ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0232.v1
Online: 22 July 2019 (07:46:54 CEST)
This paper focused on the oxidative leaching process of vanadium from vanadium-chromium reducing residue in alkaline medium with MnO2. The effect of experimental parameters including reaction time, reaction temperature, dosage of MnO2, dosage of NaOH, and liquid-to-solid ratio on the leaching efficiency of vanadium had been studied. The results indicated that MnO2 was an efficient oxidant for leaching out of vanadium. The leaching efficiency of vanadium was up to 97.25% under optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 90 ℃, reaction time of 60 min, dosage of MnO2 at 50 wt.%, concentration of NaOH at 30 wt.% and liquid-to-solid at 5:1 mL/g.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0543.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Leaching of silver; Thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system; No toxic leaching process
Online: 31 August 2018 (08:59:37 CEST)
The mining wastes generated during the last decades in the mining region of Pachuca-Real del Monte in Mexico, still contains silver values of interest. For this reason, the present work is a preliminary study of the leaching kinetics of silver contained in these residues, using as a leaching reagent the thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system, with the aim of proposing this leaching system as a less toxic alternative than cyaniding process. Previous the leaching process, representative samples were wholly characterized, finding 56 g of Ag and 0.6 g of Au per ton. For the kinetic study in the mentioned system, were evaluated the reagent concentration, temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, pH and stirring rate. According the experimental results found, it was observed that [CH5N3S] concentration showed a significant effect on the leaching rate, obtaining a reaction order of n = 0.93, in the range of 20 - 40 mol CH5N3S ⋅ m-3, getting so a silver recovery up to 76.9%. The effect of temperature gave an activation energy of Ea = 45.55 KJ mol-1, which was indicative of a chemical reaction control. Finally, partial pressure of oxygen has a notable effect on leaching rate, but pH and stirring rate have not apparent effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0424.v1
Online: 16 November 2020 (14:20:15 CET)
Rock salt is characterized by specific geomechanical and rheological properties. Layers of rock salt on depth over 900 m cause problems with shaft lining deformation. Methods of shaft lining protection used so far (e.g. in Sieroszowice mine) have not been effective enough. The research presents a patented and copyright protected concept of a shaft lining construction that can be used in rock masses with strong rheological properties and susceptible to leaching. In the case of salt layers, especially at significant depths the relative convergence of the heading contour may be about 40 ‰/year. That results in the fact that any other method of securing the shaft lining, e.g. by making it flexible, is not sufficient to ensure the stability of the shaft guidance geometry. In the new shaft lining concept, the excessive rock creep into the outbreak inside the shaft diameter is removed by local and controlled leaching of the shaft cheeks by means of fresh water through a porous medium at the contact layer behind the watertight tubing lining. The article presents the methodology of performing tests on a special device and the test results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0294.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Reprocessing of mining wastes; Leaching of silver; Thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system; No toxic leaching process
Online: 16 August 2018 (15:20:17 CEST)
The mining wastes generated during the last decades in the mining region of Pachuca-Real del Monte in Mexico, still contains silver values of interest. For this reason, the present work is a preliminary study of the leaching kinetics of silver contained in these residues, using as a leaching reagent the thiosemicarbazide-oxygen system, with the aim of proposing this leaching system as a less toxic alternative than cyaniding process. Previous the leaching process, representative samples were wholly characterized, finding 56 g of Ag and 0.6 g of Au per ton. For the kinetic study in the mentioned system, were evaluated the reagent concentration, temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, pH and stirring rate. According the experimental results found, it was observed that [CH5N3S] concentration showed a significant effect on the leaching rate, obtaining a reaction order of n = 0.93, in the range of 20 - 40 mol CH5N3S × m-3, getting so a silver recovery up to 76.9%. The effect of temperature gave an activation energy of Ea = 45.55 KJ mol-1, which was indicative of a chemical reaction control. Finally, partial pressure of oxygen has a notable effect on leaching rate, but pH and stirring rate have not apparent effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0063.v1
Online: 3 October 2018 (17:10:03 CEST)
Bauxite residue (BR) is a well promising resource for critical metals and especially scandium (Sc), a rare and expensive metal with increasing applications in advanced technology. Particularly, Greek BR’s composition indicates a sound possibility for a commercially viable recovery of Sc under the conditions of an optimized leaching process and the subsequent use of advanced separation techniques. Leaching with mineral acids emerges as the dominant selection with comparison to other techniques. This study investigates an optimized leaching condition set on Sc recovery, using sulfuric acid as the most suitable among different acids tested, in the context of process economics and environmental constraints. Several variables were studied individually or combined in order to achieve high Sc concentration in the leachate as well as to ensure selectivity, especially in respect to iron. The most significant parameters proved to be the solid to liquid ratio (S/L), the final pH value as well as the use of recycling of leachate on fresh BR batches. The proposed process, using sulfuric acid at low acid molarities under ambient conditions was integrated rapidly leading to high and selective Sc recovery. A flow diagram of the developed leaching process in industrial scale was proposed based on continuous operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0591.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Adsorption; Desorption; Dissipation; Herbicide half-life; Leaching.
Online: 23 June 2021 (16:02:59 CEST)
Chemical weed control using herbicide glyphosate to manage emerged weeds is an important production practice in Florida citrus. Despite the extensive use of glyphosate in citrus orchards, very limited information is available on its environmental fate and behavior in Florida soils that are predominantly sandy in nature. Hence, the study's objective was to understand the adsorption-desorption, dissipation dynamics, and vertical movement or leaching of glyphosate in sandy soils in citrus orchards. Laboratory, field, and greenhouse experiments were conducted at Southwest Florida Research and Education Center in Immokalee, Florida. The adsorption-desorption behavior of glyphosate in the soils from three major citrus production areas in Florida was studied utilizing a batch equilibrium method. The dissipation of glyphosate was tracked in the field following its application at the rate of 4.20 kg ae ha-1. Soil leaching columns in greenhouse conditions were used to study the vertical movement of glyphosate. The results suggest that glyphosate has a relatively lower range of adsorption or binding (Kads = 14.28 to 30.88) in the tested soil types. The field dissipation half-life (DT50) of glyphosate from surface soil was found to be 26 days. Glyphosate moved vertically or leached into the soil profile, up to 40 cm in the soil column, when analyzed 40 days after herbicide application. The primary degradation product of glyphosate, i.e., aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), was also detected up to the depth of 30 cm below the soil surface, indicating the presence of microbial metabolism of glyphosate in the soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: polymer waste; polyurethane foam; leaching test; microstructure
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:47:59 CET)
In the European Union, the demand for polyurethane is continually growing. In 2017, the estimated production value of polyurethane was 700,400T, of which 27.3% is taken to landfill, which causes an environmental problem. In this paper the behaviour of various polyurethane foams from the waste of different types of industries will be analysed with the aim of assessing their potential use in construction materials. In order to this, the wastes were chemically tested by means of CHNS, TGA, and leaching tests. They were tested microstructurally by means of SEM. The processing parameters of the waste was calculated after finding out its granulometry and its physical properties i.e. density and water absorption capacity. In addition, the possibility of incorporating these wastes in plaster matrices was studied by determining its rendering in an operational context, finding out its mechanical resistance to flexion and compression at 7 days, its reaction to fire as well as its weight per unit of area and its thermal behaviour. The results show that in all cases, the waste is inert and does not undergo leaching. The generation process of the waste determines the foam’s microstructure in addition to its physical-chemical properties that directly affect building materials in which they are included, thus offering different ways in which they can be applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0001.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: arsenic; leaching; sediment; heavy metal; reservoir; abandoned mine
Online: 1 October 2019 (02:38:34 CEST)
Heavy metals, including arsenic from abandoned mines, are easily transported with sediment and deposited in water bodies such as reservoirs and lakes, creating critical water quality issues when they are released. Understanding the leaching of heavy metals is necessary for developing efficient water quality improvement plans. This study investigated how arsenic leaches from different soil types and responds to hydrologic conditions to identify areas susceptible to arsenic contamination. In this study, batch- and column-leaching tests and sequential extraction procedures were used to examine arsenic leaching processes in detail. The results showed that most arsenic-loaded sediments accumulated in the vicinity of a reservoir inlet, and arsenic in reservoir beds have a higher leaching potential than those from agricultural land and river beds. Arsenic deposited at the bottom of reservoirs had higher mobility than that in the other soils, and arsenic leaching was closely associated with the acidity of water. In addition, arsenic leaching was found to be responsive to seasons (wet or dry) as its mobilization is controlled by organic compounds that vary over time. The results suggested that temporal variations in the hydrochemical composition of reservoir water should be considered when defining a management plan for reservoir water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: gallium nitride; gallium; LED waste; LED recycling; leaching
Online: 3 October 2018 (17:16:07 CEST)
In recent years, with the increasing research and development of the LED industry which contains GaN, it is expected that there will be a large amount of related wastes in the future. Especially the gallium has extremely high value of economic, therefore, it is necessary to establish the recycling system of the GaN waste. However, GaN is a direct-gap semiconductor and with high energy gap, high hardness, and high melting point make it difficult to recycle. Therefore, this study will analyze the physical characteristics of LED wastes containing GaN and carry out various leaching method to leach the valuable metals from the waste optimally. Different acids are used to find out the best reagent for leaching the gallium. Different experimental parameters are discussed such as the effect of the different acid agents , concentration, pressure, solid-liquid mass ratio, temperature, and time which influence the leaching efficiency of the gallium. In this study, various leaching methods which effect the leaching efficiency of the gallium are compared and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, pressurized acid leaching method is preferred to leach the GaN waste, and hydrochloric acid is used as the leaching solution because of its better leaching efficiency of gallium. Eventually, the leaching efficiency of the gallium can reach to 98%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0061.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: printed circuit boards; gold; copper; electrochemical leaching; alternating current
Online: 6 October 2022 (09:59:38 CEST)
Modern technologies for recycling electronic waste (e-waste) impose high economic efficiency and environmental safety requirements. Among existing technologies, hydrometallurgy is considered the most promising technology for e-waste recycling. Increasing attention to the chlorination method is associated with the complex recycling of low-grade ores containing noble metals and secondary polymetallic raw materials. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for leaching metals from computer printed circuits (PCBs) pre-crushed in a disintegrator: the processes of chlorine production and hydrochlorination are implemented in one reactor under the action of alternating current (AC) of industrial frequency (50 Hz). It was found that complete leaching of gold is achieved from fine fractions of raw materials containing 0.03% and 0.01% of the gold at an experiment duration of 2 hours, a current density of 0.66 A·cm-2, and a solid/liquid ratio of 8.6 g·L-1. Under the same conditions of the electrochemical leaching process from the fraction of raw material with a gold content of 0.08%, the degree of metal leaching is 80.5%. At the same time, with an increase in the copper content in the raw material from 1.40% to 6.13%, an increase in the degree of its leaching from 84.6% to 95.2%, respectively, is observed. These results will serve as a foundation for developing a complex technology for recovering valuable metals from PCBs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Mine Tailings; Industrial Waste; Geopolymer; Durability; Microstructure; Thermal; Leaching
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:45:36 CEST)
The mining sector generates a substantial quantity of stone waste and tailings, which constitutes an environmental risk. The most prevalent method for disposing of this industrial waste is dumping, which contributes to soil deterioration and water contamination while acquiring precious land. It can be recycled using a number of processes, such as the promising geopolymerization technique, which transforms waste into value. This study reviews current developments in the manufacturing of mine tailings-based geopolymer composites from industrial waste as a possible sustainable building material. This paper also gives in-depth studies on the characteristics and behaviors of mine tailings composites used in geopolymer manufacturing, including durability, microstructure, thermal and leaching properties. This review also identifies knowledge gaps that must be filled in order to advance mine tailings composites for geopolymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0347.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Recycled graphite; high-quality graphite; spent batteries; acidic leaching
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:17:53 CET)
Spent batteries recycling is an important way to obtain low-cost graphite. Nevertheless, the obtaining of crystalline graphite with a rather low density of defects is required for many applications. In the present work, high-quality graphites have been obtained from different kinds of spent batteries. Black masses from spent alkaline batteries (batteries black masses, BBM), and lithium-ion batteries from smartphones (smartphone black masses, SBM) and electric and/or hybrid vehicles (lithium-ion black masses, LBM) were used as starting materials. A hydrometallurgical process was then used to obtain recycled graphites by acidic leaching. Different leaching conditions were used depending on the type of the initial black mass. The final solids were characterized by a wide set of complementary techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0077.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: compost; compost quality; soil remediation; urban soil; nutrient leaching
Online: 4 July 2019 (11:36:40 CEST)
Poor soil health is a critical problem in many urban landscapes. Degraded soil restricts plant growth and microorganism activity, limiting the ability of urban landscapes to perform much needed ecosystem services. Incorporation of approximately 33% compost by volume into degraded soil has been proven to improve soil health and structure over time while avoiding the financial and environmental costs of importing soil mixes from elsewhere. However, additions of high volumes of compost could potentially increase the risk of nutrient loss through leaching and runoff. The objective of our study was to consider the effects of different compost amendments on soil health, plant health and susceptibility to nutrient leaching in order to identify ranges of acceptable compost characteristics that could be used for soil remediation in the urban landscape. We conducted a bioassay with Phaseolus vulgaris (Bush Bean) to measure the effect of nine composts from different feedstocks on various plant health parameters. We collected leachate prior to planting to measure nutrient loss from each treatment. We found that all compost amendments improved soil health. Nutrient-rich, manure-based composts produced the greatest plant growth, but also leached high concentrations of nitrate and phosphorus. Some treatments provided sufficient nutrients for plant growth without excess nutrient loss. We concluded, when incorporating as much as 33% compost by volume into a landscape bed, the optimal compost will generally have a C:N ratio of 10-20, P-content <1.0% and a soluble salt content between 1.0 and 3.5 mmhos/cm. These recommendations should ensure optimal plant and soil health and minimize nutrient leaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: compost, nutrient leaching; pollutant removal; stormwater quality, system modeling
Online: 2 April 2019 (15:35:29 CEST)
Filter Media (FM) sourced from recycled organic and mineral material offers a low cost and effective means of treating urban stormwater. Using recycled materials rather than from an increasingly scarce source of virgin materials (typically sandy loam soil) can ensure a sustainable long-term economy and environment. This paper presents results from the laboratory analysis and mathematical modeling to highlight the performance of recycled organic and mineral material in removing nutrients and metals from stormwater. Analysis included physical and chemical characterisation such as particle size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, effective cation exchange capacity, and pollutant removal performance. Design mixes (DM), comprising a combination of organic and mineral materials, were characterised and used to develop/derive modelling design within the Model for Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC v6) . Comparison is made to the Adoption Guidelines for Stormwater Biofiltration Systems - Summary Report  which were based on the Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration (FAWB) guidelines to assist in the development of biofiltration systems, including the planning, design, construction and operation of those systems. An observed outcome from over two decades of biofiltration guideline development has been the exclusion of alternative biofilter materials due to claims of excessive leaching. Results from this study indicate that high nutrient and metal removal rates can be achieved over a range of hydraulic conductivities using design mixes of recycled organic and mineral materials that have a demonstrated equivalence to existing guideline specifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0088.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Iodine; leaching; HYDRUS 1D model; Simulation; Organic and inorganic amendments
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:07:01 CEST)
This study investigated the ability of a HYDRUS 1D model for predicting the vertical distribution of potassium iodine (200 ppm) in soil columns after amendment with five different common remediation materials (gypsum, lime, fly ash, charcoal and sawdust) at a rate of 2.5% (w/w), relative to an unamended control soil. Results shows that relative to the unamended soil, iodine leaching was decreased by all amendments but that the magnitude of the decreases varied with the soil amendment applied. Iodine content was highest in the upper layer of the soil columns and decreased progressively with soil depth. The model was evaluated via comparison of the model simulated values with measured values from the soil column studies. The results showed that the HYDRUS 1D model efficiency was near to 1, indicating that the stimulated results were near to the measured values. Therefore, this study showed that iodine leaching through a soil could be ascertained well using a HYDRUS 1D model. The model over predicted iodine leaching, resulting to a weak correspondence between the simulated and the measured results for iodine leaching. This suggests that the HYDRUS-1D model does not explain accurately different organic and inorganic amended soil and the preferential flow that occurs in these columns. This may be due to the fact that Freundlich isotherm, which is part of the transport equations, does not sufficiently describe the mechanism of iodine adsorption onto the soil particles. This study would help to select amendments for an effective management strategy to reduce exogenous iodine losses from agro-ecosystems. This would also improve understanding of iodine transport in soil profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0209.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: blister copper, flash smelting slag, citric acid, lead recovery, leaching
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:10:10 CET)
Direct-to-blister copper flash smelting slag contains up to 14% of copper and 2-4% of lead. Considering this fact, this material is subjected to the high-temperature reduction process. After this, converting process is performed on the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy being the product of decopperization process in electric furnace. An alternative to the presently used processing of flash smelting slag would be its hydrometallurgical treatment and selective recovery of Pb and Cu. This paper presents the results of laboratory tests on flash smelting slag leaching with citric acid solutions. The experiments performed allowed to determine the process parameters at which the Pb concentration in the post-leaching sediment reached the value of 0.41-0.6% while the Pb content in flash smelting slag was 3.05%. Analogous values for copper were 11.5-11.8% (after leaching) and 12.44% (before). Material after leaching in citric acid solutions can be processed, in the second step, using sulfuric acid solutions, and it could lead to the recovery of almost all copper contained in it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0118.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: copper mine tailings; mechanical activation; thermal activation; alkaline roasting; alkali leaching
Online: 25 September 2017 (08:41:24 CEST)
Copper mine tailings are the residual products after the purification of precious copper from copper ores, and their storage can create numerous environmental problems. Many researchers have used copper mine tailings for preparation of geopolymer. This paper studies the enhancement of the cementitious activity of copper mine tailings in geopolymer system. First, copper mine tailings are activated through a mechanical grinding activation. Afterward, the mechanically activated copper mine tailings are further processed through thermal activation and alkaline roasting activating. The cementitious activity index of copper mine tailings is characterized through the degree of concentration of alkali leaching silicon and aluminum. It was observed that the Si and Al alkali leaching concentration of mechanical activated tailings was increased by 26.03% and 93.33%, respectively. The concentration of Si and Al was increased by 54.19% and 119.92%, respectively. For alkaline roasting activating, roasting time, temperature and (C/N ratio) were evaluated through the orthogonal test, and the best condition was activation for 120 min at 600℃ with C/N ratio is 5:1. In this study, the SEM, XRD and IR analysis show that mechanically activation, thermal activation and alkaline roasting activating can improve the cementitious activity index of copper mine tailings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: alkali leaching; red mud; high-iron waste; disposal; Al-goethite; conversion; magnetite
Online: 7 November 2022 (04:30:13 CET)
Bauxite residue (BR), also known as red mud, is a by-product of the production of alumina via the Bayer process. Because of the high sodium oxide and other impurities content, this material is not used to obtain iron or other iron-containing products. In this paper, the hydro-chemical conversion of goethite (FeOOH) to magnetite (Fe3O4) in high-iron BR from the Friguia alumina refinery (Guinea) by Fe2+ ions in highly concentrated alkaline media was studied. The simultaneous extraction of Al and Na made it possible to obtain a product containing more than 96% Fe3O4. The results show that the magnetization of Al-goethite and Al-hemetite accelerates the dissolution of the Al from the iron mineral solid matrix and from the desilication product (DSP). After ferrous sulfate (FeSO4·7H2O) was added directly at the FeO:Fe2O3 molar ratio of 1:1 at 120 °C for 150 min in the solution with the 360 g L-1 Na2O concentration, the alumina extraction ratio reached 96.27% for the coarse bauxite residue size fraction (Sands) and 87.06% for fine BR obtained from red mud. The grade of iron (total iron in the form of iron element) in the residue can be increased to 69.55% for Sands and 58.31% for BR. The solid residues obtained after leaching were studied by XRD, XRF, TG-DTA, VSM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and SEM to evaluate the conversion and leaching mechanisms and the recovery ratio of Al from different minerals. The iron-rich residues can be used in the steel industry or as a pigment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0157.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Vanadium-titanium-iron concentrate; Pellet; Sulfuric acid; Cyclic leaching; Vanadium; Eh-pH diagrams
Online: 8 November 2022 (16:04:55 CET)
Here, a process for leaching vanadium from calcified roasting pellets (CPVC) of vanadium-titanium iron concentrate by a two-stage sulfuric acid cycle was proposed. When the silicon removal acid concentration of the pellet in the first stage was 1.5 mol/L, the solid-liquid ratio was 6: 1, the silicon removal acid concentration of the leaching solution was 3.0 mol/L, and the standing time was 48 h, the silica gel formation time was 23 h, the filtration time was 70 s, and the loss rates of vanadium and iron were 1.52% and 0.17%, respectively. When the acid concentration was 2 mol/L, at room temperature, using a leaching time of 28 days, and a solid-liquid ratio of 5: 1 in the second stage, the total leaching rates of vanadium and iron were 75.52% and 0.71%, respectively. The concentration of vanadium in the leaching solution reached 6.80 g/L, and vanadium was directly precipitated without extraction. After secondary roasting, the crushing strength of the pellets reached 2250 N, which met the requirement for blast furnace iron making. The Eh-pH diagrams of the V-Fe-H2O system at different temperatures were plotted. Thermodynamically, it was difficult to selectively leach vanadium and iron by changing the conventional acid leaching conditions. In addition, the pellets before and after leaching were analyzed. The grade of iron in the pellets increased slightly after leaching, and the main phases in the pellets remained as Fe2O3 and Fe9TiO15. The S in the sulfuric acid solution entered the leached pellets during the acid leaching reaction and was removed by the secondary roasting of the leached pellets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst; waste slag; leaching; lanthanum oxide; rare earths recovery
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:04:43 CET)
An laboratory procedure has been developed to obtain lanthanum oxide from spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst, commonly used in the cracking the heavy crude oil process. Two different spent fluid catalytic cracking catalysts, which are mainly formed by silica and alumina, and a certain amount of rare earths were leached under several conditions to recover the rare earth from the solids waste. Subsequently, liquid phases were subjected to a liquid-liquid extraction process, and lanthanum was quantitatively stripped using oxalic acid to obtain the corresponding lanthanum oxalates. After the corresponding thermal treatment, these solids were transformed into lanthanum oxide. Both, lanthanum oxalates and oxides solids have been characterized by wide techniques in order to investigate the purity of the phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0413.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: bauxite residue; red mud; scandium; acid leaching; kinetics; shrinking core model; waste utilization.
Online: 23 November 2021 (09:07:23 CET)
One of the potential sources of rare-earth elements (REEs) is the solid waste from alumina industry - bauxite residue, known as “red mud” (RM). The main REEs from the raw bauxite are concentrated in RM after the Bayer leaching process. The earlier worldwide studies were focused on the scandium (Sc) extraction from RM by concentrated acids to enhance the extraction degree. This leads to the dissolution of major oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3) from RM. This article studies the possibility of selective Sc extraction from alkali fusion red mud (RMF) by diluted nitric acid (HNO3) leaching at pH ≥ 2 to prevent co-dissolution of Fe2O3. RMF samples have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sc extraction has been found to be 71.2 % at RMF leaching by HNO3 at pH=2 and at 80 °C during 90 min. The kinetic analysis of experimental data by the shrinking core model has shown that Sc leaching process is limited by the interfacial diffusion and the diffusion through the product layer. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was 19.5 kJ/mol. We have established that according to EPMA of RMF, Sc is associated with iron minerals; it could act as the product layer. The linear dependence of Sc extraction of magnesium (Mg) extraction has been revealed. This fact indicates that Mg can act as a leaching agent of Sc presented in RMF by ion-exchangeable phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0255.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: magnesium potassium phosphate compound; actinides; rare earth elements; uranium; plutonium; americium; lanthanum; neodymium; immobilization; leaching
Online: 18 May 2018 (06:13:11 CEST)
The problem of effective immobilization of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is key to the successful development of nuclear energy. The possibility of using magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) compound for LRW immobilization on the example of nitric acid solutions containing actinides and rare earth elements (REE), including high level waste (HLW) surrogate solution is considered in the research work. Under the study of phase composition and structure of the MKP compounds obtained by the XRD and SEM methods, it was established that the compounds are composed of crystalline phases - analogues of natural phosphate minerals (struvite, metaankoleite). The hydrolytic stability of the compounds was determined according to the semi-dynamic test GOST R 52126-2003. Low leaching rates of radionuclides from the compound are established, including a differential leaching rate of 239Pu and 241Am - 3.5 × 10-7 and 5.3 × 10-7 g/(cm2∙day). As a result of the research work it was concluded that the MKP compound is promising for LRW immobilization and can become an alternative material combining the advantages of easy implementation of the technology like cementation and the high physical and chemical stability corresponding to a glass-like compound.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agricultural soils; carbon dioxide (CO2), energy; forests; methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nutrient leaching; peat; traffic
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:19:26 CET)
rdinary people and political leaders must know the sources of greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on global climate change before they have ability to make decisions to reduce emissions and increase sinks of these gases. These people must, however, understand where greenhouse gas emissions are formed and how reductions can be made: they must understand where carbon dioxide sinks are and how to preserve or increase these sinks. North Savo is the example used in this work to describe the present emissions and sinks. There are proposals on what should and could be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by traffic, heating, forests and agriculture. There are possibilities of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in traffic and heating in spite of the fact that the province has a low population density with long distances between homes and workplaces and schools, and a cold climate. We believe that research will also find solutions for reducing greenhouse gases and protecting waters, which are used for recreational purposes and for raw water of drinking water in many places. Luckily forests cover large areas of North Savo and their growth is an important carbon dioxide sink. In addition, forest soils serve as a valuable storage of carbon. Besides carbon dioxide emissions, emissions of nitrous oxide and methane must also be considered since they are more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide and land use can thus influence these gas emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: scandium; REEs; bauxite residue; selective leaching; process design aspects; thin film diffusion model; unyielding core; specific recovery
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:50:01 CET)
Aiming at the industrial scale development of a Scandium (Sc)-selective leaching process of Bauxite Residue (BR), a sufficiently numerous set of process design aspects has been investigated, by appropriate exploitation of available experimental data. The interpretation of experimental data for Sc leaching yield, with sulfuric acid as the leaching solvent, has shown significant impact from acid feed concentration, mixing residence time, liquid to solids ratio, and times of leachate re-usage onto fresh BR. The thin film diffusion model, as the fundamental theory for leaching, either with constant particle size for selective leaching, or with shrinking particle size for less-, or non-, selective leaching, interprets sufficiently well the relevant experimental data. In both cases, a concept for an unyielding core supplements the basic model. Especially for the selective leaching mild conditions, the simplest model version keeps step with the experiments, since both prove 1st order kinetics, while especially for the extreme conditions including very low solvent excess, it is proposed a combined conversion rate model with diffusion and chemical reaction inside particles. The maximization of Sc recovery per unit of consumed solvent (i.e., specific recovery) emerged as highly critical for the process economics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0065.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: red mud; bauxite residue; reduction roasting; sodium sulfate; magnetic separation; alumina; high pressure acid leaching; hydrochloric acid; recycling; utilization
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:32:51 CET)
Red mud is a hazardous waste of alumina industry that contains high amounts of iron, aluminum, titanium and REEs. One of the promising methods for the extraction of iron from red mud is car-bothermic reduction with the addition of sodium salts. This research focuses on the process of hy-drochloric high-pressure acid leaching using 10–20% HCl of two samples of non-magnetic tailings obtained by 60-minute carbothermic roasting of red mud at 1300 °C and the mixture of 84.6 wt. % of red mud and 15.4 wt. % Na2SO4 at 1150 °C, respectively, with subsequent magnetic separation of metallic iron. An influence of temperature, leaching duration, solid-to-liquid-ratio and acid con-centration on dissolution behavior of Al, Ti, Mg, Ca, Si, Fe, Na, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sc, Zr were studied. Based on the investigation of the obtained residues, mechanism of passing of valuable elements into the solution was proposed. It has shown that 90% Al, 91% Sc and above 80% of other REEs can be dissolved under optimal conditions; Ti can be extracted into the solution or the residue depending on the leaching temperature and acid concentration. Based on the research results, novel flowsheets for red mud treatment were developed.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: modeling; design; optimization; multiphase; minerals processing; computational fluid dynamic; flotation; leaching; response surface methodology; artificial intelligence; hydrocyclone; global sensitivity analysis
Online: 7 November 2019 (03:56:39 CET)
Multiphase systems are important in minerals processing, and usually include solid-solid and solid-fluid systems. Examples of operations in multiphase systems include flotation, dewatering, and magnetic separation, among several other unit operations. In this paper, the current trends in the process system engineering tasks of modeling, design, and optimization, in multiphase systems, are analyzed. Different scales of size and time are included, and therefore the analysis includes modeling at the molecular level and unit operation level, and the application of optimization for the design of a plant. New strategies for the modeling and optimization of multiphase systems are also included, with a strong focus on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and the combination of experimentation and modeling with response surface methodology (RSM). The paper finishes with tools to study the uncertainty, both epistemic and stochastic, which is present in all mineral processing operations. It is shown that all these areas are very active and can help to understand, operate, design, and optimize mineral processing that involves multiphase systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0202.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: groundwater salinization; soil salinization; salinization risk assessment; climate analysis; water balance; salinity balance; salt leaching; processing tomato; crop yield decrease.
Online: 11 September 2018 (15:29:31 CEST)
Mediterranean climate is marked by arid climate conditions in summer, therefore, crop irrigation is crucial to sustain plant growth and productivity in this season. If groundwater is utilized for irrigation, an impressive water pumping is needed to satisfy crop water requirements at catchment scale. Consequently, irrigation water quality gets worse, specifically considering groundwater salinization near the coastal areas due to seawater intrusion, also triggering soil salinization. With reference to an agricultural coastal area in the Mediterranean basin (Southern Italy), close to the Adriatic sea, an assessment of soil salinization risk due to processing tomato cultivation was carried out. A simulation model was arranged to perform, on daily basis, a water and salt balance along the soil profile. Long-term weather data and soil physical parameters representative of the considered area were utilized in applying the model, also considering three salinity levels of irrigation water. Based on the climatic analysis performed and the model outputs, the probability of soil salinity came out very high, such as to seriously threaten tomato yield. Autumn-winter rainfall resulted frequently insufficient to leach excess salts away from the soil profile and reach sustainable conditions of tomato cultivation. Therefore, alternative cropping strategies were prospected.