REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0161.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Numerical modelling; landscape evolution; surface processes; river networks
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:37:13 CEST)
Currently, the use of numerical models for reproducing the landscape evolution of a river basin is part of the day-by-day research activities of fluvial engineers and geomorphologists. However, despite landscape modelling is based on a rather long tradition, and scientists and practitioners are trying to schematize the processes involved in the evolution of a landscape since decades, there is still the need for improving both the knowledge of the physical mechanisms and their numerical coding. The present review focuses on the first aspect, discussing the main components of a landscape evolution model and their more common schematizations, presenting possible open questions to be addressed towards an improvement of the reliability of such kind of models in describing the fluvial geomorphology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0021.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: landscape, landscape change, landscape change index, monitoring of landscape change, landscape dynamics, land use change, land cover change
Online: 10 April 2019 (12:30:30 CEST)
One of the most problematic forms of nature protection in Poland relates to landscape parks. On the one hand, they include the most valuable landscapes; on the other hand, the areas within the landscape park still have economic uses. Therefore, the monitoring of landscape changes within landscape parks is necessary in order to properly manage these forms of protection. The main objective of the study was to monitor the scale and nature of landscape transformations within the boundaries of landscape parks in Poland during the period 2000–2018 and to assess the possibility of using the landscape change index (LCI) to monitor the intensity of landscape transformations within this type of protected area. Filling a gap in the research on landscape changes, I developed and verified the possibility of using LCI for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes using the example of 12 landscape parks in the Lower Silesia region. Preliminary analyses of the transformations within all landscape parks in Poland showed an upward trend, both in terms of the number of types of identified landscape changes as well as their area. In spite of the large diversity and degree of transformation in landscape parks, several dominant processes can be observed. The largest number and area of changes during each of the analyzed periods were found in transformations within forest landscapes (temporary and permanent deforestation and forest maturation), which constitute the dominant type of land cover within most of the landscape parks. In open landscapes, changes mainly relate to afforestation and natural succession in meadows, pastures and arable land, as well as the transformation of arable land into mining areas. Twelve case studies, covering all landscape parks of the Lower Silesia, have shown that the LCI is an excellent tool for monitoring the intensity of landscape changes, but it is dependent on the accuracy of the source data. The analyses confirmed that, during the study periods, the changes in all 12 Lower Silesian landscape parks were at a low level, but their particular intensification took place in the years 2012–2018. The highest LCI was found in the area where a natural disaster had occurred (air tornado), which destroyed huge areas of forest in landscape parks. After changes in the forest landscape, the most frequently identified type of change in 2006–2012 is the transformation of non-forest landscapes into forest landscapes. The main reason for such changes was the expansion of forest into abandoned arable land, meadows and pastures. The use of the Corine Land Cover database to calculate LCI and monitor the intensity of landscape change revealed a low usability of the database for the year 2000 and a high usability for data from 2006–2018.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0207.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: planning evaluation, spatial planning objectives, urban landscape, spatial multi-criteria analysis, romania, switzerland
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:24:58 CEST)
The evaluation of spatial planning results, or outcomes, has been rather neglected by scholars and practitioners. The causes of this neglect are linked to the characteristics of the planning systems in use or difficulties in quantifying results. To advance the state of the art of outcome evaluation, this paper focuses on assessing the implementation of national spatial planning objectives in urban landscapes, through the use of an evaluation framework that makes use of spatially explicit information. The framework is built on four dimensions which reflect the main domains of spatial planning: efficient built-up development, conservation of agricultural land, landscape preservation, and human perception. Indicators capable of capturing landscape changes in both time and space are used to verify degree of conformance between adopted objectives and actual development patterns. We make use of spatially explicit data and assess whether and where landscape changes occurred, by integrating the framework into a multi-criteria analysis. In the present study, the framework is tested in two study areas in Switzerland and Romania, and the results are interpreted from the perspective of spatial planning approaches in the two countries. The efficiency and utility of the framework is demonstrated by its ability to provide valuable information facilitating improvement in the performance of planning processes, such as identifying where the implementation of objectives is less effective, and the domains of spatial planning that are affected. Our findings highlight that the distance between objectives and outcomes can be attributed to differences in countries’ spatial planning approaches, particularly regarding landscape preservation and management. Our study provides valuable insights for the integration of time series of spatial data into the evaluation procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0078.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: forest recreation; forest landscape; landscape image; landscape image sketching technique
Online: 8 April 2019 (09:08:30 CEST)
The landscape image is the bridge of communication between people and forests, and the cut point of the supply-side reform of forest tourism products. The research collected 140 copies in total of forest landscape image drawings from non-art-major graduate students by randomly sampling during April and May, 2018, and constructed the landscape image conceptual model of forest by utilizing the landscape image sketching technique. The results showed that (1) In regard to linguistic knowledge, the natural landscape elements for instance, herbaceous plants, terrains, creatures, water and sky, and the broad-leaf forest objectively reflected not only the real forest landscape and the local native vegetation, but the variation of forest species with little attention. (2) On the perspective of spatial view, the sideways view indicated that graduate students preferred to watch forests at a moderate distance externally and few looked at forests internally. (3) In the view of self-orientation, the objective landscape indicated that graduate students preferred to demonstrate forest landscapes, they did not realize to interact with the environment. (4) On the aspect of social meaning, the scenic view and forest structure stated that graduate students preferred rural forest landscapes, not significantly for other special interests for forest. In conclusions, (1) the forest is thought to be a feature of people's life world and of rural scenes around homes, not an objective perception of the forest. (2) The forest is regarded as an important habitat for animals and a limited resource for people's life, production and recreation needs, into which people will go only to meet such needs. (3) The natural values of forests, like the ecology and aesthetics, etc. get more attention, while the social values of forests, like the life, production and culture receives rather low attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0533.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: driving forces; landscape change; landscape dynamics; forest landscape; land use; land cover; landscape change index
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:49:28 CEST)
Abstract: Changes in forest landscapes have been connected with human activity for centuries, which can be considered as one of the main driving forces of change in the global perspective. The spatial distribution of forests changes along with the geopolitical situation, demographic changes, intensification of agriculture, urbanization or changes in the land use policy. However, due to the limited availability of historical data, the driving forces of changes in forest landscapes are most often considered in relation to recent decades, without taking into account long-term analyzes. The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of natural and socio-economic factors on changes in forest landscapes within the protected area – Ślęża Landscape Park and its buffer zone in the aspect of long-term analyzes covering the period of 140 years (1883-2013). The comparison of historical and current maps, demographic data on 4 different periods as well as natural and location factors by using the ArcGIS software allowed analyzing selected driving forces of forest landscape transformations. We took into account natural factors like altitude, slope, exposure of the hillside and socio-economic drivers like population changes, distances to centers of municipalities, main roads and built-up areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0011.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Spatial Landscape Patterns; Spatial Composite Indicators; Landscape Functions; Landscape Resilience; ANP method; Geographic Information System (GIS
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:18:46 CET)
The concept of transformative resilience emerges from complex recent literature and represents a way to interpret the potential opportunities to change in vulnerable territories, where a socio-economic change is required. This article extends the perspective of transformative resilience to assessing of the landscape multi-functionality of inland areas, exploring the potentials to identify a network of synergies among the different municipalities able to trigger a process of territorial resilience. A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for multi-functionality landscape assessment aims to support the local actors to understand local resources and multi-functional values of the Partenio Regional Park (PRP) and surrounding municipalities, in the South of Italy, stimulating their cooperation to the management of environmental and cultural sites and the co-design of new strategies of enhancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0603.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: the landscape structure; the river island; the Venetsiansky (Hydropark) Island; the genetic landscape study; the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP).
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:27:56 CEST)
The article studies the Venetsiansky (Hydropark) Island (the Dnipro River, Kyiv, Ukraine) landscape structure applying the genetic landscape science method and the European landscape classification (LANMAP) approach. The aim of the article is to determine the best way to study the river islands landscapes analyzing the Venetsiansky Island landscape structure by the both methods. Methodology. The genetic landscape science method consists in the next steps: 1) the island’s territory information collecting; 2) the preliminary landscape map creating; 3) field study; 4) the final landscape map creating. The LANMAP method consists on: 1) the climate study; 2) the altitude study; 3) the parent material study; 4) the land cover study. The results. The genetic landscape science method demonstrates that the Venetsiansky Island is not a landscape, but a structural part of the landscape – the tract. The LANMAP study reveals that the Venetsiansky Island is naturally homogeneous, but land cover differs. The conclusion. The both methods’ study shows that the river island cannot be the entire landscape by the natural criteria, but only the part of it. The genetic landscape science explores the landscape forming while the LANMAP reveals the current state of the landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0461.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: EEG, Psychophysiological responses, Landscape Evaluation, Nightscapes, Sustainable Landscape Design, Fear, Night Pollution
Online: 24 September 2018 (14:39:10 CEST)
As the necessity for safety and aesthetic of nightscape have arisen, the importance of nightscapes (i.e., nighttime landscape) planning has garnered the attention of mainstream consciousness. Therefore, this study is to suggest the guideline for nightscape planning using electroencephalography (EEG) technology and survey for recognizing the characteristics of a nightscape. Furthermore, we verified the EEG method as a tool for landscape evaluation. This study analyzed the change of relative alpha power and relative beta power and self-reporting of participants in order to investigate the correlation between EEG and fear according to twelve nightscape settings. Our findings indicated the corresponding measures of fear vary accordance with whether there was people or not, and the environmental settings (Built Nightscape Images; BNI vs Natural Nightscape Images; NNI). Based on our physiological EEG experiment, we provided a new analytic view of the nightscape. The approach we utilized enables a deeper understanding of emotional perception and fear among human subjects by identifying the physical environment which impacts how they experience nightscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0517.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: city trees; landscape design; landscape architecture; socio-ecological system; urban ecosystem; urban forest
Online: 30 August 2022 (09:54:35 CEST)
Despite the abundance of tree diversity in the natural world, and generally high tree species richness in urban areas, urban forests continue to be dominated by a limited number of species. As socio-ecological systems, urban forests are shaped by historical and current management efforts and decision-making of a wide range of human actors. Drawing on past research, we offer a conceptual framework for describing the complex interactions among tree producers and consumers as trees are selected, grown, specified, and planted in private and public urban areas. We illustrate how multiple layers of selection criteria filter down the entirety of potential local tree diversity to a handful of commonly used and accepted tree species. We detail the actors and decision makers who impact tree composition and diversity across several land types. Finally, we identify research, education and outreach needs as they relate to creating more diverse and resilient urban forest ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0484.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: analytical index; continental U.S.; Human Footprint; human perception; landscape modification; landscape transformation; systematic conservation planning
Online: 29 September 2021 (10:04:40 CEST)
We assessed how close human perceptions of landscape modification matched a multivariate index based on remotely sensed data of the same locations. Using a Human Footprint (HF) map of the continental U.S. (scaled 0-100), we created three series of aerial images, each with ten images distributed evenly across the 10 deciles of HF score. Using a web-based survey, 290 members of the global public ranked the images in one series based on their perception of the degree of human modification. Respondents also reported age, sex, and country. The degree of correspondence between rankings by respondents and by HF score was high, an average of 1.29 units of difference out of a maximum possible of 5.0. Differences among respondents were not explained by age, sex, or general geographic location. These results suggest that human perception of relative landscape modification conforms closely with the relative ranking made by a multivariate, analytical index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0436.v1
Online: 25 August 2022 (13:21:39 CEST)
Indole and indole-3-lactate are known dominant microbial tryptophan catabolites (MICT). In obesity, the fecal indole concentration corresponds to the normal one, and that of indole-3-lactate significantly decreases along with other MICT, while it increases in blood plasma. During the analysis of the «enzymatic landscape» of the intestinal microbiota we find an almost twofold increase in the correlation between the concentrations of fecal MICT and the «enzymatic landscape», with indole-3-lactate having the closest relationships with the “enzymatic landscape” of all MICT. Here, we report statistically significant correlations of indole-3-lactate and the gut microbial enzymes for fructose, amino sugars, nucleotides, polyamines metabolism, and sulfoglycolysis. We also demonstrate that indole-3-lactate producing microbiota representatives increase three-fold in obesity. The phenotype of the microbiotic population is thus represented by completely different genera and species of microorganisms in obese individuals compared to healthy donors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0162.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Agroecology; Apoidea; Landscape; Pesticide; Sacrifice zones
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:33:00 CEST)
Industrial agriculture (IA) is the predominant model of food production since the Green Revolution in the 1950s. IA has been recognized among the main drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change and native pollinator decline. This is controversial, given that native agricultural pollinators are an important resource biota already contributing to crop yield, especially in areas defined as "world biodiversity hotspots” (WBH). These areas often overlap with agricultural zones hosting a significant proportion of cultivated land, mainly through intensive agricultural practices. Pollinator biodiversity and pollination services in these places are currently under threat due to the negative consequences of IA. The dual role of insects as key players allowing the maintenance of the natural ecosystem, as well as main crop pollinators, is particularly exacerbated and urgently requires conservation actions in WBH and food-producing zones. Here we summarize the known negative effects of IA on pollinator biodiversity and illustrate these problems by considering the case of Chile. Food exports represent a considerable part of the economy in this OECD “developing country” in the “Global South”, and a large part of its surface has been highlighted as a unique WBH. This area is currently being replaced by IA businesses at a fast pace, threatening local biodiversity. We present agroecological strategies for sustainable food production and pollinator conservation in food-producing WBHs like Chile. These alternatives recognize native pollinators as internal inputs that cannot be replaced by IA technological packages or external inputs and support the development of agroecological and biodiversity restoration practices to protect their existing biodiversity. We suggest a strategy that integrates four fundamental pillars for producing food in a sustainable way, recognizing biodiversity and local cultural heritage: 1) Share the land, restore and protect; 2) Ecological intensification; 3) Localized knowledge, research and technological development; and 4) Territorial planning and implementation of socio-agroecological policies. We suggest that this approach does not need greater modification of native pollination services that sustain the world with food and basic subsistence goods, but a paradigm change where the interdependency of nature and human wellbeing are recognized for ensuring the present and future of the world’s food security and sovereignty as well as considering the reduction of consumerism and food waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0243.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Habitat types, visual differences, landscape characteristics.
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:07:05 CEST)
The unique qualities of areas with natural landscape features help provide sustainability. Moreover, their different vegetation covers and ecosystems contribute to the preservation of their visual attraction. In recent years, the demand for natural areas has not only been seen at a recreational level, but has also become associated with the conservation and sustainability of those areas. Although the concept of sustainability is expressed from an ecological point of view, studies indicate that the visual aspect is also an important component. Thus, in this study, a visual quality assessment was carried out which considered both objective and subjective evaluations of different habitat types. Efteni lake-wetland and Melen Ağzı dunes (Düzce), Anzer, Ayder, and Çat Düzü highlands (Rize), and Sultanmurat and Taşli highlands (Trabzon) were selected as the study areas. A visual quality analysis was conducted with a total of 43 participants (23 students, 16 local inhabitants and four lecturers) in order establish their preferences in areas with different landscape characteristics. For the determination of the visual qualifications of these areas, a total of 24 photographs showing typical images representing each habitat type (three photographs for each) were employed. Taking perceptual parameters into consideration, assessment of visual quality was made according to the points given to each photo by the participants. Consequently, differences in visual quality were found to be influenced by the demographic status of the participants, differences in habitat types, recreational trends and the conservation status of the habitats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0316.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Mercury accumulation, Lake sediment, Holocene, Landscape development
Online: 17 August 2018 (16:04:26 CEST)
Forest vegetation plays a key role in the cycling of mercury (Hg) and organic matter (OM) in terrestrial ecosystems. Litterfall has been indicated as the major transport vector of atmospheric Hg to forest soils, which is eventually transported and stored in the sediments of forest lakes. Hence, it is important to understand how changes in forest vegetation affect Hg in soil and its biogeochemical cycling in lake systems. We investigated the pollen records and the geochemical compositions of sediments from two lakes (Schurmsee and Glaswaldsee) in the Black Forest (Germany) to evaluate whether long-term shifts in forest vegetation induced by climate or land use influenced Hg accumulation in the lakes. We were particularly interested to determine whether coniferous forests were associated with a larger export of Hg to aquatic systems than deciduous forests. Principal components analysis followed by principal component regression enabled us to describe the evolution of the weight of the latent processes determining the accumulation of Hg over time. Our results emphasize that the in-lake uptake of Hg during warm climate periods, soil erosion after deforestation and emissions from mining and other human activities triggered changes in Hg accumulation during the Holocene stronger than the changes caused by forest vegetation alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0422.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: metals; trace elements; landscape; permafrost; river; watershed; boreal
Online: 30 June 2022 (08:44:41 CEST)
Towards a better understanding of vegetation, permafrost, climate, landscape and lithology control on major and trace element (including macro and micro-nutrients and toxicants) transport in riverine systems, we studied two medium size (100-150 thousand km² watershed area) pristine rivers (Taz and Ket) of boreal and subarctic zone, western Siberia. Choosing the river basins of very low population density (< 1 people km-²) in the absence of any industrial or agricultural activity allowed testing the sole effect of natural factors and long-range atmospheric transfer on hydrochemistry of riverine solutes during the open water period. In the permafrost-bearing Taz River (main stem and 17 tributaries), sizable control of vegetation on element concentration was revealed. In particular, light coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest controlled DOC, and some nutrients (N, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cd, Ba); deciduous needleleaf forest positively correlated with macronutrients (P, Si, Mg, P, Ca) and Sr, and dark needle-leaf forest impacted Ntot, Al and Rb. Organic C stock in the upper 30-100 cm soil positively correlated with Be, Mn, Co, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Bi. The lithological control was generally poorly pronounced, due to abundant peat deposits overlaying the mineral strata. However, cretaceous carbonate mineral-bearing sedimentary deposits positively impacted the pH and concentration of Si, Mg, Ca and Cs. In the Ket River basin (large right tributary of the Ob River), we revealed the correlations between the phytomass stock at the watershed and alkaline-earth metals and U concentration in the river water. This control was weakly pronounced during high-water period (spring flood) and mostly evidenced during summer low water period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0205.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: city trees; landscape design; nursery production; urban greenspace
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:38:21 CEST)
While many practitioners and experts understand the risks associated with low urban tree diversity, they often lack the ability to rectify issues they encounter on their own. The current system of tree production and procurement is complex – shaped by market pressures, nursery and site constraints, local governance, and differing professional objectives among those who grow, specify, and plant trees. To understand this complexity as well as constraints to- and opportunities for increasing urban tree diversity, we conducted a series of focus groups comprised of nursery growers, landscape architects, and urban foresters. Our results highlight a significant list of considerations and constraints to diversity (both shared among green industries and some specific to growers or purchasers). More importantly, in discussing our findings we outline actionable strategies for increasing urban tree diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ecological corridors; green infrastructure; protected areas; landscape components
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:21:34 CEST)
An important set of Ecosystem services (ES) provided by Green infrastructures (GI) consists of habitats and species protection and improvement, which coincides with biodiversity conservation and enhancement. From this perspective, one of the most outstanding features of GI is its attitude towards addressing the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation on the supply of ES related to biodiversity by strengthening the effectiveness of connections between protected areas. Building on a methodological approach defined in previous studies by Cannas, published in a set of articles between 2017 and 2018 [1–4], this study identifies ecological corridors (EC) with reference to the spatial layout of a set of protected areas. Moreover, such methodological approach is implemented into the context of the Sardinian region to map EC, which form, together with protected areas, a network representing the spatial framework of a regional GI. Finally, the relation between the EC and the spatial taxonomy of the landscape components featured by environmental relevance (LCFER), identified by the Regional Landscape Plan is analyzed, in order to assess if, and to what extent, the present regional spatial zoning code can be used as a basis to implement regulations aimed at protecting EC.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: antibody; binding energy; binding landscape; logistic function; network
Online: 21 April 2022 (08:10:03 CEST)
Antibodies constitute a major component of serum on protein mass basis. We also know that the structural diversity of these antibodies exceeds that of all other proteins in the body and they react with an immense number of molecular targets. What we still cannot quantitatively describe is, how antibody abundance is related to affinity, specificity and cross reactivity. This ignorance has important practical consequences: we also do not have proper biochemical units for characterizing polyclonal serum antibody binding. The solution requires both a theoretical foundation, a physical model of the system, and technology for the experimental confirmation of theory. Here we argue that the quantitative characterization of interactions between serum antibodies and their targets requires systems-level physical chemistry approach and generates results that should help create maps of antibody binding landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0092.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Carnivores; Habitat suitability; Landscape gradients; Scrublands; Woodlands; Wildfires.
Online: 7 February 2022 (15:10:29 CET)
Wildfires are important sources of landscape change in Mediterranean environments, creating large patches of natural habitats (i.e., scrublands) inside protected areas, whereas woodland patches remained at the border in the vicinity of human settlements. Landscape patterns resulting from these gradients influence habitat suitability for mesocarnivores regarding food and shelter. In winter and summer 2019, we sampled 16 independent line-transects of four camera traps each (for a total of 64 cameras), covering the main habitats of the study area (woodlands, scrublands, and crops). Cameras were baited to compensate for low detectability of target species, and mesocarnivore contacts were analyzed by means of GLMMs and occupancy models. We hypothesized that Mediterranean mesocarnivores were constrained by two opposing forces, pushing them living in semi-natural but highly fragmented and heterogeneous landscapes created by humans, or living in natural but less suitable and continuous habitats created by fire regimes. In the former case, mesocarnivores will find protection against predators and resting sites in forests, as well as improved food opportunities in crops and urban areas, despite the possible interference with humans and their pets. Potential cascading effects linked to ecological roles of Mediterranean mesocarnivores on the succession of Mediterranean landscapes would imply longer-term effects of human disturbance on landscape trends.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Runoff runoff; Mountainous region; Watershed; Landscape; Climate; Management
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:21:43 CET)
Watershed’s landscape features and climate features have a significant influence on the mountainous catchment’s hydrological response. This literature review synthesizes recent kinds of literature investigating associations between surface runoff and catchment’s landscape features, and the potential controls of climate variables, with an emphasis on mountainous regions. Such factors are significant controls on surface runoff through their influence on the rate of infiltration capacity, antecedent soil moisture conditions, and underlying bedrock structure. The literature review indicates that there are considerable issues that remain to be resolved in advance a concrete understanding of the influence of catchment’s characteristics on surface runoff response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Landscape Ecology; Lake; River; Urban Ecosystem; Urban Forest
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:46:04 CET)
Within the town, Abiotic is a built environment that includes buildings, roads, pedestrians, and other elements that interact with biotics, which are living things including plants, animals, and humans. From a landscape ecological perspective, the urban structure consists of (1) a matrix, which is a collection of dominant buildings and homogeneous elements, (2) Patches are grouped as housing, urban forests, parks, lakes, and finally (3) Corridors such as roads, rivers, and pedestrians. The dominance of watertight areas over green open spaces in urban development can lead to increased temperatures and runoff. The condition of the soil structure and the steep slope of the soil can cause landslides, therefore urban development must pay attention to the natural conditions of the area being built. This research was conducted in Kota Baru, Bogor, South Tangerang, and Cikarang (Bekasi Regency). The purpose of this study is to determine the natural environment and the built environment as well as changes in the ecosystem and their consequences for the new town and its surroundings. This research uses quantitative and qualitative approaches. Analysis of land-use change uses spatial and temporal methods, while Nieuwolt's equation is used to measure comfort. This study finds comfortable environmental planning, with green open spaces such as urban forests, city parks, and bodies of water, such as lakes, as a space for interaction between fellow new city residents and people outside the new towns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0174.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Hindu Temples; Sacred landscape; Bhaishnavism; Conservation; Architectural Documentation
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:57:50 CET)
This article represents survey data of historical and architectural documentation of Sri Radha Binod Ashrama locally known as the Panishail temple. Temple architecture is a common feature of traditional religious architecture practice in Bangladesh. This article is a historical and architectural investigation of a less known and mixed type of Hindu temple style in the Bengal region. The Panishail temple complex has a collection of structures that include tomb, temples, and residences aged between fifty to two hundred years. Over the ages, these heritage buildings have displayed a unique architectural style of ancient Bengal and still serving as a living sacred landscape heritage. However, like most of the ancient monuments of Bangladesh, Panishail structures inside this complex stand against the threat of decay and anthropogenic destruction with no effort to conserve them. There is a need for immediate action of research, exploration and preservation to save this historic landmark. This research aims to investigate historic and physical features of the temple complex through a systematic survey and documentation effort. This research will lay a foundation for future conservation intervention on this site. Moreover, this work will significantly contribute to historic temple architecture study in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0050.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: potato cultivation soil suitability; agricultural landscape categorisation; GIS
Online: 5 February 2020 (02:52:46 CET)
Growing potato demands considerable external inputs of pesticides due to its susceptibility to various pests and pathogens. Here we present an attempt to differentiate the Slovak rural landscape with respect to the possibility of effective potato cultivation and to characterise soil parameters of current potato cultivation areas with the aim to increase the sustainability of the potato production. The selection was based on soil climatic, production and economic parameters. By using the GIS tools and existing databases on soil characteristics in Slovakia, maps of soil suitability categories for potato cultivation were generated. In Slovakia, it was found that 12.3% of farmland is very suitable for potato cultivation and that as much as 43.1% is not suitable. Later the specified categories were characterised in detail and specified with respect to geographic, soil, climatic, production and economic parameters. Currently, most potato crops are cultivated on Eutric Cambisols (27%), Chernozems (20%) and Mollic Fluvisols (18%). Loamy soils (65%), soils without gravel (62%), deep soils (74%) and soil situated on plains (55%) are dominant in these regions. We suggest that potato cultivation should be concentrated on the most suitable areas, thereby increasing the economic profitability, improving the ecological stability of the country and supporting the sustainability of the agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0278.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: cultural identity; conservation; cultural landscape; value; Uraman Takh
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:11:03 CET)
Identity is the basis and foundation of the cultural landscape. Despite the emphasis of international documents and charters on its various aspects and necessity, today, the cultural landscape is threatened by extinction due to changes of many parameters. Accordingly, it is crucial to find an approach that can sustain cultural identity and its values in the changing world of the twenty-first century. Given the qualitative and the changing nature of cultural identity, achieving an approach which can lead to its continuation is not straightforward. By reviewing and analyzing international conventions and documents, on the one hand, and expert opinions, on the other hand, the present study, therefore, aimed to find out how the approach of cultural landscape values conservation can lead to the continuation of cultural identity in the natural and cultural heritage of Uraman Takht. This paper employed qualitative research methods as a basis for data collection and analysis, which primarily involved the use of content analysis along with field observations and interviews with stakeholders and indigenous residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0708.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: landscape design and planning; research-by-design; multifunctional agriculture
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:49:35 CEST)
Rural landscapes all over the world are subject to great transformations, first of all the continuous and slow depopulation of land and villages. It is a dramatic phenomenon that causes devastating consequences for environmental systems and for the tangible and intangible heritage of entire territories. The situation becomes more ambiguous when it comes to cultural landscapes, especially those internationally recognized as exceptional (i.e. inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List). In this case, the risk is to abandon agricultural production in favor of consumerist tourist economies, which can damage the territorial authenticity. In this paper we question the role of the landscape project in strengthening territorial resilience. In particular, a composite and interdependent action is proposed between landscape design and implementation of a multifunctional agriculture model, oriented towards teaching and tourism. To undertake this investigation, a master's thesis work on Landscape Architecture is examined, as an opportunity for a research-by-design method. The application case is the Italian UNESCO site of Vignale Monferrato, a depopulated rural village, characterized by abandoned land and buildings. The paper concludes by outlining replicability application scenarios for the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0678.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: supervised machine learning; automated landscape mapping; digital elevation model
Online: 26 April 2021 (14:44:24 CEST)
Landscapes evolve due to climatic conditions, tectonic activity, geological features, biological activity, and sedimentary dynamics. These processes link geological processes at depth to surface features. Consequently, the study of landscapes can reveal essential information about the geochemical footprint of ore deposits at depth. Advances in satellite imaging and computing power have enabled the creation of large geospatial datasets, the sheer size of which necessitates automated processing. We describe a methodology to enable the automated mapping of landscape pattern domains using machine learning (ML) algorithms. From a freely available Digital Elevation Model, derived data, and sample landclass boundaries provided by domain experts, our algorithm produces a dense map of the model region in Western Australia. Both random forest and support vector machine classification achieve about 98\% classification accuracy with reasonable runtime of 48 minutes on a single core. We discuss computational resources and study the effect of grid resolution. Larger tiles result in a more contiguous map, while smaller tiles result in a more detailed, and at some point, noisy map. Diversity and distribution of landscapes mapped in this study support previous results. In addition, our results are consistent with the geological trends and main basement features in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0563.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: plant development rate; temperature-dependent; landscape; multi-location trials
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:33:34 CEST)
Understanding the detailed timing of crop phenology and their variability enhances grain yield and quality by providing precise scheduling of irrigation, fertilization, and crop protection mechanisms. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) provide a unique opportunity to develop agriculture-related tools that enhance wall-to-wall upscaling of data outputs from point-location data to wide-area spatial scales. Because of the heterogeneity of the worldwide agro-ecological zones where crops are cultivated, it is unproductive to perform plant phenology research without providing means to upscale results to landscape-level while safeguarding field-scale relevance. This paper presents an advanced, reproducible, and open-source software for plant phenology prediction and mapping (PPMaP) that inputs data obtained from multi-location field experiments to derive models for any crop variety. This information can then be applied consecutively at a localized grid within a spatial framework to produce plant phenology predictions at the landscape level. This software supports the development of process-oriented and temperature-driven plant phenology models by intuitively and interactively leading the user through a step-by-step progression to the production of spatial maps for any region of interest. Maize (Zea mays L.) was used to demonstrate the robustness, versatility, and high computing efficiency of the resulting modeling outputs of the PPMaP. The framework is implemented in R, providing a flexible and easy‐to‐use GUI interface. Since this allows appropriate scaling to the larger spatial domain, the software can effectively be used to determine the spatially explicit length of growing period (LGP) of any variety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0118.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Irrigation; rainwater harvest; surface runoff; ecologic recycling; landscape ecology
Online: 11 September 2019 (12:56:15 CEST)
The reserves of water, which is one of the most important requirements for human life, gradually decreases under current conditions and rapidly depletes despite being one of the renewable resources. Considering the global water reserves, it became imperative to implement measures to protect the anticipated water reserves. The fact that the amount of quality water per capita decreases every day in the world and the increasing competition in water management could be considered among the indicators of the above-mentioned case. In recent years, as the effects of this adversity became increasingly more evident, several sustainable methods were adopted all over the world such as rain gardens and rainwater storage facilities. These sustainable techniques could be observed in many areas, especially in urban centers. In the present study, the area with the highest water collection was determined at Karadeniz Technical University Kanuni Campus and identified as the study area. Precipitation per square meter and surface runoff volume were identified based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) data, annual water collection volume was calculated, and information on economic and ecological recycling of the water was provided. In conclusion, the precipitation data for 11 years were compared, and it was calculated that the average annual precipitation was 64.06 kg/m2 and annual surface runoff water was 552.77 m3. Based on the surface runoff water volume in the months when no irrigation is conducted, a reservoir was designed under the vehicle road and water recycling recommendations were developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0735.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: urban commerce; cultural landscape; historic city; cultural heritage; management
Online: 17 December 2018 (04:58:43 CET)
By analyzing the urban landscape, this investigation focuses on commercial typologies in historical urban areas and its relationship with the urban landscape and its heritage values. Trade plays an essential role in historical urban areas, both in the past and in the present, since it is part of the urban landscape—creating it and modifying it, but also preserving it. Historical protected urban areas contain diverse elements reflecting the impacts of commercial activities that have existed in cities throughout history. At present, the urban landscape of commercial activity is made up of a multiplicity of typologies and formats which interact with the historical landscape and its values, using them to strengthen its strategies of attraction, differentiation, and sales. Shop owners contribute to the preservation of historic urban areas by maintaining the commercial functions within them. Therefore, we affirm that the role of commercial activity in the preservation of urban protected areas is essential. However, further research is needed because this aspect has not been addressed in depth by the scientific community specializing in the management of cultural heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0089.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: WebGIS; Landscape; heritage; personalized learning; the cloud; distance learning
Online: 25 August 2017 (18:39:41 CEST)
The value of landscape, as part of collective heritage, can be acquired by GIS due to the multilayer approach of the spatial configuration. Proficiency in geospatial technologies in order to collect, process, analyze, interpret, visualize and communicate geographic information is being increased by undergraduate and graduate students, but in particular by those who are training to become geography teachers at secondary education. This training can be carried out through personalized learning and distance learning methodology. Personalized GIS education aims to integrate students and enhance their understanding of landscape. Some teaching experiences are shown whereby opportunities offered by WebGIS will be described, through quantitative tools and techniques that will allow this modality of learning and improve its effectiveness. Results of this research show that students, through geospatial technologies, learn landscape as a diversity of elements but also the complexity of physical and human factors involved. Several conclusions will be highlighted: i) the contribution of geospatial training to education for sustainable development; ii) spatial analysis as a mean of skills acquisition about measures for landscape conservation; iii) expanding and applying acquired knowledge to other geographic spaces and different landscapes.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0174.v2
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: biogeochemical linkage; biotransport; floral landscape; penguin colony; south sandwich islands
Online: 24 April 2020 (13:40:48 CEST)
Research Question: To what extent is local flora influenced by ornithogenic soil biochemical-composition in the South Sandwich Islands, with special attention given to Zavodovski, and what are the down-stream effects on the geology of the islands? Hypothesis: Areas supplied by fluvial run-off from penguin colonies, especially crˆeches, host the most productive and species rich floral landscapes, even after controlling for geothermal activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: rice landscape; natural enemies; location; population dynamics; variography; LANDSAT 8
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:13:50 CEST)
Relationships among the population abundance of four predator groups for rice insect pests, namely: carabid beetles, staphylinid beetles, green mirid bugs, and spiders in three landscape categories were evaluated. Both rice plots and the associated bund margins of these rice plots found among three Bangladesh landscape categories were sampled by sweep net. The results revealed that the abundance significantly varied across landscapes. The rice landscape of one location harbored higher numbers of a specific predator than other location in other regions of Bangladesh. The results also showed a dependency on the width of the rice bund margins of the rice plots, where spiders populations increased with increased bund widths, but the population abundance of these predators did not depend on the diversity of the number of weed species found on the rice bund margins. The relative abundance of predator populations also significantly differed among the three landscapes, with the green mirid bug having the highest number among the four predators. This study indicates that predators of rice insect pests are highly landscape specific. In order to design integrated pest management systems for different Bangladeshi rice production locales, considerations unique to the characteristics of each locale are necessary. Preliminary efforts to apply variography analyses to the RED spectral band of LANDSAT 8 imagery from December 2016 are presented as first step toward learning a suite of methods which describe useful local characteristics affecting rice pest predators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0169.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rocky desertification; MESMA; high spatial resolution; landscape heterogeneity; topographic effects
Online: 27 February 2018 (03:22:59 CET)
Karst rocky desertification (KRD) is a process where strong anthropogenic disturbances and exposure of carbonate bedrock occurs in fragile karst ecosystems. The fractional cover of rocky outcrops is a key indicator and mechanistic driver of KRD and can be accurately assessed using remote sensing technology. Nevertheless, rugged karst terrain relief can cause shadow effects on satellite imagery and combine with high heterogeneity of karst landscapes to prevent fractional cover retrievals. In this study, we explored the feasibility of applying multispectral high spatial resolution ALOS imagery for fractional cover extraction of rocky outcrops. We selected the dimidiate pixel model (DPM), which has been applied in previous studies, and spectral mixture analysis (SMA; including simple endmember spectral mixture analysis (SESMA) and multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA)) to explore the feasibility of using remote images for KRD monitoring and improve accuracy for estimating fractions. Results from MESMA achieved high overall accuracy (76.4%) in monitoring percentage of rocky outcrop fraction in the study area. SESMA appears to underestimate percentage of rocky outcrop likely because the development of KRD was driven by complex factors (soil erosion, dissolution and anthropogenic disturbances). This results in spectral reflectance of rocky outcrop being variable in different settings. Predicted exposed bedrock coverage using SESMA and MESMA was similar in sun-lit and shaded areas although predictions from SESMA were smaller than reference data. DPM underestimated the fractional cover of rocky outcrops on south-facing slopes and overestimated it in shaded areas. Furthermore, SESMA and MESMA effectively reduced topographic effects. We conclude that it is better to extract percentage of rocky outcrop using MESMA in the karst region of southwestern China. Remote sensing is emerging as a feasible method to extract surface condition information in heterogeneous and rugged landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0070.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote sensing; direct detection; GIS mapping; Caribbean Archaeology; landscape archaeology
Online: 11 October 2017 (16:23:29 CEST)
Satellite imagery has had limited application in the analysis of pre-colonial settlement archaeology in the Caribbean; visible evidence of wooden structures perishes quickly in tropical climates. Only slight topographic modifications remain, typically associated with middens. Nonetheless, surface scatters, as well as the soil characteristics they produce, can serve as quantifiable indicators of an archaeological site, which can be detected by analysis of remote sensing imagery. A variety of data sets were investigated, with the intention to combine multispectral bands to feed a direct detection algorithm, providing a semi-automatic process to cross-correlate the datasets. Sampling was done using locations of known sites, as well as areas with no archaeological evidence. The pre-processed very diverse remote sensing data sets have gone through a process of image registration. The algorithm was applied in the northwestern Dominican Republic on areas that included different types of environments, chosen for having sufficient imagery coverage, and a representative number of known locations of indigenous sites. The resulting maps present quantifiable statistical results of locations with similar pixel value combinations as the identified sites, indicating higher probability of archaeological evidence. The results show the variable potential of this method in diverse environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0056.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: city grid; urban landscape; landmarks; urban nodes; city image; blitz; reconstruction
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:06:59 CEST)
Modernist planners were given the opportunity to apply the idea of the Modern Movement in the implementation of cities transforming after World War II, which was not possible before in long-term evolving structures. Usually, however, it was impossible to change everything: some urban and even architectural elements were necessary to be preserved. As a result, the elements of the ancient landscapes of these cities - historical objects and spaces - necessary for the continuity of evidence of history and identity have been preserved, sometimes through reconstruction. Finally, in some of these cities, both old and new elements contribute to the contemporary urban landscape. The aim of the research is to examine two key categories of urban structure in this perspective: 1. landmarks 2. urban network nodes. For this purpose: 1. the changes in the number and rank of the space with which the landmarks exhibition was carried out were compared; 2. the changes in the rank of nodes in the urban structure functioning both in the pre-war and in the present structure, as well as changes in their distribution and concentration areas were analyzed. The numbers of individual elements were balanced and the changes in the structure of their arrangement were analyzed with the use of a polygon grid. The analyzes were based on the case of a medium-scale European city (Białystok). Research shows that as a result of post-war reconstruction, the number of elements of the urban grid decreased, especially those of lower rank, the rank of others decreased.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0415.v1
Subject: Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity; stemness; landscape; phenotypic plasticity; cancer stem cells; metastasis
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:57:56 CEST)
Establishing macrometastases at distant organs is a highly challenging process for cancer cells, with extremely high attrition rates. A very small percentage of disseminated cells have the ability to dynamically adapt to their changing micro-environments through reversibly switching to another phenotype, aiding metastasis. Such plasticity can be exhibited along one or more axes – epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) being the two most studied, and often tacitly assumed to be synonymous. Here, we review the emerging concepts related to EMP and CSCs across multiple cancers. Both processes are multi-dimensional in nature; for instance, EMP can be defined on morphological, molecular and functional changes, which may or may not be synchronized. Similarly, self-renewal, multi-lineage potential, and anoikis and/or therapy resistance may not all occur simultaneously in CSCs. Thus, arriving at rigorous functional definitions for both EMP and CSCs is crucial. These processes are dynamic, reversible, and semi-independent in nature; cells traverse the inter-connected high-dimensional EMP and CSC landscapes in diverse paths, each of which may exhibit a distinct EMP-CSC coupling. Our proposed model offers a potential unifying framework for elucidating the coupled decision-making along these dimensions and highlights a key set of open questions to be answered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0124.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: landscape; land and water management; restoration of ecosystem services; AM; Ethiopia
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:21:16 CEST)
Ethiopia has decades of experience in implementing land and water management interventions. Nonetheless, there remains persisting challenges to follow an adaptive management (AM) approach in efforts of restoring and transforming agricultural landscapes. This review was carried out to synthesize evidences on the impact on agricultural landscapes following the implementation of land and water management practices and to evaluate the use of AM approaches. We explored how elements of the structures and functions of landscapes have been transformed, and how the components of AM, such as structured decision-making and learning processes, have been applied. Despite numerous environmental and economic benefits of land and water management interventions in Ethiopia, this review revealed gaps in AM approaches. These include: (i) insufficient efforts in relation to evidence based contextualization of interventions, (ii) insufficient efforts in monitoring of bio-physical and socio-economic processes and changes post implementation, (iii) lack of trade-off analyses, and (iv) inadequacy of local community engagement and provision of feedback. Given the many uncertainties we must deal with, efforts to restore and transform agricultural landscapes cannot follow a business-as-usual approach. Future investment, in AM approach, tailored to the needs and context would help to achieve the goals of sustainable agricultural landscape transformation. The success depends on three interdependent pillars of action: the ability to make a robust, co-developed plan of interventions, the ability to continuously monitor changes based on key variables, and to learn from the knowledge generated and apply the learning as implementation evolves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0277.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban diversity; commercial landscape; small retail unit; mon-and-pop store
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:21:12 CET)
After globalization, South Korea’s retail landscape has been saturated with large-scale, corporate type retails. However, recently new commercial districts composed of small retail units are returning and bringing about a change. This study sought to take note of this phenomenon and identify its features and meanings from the perspective of urban ecology. A density-distribution analysis was conducted to investigate how they were forms, and an analysis of traces on the Internet and an analysis on the types of businesses were done to identify sociocultural characteristics. Results showed that they had similar type of locations and growth patterns, that they harmoniously congregated in a form of smaller-individual stores, and that their use of similar names for their stores had an impact of branding their entire districts. It was also noted that a shared culture through social networking services served as a growth boost for their unfavorable location. The spontaneous formation of such commercial districts can be an outcome of an urban ecological process geared toward blank niches burgeoning in the current retail structure of Korea. The causes and conditions found in the cases reveal meaningful policy implications for cities facing the same urban crisis diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0197.v1
Subject: Keywords: pro-environmental behavior, social-ecological systems, conservation, social networks, landscape structure
Online: 15 May 2019 (12:24:16 CEST)
Conservation of natural habitats in human-dominated landscapes is critical for halting biodiversity loss. Maintaining habitat quantity and connectivity requires landscape-level collective action, which results from environmental decisions made by individual land owners. We investigate how individual decision making in a rural collective translates into quantitative differences in landscape-level environmental outcomes. Behavioral science has become a critical domain of knowledge in conservation, but little attention has been paid to how multiple behavioral drivers determine the success of collective environmental action. We developed a social-ecological model for landscape-level conservation using a detailed data set of 600 land owners in New Zealand. With the model, we tested whether the effect of social influence networks on collective conservation action was altered by their interplay with land owners’ personal characteristics, connections to cross-scale actors and local environmental contexts. Interactions between multiple behavioral drivers determined the environmental outcomes of collective action in unexpected ways by modifying, muting or amplifying the effects of single drivers. Importantly, we detected a social-ecological mechanism for rapid change in the extent of protected habitats, which can explain highly successful or failed environmental outcomes of collective conservation. Further, when environmentally desirable and undesirable behaviors spread simultaneously through the social network, homophily and network cohesion hinder desirable environmental outcomes. This effect can be modified by other drivers such as social responses to local environmental change. Thus, understanding how the antagonistic and synergistic effects of behavioral drivers can be best utilized in conservation will benefit biodiversity and ensure benefits that humans obtain from biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0067.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: nonequilibrium thermodynamics; landscape-flux decomposition; mutual information rate; entropy production rate
Online: 27 November 2017 (07:57:19 CET)
We explored the dynamics of the two interacting information systems. We show that for the Markovian marginal systems the driving force for information dynamics is determined by both the information landscape and information flux. While the information landscape can be used to construct the driving force to describe the equilibrium time reversible information system dynamics, the information flux can be used to describe the nonequilibrium time-irreversible behaviours of the information system dynamics. The information flux explicitly breaks the detailed balance and is a direct measure of the degree of the nonequilibriumness or time irreversibility. We further demonstrate that the mutual information rate between the two subsystems can be decomposed into the equilibrium time-reversible and nonequilibrium time-irreversible parts respectively. This decomposition of the mutual information rate (MIR) corresponds to the information landscape-flux decomposition explicitly when the two subsystems behave as Markov chains. Finally, we uncover the intimate relationship between the nonequilibrium thermodynamics in terms of the entropy production rates and the time-irreversible part of the mutual information rate. We found that this relationship and MIR decomposition still hold for the more general stationary and ergodic cases. We demonstrate the above features with two examples of the bivariate Markov chains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0078.v1
Subject: Keywords: Malaysia; Endau Rompin; landscape-scale management; ecotourism; rainforest to reef; Tiger
Online: 23 August 2017 (09:14:40 CEST)
In 1990 the Malaysian Government launched Vision 2020 with the goal of Malaysia becoming a ‘fully developed country’ by the year 2020. In this drive for development the country has been examining many of its key natural assets, exploring how to both preserve them whilst ensuring that they make the maximum possible contribution to national development goals. Endau Rompin is one of these assets, being the second largest National Park in Peninsula Malaysia. The rich tropical rainforest flora and fauna of the Park and its hinterland, however, are threatened by various anthropogenic forces, most notably deforestation and poaching; both of which have taken the Park’s flagship species - the Tiger Panthera tigris jacksoni – towards the brink of local extinction. Malaysia’s statutory East Coast Economic Region Development Council commissioned a study to consider ways of increasing tourism revenues from the Park while at the same time reversing these threats. The key conclusion drawn is that a more holistic, landscape-scale approach should be adopted, with Endau Rompin forming part of a wider strategic economic zone based around sustainable tourism and land management. The proposed expanded zone extends eastwards beyond the confines of the Park, across the coastal plain to the South China Sea, and onwards to the neighbouring Mersing Islands. This expanded zone is referred to as Malaysia’s new ‘Rainforest to Reef Region’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Circular Waterways; Outdoor recreation facilities; fluid landscape paradise; Blue-Green Infra-structure
Online: 8 September 2022 (05:44:43 CEST)
Rajshahi, blessed by the geographical advantage provided by the river Padma, is a beautiful and one of the cleanest cities in Bangladesh. It presents a spectacular image and stunning sight to its residents. But Rapid urbanization created immense pressure on the infrastructures and cityscape by rescinding most of the natural assets and scenic beauty it possessed historically. The growing pressure of population influx accompanied by unplanned urbanization threatens the survival of its waterbodies, wetlands, and greeneries, which many other contemporary cities strive to achieve with hard-hearted planning measures. Moreover, the city suffers from inadequate provision of quality outdoor recreational facilities. Yet because of the verdant resources, it still can set an example of becoming green and fluid landscape. There are scopes to connect the city people to the urban landscape and blue-green infrastructures by applying proper planning and urban design techniques. For example, it can explore the potential and scope of a water-based transportation system to create outdoor recreation space for city dwellers as well as a transport mode in the city. This SECTION discusses the prospects and potential of enhancing recreational aspects of Circular Inland Waterways. It also analyzes the benefits of a network of waterways well-connected and integrated with the existing conventional transportation system to reduce pressure on land transport and promote a sustainable system. This research was conducted in two phases each involving a distinct approach. The first one was a macroscopic approach to probe the potential of the water transport system in Rajshahi city. The required data on traffic volume, traffic growth rate, roads and existing waterbodies were collected, and GIS and Remote Sensing tools were used to find the scope of waterway transport around Rajshahi City. In the second approach, a detailed design was proposed for a potential circular waterway network in the city. Results indicate that there is a huge prospect for introducing a circular waterway transport system around Rajshahi city to create a place of fluid landscape and minimize the pressure on the existing land transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0388.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: river; hydrochemistry; permafrost; forest; landscape; lithology; carbonate rocks; trace element; major element
Online: 15 June 2021 (08:59:28 CEST)
Transport of carbon, major and trace element by rivers in permafrost-affected regions is one of the key factor of circumpolar aquatic ecosystem response to climate warming and permafrost thaw. While seasonal and annual export fluxes (yields) of carbon (C) and inorganic solutes are fairly well known for all large Arctic rivers, spatial variations in elementary concentration along the river length and among its tributaries remain poorly understood. Moreover, the landscape factors controlling riverine element concentration in permafrost-affected regions are still poorly constrained. This is especially true for the largest river of Eastern Siberia, the Lena River, which drains through continuous permafrost zones with highly variable lithology and vegetation. Here we present the results of C, major and trace element measurements over a 2600-km transect of the Lena River main stem (upper and middle reaches) including its 30 tributaries, conducted at the peak of the spring flood. There were two main group of solutes in the main stem depending on their spatial pattern: i) elements that decreased their concentrations downstream, from SW to NE (Cl, SO4, DIC, Li, B, Na, Mg, K, Ca, As, Sr, Mo, Sb, Ba and U), which probably reflected a decrease in the proportion of carbonate rocks in the watershed and the degree of groundwater feeding, and ii) elements that increased their concentrations downstream (Al, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ga, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, REEs, Hf and Th), which was tentatively linked to an increase in organic C stock in soils, larch forest coverage and enhanced mobilization of lithogenic elements from silicate soil minerals. Based on landscape parameters of Lena tributaries, we tested the impact of major environmental factors on major and trace element spatial pattern. Among all the variables, the proportion of sporadic permafrost on the watershed strongly controlled concentrations of soluble highly mobile elements (Cl, B, DIC, Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mo, As and U). Another important factor of element concentration control in the Lena River tributaries was the coverage of watershed by light (B, Cl, Na, K, U) and deciduous (Fe, Ni, Zn, Ge, Rb, Zr, La, Th) needle-leaf forest (pine and larch). The latter, however, could also reflect the DOC-enhanced transport of low-soluble trace elements in the NW part of the basin. This part of the basin is dominated by silicate rocks and continuous permafrost, as compared to carbonate rock-dominated and groundwater-affected SW part of the Lena River basin. Overall, the impact of rock lithology and permafrost on major and trace solutes of the Lena River basin during the peak of spring flood was mostly detected at the scale of the main stem. Such an impact for tributaries was much less pronounced, because of the dominance of surface flow and lower hydrological connectivity with deep groundwater in the latter. Future changes in the river water chemistry linked to climate warming and permafrost thaw at the scale of the whole river basin are likely to be linked to changes in spatial pattern of dominant vegetation, rather than to the permafrost regime. We argue that comparable studies of large, permafrost-impacted rivers during most contrasting seasons, including winter baseflow, should allow efficient prediction of future changes in riverine ‘inorganic’ hydrochemistry induced by permafrost thaw.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0349.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sea level changes; Luminescence dating; coastal archaeology; landscape reconstruction; Bronze age; Crete
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:42:17 CEST)
Understanding the processes that govern the transformation of the landscape through time is essential for exploring the evolution of a coastal area. Coastal landscapes are dynamic sites, with their evolution strongly linked with waves and sea-level variations. Geomorphological features in the coastal area, such as beachrock formations and dune fields, can function as indicators of the coastal landscape evolution through time. However, our knowledge of the chronological framework of coastal deposits on the Aegean coasts is limited. Optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques are deemed to be very promising indirect dating of the coastal sediments, especially when they are linked with archaeological evidence. The dating of the sediments from different sediment core depths, as they are determined by the method of luminosity, allows us to calculate the rate of sediment deposition over time. Additionally, the coastal evolution and stability were studied from 1945 until today, with the use of aerial photographs and satellite images. This paper presents the 6000 ka years evolution of a coastal landscape based on geomorphological, archaeological, and radio-chronological data. Based on the results, the early stages of the Ammoudara beach dune field appear to be formed ~9.0 – 9.6 ka BP, while the OSL ages from 6 m depth represented the timing of its stabilization (OSL ages ~5–6 ka). This indicates that the dune field appears to already have been formed long before the Bronze Age (5-10 ka BP) and became stabilized with only localized episodes of dune reactivation occurring, while high coastal erosion rates are found in modern times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010009.v1
Subject: Keywords: land cover; landscape change; habitat fragmentation; conservation planning; Oti-Keran-Mandouri; Togo
Online: 14 February 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Biodiversity conservation planning is highly important in the current context of global change. Biodiversity conservation can be achieved by understanding changes in land use at the landscape scale. Such understanding is needed to reverse the unprecedented pressure on natural resources that has been reported by many studies conducted on biodiversity conservation within the Oti-Keran-Mandouri protected areas. Land cover maps reflecting different dates (1987, 2000, and 2013) and depicting different management systems, with overall accuracy ranging from 73% to 79%, were analyzed to understand the processes that lead to habitat degradation within these protected areas. The nature of change, within a given land cover class, was determined by comparing land cover maps on different dates using a decision tree algorithm that compares the number of patches, their areas, and their perimeters at different time periods (T1 and T2). Specifically, two time-periods were considered for this analysis: 1987–2000 and 2000–2013. Croplands and settlements increased at an average of 108.13% and 5.45%, respectively, from 1987 to 2000. From 2000 to 2013, croplands gained from all other land categories and continued to increase at a rate of 11.77% per year, whereas forests and savannas decreased at an annual average rate by 5.79% and 2.32%, respectively. The dominant processes of habitat change from 1987 to 2000 were the creation of forests, dissection of savannas, attrition of wetlands, and creation of croplands. Meanwhile, from 2000 to 2013, there was attrition of forests, as well as attrition of savannas, dissection of wetlands, and aggregation of croplands. In general, from 1987 to 2013, natural habitats regressed and were replaced by croplands; forests, savannas, and wetlands decreased at an average annual percentage 5.74%, 3.94%, and 2.02%, respectively, whereas croplands increased at an average annual rate of 285.39% of their own area. Aggregation, attrition, dissection, and creation were the main habitat change processes identified for the overall period from 1987 to 2013. There was habitat loss in forests and savannas and habitat fragmentation in wetland due to attrition and dissection, respectively. Identifying and understanding habitat change processes would enable the taking of appropriate biodiversity conservation actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Landscape Agroecology, MuSIASEM, Multi-EROI, Circular bioeconomy, Barcelona Metropolitan Region, industrial agriculture
Online: 24 October 2018 (16:30:08 CEST)
The paper analyses how between 1956 and 2009 the agrarian metabolism of the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) has become less functional, losing circularity in biomass flows and in relationship to its landscape. We do so by adopting a Multi-EROI and flow-fund (MuSIASEM) analyses and its nexus with landscape functional structure. The study of agricultural flows of Final Produce, Biomass Reused and External Inputs is integrated with that of land use, livestock, power capacity and population changes between 1956 (at the beginning of the Green Revolution) and 2009 (fully industrialized agriculture). A multi-scale analysis is conducted at the landscape scale (seven districts within the Barcelona metropolitan region) as well as for the functions deployed, within an agroecosystem, by the mutual interactions between its funds (land-uses, livestock and farming population). A complex nexus between land, livestock, dietary patterns and energy needs is shown; we conclude that from the perspective of the circular bioeconomy the agrarian sector has gone worse hand in hand with the landscape functional structure. Therefore, a novel perspective in landscape agroecology is opened
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Aeolian geomorphology; Arabian Peninsula; Arabian/Persian Gulf; remote sensing; Holocene landscape change
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:51:13 CEST)
Barchan dune fields are a dominant landscape feature in SE Qatar and a key element of the peninsula’s geodiversity. The migration of barchan dunes is mainly controlled by dune size, wind pattern, vegetation cover and human impact. We investigate the variability of dune migration in Qatar over a time period of 50 years using high-resolution satellite and aerial imagery and explore its relation to the regional Shamal wind system, teleconnection patterns, and limitations in sand supply associated with the transgression of the Arabian Gulf. We detect strong size-dependent differences in migration rates of individual dunes as well as significant decadal variability on a dune-field scale, which was found to be correlating with the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). High uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of migration rates back into the Holocene, however, do not permit to further specify the timing of the loss of sand supply and the onset of the mid-Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) highstand. For the youngest phase considered in this study (2006–2015), human impact is anticipated to have accelerated dune migration under a weakening Shamal regime through sand mining and excessive vehicle frequentation upwind of the core study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0296.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: semi-arid steppe region; large-scale coal-power base; landscape ecological classification
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:48:59 CEST)
The ecological background condition of the semi-arid steppe region (SASR) is extremely fragile. It is recognized that the development of coal and electricity power is a kind of strong human interference behavior for regional landscape ecology. Landscape ecological classification (LEC) is the premise of landscape ecology research of the mining area. The current research on the SASR and grassland LEC of coal-power base is relatively less, but still remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban mining landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. This study is based on hierarchy theory, scale theory, landscape process, the patch-corridor-matrix model, the network, the theory of multiple planning integration and the principle of remote sensing. According to the comprehensive principle, principles of the combining of structure and function, principle of the combining human-ominated and natural landscape, principle of emphasis, and principle of combining qualitative analysis with quantitative research of LEC in large-scale coal-power base(LSCPB). On the basis of occurrence method land classification, fully consider the ecological attributes of the land, integration pattern, processes and function theory of the landscape ecology, the LEC system of the LSCPB in the SASR has been constructed by using top-down decomposition classification method. Empirical research of the Victory and Mindong No.1 mining areas of Shenhua Group shows that the classification system constructed in this paper can meet the requirements of LEC and fully reflect the status of landscape ecology of LSCPB in SASR. This study can provide theoretical guidance for the landscape ecology of LSCPB, while also supporting a theoretical reference for the LEC research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: tobacco; forest resources; deforestation; livelihoods; institutions; governance; landscape; land degradation; climate change
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:04:02 CEST)
The increase in tobacco production while ameliorating the condition of the participant households has caused challenges to stakeholders particularly those in the governance of forest resources upon which the sector is hinged. Massive deforestation has proceeded at an alarmingly high level, in a way that threatens the long term viability of the tobacco sector and sustainability of natural forest resources. The entrance of previously disadvantaged majority into the once minority-dominated tobacco sector (and economy) in a quest to improving their livelihoods, is driving forest landscape changes that pose inherent environmental challenges including climate change. This article adopts institutional and landscape approaches to explore and explain the drivers, nexus and implications of smallholder tobacco as a livelihood strategy to the forest landscape changes and the subsequent imperative for governance of the sustainable utilization of forest resources in Zimbabwe. Drawing on documentary evidence the paper concludes that this situation poses a dilemma to forest and livelihood policies, hence the need to examine new institutional and livelihood initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Ecological sustainability; Landscape connectivity, Green spaces, Resident perception, Master-planned community, Phoenix
Online: 3 April 2017 (17:03:32 CEST)
Green spaces in residential community is important, yet understudied, feature as an urban ecological system. While large urban parks and remnant wildlands in urban areas tend to receive a public attention from conservation and management perspectives, less is known for the importance of spatial and ecological characteristics of the community-scale landscapes. This study investigates natural elements in four planned communities in Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona, two of which represent conventional type of neighborhood and the other two exemplify the community development with a proclaimed vision of sustainability. These distinct type of communities, which capture variations in age, location, open space type, and a cross-section of housing density, are compared with regard to landscape connectivity as a means of gauging ecological condition for community sustainability. Using Geographical Information System and landscape connectivity indices, each community’s landscape features including size, physical connectedness and ecological potential were examined. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was performed to examine the perceptional differences between the two types of community residents. The findings demonstrate that the green spaces in conventional communities are more physically connected than the counterparts, but the naturalness and ecological quality manifested by the amount of the land that may serve as potential urban desert habitats were higher in the sustainable communities. The results of the survey indicated that the respondents inhabiting in sustainable communities possess a higher level of satisfaction than the people in conventional type of community due mainly to the amount of, easy access to, and perceived ecological values of, green spaces in their neighborhoods and surrounding areas. The study concludes that careful community design with ecological consideration can help create sustainable communities which can benefit both site-scale ecosystems and perceived human well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0035.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: biodiversity loss; Venda; cultural landscape; myths; legends; Thathe forest; Lake Fundudzi; Phiphidi waterfalls
Online: 2 September 2021 (11:59:07 CEST)
Human-driven biodiversity destruction are responsible for significant and sustained heritage losses in Africa. In Venda, northern South Africa, biodiversity losses are eroding the existence of sacred places. Such places define the essence of indigenous people’s identity and well-being. We highlight how developments in Venda such as mining and agricultural expansion since apartheid times have destroyed biodiversity in the broader landscape, undermining efforts to reduce hunger and poverty. Thathe forest, Lake Fundudzi and Phiphidi waterfalls are central to Venda mythology and legends, origins and identity and are key towards conserving current biodiversity and heritage losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0476.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban form; landscape metrics; factor analysis; multi-dimensional scaling; Seoul metropolitan region (SMR)
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:43:06 CEST)
Urban form is associated with both socio-economic and urban physical properties. This study explores the differences among urban forms in the Seoul Metropolitan Region with a comparison between census-based socioeconomic variables and landscape metrics computed from remotely sensed data. To accomplish this, factor analysis and multi-dimensional scaling were used with the selected variables and metrics. When all of the measures are considered together, four types of cities and towns emerged: 1) exurban-fragmented high growth, 2) exurban-fragmented low growth, 3) compact-extensive urban core and 4) sub-urban compact-high growth. The results indicate that the fusion of knowledge of the physical urban layout and that of socio-economic characteristics is beneficial for a better understanding of urban spatial patterns. However, there remain challenges in delineating each urbanized area and with indicator selection for comparing urban form across cities and towns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Office of Innovation; novel drugs; novel therapies; regulatory science; Latin American Regulatory landscape
Online: 18 September 2019 (12:51:16 CEST)
Regulatory agencies across the Latin American Region have strengthened the regulatory science through the development of new tools, standards and various other related parameters to evaluate and assess safety, efficacy, quality and performance. The former have been implemented to promote and incorporate new drugs and technologies, which still, are a challenge to well-established regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, in today’s environment, the existing regulatory framework protecting public’s health creates barriers for market entry of novel drugs and medical devices. This article aims to the pioneering work that Cuban Regulatory Agency (CECMED) has been developing with the aim to build a strong regulatory framework geared to accelerated innovation and the successful transition from research and development to clinical development. The Office of Innovation recently established at the CECMED is the first flagship in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Its aim is to play a leading role as a driving force for the national and regional biopharmaceutical innovation. This article will discuss the Office of Innovation its conceptualisation and management taking into account the Latin American regional and national Cuban context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0324.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Grassland landscape index; Grassland productivity; Land use/cover change; Net Primary Productivity(NPP)
Online: 18 September 2018 (15:00:28 CEST)
In order to explore the grassland ecosystem productivity and landscape ecological patterns of main pastoral grasslands in China, it provides a theoretical basis for the efficient implementation of ecological engineering and rational management of grassland resources in the region. This study analyzed the changes in grassland area, landscape index (LSI), and net primary productivity (NPP) in seven major pastoral areas in China in 1985, 1995, 2005, and 2015. Results showed that (1) the sizes of the grassland study area in 1985, 1995, 2005, and 2015 were 248.34, 243.93, 245.80, and 244.660 km2 respectively. (2) The dominance of grassland in the landscape pattern increased from 2005 to 2015 as compared with that in 1985–1995 and 1995–2005. The degrees of spatial heterogeneity were reduced. (3) The grassland NPP showed spatial and temporal differences. The average NPP of grassland increased by 21.30%, 16.47%, and 36.17% during 1985–1995, 2005–2015, and 1985–2015, respectively. From 1995 to 2005, the average NPP decreased by 5.05 gC/m2, which is equivalent to -3.61% of the average NPP in 1995. The total amount of grassland NPP in the study area was the greatest in 2015, showing increments of 36.37% and 16.61% compared with those in 1985 and 2005, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0286.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: novel ncRNAs; DE landscape; LSCs and LTCs; LncRNA; MiRNA; CircRNA; ceRNA networks; molecular mechanism
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:29:49 CEST)
ALDH+ H1975 lung adenocarcinoma stem cells (LSCs) are a rare cell population identified in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). LSCs can self-renew, drive tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and recurrence, and are also the predominant cause of poor prognosis due to their intrinsic resistance to drugs and chemotherapy. Consequently, LSCs are a promising target for LUAD therapy. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), exert many significant regulatory functions in the pathogenesis of human cancers, showing the necessity for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that underlie lung carcinogenesis. Nonetheless, research on many known transcripts and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) has already generated new information. Unknown biomarkers in ncRNAs and systematic and comprehensive interrelation with unknown ncRNAs and mRNAs may provide further insights into the biology of LUAD. Herein, a set of novel ncRNAs that include miRNAs, lncRNAs, circRNAs, were identified and differentially expressed patterns of ncRNAs and mRNAs in LSCs and ALDH- H1975 LUAD tumor cells (LTCs) were obtained using stringent bioinformatics pipelines. Through a meta-analysis of the identified landscapes, novel competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks were constructed to reveal the potential molecular mechanisms that regulate the hallmarks of LSCs and LTCs. This study presents a summary of novel ncRNAs and the fundamental roles of differentially expressed ncRNAs implicated in the activity of LSCs and LTCs. In addition, the study also provides a comprehensive resource for the future identification of diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarkers in LUAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0620.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: COVID-19, Gardening Industry, COVID-19, gardening industry, horticulture, nursery and landscape, business survey
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:26:00 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced businesses to alter the way they operate. This includes, but may not be limited to, changing hours of operation, working with limited staff, and restricting customer access indoors. This could result in several challenges for businesses. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on the horticultural industry and identify the challenges for businesses). Based on our research findings, the major challenges faced by businesses were not having enough employees and inventory to keep up with consumer demand during COVID-19. We also evaluate the effect of the pandemic on the sales of different plants, gardening products/services, and the overall revenues of businesses. For different types of plants included in the survey, landscape herbaceous flowers, landscape shrubs, and landscape trees showed the most significant increase in sales. In addition, for different gardening products/services, container plants, small plants, and soil & compost showed the most significant increase in sales. 64% of the businesses indicated higher overall sales compared to same season previous year. Over 46% of the businesses reported increased sales in 2020 under COVID-19. These findings imply a greater demand potential for plants and gardening products/services from consumers, in light of this pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: urban sustainability; California; landscape decision-making; urban environment; water use behaviors; social-ecological systems
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:45:57 CEST)
Urban development and planning are increasingly centered on matters of sustainability, balancing economic development with ecosystem services and biotic structures within urban environments. In addition to these institutional and structural factors, the decision-making process within individual households must be understood to address rising concerns about water use. Therefore, individual characteristics and preferences that influence the use of water also warrant examination. In response to a survey of occupants of single-family residences in the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area of California, contextual interviews and focus group interviews with a homeowner sub-sample, we find evidence of an interplay of social-structural, institutional, and cultural factors involved in influencing individual water use behaviors and landscape decision making. The complexity of residential behaviors and decision-making poses some potential issues with regards to the interactions between individual households and institutional actors in matters of water usage and landscaping, as survey respondents indicate relatively little confidence in institutions and groups to make wise water policy decisions. We conclude that the promotion and implementation of sustainable water use practices will require not only environmental education for the citizenry, but also a tailoring of information for environmental educational initiatives that address the particularities of individual neighborhoods and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban-rural gradient; spatiotemporal patterns; landscape metrics; a roadscape transect approach; rapid urbanization; Shanghai
Online: 29 July 2016 (08:06:50 CEST)
Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the urban fringe expanded radically. The results also showed that the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Satellite towns witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more of an effort to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities from a strategic viewpoint. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0157.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; sustainability; ecosystem-based approach; blue economy; coral reef; coastal systems; landscape; seascape
Online: 6 November 2019 (08:49:04 CET)
The Sustainable Development Goals, while complex at first sight, express a simple narrative about the relationships between people and nature. This paper illustrates this in the context of a coral reef land or seascape supporting coastal people. Coral reefs, their health described by measures of coral and fish diversity and abundance, provide key services and benefits to people. These services directly support 10s of millions of jobs in multiple economic sectors in coastal and distant states, protect and harbor communities and cities across tropical coastlines, sustain use of living and non-living resources, provide transport infrastructure and valuable natural products, and in future may provide energy solutions. Through these multiple benefits, coral reefs contribute to reducing hunger and poverty, thus improving health, and potentially strengthening gender and social equality. However, access and use result in pressures that may drive decline in coral reef health. Broader land and seascape factors also affect reef health and therefore delivery of benefits, including land-use change and altered freshwater flows, as well as climate change. Managing this complex system requires appropriate awareness and knowledge, governance mechanisms and investments by stakeholders. This ‘SDG narrative’ can be used from local to global levels, motivating actions and policy at and across these scales to sustain ecosystem function and use, for the oceans what is also increasingly called a blue economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: landscape connectivity; natura 2000 network; strategic environmental assessment; protected areas and spatial planning, semi commons
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:30:25 CEST)
The military areas in Sardinia are around 234 km2, which constitutes 59.97% of the national surface affected by military easements. This situation is due to its geographic centrality in the Mediterranean. This contribution evaluates the performance of the Local Coastline Plan (LCP) and the Site Management Plan of Community Interest (SCI) in conditions of military constraint. The case study is the Municipality of Villaputzu where an important coastal military easement and the use of the coast for recreational tourism purposes coexist together through specific planning, a consequence of institutional agreements between the Municipal Administration of Villaputzu and the Ministry of Defense. The evaluation of the congruence of the specific objectives of the LCP and the SCI shows how their combined action favors the environmental enhancement of Sardinia, contributing to the formation of ecosystem services, even in particular conditions arising from military easements. These are sites that pass from the status of "anti-commons" to "semi-commons". In fact, the military release process in Sardinia, together with the promiscuous military and civil use, activates unique governance policies of their kind that find a significant field of application in Sardinia to guarantee a sustainable renewal of economic development of the ‘semi-commons’ awaiting to become ‘commons’
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0119.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: mediterranean lagoon complex; surface water dynamic; land use and land cover; landscape metrics; remote sensing
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:40:14 CEST)
Mediterranean coastal lagoons and their peripheral areas often provide a collection of habitats for many species, and they often face significant threats from anthropogenic activities. Diverse human activities in such areas directly affect the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water and its ecological characteristics. Monitoring the surface water dynamic, and understanding the impact of human activities are of great significance for coastal lagoon conservation. The Regional Natural Park of Narbonne includes a typical Mediterranean lagoon complex where surface water dynamic and its potential link with local diverse human activities has not yet been studied. In this context, based on all the available Landsat images covering the study area during 2002-2016, this study identified the water and non-water classes for each satellite observation by comparing three widely used water indices (i.e., NDVI, NDWI and MNDWI) and using the Otsu method. The yearly water frequency index was then computed to present the spatio-temporal dynamic of surface water for each year, and three water dynamic scenarios were also identified for each year: permanent water (PW), non-permanent water (NPW) and non-water (NW). The spatial and inter-annual variation in the patterns of the three water scenarios were characterized by computing the landscape metrics at scenario-level quantifying area/edge, shape, aggregation and fragmentation. Finally, the quantitative link between different land use and land cover (LULC) types derived from the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015 and the surface water dynamic scenarios was established in each of the 300 m x 300 m grid cells covering the study area to determine the potential impact of human activities on the surface water dynamic. In terms of the inter-annual variation during 2002-2016, PW presented an overall stability, and NPW occupied only a small part of the water surface in each year and presented an inter-annual fluctuation. NPW had a smaller patch size, with lower connectivity degree and higher fragmentation degree. In terms of spatial variation during 2002-2016, NPW often occurred around PW, and its configurational features varied from place to place. Moreover, PW mostly corresponded to natural lagoon, and salt marsh (as a part of lagoons), and NPW had a strong link with arable land (agricultural irrigation) and salt marsh (salt production), sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon for the LULC maps of 2003, 2012 and 2015. However, more in-depth analysis is required for understanding the impact of sand beach/dune, coastal wetlands and lagoon on surface water dynamics. This study covers the long-term variations of surface water patterns in a Mediterranean lagoon complex having intense and diverse human activities, and the potential link between LULC types and the water dynamic scenarios was investigated on different dates. The results of the study should be useful for environmental management and protection of coastal lagoons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0164.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land use/land cover; nighttime light (NTL); NDEUI; landscape metrics; random Forests; urban growth mode
Online: 9 October 2018 (03:31:38 CEST)
Rapid urbanization has dramatically spurred the economic development over the past three decades, especially in China, but has nevertheless had negative impacts on natural resources since it is an irreversible process. Thus, it is essential to timely monitor and quantitatively analysis the changes in land use over time and to identify the landscape pattern variation related to growth mode in different period. This study aims at inspecting spatiotemporal characteristics of landscape pattern respond to land use changes in Xuzhou city during the period from 1985 to 2015. In this connection, we proposed a new spectral index, named the Normalized Difference Enhanced Urban Index (NDEUI), which combines data from NTL (Nighttime light) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) with annual maximum Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to reduce the detection confusion between urban areas and barren land, as well as follows. NDEUI-assisted Random Forests algorithm was implemented to obtain the land use/land cover (LULC) maps of Xuzhou in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2015, respectively. Here, four different periods viz. 1985–1995, 1995–2005, 2005–2015 and 1985–2015 are chosen for the change analysis of land use and landscape pattern. The results indicated that the urban area has increased by about 30.65%, 10.54%, 68.77%, and 143.75% during the four periods mentioned above at the main expense of agricultural land, respectively. The spatial trend maps revealed that continuous transition from other land use types into urban land has appeared a dual-core development mode throughout the urbanization process, located at the new city region and the Jiawang district, mainly affected by the construction of new city region, freeway and the high railway station. Furthermore, we quantified the patch complexity, aggregation, connectivity and diversity of landscape employing a number of landscape metrics to represent the changes of landscape pattern at both class and landscape level, affected by urbanization during the study period. The results showed that with regard to the four aspects of landscape pattern, there were considerable differences among the four years, mainly owing to the increasing dominance of urbanized land. Spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern was also conducted on the basis of subgrids in 900 m × 900 m. Combined with the land use changes and spatiotemporal variation of landscape pattern, it can be concluded that different urbanization modes and intensity result in variously the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns. For Xuzhou city, the urban growth mainly appeared a leapfrog mode alone both sides of the roads during the period of 1985 to 1995, and then shifted into edge-expansion mode during the period from 1995 to 2005, whereas the edge-expansion and leapfrog modes coexisted for the period from 2005 to 2015. The high valuable spatiotemporal information generated utilizing RS and GIS in this study may give assistance to urban planners and policymakers to well understand urban dynamics and evaluate their spatiotemporal and environmental impacts at a local level for the sake of sustainable urban planning in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0266.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Asian architecture; Asian heritage; China; Japan; Urban Design; Garden and Landscape Design; Reformation of the Arts.
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:50:54 CEST)
With this article we would like to clarify the often-disregarded fact by virtue of which the European Missionaries in Asia acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent they became harbingers of Culture and Science more than Faith itself to the dismay of many, including the Roman Church. Such cultural and scientific transference was actually two-pronged, for simultaneously they presented in Europe unique findings related to Language, e.g. the Chinese Characters (considered to be the sole natural language), Geography, Cosmology and even Governance. We would try to prove that such procedure contributed positively to the modern scientific notions of sustainability and to provide the kind of accoutrements that model the modern world as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0012.v3
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: deep convolutional neural networks; road segmentation; conditional random fields; landscape metrics; satellite images; aerial images; THEOS
Online: 5 June 2017 (06:39:54 CEST)
Object segmentation on remotely-sensed images: aerial (or very high resolution, VHS) images and satellite (or high resolution, HR) images, has been applied to many application domains, especially road extraction in which the segmented objects are served as a mandatory layer in geospatial databases. Several attempts in applying deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) to extract roads from remote sensing images have been made; however, the accuracy is still limited. In this paper, we present an enhanced DCNN framework specifically tailored for road extraction on remote sensing images by applying landscape metrics (LMs) and conditional random fields (CRFs). To improve DCNN, a modern activation function, called exponential linear unit (ELU), is employed in our network resulting in a higher number of and yet more accurate extracted roads. To further reduce falsely classified road objects, a solution based on an adoption of LMs is proposed. Finally, to sharpen the extracted roads, a CRF method is added to our framework. The experiments were conducted on Massachusetts road aerial imagery as well as THEOS satellite imagery data sets. The results showed that our proposed framework outperformed Segnet, the state-of-the-art object segmentation technique on any kinds of remote sensing imagery, in most of the cases in terms of precision, recall, and F1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0171.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: principal component analysis; collective variables; molecular dynamics; energy landscape; solvent effects; linear response theory; independent component analysis
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:53:37 CEST)
Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionalities of high dimensional datasets in a variety of research areas. For example, biological macromolecules, such as proteins, exhibit many degrees of freedom, allowing them to adopt intricate structures and exhibit complex functions by undergoing large conformational changes. Therefore, molecular simulations of and experiments on proteins generate a large number of structure variations in high dimensional space. PCA and many PCA-related methods have been developed to extract key features from such structural data, and these approaches have been widely applied for over 30 years to elucidate macromolecular dynamics. This review mainly focuses on the methodological aspects of PCA and related methods, and their applications for investigating protein dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green infrastructure; riparian restoration; green corridor; drainageway; urban valley; stormwater management; flooding; arid landscape; sustainability; urban ecosystem
Online: 3 September 2018 (07:57:32 CEST)
This paper describes the feasibility and probable benefits associated with greening the Tahliah Channel, a concrete drainage channel that was originally built to relieve urban flooding in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. It includes an estimation of irrigation needs for channel greening based on a standardized planting specification. The study also demonstrates alternative strategies for meeting the required irrigation demand, including water harvesting and graywater reuse on a residential scale. The study shows that greening Tahliah Channel is possible relying mainly on graywater reuse from the surrounding buildings. Also, the study shows that rainwater harvesting is not a reliable source for irrigation. Rather, it can cover only part of the irrigation needs (6%) and so can be used as a secondary supporting source. The positive results of this case study will be of interest to those in arid countries who are looking to upgrade and replace traditional, single function drainage infrastructure with more sustainable, green infrastructure systems. More specifically, the objectives of the study are consistent with the goals of the Saudi government’s ongoing initiative that advocates for more resilient and sustainable cities. (Vision 2030 year).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: expressional space; geometry architecture; mural; skateboard; landscape; pure geometry; composition of geometry; direction wall; opening; space form
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:03:50 CEST)
Aim of expressional space is to facilitate the public to explore their hobby and talent in autodidact. The space for expression in Makassar City is necessary for the mural artist and the youngsters who has a hobby to play a skateboard. Their talent is insufficient attention by the government and create negative attitude because there no space to accommodate their activity. Therefore, this paper presents a design idea of expressional space by implementing the architectural geometry. The architectural geometry design principle is based on simple geometry form application as a realization of form from the space. An experience of the space for the user realizes by the relationship between the space and the interaction with the environment through geometry and form processing as the basic of the creation process in the architectural works. Content analysis method providing a landscape layout and transformation of form and building mass in form of the implementation of architectural geometry principles. The principles are pure geometry, composition of geometry, direction wall, and opening for the transformation process of expressional space form to produce and increase aesthetic value of the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0081.v3
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: dividing and conquering; caching; coarse graining; enhanced sampling; generalized solvation free energy; molecular simulation; local free energy landscape
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:54:42 CET)
Molecular modeling is widely utilized in subjects including but not limited to physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and engineering. Impressive progress has been made in development of theories, algorithms and software packages. To divide and conquer, and to cache intermediate results have been long standing principles in development of algorithms. Not surprisingly, Most of important methodological advancements in more than half century of molecule modeling are various implementations of these two fundamental principles. In the mainstream classical computational molecular science based on force fields parameterization by coarse graining, tremendous efforts have been invested on two lines of algorithm development. The first is coarse graining, which is to represent multiple basic particles in higher resolution modeling as a single larger and softer particle in lower resolution counterpart, with resulting force fields of partial transferability at the expense of some information loss. The second is enhanced sampling, which realizes "dividing and conquering" and/or "caching" in configurational space with focus either on reaction coordinates and collective variables as in metadynamics and related algorithms, or on the transition matrix and state discretization as in Markov state models. For this line of algorithms, spatial resolution is maintained but no transferability is available. Deep learning has been utilized to realize more efficient and accurate ways of "dividing and conquering" and "caching" along these two lines of algorithmic research. We proposed and demonstrated the local free energy landscape approach, a new framework for classical computational molecular science and a third class of algorithm that facilitates molecular modeling through partially transferable in resolution "caching" of distributions for local clusters of molecular degrees of freedom. Differences, connections and potential interactions among these three algorithmic directions are discussed, with the hope to stimulate development of more elegant, efficient and reliable formulations and algorithms for "dividing and conquering" and "caching" in complex molecular systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0439.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: climate change; temperature stress; drought; elevated CO2; soil water; forest succession; mechanistic landscape model; LANDIS-II; PnET-Succession
Online: 24 July 2018 (05:34:08 CEST)
1) Background: Climate change may subject forests to climate conditions to which they are not adapted. Elevated temperatures reduce net photosynthesis by increasing respiration rates and increasingly long droughts dramatically increase morbidity. CO2 enrichment enhances productivity, but it is not clear to what extent CO2 enrichment can offset the negative effects of elevated temperatures and longer droughts. 2) Methods: We used a mechanistic landscape model to conduct controlled simulation experiments manipulating CO2 concentration, temperature, drought length and soil water capacity. 3) Results: We found that elevated CO2 stimulates productivity such that it dwarfs the negative effect caused by elevated temperature. Energy reserves were not as strongly mitigated by elevated CO2, and mortality of less competitive cohorts increased. Drought length had a surprisingly small effect on productivity measures, but had a marked negative effect on mortality risk. 4) Conclusions: Elevated CO2 compensated for the negative effect of longer droughts in terms of productivity measures, but not survival measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0574.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: activity cliff; activity landscape plotter; epigenetics; docking; drug discovery; D-tools; molecular dynamics; Epi-polypharmacology; SmART; structure-activity relationships
Online: 26 November 2018 (07:14:05 CET)
In this work we discuss the insights from activity landscape, docking and molecular dynamics towards the understanding of the structure-activity relationships of dual inhibitors of major epigenetic targets: lysine metiltransferase (G9a) and DNA metiltranferase 1 (DNMT1). The study was based on a novel data set of 50 published compounds with reported experimental activity for both targets. The activity landscape analysis revealed the presence of activity cliffs, e.g., pairs of compounds with high structure similarity but large activity difference. Activity cliffs were further rationalized at the molecular level by means of molecular docking and dynamics simulations that led to the identification of interactions with key residues involved in the dual activity or selectivity with the epigenetic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0362.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Juniperion lagunae; cross-border cooperation; landscape evolution; cluster analysis; conservation; sustainable development; territorial cohesion; Ombroedaphoxeric Index; phytosociology; SCI areas
Online: 16 October 2018 (12:33:03 CEST)
We have studied Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. badia in the central and southern Iberian Peninsula. Here, the macrobioclimate ranges from Mediterranean-pluviseasonal-oceanic and Mediterranean-pluviseasonal-continental, thermotype from thermomediterranean and supramediterranean. The relevés were taken following the Braun-Blanquet phytosociological methodology. A statistical treatment was applied to establish a separation among Juniperus communities. To understand the presence of Juniperus communities in territories dominated by species of the genus Quercus, we applied the formula of Thornthwaite to calculate potential evapotranspiration. The general cluster analysis clearly separates two groups of plant communities and separates the different associations in each group. All plant communities growing on rocky crests and in steeply extreme sloping areas are significantly influenced by the soil. The Ombroclimatic Index does not explain the presence of plant communities influenced by substrate: so, we propose a new Ombroedaphoxeric Index which explains the presence of the Juniperus communities in territories with a thermotype ranging from the thermo to the supramediterranean belt. The areas of distribution of Juniperus species are expanding due to the spread of rocky areas: this phenomenon causes a rise in edaphoxerophilous areas and a decrease in climatophilous one. We propose four new plant associations and with this update on their structures and floristic compositions, it is possible to make an efficient form of conservation in both territories studied (Spain and Portugal) with specific cross-border-cooperation projects.
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Afforestation; Climate change mitigation; Ecological Restoration; Forest landscape restoration; Large-scale tree planting; Natural regeneration; Nature-based solutions; Stakeholders participation
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:01:43 CEST)
Global climate change requires urgent solutions. Ambitious tree-planting initiatives, many already underway, aim to sequester enormous quantities of carbon, partly compensating for the anthropogenic CO2 emissions that are a major cause of rising global temperatures. However, poorly planned and executed tree-planting could actually increase CO2 emissions and have long-term, deleterious impacts on biodiversity, landscapes and livelihoods. Here, we highlight the main environmental risks of large-scale tree planting and propose ten golden rules, based on some of the most recent ecological research, to implement forest ecosystem restoration that maximizes rates of both carbon sequestration and biodiversity recovery, while simultaneously improving livelihoods. These are: i) Protect existing forest first; ii) Work together (involving all stakeholders); iii) Maximize biodiversity recovery to meet multiple goals; iv) Select appropriate areas; v) Use natural regeneration wherever possible; vi) Select species to maximise biodiversity; vii) Use resilient plant material (with appropriate genetic variability and provenance); viii) Plan ahead for infrastructure, capacity and seed supply; ix) Learn by doing (using an adaptive management approach); and x) Make it pay (ensuring the economic sustainability of the project). We focus on the design of long-term strategies to tackle the climate and biodiversity crises and support livelihood needs. We emphasize the role of local communities and their dependence on benefits from successful reforestation programmes that restore ecosystem functioning and deliver a diverse range of forest products and services. While there is no simple and universal recipe for forest restoration, it is now crucial to build on the public and private interest in this topic to ensure interventions provide effective, long-term carbon sinks and maximise benefits for biodiversity and people.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; digital literacy; academic meetings; private Facebook groups; Zoom; 4Cs; health-related group; landscape of truth; narrative research
Online: 3 August 2020 (08:38:41 CEST)
Late January 2020, COVID-19 unexpectedly imposed world-wide limitations on daily life. Deemed a pandemic mid-March 2020, lockdowns were imposed for an indefinite period, including at academic institutions. Consequently, interest in digital literacy—an on-going and increasing concern of academic institutions in the 21st century—exponentially heightened. Continuing meetings of academic groups now necessitated online communication. In the almost overnight closure of all non-essential services, academic units at one post-secondary institution expeditiously selected Zoom—a popular video conferencing application—as the preferred platform for meetings until social distancing was lifted. In contrast to this widely accepted use of Zoom for scheduled meetings, one unique health-related group at the institution, tailored to the 4Cs of 21st century learning of critical thought, communication, cooperation and creativity, found social networking through a private Facebook group a more appropriate and satisfying group experience than likely possible with the Zoom app. Pros and cons of both online platforms are presented along with when each choice is warranted. In promoting digital literacy as the primary goal in online communication for academic meetings, private Facebook groups hold promise for collaborative online academic meetings with similar features to this health-related group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0378.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: therapeutic landscapes; therapeutic environments; Indigenous knowledge; Mātauranga Māori; Rongoā Māori; traditional healing; health and well-being; cultural landscapes; cultural geography; landscape architecture
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:12:15 CET)
Although research has long established that the interaction with the natural environment is associated with better overall health and well-being outcomes, the Western model mainly focuses on treating the symptoms. In Aotearoa-New Zealand, the Indigenous Māori have long demonstrated significantly more negative health outcomes than non-Māori. Little research has examined the causes compared to Western populations or the role of the natural environment in health outcomes for Māori. An exploration of rongoā Māori (traditional healing system) was conducted to ascertain the importance of landscape in the process of healing. Eight rongoā healers or practitioners took part in semi-structured narrative interviews from June to November 2020. Transcribed interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis and Kaupapa Māori techniques. The findings show how rongoā is underpinned by a complex set of cultural values and beliefs, drawing from the connection to wairua (spirit), tinana (body), tikanga and whakaora (customs and healing), rākau (plants), whenua (landscape) and whānau (family). Incorporating such constructs into the landscape can foster our understanding of health and well-being and its implications for conceptualising therapeutic environments and a culturally appropriate model of care for Māori and non-Māori communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Sustainability; Urban Ecosystem Services (UES); Landscape Services (LS); Larger Urban Zones (LUZ); LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR); Multi-Criteria Analytical Scoring Tool (MASCOT)
Online: 19 June 2020 (04:30:48 CEST)
The complexity of urban spatial configuration, which affects human-well being and landscape functioning, needs acquisition and 3d visualisation data to inform decision-making process better. One of the main challenges in sustainability research is to conceive spatial models which are capable of adapting to changes in scale and recalibrating the related indicators depending on the degree of detail and data availability. In this perspective, the inclusion of the third dimension into Urban Ecosystem Services (UES) assessment studies highlights the details of urban structure-function relationships, improves modelling and visualisation of data and impacts, aiding decision-makers to localise, assess and manage urban development strategies. The main goal of the proposed framework concerns mapping, evaluating and planning of the UES within a 3d-virtual environment to improve the visualisation of the spatial relationships among the services allocation and the urban fabric density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Electrocardiography Analysis; Persistence Landscape; Signal Analysis; Machine Learning; Topological Data Analysis; Topological Signal Signature; Classification; Time Series Analysis; Biomedical Signal Analysis; Persistence Homology
Online: 30 August 2019 (09:51:40 CEST)
Data can be illustrated in shapes, and the shapes could provide insight for data modeling and information extraction. Topological data analysis provides an alternative insight in biomedical data analysis and knowledge discovery with the algebra topology tools. In present work, we study the application of topological data analysis for personalized electrocardiographic signal classification toward arrhythmia analysis. Using phase space reconstruction technique, the signal samples are converted into point clouds for topological analysis facility. With topological techniques the persistence landscapes from the point clouds are extracted as features to perform the arrhythmia classification task. We find that the proposed method is robust to the training set size, with only a training set size of 20% percents, the normal heartbeat class are 100% recognized, ventricular beats for 97.13%, supra-ventricular beats for 94.27% and fusion beats for 94.27% within the corresponding experiments. The property of keeping high performance when using smaller training sample proves that the proposed method is especially applicable to personalized analysis. With the present study, we show that the topological data analysis technique could be a useful tool in biomedical signal analysis, and provide powerful ability in personalized analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0100.v1
Subject: Keywords: Genius Loci; place-making; landscape; Land of Limestone and Levels; West of England; Mendip Hills; Cotswold Hills; Bristol, Bath; environmental psyche; Severn Estuary
Online: 29 August 2017 (03:42:37 CEST)
The County of Avon in England was abolished in 1996 and replaced by four unitary planning authorities. Recently the authorities have been working closely to develop a West of England Joint Spatial Plan to facilitate better integration of policies on transport, housing, the environment etc. The Joint Spatial Plan team commissioned a multidisciplinary study to investigate whether the West of England has special characteristics of 'place' that engender shared interest and regional affinity, i.e. ‘sense of place’, to which emerging planning policies might positively respond. In this regard the present article is particularly focused on identifying whether the West of England has unique and unifying landscape characteristics, relating to topography, rural scenery, and flora and fauna, which combine with human experiences to distinguish the Region from adjoining areas. It is concluded that the West of England does indeed have real geographical integrity, being bound on all sides by attractive and prominent landscape features - the Mendip Hills, Cotswold Hills and Severn Estuary – that contribute to a sense of identity and belonging among its inhabitants. The alternating limestone ridges and broad clay vales that prevail across the Region’s heart, combined with low lying flatlands on the Region’s western fringe, provide further contrast with neighbouring regions, reinforcing the emotional bond to the landscape. Furthermore, it is suggested that the inhabitants of the West England show a particularly special environmental consciousness that sets them apart from neighbouring populations, complementing the influence of the physical environment in making the Region a special place to live.
Subject: Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Heat-Related Health Risk (HRHR); Urban Landscape Metrics (ULM); Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA); Spatial Error (SE) Regression; NCT-Delhi.
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:53:03 CET)
Urbanization induced land use land cover (LULC) changes intensify the urban heat island effects. It magnifies the risk of urban dwellers and sometimes causes the loss of human life, defined as heat-related health risk (HRHR). Hence, urban LULC planning plays a crucial role. Present study analyses the impact of composition and configuration of urban LULC defined as urban landscape metric (ULM) on HRHR in Delhi at the ward level. Firstly, the HRHR is measured by using satellite thermal and other digital data. Then, measured HRHR is validated by conducting a rapid field survey. Thirdly, ULM measured at ward level using Fragstat 4 software. Finally, both, HRHR and ULM linked with bi-variate Moran's I and impacts of ULM are assessed using ordinary least square (OLS) and spatial error (SE) regression. The result indicates the high risk is found as clustered in north-east, central and middle of south-west Delhi. Built-up density intensifies HRHR and abundance of vegetation reduce it; however, it is not similar for all vegetation patches. Larger vegetation patches surrounded by dense built-up might not able to reduce the risk as much as a large vegetation patch could in other regions. Findings can be helpful for heat resilient city planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0097.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Decision-Making Process; Creative Re-generation; Cultural and Landscape Heritage; Low Entropy Economy; Innovative Management; Creative Practices; Complex Values; Ex-Post Evaluation; PROMETHEE-GAIA method
Online: 5 January 2021 (14:11:27 CET)
According to the current European and Italian scenario related to urban re-generation, cultural and landscape heritage, valorisation is being also enhanced by the activation of innovative processes. These involve the development of methodologies and tools that are able to address decision-making processes among low entropy economy, complex values and creative practices. In this perspective, the research aims to investigate the possibilities of developing a Cultural Heritage Low Entropy Enhancement (CHLEE) approach by considering how the complex values of cultural heritage can vary not only through a physical transformation of spaces but also through a program of uses and activities able to produce new values, where the human experience is essential. This type of model modifies the objectives that characterise the valorisation of cultural heritage and landscape, recognising that the fruition is no longer “consumerist” but “experiential”. A crucial role is represented by the heterogeneity of creative practices that contribute to the identificationidentifying and implementation ofimplementing innovative management and governance models. The present paper explores the components of creative regenerative processes, based upon the ex-post evaluation of some Italian experiments, across the PROMETHEE-GAIA multi-criteria method, to understand how creative experiences are building innovation ecosystem thanks to low entropy economy and improve the ex-ante evaluation for new strategies and policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0683.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: circular city; wastescapes; Regenerative Design; Landscape Services (LS); Ecosystem Services (ES); Ecosystem Disservices (EDS); fundamental human needs (FHN); multi-dimensional evaluation; decision-making process; MCDA; PROMETHEE-GAIA method.
Online: 28 July 2020 (12:39:34 CEST)
The unresolved territories are privileged places for the proliferation of degradation phenomena that affect the environment and human well-being. The impacts of their critical conditions go beyond the limits of the damaged urban fragments, involving the built environment, society, economy, culture and conditioning quality of life. This paper proposes a methodological approach to landscape design supported by an evaluation framework to orient strategic design planning with specific attention to unresolved territories consistent with circular economy perspective. The circular city principles are applied to spatial planning of landscape, by operationalising Ecosystem Services, Landscape Services, and Ecosystem Disservices, as interpretative categories for multi-dimensional regenerative strategies. Starting from the theoretical framework, the objective of the analysis is to implement an approach to the regenerative design of landscapes of waste, defined wastescapes. The industrial area of East Naples is the case study where an incremental evaluative approach has been defined to design scenarios to provide services and values, aimed to drive the conversion in a regenerativescape. A multi-criteria analysis through PROMETHEE-GAIA method has been implemented to compare the base case scenario with two incremental new scenarios and identify situated sustainable priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0021.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: map processing; retrospective landscape analysis; visual data mining, image retrieval, low-level image descriptors, color moments, t-distributed stochastic neighborhood embedding, USGS topographic maps, Sanborn fire insurance maps
Online: 17 April 2018 (09:23:37 CEST)
Historical maps constitute unique sources of retrospective geographic information. Recently, several map archives containing map series covering large spatial and temporal extents have been systematically scanned and made available to the public. The geographic information contained in such data archives allows extending geospatial analysis retrospectively beyond the era of digital cartography. However, given the large data volumes of such archives and the low graphical quality of older map sheets, the processes to extract geographic information need to be automated to the highest degree possible. In order to understand the salient characteristics, data quality variation, and potential challenges in large-scale information extraction tasks, preparatory analytical steps are required to efficiently assess spatio-temporal coverage, approximate map content, and spatial accuracy of such georeferenced map archives across different cartographic scales. Such preparatory steps are often neglected or ignored in the map processing literature but represent highly critical phases that lay the foundation for any subsequent computational analysis and recognition. In this contribution we demonstrate how such preparatory analyses can be conducted using classical analytical and cartographic techniques as well as visual-analytical data mining tools originating from machine learning and data science, exemplified for the United States Geological Survey topographic map and Sanborn fire insurance map archives.