leaded to cancer. Methods: The subjects were monitored from May 2006 to December 2017 by collecting periodically clinical and endoscopic data, and performing molecular analyses by assaying two biomarkers , auto-modification of lymphocyte Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase as early signal of DNA damage, and erythrocyte membrane lipid composition (Fat Profile). First we focused on the oldest members, nine brothers, and thereafter we considered their offspring. Results: Both groups of subjects developed gastrointestinal pathologies of different kind and seriousness. Some diseases evolved to cancer, sometimes as a sudden and lethal event. The results of the two molecular approaches auto-modification of Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase and Fat Profile), were in agreement and even predicted the clinical and imaging paths. Conclusions: Both non-invasive molecular analyses can be used preliminarly to predict altered physiological states and support clinical and imaging analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids, lipids, diet, low-fat diet, cancer therapy, cancer metabolism, triple-negative breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, metastasis
Online: 21 December 2022 (10:05:50 CET)
Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) need new therapies to improve the low survival rates achieved with standard treatments. In this work, we show that the survival of mice with metastatic TNBC can be markedly increased by replacing their normal diet with artificial diets in which the levels of amino acids (AAs) and lipids are strongly manipulated. After observing selective anticancer activity in vitro, we prepared five artificial diets and evaluated their anticancer activity in a challenging model of metastatic TNBC. The model was established by injecting 4T1 murine TNBC cells into the tail vein of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. First-line drugs doxorubicin and capecitabine were used as positive controls. AA manipulation led to modest improvements in mice survival when the levels or lipids were normal. Reducing lipid levels to 1% markedly improved the activity of several diets with different AA content. Mice fed the artificial diets as monotherapy lived longer than mice treated with doxorubicin and capecitabine. An artificial diet without 10 non-essential AAs, with reduced levels of essential AAs, and with 1% lipids improved the survival not only of mice with TNBC but also of mice with other types of metastatic cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0256.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: attractive and repulsive forces; Debye’s screening length (1/k); Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation; food colloids; coagulation; stabilizers; lipids; polymers; electrolytes
Online: 11 September 2020 (10:05:50 CEST)
Different forces play a key-role in the stability of food colloid dispersions. Focus is here on those controlling attraction and/or repulsion, which concur to stabilization, phase separation, coagulation, and are quite evident in water-based systems. Combination of attractive and repulsive forces favors, or hinders, the association of colloid entities; such processes are often met in food technology. The above processes depend on the forces at work, and on colloid concentration in the medium (i.e. on inter-particle distance). Worked examples deals with milk manipulation procedures, ending in cheese formation. The whole milk-working sequence is controlled by the combination of forces leading to aggregation and phase separation of casein and other milk components. Thereafter, one gets either fresh, for prompt consumption, or aged cheeses. The combination of attractive (van der Waals, vdW, and depletion) with repulsive (double layer, DL, but also with steric) forces results in the dominance of aggregation versus dispersion modes in all steps of milk transformation, which depend on the distance among colloid particles, on the amplitude of the mentioned forces, and on their decay length. The combined role of double layer and van der Waals (vdW) forces is at the basis of the DLVO theory on colloid stability, which is properly modified when these forces overlap with steric stabilization and, eventually, with depletion. Steric effects are dispersive, depletion ones favor colloid nucleation in a single phase. The milk manipulation chain is a worked example of the intriguing association features controlled by the mentioned forces (and of ancillary ones, as well), and indicates which forces favor the formation of products such as Parmesan or Mozzarella cheese, but are not alien to the preparation of many other dairy products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0167.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Gibbs phase plane; surface tension and pressure; gas, momentum and heat fluxes; biogeochemical mapping; organic macromolecules; surfactants; elasticity; proteins; lipids; compression; two dimensional equation of state
Online: 27 October 2017 (04:37:29 CEST)
We apply principles of Gibbs phase plane chemistry to and across the entire ocean-atmospheric interface. Surface tension increments support a two dimensional, tangential pressure well known to determine rates of bulk gas, bubble, salt, spray and momentum transfer plus both sensible and latent heat fluxes. Hence it is worth asking whether tension mapping follows from current understanding of two dimensional composition. A history is provided dating back centuries and demonstrating that detrital organic macromolecules are central; subtle surfactant functional variation creates a microforcing field which dissipates turbulent energy at the sub-meter scale. Since we have just distributed major biopolymeric classes emitted as primary organic aerosol, further climate links can be established by considering full planar thermochemistry. Organic microlayer behaviors are reviewed with attention to confined, analog phase transitions among two dimensional “solid, liquid, (and) gaseous” states serving as elasticity indicators. We also discuss surfactant properties of general marine dissolved organic carbon, demonstrating that only proteins and lipids are capable of occupying significant local micro-area. The literature often suggests albumin and stearic acid as best proxies, and so we distribute their concentrations through multilevel global ecodynamic simulations. Consensus distributions are obtained in order to control adsorptive equilibria. Working from conservation of planar free energy, a parametric equation of state is devised relating excess coverage to the surface pressure-modulus. Constant settings for the proxy pair are drawn from laboratory study, and they successfully reproduce frequencies for surfactant solid-to-gas occurrence in ambient compression experiments. Functionally resolved organic measurements are rare and so we group them into super-ecological province tables showing that our bulk concentration estimates are reasonable. Outputs are then fed into a coverage-tension-elasticity code. Resulting contours traverse the critical range for piston velocity, bubble-spray and damping effects on either a regional or seasonal basis. There is also a possibility for widespread microlayer crystallization in polar seas. The concepts are a direct extension of our organic aerosol work, and the two approaches could be inserted into Earth System Models in tandem. Uncertainties in the logic are enumerated and include kinetic and thermochemical factors at multiple scales. But the problems are reducible through molecular modeling coupled to renewed laboratory and field study. Connections to marine colloids-gels, microlayer iron chelation, and linings of the ice channel network are discussed additionally.