ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: water in the soil; surface irrigation; water storage; irrigation modelling; soil hydrodynamics
Online: 13 December 2016 (09:55:18 CET)
An adequate representation of the water infiltration process in the soil allows improving the efficiency in application and the uniformity in surface irrigation. The Green and Ampt model has shown a good representation of the process, and researchers from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) determined the values of their parameters for soils of that country, which are shown in tables or through functional relationships and this information is used as reference in several parts of the world, although there is no certainty that they are representative of the soils in Mexico. In this study, the parameters of the Green & Ampt equation were determined and evaluated in some soils of agricultural importance in Mexico. The parameters were obtained in four ways: one of them applied a methodology adapted from Brooks and Corey to quantify the wetting front capillary pressure head and used an permeameter under constant hydraulic head to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity, and the other three consisted in taking them from three studies reported by the USDA. The values of the parameters suggested in Mexico drastically underestimated the results with relative errors (RE) in a range of -49.0 to -94.0% and the most representative were those obtained with the methodology proposed in this research with RE of -15.0 to 6.0%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0110.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: drip irrigation; maize; irrigation quotas; biomass; yield; irrigation water use efficiency
Online: 7 November 2022 (06:43:26 CET)
Drip irrigation systems are becoming more and more mature and are present extensively applied to increase crop yield and water use efficiency in Xinjiang, northwest China. To investigate the effects of irrigation quota on maize growth, the grain yield, and the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), a field experiment with four irrigation quotas (T1 4200m3·hm-2, T2 4800m3·hm-2, T3 5400m3·hm-2 and T4 6000m3·hm-2.) were conducted from 2013 to 2021 in Xinjiang China. The re-sults showed significant changes in maize growth, yield, and irrigation water use efficiency in response to different irrigation quotas. The plant height, leaf area index, SPAD, biomass, yield and harvest index of maize at different irrigation quotas all showed a “single peak curve”, and its change was closely related to the irrigation level. The growth index, dry matter accumulation, yield and irrigation water use efficiency with T3 were the highest. The dry matter transfer effi-ciency, contribution of dry matter translocation to grain and the harvest index with T3 showed significant increase of 13.86%, 26.06%, 29.93% and 7.62% compared to T1, respectively. In com-parison to T1, T2 and T4, the yield of T3 increased by 32.17%, 13.54% and 11.27% respectively, and the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) increased by 2.80%, 0.93% and 23.63% respectively. The significant correlations established between the maize yield and irrigation quotas could be sim-ulated by kuznets-style relation. The maize yield was negative correlated with irrigation quotas, When the irrigation quota (x) was 5376.73m3·hm-2, the maize yield (y) was 15841.00m3·hm-2. These results demonstrate that the optimized irrigation quota (5400m3·hm-2 treatment) can effectively improve the growth, yield and irrigation water use efficiency of drip irrigation maize in North-west China. In the meanwhile, it can provide theoretical reference and data support for the op-timal irrigation amount of drip irrigation maize in Northwest Xinjiang.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0560.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEBAL, Remote Sensing, GIS, Groundwater Irrigation
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:15:05 CEST)
Irrigation water management components evaluation is mandatory for sustainable irrigated agriculture production in the era of water scarcity. In this research spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water components were evaluated at canal command area in Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) using remote sensing based geo-informatics approach. Satellite derived MODIS product-based Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used for the estimation of the Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa). Satellite derived SEBAL based ETa was calibrated and validated using the ground data-based advection aridity method (AA). Statistical analysis of the SEBAL based ETa and AA shows the mean 87.1 mm and 47.9 mm and, 100 mm and 77 mm, Standard deviation of 27.7 mm and 15.9 mm and, 34.9 mm and 16.1 mm, R of 0.93 and 0.94, NSE of 0.72 and 0.85, PBIASE -12.9 and -4.4, RMSE 34.9 and 5.76 for the Kharif and Rabi season, respectively. Rainfall data was acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). TRMM based rainfall was calibrated with the point observatory data of the Pakistan Metrological Department Stations. Canal water data was collected from the Punjab Irrigation department for the assessment of canal water availability. Water The water balance approach was applied in the unsaturated zone for the quantification of the gross and net Groundwater irrigation. Mmonthly variation of ETa with the minimum average value of 63.3 mm in January and the maximum average value of 110.6 mm in August was found. While, the average annual of four cropping years (2011-12 to 2014-15) ETa was found 899 mm. Average of the sum of Net Canal Water Use (NCWU) and Rainfall during the study period of four years was only 548 mm (36% of ETa) and this resulted the 739.6 mm of groundwater extraction. While the annual based variation in groundwater extraction of 632 mm and 780 mm was found. Seasonal analysis revealed 39% and 61% of groundwater extraction proportion during Rabi and Kharif season, respectively. The variation in four cropping year’s monthly groundwater extraction was found 28.7 mm to 120.3 mm. This variation was high in the 2011-12 to 2012-13 cropping year (0 mm to 148.7 mm), dependent upon the occurrence of rainfall and crop phenology. Net groundwater irrigation, estimated after incorporating the efficiencies was 503 mm year-1 on average for the four cropping years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Cabbage, deficit irrigation, WUE and IWUE values, yield and quality parameters of cabbage, irrigation planning.
Online: 4 January 2019 (08:55:55 CET)
Abstract This trial was realized in Yenisehir Vocational School between 2007 and 2008 on the purpose of study out the influence of lack of water in four growth periods of cabbage. In this trial, fourteen irrigation treatments was formed considering the growth periods (establishment, vegetative, yield formation and ripening) of cabbage (Brassicaceae Oleracea var. capitata L. Grandslam F1) and the results obtained from these treatments were evaluated. According to the content of the treatments, the water amount to the plants varied between 0 and 524 mm in the 2007 year, and between 0 and 536 mm in the 2008 year. Water consumption of cabbage in the 2007 year ranged between 200 and 795 mm and in the 2008 year ranged between 190 and 802 mm. Yield, head weight, diameter, height and dry matter ratio were determined statistically important. In 2007 and 2008 years, the maximal yield were found as 74.2 t ha-1 and 72.4 t ha-1 in the E100V100Y100R100 treatments, while the minimal yield were found as 2.0 t ha-1 and 4.0 ha-1 in the E0V0Y0R0 treatments, respectively. Water- yield relationship factor (ky) in 2007 and 2008 years were found as 0.96 and 0.97, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0252.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Water saving; Irrigation; Water productivity; Grain yield; Rice
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:22:02 CEST)
Tanzania with 945 million hectares of land area and annual rainfall of 300 mm on 67% of its territorial land is considered as a semi-dry region in the world. Rice production in Tanzania needs to be increased to feed a growing population, whereas water for irrigation is getting scarce. One way to decrease water consumption in paddy fields is to change the irrigation regime for rice production and to replace continuous flooding with alternate wetting and drying. In order to investigate the effect of different regimes of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water productivity of hybrid rice, two greenhouse pot experiments comprising soils from upland and lowland production ecologies were conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania during crop seasons of 2019. The experiment was arranged in split plots based on randomized completely block design with 3 replications. Water regimes were the main factor comparing continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) with nitrogen fertilizer levels as the sub-factor including absolute control , 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) improved water productivity in both upland and lowland production ecologies compared to CF. AWD increased yield under lowland production by 13.3% while in upland there was 18.5% decrease in yield. The average water use varied from 31.5 to 84 L pot-1 under upland trials, while in lowland trials it was 36 to 82.3 L. Higher yield and lower water application led to an increase in WP varying from 1.2 to 1.8 kg cm-3 under upland trials, and 0.6 to 1.5 kg cm-3 under lowland trials. The variation in water productivity among treatments was mainly due to the differences in the yield, water and nitrogen levels used in the production process. Both sets of trials recorded water saving up to 34.3% and 17.3% under lowland and upland trials, respectively. Under upland trials, the yield varied from 39.9 to 124.1 g pot-1 and in lowland trials yield ranged from 20.6 to 118.2 g pot-1 representing paddy rice. The measurements showed that less water can be used to produce more crops under alternative rice growing practices. The results are important for water-scarce areas, providing useful information to policy makers, farmers, agricultural departments, and water management boards in devising future climate-smart adaptation and mitigation strategies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Water shortages; Irrigation Water; water Use; Water Harvesting; Aquifers storage
Online: 30 July 2021 (23:38:55 CEST)
Water scarcity is a significant challenge facing Jordan today. It is a challenge in all areas that use water, and it has become certain that water is the critical factor in the population/resources equation. The water resources in Jordan have become limited with the noticeable increase in the population, mostly resulting from forced migrations in neighboring countries because of the wars and until our time. The rising natural population growth rate, along with the massive influx of refugees, has turned into a state of disproportion between the daily consumption of the population and the amount of water available. That Jordan shares most of its surface water resources with neighboring countries has exacerbated the situation. The current use of water already exceeds its renewable supply. Excessive withdrawal from aquifers, which leads to a lowering of the water table and deterioration in water quality, covered the deficit. This paper focuses on assessing the water situation in Jordan, mainly evaluating this problem and the solution being considered, the true basis for a sustainable water solution requires awareness by the population, and several governmental and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in educating residents about water shortages. The most important and 'actionable' elements of comprehensive water solutions are discussed in this paper, and these elements exist, develop extra water supplies, water harvesting, water desalination, proper wastewater reuse in the agricultural sector, and reduce the demand for drinking water. This research provides specific recommendations to address the shortage of water resources in the Kingdom and highlights the importance of water conservation and optimal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agroforestry; Populus; Ulmus; cotton; corn; microclimate; evapotranspiration; irrigation
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:30:43 CEST)
Across Central Asia, agriculture largely depends on irrigation due to arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. Water is abstracted from rivers, which are largely fed by glacier melt. In the course of climate change, glaciers melt down so that a reduced glacier volume and reduced water runoffs are expected being available for irrigation. Tree wind breaks are one option to reduce water consumption in irrigated agriculture and build resilience against climate change. This paper therefore assessed water consumption of major crops (cotton, wheat, corn, rice, potato, and barley) in Kyrgyzstan and adjacent areas in combination with tree wind breaks. Crop water consumption was assessed through the Penman Monteith approach. Tree wind break types investigated were single rows from poplars and multiple rows with undergrowth by elm and poplar, respectively. Tree water consumption was determined through sapflow measurements. Seasonal ETo for field crops was 876 mm to 995 mm without wind breaks and dropped to less than half through multiple row wind breaks with undergrowth (50 m spacing). Tree water consumption was 1125 mm to 1558 mm for poplar and 435 mm for elm. Among the wind break crop systems, elm wind breaks resulted in highest reductions of water consumption, followed by single row poplars, at spacing of 50 m and 100 m, respectively. Yet, elm grows much slower than poplar so that poplars might be more attractive for farmers. Furthermore, single row wind breaks might by much easier to be integrated into the agrarian landscape, as they consume less space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0035.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: irrigation management, fertigation, TDR probe, ceramic extractors, salinity.
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:25:12 CET)
In precision agriculture in fertigated crops it is necessary to optimize the use of water and chemicals, and enable efficient application of fertilizers in order to ensure the best yield and avoid risks of soil salinization and contamination. In this study, an intelligent system was developed with the objective of monitoring, in real-time, moisture and solute concentrations in soil cultivated with lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum, var. Casablanca) fertigated under a protected environment. During one crop cycle, moisture was monitored in soil solution using TDR100 reflectometer and solute concentrations were monitored with ceramic cup extractors. Plants were fertigated with a solution containing five potassium concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg dm-3) applied when the soil reached moisture limits of 0.20, 0.15, 0.13, 0.11, and 0.09 cm3 cm-3. Experimental plots were arranged in a randomized block design in a 5 x 5 factorial scheme (moisture limits x potassium concentrations in soil solution), with four replicates. The proposed intelligent system enabled precise monitoring of moisture and electrical conductivity by TDR, and potassium, and other solute concentrations with extractors, being indicated for the management of lisianthus fertigation under greenhouse conditions with greater environmental safety and reduction of water consumption and risk of salinization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis; efficiency; irrigation water; Robusta coffee; Vietnam
Online: 10 December 2019 (03:43:13 CET)
Recent prolonged dry periods and lack of irrigation water have severely affected the productivity of coffee farms’ in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. This paper analyzes the efficiency of irrigation water use for Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) in Lam Dong province, Highlands, Vietnam. A Cobb-Douglas production function was used to determine coffee productivity’s response to the application of irrigation water and other production factors using data collected from 194 farmers while the Technical Efficiency (TE) and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) were analyzed using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The correlation of different factors to IWUE was determined using the Tobit model. The production function analysis using Cobb-Douglas shows that the volume of irrigation water, amount of working capital, labor and farm size significantly influence coffee productivity. It also shows that indigenous farmers are more efficient in utilizing irrigation water than the (mostly Kinh) migrant farmers. The Tobit result, on the other hand. indicates that farmers’ experience, education level, distance of farm to water source, security of access to water source, extension contact and credit access significantly affect IWUE. The study findings further suggest that mitigating water shortages in coffee farms require sub-regional and national policy support such as better access to credit and extension services, training, land management and household-level effort to improve farming practices, through the application of appropriate technologies and traditional knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0180.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Salinity, Sodicity, Groundwater Chemistry, Surface Water Chemistry, Irrigation Water Quality
Online: 9 November 2021 (14:08:29 CET)
Seyfe Lake is an important part of the natural ecosystem of Central Anatolia and lies within a 1487 km2 closed basin. Groundwater withdrawal for irrigation and recent climatic change have caused lake area to decrease for decades and to completely disappear briefly in August 2008. Groundwater quality is crucial for sustainable irrigation in the Seyfe Basin. A key finding of this study is the difference in the Hardie-Eugster alkalinity-to-calcium ratio of the lake water and that of most groundwater wells in the basin. This difference in the chemical signature of Seyfe Lake and basin groundwater means the evaporative salinization pathway of most groundwater discharged into the lake cannot account for the composition of Seyfe Lake. The ratio of actual evapotranspiration to precipitation will increase under current climate change projections. A second finding, with implications for soil salinization, is that most groundwater in Seyfe Basin has a Hardie-Eugster alkalinity-tocalcium ratio greater than unity, meaning soil alkalization will accompany soil salinization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: : Crop Water Requirements; Irrigation Requirements; crop coefficient; web-GIS; Earth Observation; evapotranspiration
Online: 17 November 2016 (15:41:52 CET)
The experiences gathered during the past 30 years support the operational use of irrigation scheduling based on frequent multi-spectral image data. Currently, the operational use of dense time series of multispectral imagery at high spatial resolution makes monitoring of crop biophysical parameters feasible, capturing crop water use across the growing season, with suitable temporal and spatial resolutions. These achievements, and the availability of accurate forecasting of meteorological data, allow for precise predictions of crop water requirements with unprecedented spatial resolution. This information is greatly appreciated by the end users, i.e. professional farmers or decision-makers, and can be provided in an easy-to-use manner and in near-real-time by using the improvements achieved in web-GIS methodologies. This paper reviews the most operational and explored methods based on optical remote sensing for the assessment of crop water requirements, identifying strengths and weaknesses and proposing alternatives to advance towards full operational application of this methodology. In addition, we provide a general overview of the tools which facilitates co-creation and collaboration with stakeholders, paying special attention to these approaches based on web-GIS tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0098.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: oilfield produced water; wastewater; heavy metals; irrigation; bioaccumulation; soil health; California
Online: 9 April 2018 (07:48:31 CEST)
Oilfield produced water (OPW) is used to boost freshwater sources for crop irrigation in California's agriculturally important Central Valley. OPW is known to contain salts, metals, hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, naturally radioactive materials, biocides, and other compounds from drilling and production processes. Less is known about the potential uptake and accumulation of these compounds in crops and soil irrigated with OPW. In this study 23 potted mandarin orange plants were irrigated 2-3 times weekly (depending on season) with water containing three different concentrations of the known OPW heavy metals barium, chromium, lead, and silver. Seven sets of samples of soil and leaves and all fruits were collected and processed using microwave-assisted digestion (EPA Method 3051A). Processed samples were analyzed using ICP-OES. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Tukey’s honest significant difference test were used to examine the effects of metal concentrations in the irrigation water, sample number, and number of watering days on the metal concentrations in the soil, leaf, and fruit samples. Accumulation of barium in soil and leaves was strongly positively associated with sample and number of watering days, increasing nearly 2,000-fold. Lead also showed an upward trend, increasing up to 560-fold over baseline level. Chromium showed an increase in the soil that tapered off, but less consistent results in the leaves and fruit. The silver results were more volatile, but also indicated at least some level of accumulation in the tested media. The smallest absolute accumulation was observed for chromium. Concentrations in the fruit were highest in the peel, followed by pith and juice. Accumulation of all heavy metals was generally highest in the soil and plants that received the highest irrigation water concentration. Considering the potential for adverse human health effects associated with ingesting soluble barium contained in food and drinking water, and to a lesser extent chromium and lead, the study signals that it is important to conduct further research into whether OPW contaminants can enter the food chain and pose risks to consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0463.v1
Subject: Keywords: Africa; deficit irrigation; food security; system of rice intensification; water conservation; water productivity
Online: 24 July 2018 (16:41:31 CEST)
Rice production is important for global food security but given its large water footprint, efficient irrigation management strategies need to be developed. Expansion of rice growing area is larger than any other crop in Africa due to increasing demand for rice. Three rice irrigation management alternatives with the system of rice intensification (SRI) were field-evaluated against the conventional continuously flooded system (CF) in Tanzania. Production systems included: (1) CF (50 mm ponding depth for the entire season); (2) SRI (40 mm ponding for 3 days and no irrigation for next 5 days); (3) 80% SRI (80% of the SRI ponding); and (4) 50% SRI (50% of the SRI ponding). Experimental evaluation of the four systems was conducted for both wet and dry seasons. For the dry season, the SRI and 80% SRI produced higher yields of 9.68 tons/ha and 11.45 tons/ha and saved 26% and 35% of water, respectively compared to the CF (8.69 tons/ha). The yield advantage of the 80% SRI and SRI over the CF was less during the wet season with 6.01 tons/ha and 5.99 tons/ha of production, and water savings of 30% and 14%, respectively compared to the CF (5.64 tons/ha). The 50% SRI had lowest yield of all for both seasons, 7.48 tons/ha and 4.99 tons/ha for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Statistically, the 80% SRI treatment outperformed all other treatments over the two seasons with an additional yield of 1.57 tons/ha and 33% (345 mm) water savings compared to the CF. Economic productivity of water (US$/ha-cm) over two seasons was highest for the 80% SRI ($20.27/ha-cm), while it was lowest for the CF ($12.89/ha-cm). Water saved by converting from the CF to the 80% SRI (1.98 million ha-cm) can support a 50% expansion in the current rice irrigated area in Tanzania. Even without irrigation expansion, the 80% SRI can increase rice production by 1.5 million tons annually while enhancing water availability for industrial and environmental uses (e.g., ecological preserves) and help achieve food security in Tanzania and the greater sub-Saharan Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0187.v1
Subject: Keywords: sodium adsorption ratio; SAR; CROSS, electrical conductivity; specific conductivity; salinity; irrigation; groundwater; water quality
Online: 9 October 2020 (08:45:56 CEST)
Soil water loss by evaporation influences the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of irrigation drainage water. Evaporation concentrates sodium and magnesium but calcite precipitation has a more complicated effect on soluble calcium and alkalinity. Here we propose a revised sodicity hazard assessment that quantifies the impact of evaporative water loss and calcite precipitation on drainage water SAR. This paper shows sodicity hazard is determined by the initial composition of irrigation water as originally suggested by previous researchers, and provide a simple, accurate way to identify the potential sodicity hazard of any irrigation water. In particular, the initial equivalent concentration of alkalinity and calcium determine the salinization pathway followed during evaporation. If the irrigation water alkalinity exceeds soluble calcium expressed as equivalent concentrations, drainage water SAR approaches an upper limit determined by the initial relative concentration of sodium and magnesium. If irrigation water alkalinity is less than soluble calcium, drainage water SAR approaches a lower limit determined by the initial calcium, magnesium and sodium. In both cases the SAR is scaled by the square root of the concentration factor √Fc quantifying soil water loss. To assess the impact of evaporation and calcite precipitation on the SAR and test the accuracy of the new sodicity hazard assessment, we evaluated data from previously published lysimeter studies. We plotted water composition boundaries for each source water, comparing these boundaries to the drainage water composition recorded in the lysimeter studies. As salinity increased by evaporation, each drainage water followed a distinct salinization path.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0224.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biomass allocation; drought; irrigation; leaf anatomy; mRNA level; proline
Online: 9 August 2020 (21:53:38 CEST)
Recent climatic changes have resulted in an increased frequency and prolonged periods of drought and strained water resources affecting plant production. We explored the possibility of reducing irrigation in a container nursery and studied the growth response of seedlings of economically important forest trees: broadleaf deciduous angiosperms Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and evergreen conifers Abies alba and Pinus sylvestris. We also studied markers of water stress including modifications of biomass allocation, leaf anatomy, proline accumulation and expression of selected genes. Growth of the broadleaved deciduous species was more sensitive to the reduced water supply than that of conifers. Remarkably, growth of the shade tolerant Abies was not affected. Adjustment of biomass allocations was strongest in P. sylvestris, with a remarkable increase in allocation to roots. In response to water deficit both deciduous species accumulated proline in leaves and produced leaves with shorter palisade cells, reduced vascular tissues and smaller conduit diameters, but not conifers. Relative transcript abundance of a gene encoding a Zn-finger protein in Q. petraea and a gene encoding a pore calcium channel protein 1 in A. alba increased as water deficit increased. These findings suggest that in container nursery, the genetic selection can be initiated by water deficit. Our study shows major differences between functional groups in response to irrigation, with seedlings of evergreen conifers having higher tolerance than the deciduous species. This suggests that major water savings could be achieved by adjusting irrigation regime to functional group or species requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Water Stress; Precision Irrigation; Non-Water-Stressed Baseline; Soil Moisture; Infra-Red Sensor.
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:29:44 CEST)
So that the levels of water stress are not harmful to the development of the crop and affect its productivity, its detection and monitoring are necessary, and it can occur in different ways. One of them is through the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI). This index quantifies water stress through the normalization of leaf temperature between the maximum and minimum plant temperatures as a function of evaporation conditions. The responses of a low-cost infrared (IR) sensor were crossed with image processing through segmentation by the Excess Green model to develop a water stress detection system using CWSI. A soil/plant temperature map was generated through a point-to-point scan of the IR sensor. And when it overlaid with a segmented image of the experimental area, only points identified as plants had their temperature values maintained. The Non-Water-Stressed Baseline (NWSB) equation was parameterized for the same conditions of the experiment and external environmental. The experimental area was divided into three different treatments, maintained under stable water conditions throughout the experiment and the system was able to identify stably different stress values between treatments. Although the relationship between crop and environment affected the results, this work showed that using an irrigation system based on CWSI is possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0133.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: land and water management; land use change modelling; water and irrigation policy; modelling of policy impact.
Online: 3 July 2017 (15:13:44 CEST)
Agriculture and farming worldwide are responsible for numerous environmental threats, including degradation of land and water resources depletion. Underlining the dynamic interaction between bio-physical and socio-economic drivers is the key towards a more sustainable land and water management. With regard to a highly developed agricultural area in southern Italy, multi-regression models were developed to interpret the observed inter-annual variability of cropped land. Main drivers related to Common Agricultural Policy support, product market prices, crop yield and irrigation water availability were investigated. The adopted models revealed the different weighs of each driver. The findings reported the role that direct payments played in supporting the extension of irrigated crops, such as processing tomato. Likewise, the models pointed to decoupled payment scheme as the most important driver of change in the crop pattern over the last years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0598.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: irrigation scheduling; Solanum lycopersicum; El Niño; water stress; decision support system; climate variability
Online: 30 September 2018 (05:48:20 CEST)
Irrigation scheduling is used by growers to determine the right amount and timing of water application. In most parts of Mozambique, 90% of the total yearly precipitation occurs from November to March. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon influences the climate in Mozambique and affects the water demand for crop production. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effects of ENSO phenomenon on tomato crop water requirements, and to create the AgroClimate irrigation tool (http://mz.agroclimate.org/) to assist farmers in improving irrigation management. This study was based on daily grid-based climate information from 1983 to 2016 from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Daily crop evapotranspiration was calculated by Hargreaves equation and crop coefficients. This tool is available online and considers different planting dates, ENSO phases, and crop growing season lengths. Irrigation needs varied from less than 250 mm per growing cycle during winter to 550 mm during spring. Both El Niño and La Niña influenced the irrigation scheduling, especially from November to March. El Niño periods were related with increased water demand due to drier and warmer conditions while the opposite was observed for La Niña. The ENSO information might be used to understand climate variability and improve tomato irrigation scheduling in Mozambique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: irrigation; groundwater; alluvial aquifer; water conservation adoption; row crops; Mississippi Delta; precision agriculture; Lower Mississippi River Valley
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:42:24 CEST)
This article identifies irrigated row-crop farmer factors associated with the adoption of water conserving practices. The analysis is performed on data from a survey of irrigators in Mississippi. Regression results show that the number of irrigated acres, years of education, perception of a groundwater problem, and participation in conservation programs are positively associated with practice adoption; while number of years farming, growing rice, and pumping cost are negatively associated with adoption. However, not all factors are statistically significant for all practices. Survey results indicate that only a third of growers are aware of groundwater problems at the farm or state level; and this lack of awareness is related to whether farmers noticed a change in the depth-to-water distance in their irrigation wells. This evidence is consistent with a report to Congress from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) that recommends policies promoting the use of: (1) more efficient irrigation technology and practices and (2) precision agriculture technologies, such as soil moisture sensors and irrigation automation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0486.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: mesocosm; irrigation canal; irrigation channel; degradation; biodegradation; persistence; aquatic weed
Online: 29 August 2018 (08:58:03 CEST)
Endothall dipotassium salt and monoamine salt are herbicide formulations used for controlling submerged aquatic macrophytes and algae in aquatic ecosystems. Microbial activity is the primary degradation pathway for endothall. To better understand what influences endothall degradation, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to 1) evaluate the effects of different water and sediment sources on degradation, and 2) determine if degradation was faster in the presence of a microbial community previously exposed to endothall. Endothall residues were determined with LC-MS at intervals to 21 days after endothall application. Two endothall isomers were detected. Isomer-1 was abundant in both endothall formulations, while isomer-2 was only abundant in the monoamine endothall formulation and was more persistent. Degradation did not occur in the absence of sediment. In the presence of sediment degradation if isomer-1 began after a lag phase of 5-11 days and was almost complete by 14 days. Onset of degradation occurred 2-4 days sooner when the microbial population was previously exposed to endothall. We provide direct evidence that the presence and characteristics of sediment are of key importance in the degradation of endothall in an aquatic environment, and that monoamine endothall has two separate isomers that have different degradation characteristics.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0400.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Ganga; environmental flows; river conservation; Ramganga; Karula; irrigation water use efficiency; Water Users Association; minor canal
Online: 29 June 2022 (08:52:50 CEST)
The pressure on freshwater resources is leading to diminishing flows in some of the critical river systems across the globe and India is no exception and this is mainly because of water withdrawal for irrigation, which is often to the tune of 70% to 80% with some proportion for domestic and industrial use. While graduating from the concept of environmental flows and its assessment methodologies in India, the water-managers, the researchers and the conservationists are now moving towards answering the next question if the rivers are to be revived, then where will the water come from, especially in the case of over-allocated rivers, including the river Ganga. While the logical way is to look at the biggest user of water, i.e. irrigation, it remains to be seen whether the irrigation water savings will actually lead to enhancing flows in a river, complementing the efforts towards maintaining e-flows in rivers, or whether it will lead to more area under agriculture, bring changes in cropping patterns towards more water-intensive crops or result in something else. This is a growing debate across the globe, where India is no exception, and there has been a wide range of opinions in this regard. This paper discusses the process, findings and lessons from a joint initiative involving farmers, the Uttar Pradesh state Irrigation and Water Resources Department, Bijnor District Administration and a conservation organisation to enhance flows in a rivulet, called karula River, which is part of the Ganga river system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: tomatoes; drip irrigation; mulching; solar pump; photovoltaic panel; economic indices; irrigation water indices
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:39:44 CET)
Tomatoes, one of the most appreciated vegetables consumed, are crops well adapted for cultivation in arid and semi-arid conditions, the success of large yields is guaranteed by covering water consumption through irrigation. Solar Pumps - SP are driven by Photovoltaic Panels - PV (SPAPV), eliminating the dependence on electricity or diesel; they are environmentally friendly because they generate carbon-free electricity and the cost of operation and maintenance is lower. In order to preserve the water administered by drip to the tomato crop grown in solariums, mulching is used. In Husasău de Tinca, in the Crișurilor Plain, cultivation of tomato varieties without mulching (WM) and with mulching with black foil (MBF) were studied. To answer the question "How effective are water conservation measures in terms of energy independence?", two variants of SPAPVs, direct pumping (ADP) and storage tank (AST) were simulated. Considering the conditions in the solariums, tomato crops do not benefit from the contribution of precipitation, therefore it is proposed to determine the water consumption of tomatoes (ETRo), using the temperatures inside the solarium. In 2016, the average temperatures during the vegetation period were observed with an insurance of over 20 %, the irrigation norms were 6945.7 m3 ha-1, for the WM variant and 6594.0 m3 ha-1 for the MBF variant, respectively. Specific Investment (SI) is 214,795 Euro ha-1 in case of ADP and respectively 202,990 Euro ha-1 in case of ATS. The payback period (IPT) is between 2.68 years and 2.53 years for the ADP variant and between 1.63 years and 1.54 years for the ATS variant, respectively. The indications for water use and irrigation water use show that in the MBF variant the water administered by localized irrigation is better utilized than in the WM variant. In the conditions of Crișurilor Plain, the best solution for the distribution of water in solariums, with the help of SPAPVs is the mulching system of tomatoes grown in solariums (MBF) and the arrangement of the drip irrigation system with a water storage tank (ATS).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0468.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Irrigation; Food security; Poverty; SDGs
Online: 25 November 2022 (05:56:01 CET)
Ethiopia has 51.3 million hectares of arable land and an irrigation potential of 3,088,395 hectares. Despite the country's vast irrigation potential, it hasn’t benefited much. Studies have confirmed the role of irrigation in increasing crop production, alleviating poverty, and promoting food security. Given such importance of irrigation in poverty and hunger alleviation, it’s believed that the development of the sector contributes to the realization of sustainable development goals (SDGs). Therefore, this review looked into the progress of the irrigation sector over the past seven years, between 2015 (the launch of the SDGs) and 2021 (the midterm of the SDGs period). During this period the number of smallholder irrigators increased by 15.21% and the total increase in irrigated land was only 1.4%. Vegetables, root crops, fruits and stimulant crops showed an increase of 153.8%, 66 %,16.6% and 1% in the irrigated production area, respectively. On the other hand, irrigated production areas of cereal, pulse and oil crops declined by 8.0%, 44.6% and 90.5%, respectively. Among cereals, only Teff showed a slight 4.3% overall increase in the irrigated production area, whereas Barley, Wheat, Maize and Sorghum decreased by 12.5% and 3.3%. 11.3%, 12.9%, respectively. This shows that the irrigation sector is characterized by a decline or underachievement during this period. Hence, there is a need for studies into why the sector experienced such a disappointing performance, in order to come up with strategies to improve the sector in the remaining periods of the SDGs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: optimality; irrigation; drip; plastic; agriculture
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:12:30 CEST)
Water management and soil pollution are hot issues in modern agriculture. While more production of food is required, this quantity has to be obtained using the minimum level of resources and the maximum amortization of assets. Moreover, studies show that in Europe, 30% of water consumption is for agriculture, which has a strong influence not only on the amount of water consumed, but also on its quality due to pollution caused by chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other pollutants used in this sector. Therefore, a major concern is related to the use of water, its efficient consumption, which requires optimal irrigation systems both in terms of water transport and distribution. In this context, but also in the context of a turbid environmental debate, the most important facts in agriculture are the protection of the environment on a long range of time. In order to obtain good results for an irrigation system, in this paper we will present a model for calculating the best suited material for a given geographical area and the optimal water content for irrigation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0161.v1
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:51:10 CEST)
Among the different applicable irrigants for root canal disinfection, sodium hypochlorite 5.25% is one of the most attractive ones. The quality of root canal disinfection is dependent on some factors such as the employed approach, type of flow rate of irrigant and the size of needle. The majority of studies in the field of root canal disinfection are experimentally carried out. In the current article, Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is used for modeling the antimicrobial liquid flow in the root canal and evaluate the effects of needle size and flow rate. Two needles, G28 and G30, are used for irrigation in three volumetric rates of flow including 0.10 mL⁄s , 0.20 mL⁄s and 0.30 mL⁄s. The results of numerical simulations revealed the improved quality of root canal disinfection by augmentation in the rate of flow and decrease in the inner diameter of the needle. According to the outcomes of the modeling, the highest average wall shear stress obtained in the case of using G28 needle and 30 mL⁄s flow rate, which was approximately 10.21 Pa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0216.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: ancient; canal; irrigation; Majapahit; NDVI; reservoir
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:54:59 CET)
Majapahit is one of vast kingdoms and civilizations in Southeast Asia in 14th century. The kingdom and its capital city are centered in present Trowulan suburban, east Java and bordered by mountain range in the south and river in the east and north. Regarding the geological condition then Majapahit kingdom has a challenge especially to provide the water managements for its agricultural practices. In here, this study aims to assess the hydrology systems developed by Majapahit civilizations and how this system is effective in maintaining vegetation health. Based on the results, the gravity-fed hydrology systems consist of networks involving river, dam, underground and surface water canal and reservoir pond. The water from upstream was managed using dams and channeled into streams and collected inside the ponds. This network spans approximately 10 km from the first dam to the last 6.49 Ha reservoir built in the middle of city. The water channeled from dam to reservoir pond was using natural streams and 2.4 km underground canal. This 40 cm depth man made canal was a water source for agricultural soils since it was used to irrigate the nearby paddy field. During past El Nino in 2019 that has caused prolong drought, the Majapahit irrigation system has provided water for the adjacent paddy field. Based on the vegetation health analysis measured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), paddy field watered by man made canal shows higher NDVI values or at least has same values compared to the field watered by contemporary canals. Then, the 14th century irrigation system developed by Majapahit civilization is a valuable heritage that needs to be preserved considering its important functions even in this contemporary era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0261.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: irrigation; technology adoption; farmers’ innovation; diffusion
Online: 15 August 2018 (04:08:07 CEST)
In 2013, thirty-eight treadle pumps (TPs) were installed as low-cost technology introduction for small-scale irrigation in eastern Ethiopia. This pilot project also trained six farmers on tube well excavation, installation and maintenance of pumps. In June 2015, researchers visited nine of the 38 TP villages, and found only two functional TPs. The rest were replaced with a new technology developed by the trained farmers. Adopters of the new technology stated that the limited water output and high labor demand of the conventional TP did not optimally fulfil their irrigation water requirements. The new technology had spread quickly to more than one hundred households due to three key factors. First, farmers’ innovative modifications of the initial excavation technique addressed the discharge limitations of the conventional TP by excavating boreholes with wider diameter. Second, local ownership of the new technology, including skills used in well drilling and manufacturing excavation implement, made the new irrigation technology affordable and accessible to the majority of households. Third, this innovation spread organically without any external support, confirming its sustainability. Farmers, empowered by training, gained more control in developing technology options tailored to local needs and conditions of their communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Remote sensing data; variable rate irrigation; irrigation management; fuzzy systems; decision support tools; intelligent center pivot
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:03:08 CEST)
Growing agricultural demands for the global population are unlocking the path to developing innovative solutions for efficient water management. Herein, an intelligent variable rate irrigation system (fuzzy-VRI) is proposed for rapid decision-making to achieve optimized irrigation in various delimited zones. The proposed system automatically creates irrigation maps for a center pivot irrigation system for a variable-rate application of water. Primary inputs are spatial imagery on remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), canopy temperature (CT), and nitrogen content (NI). To eliminate localized issues with soil characteristics, we used the crop nitrogen content map to provide a focused insight on issues related to water shortage. The system relates these inputs to set reference values for the rotation speed controllers and individual openings of each central pivot sprinkler valve. The results showed that the system can detect and characterize the spatial variability of the crop and further, the fuzzy logic solved the uncertainties of an irrigation system and defined a control model for high-precision irrigation. The proposed approach is validated through the comparison between the recommended irrigation and actual irrigation at two field sites, and the results showed that the developed approach gives an accurate estimation of irrigation with a reduction in the volume of irrigated water of up to 27% in some cases. Future research should implement the fuzzy-VRI real-time during field trials in order to quantify its effect on irrigation use, yield, and water use efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Agro-economic crop water productivity; Hydro-economic modeling; CSPSO-MODSIM; Economic benefits; Crop pattern planning; Crop water Irrigation depth; Climate change; Iran.
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:12:25 CET)
For water-stressed regions like Iran improving the effectiveness and productivity of agricultural water-use is of utmost importance due to climate change and unsustainable demands. Therefore, a hydro-economic model has been developed here for the Zarrine River Basin with the central concept of that demands are value-sensitive functions, where quantities of water-uses at different locations and times have a changeable economic benefits. To do this, the potential crop yields and the surface and groundwater resources, especially Boukan Dam inflow are simulated using the hydrologic model, SWAT, based on predicted climatic scenarios i.e. quantile mapping-downscaled projections. Then, to allocate the agricultural water based on the agro- economic crop water productivity (AEWP) of crops, a basin-wide water management tool, MODSIM, is customized. Next, a simulation- optimization model has been developed using a coupled CSPSO-MODSIM, to optimize the total AEWP, considering climatic impact and crop pattern scenarios, for 2020-2038, 2050-2068 and 2080-2098 periods. Finally, the optimum crop pattern and crop water irrigation depths are presented for different RCPs and periods. The results indicated that this approach will improve considerably the AEWPs and decrease the agricultural water-use up to 40%. Thus, this integrated model is able to support water authorities and other stakeholder in a water-scarce basin, as is the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0337.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: agrometeorology; irrigation; information technology; statistics; water management
Online: 24 June 2022 (09:53:45 CEST)
Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key agrometeorological index for rational irrigation management. The standard method for ETo estimation, proposed by FAO, is based on a complicated Penman-Monteith equation, requires great number of meteorological inputs thus making it difficult for practical use by farmers. To the moment, there are many alternative simplified approaches for ETo estimation, most of them are directed to cutting the number of required meteorological inputs for calculation. Among them, special attention should be paid to various temperature-based methods of ETo assessment. One of the temperature-based models for ETo computation was realized in free mobile app ETo Calculator (Ukraine). The app gives Ukrainian farmers an opportunity to assess ETo values on daily or monthly scale using mean air temperature as the only input. The goal of the study was to test the app accuracy comparing to FAO-based calculations in five key regions of Ukraine, each of which representing a particular climatic zone of the country. It was established that the app provides relatively good accuracy of ETo estimation even in raw (not adjusted to windspeed and relative air humidity) run; the results of statistical comparison with the FAO-calculated values are: R2 within 0.82-0.87, RMSE within 0.74-0.81 mm, MAE within 0.60-0.70, MAPE within 18.07-25.50% depending on the region. ETo Calculator (Ukraine) is a good alternative for complicated Penman-Monteith method and could be recommended for Ukrainian farmers to be used for irrigation management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0007.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: African agriculture; Irrigation; Landsat; Remote Sensing; Reservoir.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:26:45 CET)
Agriculture in Morocco has been extensive until the middle of the 20th century due to the distribution of rainfall and the availability of water. In the middle of the last century hydraulic works were built that allowed the transition to intensive agriculture by the increase of irrigated areas, allowing that in the territories where there is water for irrigation and the climate allows it, the crops adapt to the demands of the market. The objective of the study is to assess by satellite images the land cover between 1985 and 2020, analyzing the changes in cultivation areas, as well as the changes in desert, sub-desert and forest areas of the Oum Er Rbia hydrological basin in Morocco. Landsat satellite images have been used since 1984 by the US government (Aerospace and Geological Agencies). A series of vegetation indices (NDVI, RVI, TNDVI and EVI) have been used; among which TNDVI (Transformed Normalized Vegetation Index) stands out for its better accuracy, which has allowed us to distinguish vegetation in cultivated and forest areas, as well as arid zones. In addition, the study has compared the use of two methodologies to calculate changes in the coverage of the Earth’s surface, has used local image processing from the Sentinel Application Platform tool and has also used the Google Earth Engine tool. The latter being the most optimal, although at the moment it has great limitations. In both methodologies and in the different indices it has been possible to observe during these 35 years as the cultivated area has increased (related to the availability of water by the construction of reservoirs and canals), how plant cover has improved in forest areas, and a range of variations in arid areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; optimization; expert system; irrigation system
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:34:22 CEST)
Innovative practices in irrigation systems can bring improvements in terms of economic efficiency and in the same time can reduce environmental impact. Investment in high tech technologies frequently involves additional costs, but an efficient water management can increase the lifetime of the equipment. The main objective of this article is to reduce the energy consumption by one thousand cubic meters pumped and automatically to increase the economic efficiency of the pumping groups. This paper develops a new operating algorithm that ensures the operation of the pumping group at safe operating intervals and in the same time identifies the equivalent pump operating points for the entire flow range and pumping height of the pumping group. This methodology is based on the principles of an Expert System to perform the optimization process of the energy consumption in pumping groups. The resulting methodology avoids the combinatorial explosion of the solutions to be analyzed and determines the point of maximum efficiency without violation of any of the system constraints under any operating condition. The proposed methodology is tested on an irrigation system that includes a pumping group with 5 pumps, showing its effectiveness in obtaining the optimal solution with a relatively low computational burden.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0048.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: wastewater irrigation; soil characteristics; agriculture; pollution; China
Online: 9 October 2017 (10:09:42 CEST)
Fresh water is valuable nonrenewable resource and plays an important role of maintaining economic and social development. Condisering its large population and consumption potential, water resources deficit will certainly impede basic industries sustainable development of China in the near future. Application of sewage irrigation, to some extent, was regarded as an alternative way to solve the problem of agricultural irrigation water shortage in some areas (such as North China). However, accompanied with extensive implementation of sewage irrigation, some problems on sewage irrigation in agriculture are gradually obvious, especially serious pollution and destruction for farmland. In this paper, the effects of sewage irrigation on soil physical (soil bulk density, soil resistance to penetration and field capacity), chemical (pH, soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphrous, patassium, heavy metal and organic pollutants) and biological characteristics (soil microorganism and enzyme activities) of farmland in China were systematically reviewed on the base of the current utilization status of China’s farmland sewage irrigation and some feasible suggestions were put forward to the development prospect for the future. This review will be beneficial for promoting healthy development of sewage irrigation and providing theoretical support for reclamation and high efficiency of effluents in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0105.v1
Online: 7 June 2020 (16:00:25 CEST)
Recycled wastewater is considered as a sustainable source of irrigation water. Despite commendable safety records, viral contamination of agricultural products has occurred the past causing disease outbreaks. This review examines the apprehension that the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) may also spread through recycled wastewater irrigation (RWI) industry. The novel SARS-CoV-2 is now perceived as an enteric pathogen, and has been found to remain stable in the wastewater for days. Mounting evidences also suggest that viral particles shed by infected individuals through sewage, and greywater is much higher (up to 10 Log10) than the amount typically removed (6-7 Log10) through the recycled water disinfection processes. Such gap indicated an increased risk of infection through fecal-oral transmission route. This study also identified greywater irrigation schemes posing a higher risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It was recommended that countries putting greywater in the ‘low risk’ category may rewrite the safety guidelines in post COVID-19 times. This review also suggest that the choice of irrigation method could be critical in protecting the farmers, and the consumers from possible infections during the pandemic. In this regard, irrigation methods (i.e. sprinkler) that generate airborne droplet (leading to aerosols) may be operated with caution when public spaces are in the vicinity. The study also indicated that the developing countries should regulate surface irrigation practice that pump water from polluted rivers during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0339.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Quality Index; irrigation water quality; Tabriz Aquifer
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:42:20 CEST)
The key goal of the current study was to determine suitable areas of water pumping for drinking and agricultural harvest in Tabriz aquifer, located in East Azerbaijan province, northwest Iran. In the study area, groundwater is the key foundation of water for drinking and farming requirements. Groundwater compatibility study was conducted by analyzing Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Sulfate (SO4), Total hardness (TH), Bicarbonate (HCO3), pH, carbonate (CO3) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) obtained from 39 wells in the period of 2003 to 2014. For this purpose, the Water Quality Index (WQI) and irrigation water quality (IWQ) index were utilized. The WQI index zoning exposed that the groundwater of the study area for drinking purposes is categorized as excellent, good and poor water. Most drinking water harvested for urban and rural areas are in the class of 'excellent water'. The results revealed that about 37 percent (296 km2) of groundwater has high compatibility, and 63 percent of the study area (495 km2) has average compatibility for agricultural purposes. The trend of IWQ and WQI indexes demonstrates that the groundwater is getting worse over the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0024.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SWAT; water quality; paddy fields; irrigation; rice; watershed
Online: 13 September 2018 (08:42:30 CEST)
The recent increase in global consumption of rice has led to increased demand for sustainable water management in paddy cultivation. In this study, we propose an enhanced paddy simulation module to be introduced to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate the sustainability of paddy cultivation. The enhancements added to SWAT include: (1) modification of water balance calculation for impounded fields, (2) addition of an irrigation management option for paddy fields that are characterized by flood irrigation with target water depth, and (3) addition of a puddling operation that influences the water quality and infiltration rate of the top soil layer. In a case study, the enhanced model, entitled SWAT-Paddy, was applied to an agricultural watershed in Japan. The results showed that the SWAT-Paddy successfully represented paddy cultivation, water management, and discharge processes. Simulated daily discharge rates with SWAT-Paddy (R2 = 0.8) were superior to the SWAT result (R2 = 0.002). SWAT-Paddy allows the simulation of paddy management processes realistically, and thus can enhance model accuracy in paddy-dominant agricultural watersheds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0118.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Irrigation; rainwater harvest; surface runoff; ecologic recycling; landscape ecology
Online: 11 September 2019 (12:56:15 CEST)
The reserves of water, which is one of the most important requirements for human life, gradually decreases under current conditions and rapidly depletes despite being one of the renewable resources. Considering the global water reserves, it became imperative to implement measures to protect the anticipated water reserves. The fact that the amount of quality water per capita decreases every day in the world and the increasing competition in water management could be considered among the indicators of the above-mentioned case. In recent years, as the effects of this adversity became increasingly more evident, several sustainable methods were adopted all over the world such as rain gardens and rainwater storage facilities. These sustainable techniques could be observed in many areas, especially in urban centers. In the present study, the area with the highest water collection was determined at Karadeniz Technical University Kanuni Campus and identified as the study area. Precipitation per square meter and surface runoff volume were identified based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) data, annual water collection volume was calculated, and information on economic and ecological recycling of the water was provided. In conclusion, the precipitation data for 11 years were compared, and it was calculated that the average annual precipitation was 64.06 kg/m2 and annual surface runoff water was 552.77 m3. Based on the surface runoff water volume in the months when no irrigation is conducted, a reservoir was designed under the vehicle road and water recycling recommendations were developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy efficiency, Photovoltaic system, energy audit, rigid scheduled irrigation
Online: 17 October 2018 (12:54:37 CEST)
Due to the fact that irrigation networks are water and energy-hungry and that both resources are scarce, many strategies have been developed to reduce this consumption. Otherwise, solar energy sources have become a green alternative with lower energy costs and, as a consequence, lower environmental impacts. In this work, it is proposed a new methodology to select the scheduled program for irrigation which minimizes the number of photovoltaic solar panels to be installed and which better fits energy consumption (calculated for discrete potential combinations; using a programming software to assist) to available energy obtained by panels without any power conditioning unit. So, the irrigation hours available to satisfy the water demands are limited by sunlight, the schedule type of irrigation has to be rigid (rotation predetermined) and the pressure at any node has to be above the minimum pressure required by standards. A real case study has been performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0568.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pedotransfer functions; inverse methods; gravity irrigation; model validation; experimental data
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:01:37 CEST)
In the present work, we evaluate the prediction capability of six Pedotransfer functions (PTFs), reported in the literature, for the saturated hydraulic conductivity estimations (Ks). We used a database with 900 measured samples obtained from the Irrigation District 023, in San Juan del Rio, Queretaro, Mexico. Additionally, six new PTFs were construct for Ks from clay percentage, bulk density and saturation water content data. The results show, for the evaluated models, that one model present an overestimation for Ks>0.5 cm h-1 values, three models have a underestimation for Ks>1.0 cm h-1 and two models have a good correlation (R2>0.98) but are necessary more than three parameters. Nevertheless, the last two models requires from three to four parameters in order to get the optimization. By other hand, the models proposed in this work have a similar correlation with a less number of parameters: the fit is seen to be much better than using the existing ones, achieving a correlation of R2 = 0.9822 with only one variable and a R2 = 0.9901 when we use two.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0352.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: climate change; wheat quality; risk assessment; irrigation; CERES-Wheat; yield
Online: 26 December 2019 (10:40:01 CET)
The effects of climate change on yield and quality for different climate regions had high uncertainty. Risk assessment is an effective measure to assess the seriousness of the projected impacts for decision-makers. The modified quality model was used to simulate integrated impacts of climate change, environment and management on wheat yield and quality. Then, the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) was used to forecast the daily meteorological data, and Statistical Down Scaling Model was used for downscaling. CERES-Wheat was combined with the forecasted meteorological data to simulate the future wheat yield and grain protein concentration (GPC). The risk of wheat yield and quality in three climatic regions of Shaanxi combined with two climate change scenarios of CanESM2 were assessed. Temperature increased 0.22-3.34 °C and precipitation increased 10-60 mm for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Elevated temperature and precipitation had positive effects on yield in all regions. The yield risk of most regions with climate change decreased 3.8%-25.1%. The GPC risk of all regions with climate change decreased 7.3%-27.2%. Irrigation decreased yield risk greatly in all regions, while had totally different effects for the three climatic regions. Yield risk with irrigation decreased 37.7%-52.1% in different climate. In contrast to previous studies, GPC risk with irrigation increased greatly 25.8%-28.9% in humid region, 3.9%-8.8% in sub-humid region, and decreased 37.7%-52.1% in semi-arid region. Climate change decreased yield risk and GPC risk together. While irrigation decreased yield risk greatly in all regions, had totally different effects for the three climatic regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0112.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: tropical pasture seasonality; soil carbon dioxide emission; irrigation management strategy
Online: 6 September 2018 (06:13:09 CEST)
This study explores the effect of seasonality on soil carbon efflux and pasture growth based on field and lysimeter experiments during summer-fall and winter-spring in two years. Focus is also pointed on irrigation strategies to alleviate the crop response to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation and surface temperatures. Soil respiration, soil and air temperature, leaf photosynthesis, plant dry weight and leaf area index were quantified and analyzed. It has been found significant differences in the CO2 efflux between the two growing season. Emission of soil CO2 allowed to characterize and to prioritize the temperature and rain influence in seasonal brachiaria response. During the seasons, the transient variation of CO2 efflux was highly correlated with rainfall (r = 0.87, P < 0.05), and poorly correlated with soil temperatures (r = 0.5, P < 0.05). The CO2 efflux and plant response to different level of reposition of evapotranspiration demonstrated that irrigation during fall mitigates the reduction of growth conditioned by drying soil and the lower temperatures. The lower temperatures are limiting only when the soil moisture is below 32% of the field capacity. Thus, we propose to keep the soil moisture around 50% during the fall as a key practices for mitigating the effect of seasonality and its intensification with the climate change, even more if added to management routine practices the soil and water conservation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0313.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: seawater; seawater preparation; Aqua Maris; nasal irrigation; upper respiratory track; otorhinolaryngology
Online: 21 March 2022 (09:16:41 CET)
The history of saline nasal irrigation (SNI) is indeed a long one, beginning from the ancient Ayurvedic practices and starting to gain a foothold in the west at the beginning of 20th century. Today, there is a growing number of papers covering effects of SNI from in vitro studies to randomized clinical trials and literature overviews. Based on the recommendations of most of the European and American professional associations, seawater, alone or in combination with other preparations, has its place in treatment of numerous conditions of the upper respiratory tract (URT), primarily in chronic (rhino)sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, acute URT infections and postoperative recovery. Additionally, taking into account its multiple mechanisms of action and mounting evidence from recent studies, locally applied seawater preparations may have an important role in prevention of viral and bacterial infections of the URT. Therefore, in this review we discuss results published in the past years focused on the seawater preparations and their use in clinical and everyday conditions, since such products are superior to saline, have an excellent safety profile and are recommended by most professional associations in the field of otorhinolaryngology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0410.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Streamflow depletion; trend analysis; irrigation; land use change; GRACE; water scarcity
Online: 17 September 2020 (13:20:04 CEST)
Water scarcity is a key challenge to global development. In Brazil, the Sao Francisco River Basin (SFB) has experienced water scarcity problems because of decreasing streamflow and increasing demands from multiple sectors. However, the drivers of decreased streamflow, particularly the potential role of surface-groundwater interaction, have not been yet investigated. Here, we assess long-term trends in baseflow, quickflow, and streamflow of the SFB during 1980–2015 and constrain the most likely drivers of observed decreases through trend analysis of precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), and terrestrial water storage change (TWS). We found that over 82% of the observed decrease in streamflow can be attributed to a significant decreasing baseflow trend (< -20 m3 s-1 y-1) along the SFR with spatial agreement between decreased baseflow, increased ET, and irrigated agricultural land. We also noted a decrease in TWS across the SFB with trends exceeding -20 mm y-1. Overall, our findings indicate that decreasing groundwater contributions (i.e., baseflow) is providing the observed reduction in total SFR flow. A lack of significant P trends indicates that only P variability likely has not caused the observed baseflow reduction, mainly in the Middle and Sub-middle SFB. Therefore, groundwater and surface withdrawals may be likely a driver of water scarcity over the SFB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Contingent valuation method, economic value of water, farmer-managed irrigation system
Online: 8 June 2018 (16:24:42 CEST)
Declining water supply is the main cause of rising water fee for agricultural use. Moreover, in non-technical irrigation, poor irrigation infrastructure exacerbates water scarcity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify farmer willingness to pay for non-technical irrigation and its determinants. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 farmers. Contingent valuation method was employed to elicit farmer WTP and multiple linear regression was used to find its determinants. The result shows that farmer average WTP is Rp 3,055,168 /ha/year. It accounts for 20 percent of total farmer revenue and almost 20 times fee for technical irrigation. Economic and technical variables are the significant determinants of WTP while social variables seem insignificant to WTP. This result indicates high economic value of water, and to improve irrigation management we recommend establishing irrigation infrastructure gradually by mobilizing farmer resources (capital and management) and strengthening WUA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0273.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: irrigation; remote sensing; Sentinel-2; grasslands; leaf area index; land use classification
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:14:55 CEST)
Conventional methods of crop mapping need ground truth information to train the classifier. Thanks to the frequent acquisition allowed by recent satellite missions (Sentinel 2), we can identify temporal patterns that depend on both phenology and crop management. Some of these patterns are specific to a given crop and thus can be used to map it. Thus, we can substitute ground truth information used in conventional methods with agronomic knowledge. This approach was applied to identify irrigated permanent grasslands (IPG) in the Crau area (Southern France) which play a crucial role in groundwater recharge. The grassland is managed by making three mows during the May-October period which leads to a specific temporal pattern of leaf area index (LAI). The mowing detection algorithm was designed using the temporal LAI signal derived from Sentinel 2 observations. The algorithm includes some filtering to remove noise in the signal that might lead to false mowing detection. A pixel is considered a grassland if the number of detected mows is greater than 1. A data set covering five years (2016-2020) was used. The detection mowing number was done at the pixel level and then results are aggregated at the plot level. A validation data set including 780 plots was used to assess the performances of the classification. We obtained a Kappa index ranging between 0.94-0.99 according to the year. These results were better than other supervised classification methods that include training data sets. The analysis of land-use changes shows that misclassified plots concern grasslands managed less intensively with strong intra-parcel heterogeneity due to irrigation defects or year-round grazing. Time series analysis, therefore, allows us to understand different management practices. Real land-use change in use can be observed, but long time series are needed to confirm the change and remove ambiguities with heterogeneous grasslands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0709.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wastewater reuse; irrigation; sustainability; pond-in-pond; pond configuration; 2-D modeling
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:28:38 CEST)
Water reuse for irrigation is increasingly recognized as an essential and economical strategy in areas with water scarcity. A simple, low-cost, low-maintenance, and highly efficient Pond-In-Pond (PIP) treatment system can be used for wastewater reuse. PIP is a treatment technology in which two types of ponds -- anaerobic and aerobic -- are combined into a single pond and consist of a deeper inner section entirely submerged within the outer pond. Previous studies on PIPs and PIP-like systems have reinforced the potential for reuse through promising performance results with BOD removal over 80% and a reduction in land area requirements by approximately 40%. Yet, no prior efforts have been made to understand the performance mechanism of such systems. This study makes use of two, 2-D modeling tools in developing a fundamental understanding of PIP flow dynamics and the expected performance. The modeling results showed that the PIP configuration offers improved flow diversion along with reduced flow velocity. Additionally, the PIP retained approximately 17% more (p<0.05) particles than the traditional pond with most of the particles concentrated within the inner pond. Lower velocity and the higher solids retention in the PIP thus allowed for better treatment performance compared to traditional ponds. The findings from this study can be used as preliminary data for future in-depth investigations of the PIP system leading toward effective and optimal designs. This will help address the major societal concern of water scarcity with low-cost and effective wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0514.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Irrigation systems; common-pool resource management; environmental variability; collective action; institutional robustness
Online: 22 September 2020 (09:33:26 CEST)
Extreme environmental variations (EV), as a phenomenon deriving from climate change (CC), led to an exacerbated uncertainty on water availability and increased the likelihood of conflicts regarding water-dependent activities such as agriculture. In this paper, we investigate the role of conflict resolution mechanisms -one of Ostrom’s acclaimed Design Principles (DPs)- when social-ecological systems (SESs) are exposed to physical external disturbances. The theoretical propositions predict that SESs with conflict-resolution-mechanisms will perform better than those without them. We tested this proposition through a framed-field-experiment that mimicked an irrigation system. In this asymmetric setting, farmers were exposed to two (2) dilemmas: (i) how much to invest in the communal irrigation system’s (CIS) maintenance and (ii) how much water to extract. The setting added a layer of complexity: water availability did not only depend on the investment but also on the environmental variability. Our findings largely confirmed the theoretical proposition: groups with stronger institutional robustness are able to cope with EV better than those with weaker robustness. However, we also found that some groups, despite lacking conflict-resolution-mechanisms, were also able to address EV. We explored potential explanatory variables to these unexpected results. We found that subjects’ and groups’ attributes might address uncertainty and avert conflict. Thus, SESs’ capacity to respond to external disturbances, such as EV, might not only be a question of DPs. Instead, it might also be strongly related to group members' attributes and group dynamics. Our results pave the way for further research, hinting that some groups might be better equipped for mitigation measures, while others might be better equipped for adaptation measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Fishermen; Lake Ziway; Small scale irrigation users; Socioeconomic benefit; Wetland ecosystem service
Online: 22 July 2016 (16:02:46 CEST)
ABSTRACT This study focused for socio-economic benefit of Western shoreline of Lake Ziway ecosystem. The data collected from two woredas they are Adami Tulu Jidu Kombolch (ATJK) and Dugda woreda of fishermen and small scale irrigation users. Lake Ziway great importance food and water for both groups of respondents and additionally sources of raw material, energy, cultivation, organic fertilizers, genetic and medicinal plants. Lake Ziway also has a major economic benefit for both groups of respondents. The sampled fishermen cached mean amount of 2,524Kg per year with minimum and maximum amount of fish 504Kg and 16,800Kg per year respectively and with this fish catching they got average income of 51,398 Birr ($2,570) per year with range of 7,200 Birr ($360) and 288,000 Birr ($14,400) per year. As like of fishermen small scale irrigation also got economic benefit with their production of cereal crops, fruits and vegetables. They produce in average 13.47Quintal of cereal crop and 69.56Quintal of fruits and vegetables per year and they got average income of 7,727 Birr ($386) and with range of 13,714 Birr ($686) per year respectively. this incurred that wetland ecosystem has a lot of socio-economic benefit for the people live near by specially for developing countries like Ethiopia they are more dependent on natural ecosystem like of Lake Ziway. Because of its high importance, we have to protect and conserve and use sustainably of Lake Ziway and similar wetland ecosystems. Key Words: Wetland ecosystem service; Lake Ziway; Socioeconomic benefit; Fishermen; Small scale irrigation users
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0013.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Groundwater quality; irrigation and drinking water; hydrochemistry; Water Quality Index; geochemical process; Senegal
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:45:43 CET)
Senegal central regions face rainfall deficit combined with scarcity of surface water and poor quality. Populations use groundwater for drinking and irrigation. A Groundwater assessment studiebased on 42 samples aims to determine their quality. Several parameters (TDS, TH, WQI, SAR, RSC, %N, PI, KR and MR) and ion chemistry determined . Samples exhibit an alcaline pH (7.6) and hydrochemical facies mainly Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3. The ionic dominance is Na+ ˃ Ca2+ ˃ Mg2+ ˃ K+ and HCO3- ˃ Cl- ˃ SO42- ˃ NO3- ˃ F-. From TDS and WQI index most of the groundwaters are suitable for drinking. Irrigation quality (based on SAR, %N, RSC, KR, MR) varie from excellent to good water type. Plotting chemical data (USSL salinity & Wilcox diagrams) reveals that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the fields excellent to good and from good to permissible . Natural processes (rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange) control groundwater quality. As the region faced a persistent rainfall deficit combine with fragile groundwater quality should alert the stakeholders. A sustainable development of the region can be faced if strong measures are planned to follow water quality evolution and quantity available for human purposes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0748.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis L.; surface and subsurface drip irrigation; bentonite; Hundz conditioner; essential oil
Online: 31 July 2020 (13:43:12 CEST)
A relevant improvement of the cultivar conditions of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in desert areas was achieved by a specific combination between irrigation system and soil conditioner. A drastic reduction of water employment was obtained without affect the quality of the plants, determined by monitoring growth parameters and essential oil characteristics. In particular, the effect of surface and subsurface drip irrigation systems and different soil conditioners on growth parameters, yield, and essential oil constituents of rosemary plant was assessed. Field experiments at the Agricultural Research Station (Al-Adlya farm), SEKEM group Company, El-Sharkiya Governorate, Egypt, conducted over the two seasons revealed the effectiveness of the subsurface irrigation system in obtaining better performances, especially in terms of water saving. The combination of subsurface irrigation and the conditioner Hundz soil with bentonite showed the maximum mean values of growth characters compared with other soil amendments during both seasons. The possibility to employ a water-saving irrigation system as the subsurface one without any drawback in the resulting plants was also explored in terms of molecular composition. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil extracted from plants growth under different irrigation conditions revealed a comparable composition in both cases. The goodness of the most performing system was also confirmed by the comparable yield of the essential oil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0025.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: irrigation zone; Tibetan Plateau; non-point source pollution; Sobol’ sensitivity analysis; subsurface lateral flow
Online: 3 December 2018 (13:48:44 CET)
Flow and transport processes in soil and rock play a critical role in agricultural non-point source pollution (ANSP) loads. In this study, we investigated the ANPS load discharged into rivers from an irrigation district in the Tibetan Plateau, and simulated ANPS load using a distributed model involving detailed descriptions of flow and ANPS transport and transformation processes in the soil and rock. Experiments were conducted for two years to measure soil water content and nitrogen concentrations and the quality and quantity of lateral flow in the rock and at the drainage canal outlet during the highland barley growing period. A distributed model, in which the subsurface lateral flow was described using a step-wise method, was developed to simulate flow and ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen transport. Sobol’s method was used to evaluate the sensitivity of simulated flow and transport processes to model inputs. The results showed that, with a 21.2% increase of rainfall and irrigation in the highland barley growing period, the average NH4+-N and NO3--N concentrations in the soil layer decreased by 10.8% and 14.3%, respectively, due to increased deep seepage. Deep seepage of rainfall water accounted for 0–52.4% of total rainfall, whereas deep seepage of irrigation water accounted for 36.6–45.3% of total irrigation. NH4+-N and NO3--N discharged into the drainage channel represented 19.9–30.4% and 19.4–26.7% of the deep seepage, respectively. The mean Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients, root mean square errors, and cumulative deviations between the measured and simulated flow rates and NH4+-N and NO3--N concentrations at the surface drainage canal outlet were 0.694, 0.081, and 0.242, respectively, indicating that the proposed method can effectively describe the hydrological and ANPS pollution migration in the plateau irrigation zone. The Sobol’ sensitivity analysis results demonstrated that subsurface lateral flow had the most important first order and total effect on the simulated flow and NH4+-N and NO3--N concentrations at the surface drainage outlet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: climate-smart agriculture; adoption; small-scale irrigation farming; household income; Chinyanja Triangle; Southern Africa
Online: 1 February 2018 (09:33:20 CET)
This article concerns the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that experiences mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrences of drought due to low and erratic rainfall patterns which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice is very important. Through a binary logistic and ordinary least squares regression, the article determines factors that influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on income among smallholder farmers. The results show that off-farm employment, access to irrigation equipment, access to reliable water sources and awareness of water conservation practices, such as rainwater harvesting have a significant influence on the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming. On the other hand, the farmer’s age, distance travelled to the nearest market and nature of employment negatively influenced the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming decisions. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice has a significant positive influence on agricultural income. We therefore conclude that to empower smallholder farmers to quickly respond to climate variability and change, practices that will enhance adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in the Chinyanja Triangle are critical as this will significantly impact on agricultural income.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0282.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land-use/land-cover; multi-decadal change analysis; irrigation ponds; textural features; supervised classification; multi-source data
Online: 18 June 2018 (16:40:31 CEST)
A multi-decadal change analysis of the irrigation ponds in Taoyuan, Taiwan was conducted by using multi-source data including digitized ancient maps, declassified single-band CORONA satellite images, and multispectral SPOT images. Supervised LULC classifications were conducted using four textural features derived from the single-band CORONA images and spectral features derived from SPOT images. Post-classification analysis revealed that the number of irrigation ponds in the study area decreased during the post-World War II farmland consolidation period (1945 – 1965) and the subsequent industrialization period (1970 – 2000). However, efforts on restoration of irrigation ponds in recent years have resulted in gradual increases in the number (9%) and total area (12%) of irrigation ponds in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0163.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Yield and quality parameters; deficit irrigation and fertigation; ky factor of strawberry; mulching applications; the cultivation of strawberries
Online: 8 December 2022 (14:41:57 CET)
This study was to determine the effects of different irrigation, fertigation and mulching applications on the yield and quality parameters of strawberries. The study was conducted at the Bursa Uludağ University Yenişehir Ibrahim Orhan Vocational School Agricultural Research Field in 2019-2020. In the research, four different irrigation topics, three different fertigation and three different mulching topics were selected The maximum and minimum yield values of the study years were calculated as 5.05-18.70 t ha-1 and 1.20-8.7 t ha-1, respectively, from I100F100M1 and I25F50M0 treatments. As a result, a three-factor study determined that irrigation, fertigation, and mulching had a significant effect on the yield and quality characteristics of strawberries. However, when the reductions in yield and quality losses are evaluated together, despite the reductions in irrigation water and fertigation levels, I75 and F75 topics can be recommended. Also, in mulching treatments, black mulch material (M1) should be chosen over clear mulch material (M1) and no mulch (M0).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: optimization of planting structure; biannual cropping pattern; arid oasis irrigation area; moderate scale; benefit of unilateral water use
Online: 5 June 2018 (11:08:42 CEST)
Light and heat resources are ample in Xinjiang plain oasis region. Planting structure is single in irrigation area, which leads to severe seasonal water shortages due to high concentration of water utilization. Therefore, how to make full use of light and heat resources to develop oasis agriculture without expanding planting scale has become the focus of research. The biannual cropping patterns are possible solutions to the problem. Manas River Irrigation area, which is located on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang in China is regarded as a typical case study to analyze the suitable planting structure and planting scale for biannual cropping pattern. The effects of optimizing planting patterns on alleviating the contradiction between water supply and water need，and the efficiency of water resources utilization was also studied. The results of the study show that：(1) the suitable planting scales of Manas River irrigation area in wet year (P = 25%), normal year (P = 50%), and low flow year (P = 75%) are about 72.66%, 78.73% and 83.91% of the current planting scale. (2) After the planting structure was optimized, the water use process in the irrigation area extends from May to August at present to April to November. The water use ratio at the peak period of water use decreased from 0.847 to 0.601, and the water use peak was significantly dispersed. (3) Economic benefits per cubic metre of water of the biannual cropping patterns increased from 8.65 yuan·m−3 at present to 9.45 yuan·m−3, 10.31 yuan·m−3 and 11.43 yuan·m−3 in wet year (P = 25%), in normal year (P = 50%) and low flow year (P = 75%) respectively, which proved that replanting crops could improve the efficiency of water resources utilization in irrigated areas. Therefore, the optimal planting pattern can be implemented to improve the utilization efficiency of soil and water resources in irrigation area in the arid oasis with single planting pattern with excessive concentration of water use peak and serious water shortage.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: climate change; climatic water balance; irrigation; natural snow cover; the DAS indicator project; Saxony-Anhalt; soil moisture content
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:30:40 CET)
Implementation of the German Climate change Strategy in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt is discussed in this paper. It shares the requirement and importance of sustainable development. An overview of strategy, The DAS Indicator System is provided with results of a portion of work being done for the ministry of agriculture by Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). Applicability of the indicator system is also shown by evaluation of results for specific indicators from 1961-2015.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0786.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: Precision agriculture; Intention to adopt a technology; Attitudes towards the use of technology; Technology acceptance model; Variable rate irrigation; Fruit production; Grapevine production
Online: 31 December 2020 (10:10:50 CET)
Irrigated agriculture determines large blue water withdrawals, and it is considered a key intervention area to reach sustainable development objectives. Precision agriculture technologies have the potential to mitigate water resource depletion that often characterizes conventional agricultural approaches. This study investigates the factors influencing farmers' intentions to adopt variable rate irrigation (VRI) technology. The Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM-3) was employed as a theoretical framework to design a survey to identify the factors influencing farmers' decision-making process when adopting VRI. Data were gathered through quantitative face-to-face interviews with a sample of 138 fruit and grapevine producers from the Northeast of Italy (Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli-Venezia Giulia). Data were analyzed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM). The results highlight that personal attitudes, such as perceived usefulness and subjective norm, positively influence the intention to adopt VRI. Also, the perceived ease of use positively affects intention, but it is moderated by subject experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0297.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Positive mathematical programming; Integrated multidisciplinary research; Aquifer depletion; Land use allocations; Groundwater use; Irrigation; Conservation; Profitability; Water economics; Groundwater; Alluvial aquifer; Row crops; Mississippi Delta; Lower Mississippi River Valley
Online: 16 September 2021 (17:50:37 CEST)
A method for calibrating models of agricultural production and resource use presented by Howitt  for policy analysis is proposed to leverage multidisciplinary agricultural research at the National Center for Alluvial Aquifer Research (NCAAR). An illustrative example for Sunflower County, MS is presented to show how plot-level research can be extended to draw systemic region or basin wide implications. A hypothetical improvement in yields for dryland soybean varieties is incorporated to the model and shown to have a positive impact on aquifer outcomes and producer profits. The example illustrates that a change in one practice-crop combination can have system-wide impacts as evidenced by the change in acreages for all crops and practices.