ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0168.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: fine motor precision; vision; proprioception; sex differences; individual differences; personality
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:46:22 CET)
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyse sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands in different tests conditions. 220 Spanish participants (ages: 12-95) performed fine motor tasks - tracing over the provided models – lines of 40 mm for both hands, two sensory conditions (PV – proprioceptive-visual; P – proprioceptive only) and three movement types (F – frontal, T – transversal and S - Sagittal). Differences in line length (the task focused on precision) were observed through MANOVA analysis for all test conditions, both sexes and different age groups. Sex differences in precision were observed in F and T movement types (statistically significance level and higher Cohens’ d was observed in condition with vision). No any statistically significant differences were observed in both hands and sensory conditions in sagittal type. Sex differences in fine motor precision were more frequently observed in the PV sensory condition in the frontal movement type and less in the sagittal one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0246.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: complex problem solving; microworlds; personality; investment traits; within-individual variabil-ity; performance trajectories
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:43:39 CEST)
Complex problem-solving (CPS) tasks have become an increasingly popular tool for understand-ing and assessing cognitive ability. These tasks have been repeatedly shown to be predictors of academic and workplace success above and beyond traditional measures of general intelligence and fluid intelligence. To date, there has been little exploration of the underlying mechanisms that drive this additional predictive utility. In this study, we examined the role of a variety of non-cognitive personality and investment traits that could drive performance on CPS tasks. Adult participants (n = 152) were recruited via M-Turk and completed a battery of personality and in-vestment trait measures, a measure of general mental ability, and a 61-trial microworlds-style CPS task. Generalised linear mixed-effects models revealed a wide variety of personality and in-vestment traits influenced task performance above and beyond general mental ability. Specifical-ly, two clusters of traits emerged as important determinants of performance: one cluster that in-fluenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system randomness (Conscientiousness and Extraversion) and one cluster that influenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system delays (NFC, Learning Goal Orientation, and Intellect). These findings suggest that CPS tasks do capture more than just general mental ability and may be good predictors of academic and workplace success because they tap into both cognitive ability and the motivation and willingness to engage in cognitive exploration and mental effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0234.v1
Online: 16 March 2022 (14:26:08 CET)
The study tries to find out the impact of investors demographic variables on the return from the stock market. The data has been collected from the brokerage and Marchant banks for individual investors investments, return and demographic characteristics. The research covers the period from 2009 to 2021 and have a decade long enough to identify the trend. The structural break in the data also been adjusted to avoid any kind of endogeneity. The regression results suggest that demographic variables affect the investment pattern and beta return for the investors. the demographic variables such as education, location and experience have positive links with the beta whereas age and income show negative association. The education, income and experience variables are also found to be significant in the empirical analysis.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: IRWs (Independently Rotating Wheels); Railway; HILs (Hardware In the Loops Simulation); ITC (Individual Torque Control); TRAM; Motor Control
Online: 11 May 2020 (10:17:52 CEST)
In order to realize the tram's low-floor structure, most of the trams that have been recently introduced adopt an independently rotating wheelset. In the case of trains driving in two regions with different gauges, an independently rotating wheelset may be applied to utilize the variable track technology. Since the independent rotation type wheelset has no rotational restraint of the left and right wheels, the difference in rotational speed between the outer and inner wheels occurs naturally during curved driving, and it is applied to railroad vehicles traveling in steep curve sections because it smoothly drives curved driving. However, the longitudinal creep force and the lateral restoring force are weakened as the left and right rotational constraints disappear. Lack of transverse direction restoring force weakens stability while causing continuous flange contact driving or zigzag phenomenon against disturbance. Under the conditions of driving in a steep curve, these railway vehicles generate excessive wear, noise, and lateral pressure, as well as deterioration of ride comfort and derailment. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a method has been proposed in which the torque of a motor mounted on each wheel is individually controlled to generate lateral restoring force or to improve driving performance through lateral displacement control using a yaw moment. In this paper, development using HILs was performed to check the performance and stability of the individual motor torque control technology before verifying by applying the individual motor torque control to the actual vehicle. HILs were constructed by combining a real-time dynamic analysis model of a railway vehicle with a drive motor to which real individual motor control was applied. Under the conditions of driving the test track where the actual test vehicle was tested, the analysis of the driving characteristics and the control characteristics of the disturbance was performed to confirm the proposed individual motor torque control performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0370.v1
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:25:16 CEST)
This article explores the knowledge about preventions, perceptions of infections, and the responsive actions to the Covid-19 situation of the young age groups residing in Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected online using an MCQ questionnaire from around 932 participants. Results show the population is generally aware of the symptoms, keeping social distance by staying home and are concerned about re-spreading after the lock-down period. However, they are quite unsure about the possible medicines frequently talked about in the media and the necessity of avoiding animal protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0400.v1
Subject: Keywords: galaxies; distances and redshift; high redshift; stars; Gamma ray bursts; individual; supernovae; individual; cosmology; distance scale; observations
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:07:56 CEST)
Analyses of the Hubble diagrams are presented for SN1a supernovae and gamma ray bursts in the redshift ranges z = 0.01–1.3 and 0.034–8.1, respectively. Data are presented on the typical z/μ scale and also on the less common yet increasingly sensitive photon flight time t/(z+1) scale. The primary conclusion is that on the basis of the presently accessible data in the redshift range z = 0.01–8.1, the slope of the Hubble diagram is, or is extremely close to, exponential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: virtual team adaptation; individual differences; management perspective
Online: 10 March 2022 (12:54:03 CET)
In the contemporary business world, digital transformations have undergone vast and important developments over the last several decades, and they have aided in the development of the virtual team concept, in which geographically dispersed team members work to achieve a common goal. Virtual teams, according to the literature, suffer from process losses more frequently than their face-to-face counterparts. Although just a few studies have looked at the effects of individual differences in virtual teams, this study fills in the gaps by examining the impact of individual differences: Age Disparity (AD), Gender Disparity (GD), Language Competency (LC), and IT Competency (ITC) in management perspective on virtual team adaptation in the Sri Lankan private sector. A survey was used to collect data from a sample of 175 private sector companies in Sri Lanka during the COVID- 19 pandemic, and the data was analyzed using partial least squares path modeling (PLS) to test the study's hypotheses. The results indicated that the hypotheses were statistically significant only in the language competency and IT competency and their effects were in the expected direction. Future research could benefit from perceptions of employees in public sector organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0091.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Sweet taste; hedonics; individual differences; methodology; sugar
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:59:17 CET)
Sweetness drives consumption of added sugars, so understanding how individuals differ is important for developing strategies to lower sugar intake. However, methods to assess hedonic response to sweetness vary, making results across studies difficult to integrate. We compared methods to measure optimal sucrose concentration in 21 healthy adults (1) using paired-comparison preference tracking vs. ratings of liking, (2) with participants in the laboratory vs. at home, and (3) using aqueous solutions vs. vanilla milk. Tests were replicated on separate days to assess test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was similar between laboratory and home testing, but tended to be better for vanilla milk and preference tracking. Optimal sucrose concentration was virtually identical between laboratory and home, slightly lower when estimated via preference tracking, and about 50% lower in vanilla milk. However, individual optimal sucrose concentration correlated strongly between Methods, test Locations, and Stimuli. More than 50% of the variability in optimal sucrose concentration could be attributed to consistent differences among individuals while much less variability was attributable to differences in Methods, test Locations or Stimuli. These results demonstrate convergent validity between measures of preference and liking, support testing at home to lower participant burden, and suggest that aqueous solutions can be useful proxies for some commonly consumed beverages for measuring individual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0067.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: MCDM; Individual Heating; Fuzzy; Energy Transition; Ensemble
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:07:23 CEST)
More than 110 countries including 500 cities worldwide have set the goal of reaching carbon neutrality. Heating contributes to most of the residential energy consumption and carbon emissions. The green energy transition of fossil-based heating systems is needed to reach the emission goals. However, the heating systems vary in energy source, heating technology, equipment location, and these complexities make it challenging for households to compare heating systems and make decisions. Hence, a decision support tool that provides a generalized ranking of individual heating alternatives is proposed for households as decision-makers to identify the optimal choice. This paper presents an analysis of 13 heating alternatives and 19 quantitative criteria in technological, environmental, and financial aspects, combines ideal solution based Multi-Criteria Decision Making with 6 weighting methods and 4 normalization methods, and introduces ensemble learning with a fuzzy membership function derived from Cauchy distribution to finalize the final ranking. The robustness of the proposed method is verified by 3 sensitive analyses from different aspects. Air to water heat pump, solar heating and direct district heating are the top three rankings in the final result under Danish national average data. A framework is designed to guide the decision-makers apply this ranking guideline with their practical feasible situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0099.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: complexity; disequilibrium; equilibrium; individual information; informational entropy
Online: 11 January 2018 (05:31:00 CET)
This work is a generalization of the Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini and Calbet (LMC); and Shiner, Davison and Landsberg (SDL) complexity measures, considering that the state of a system or process is represented by a dynamical variable during a certain time interval. As the two complexity measures are based on the calculation of informational entropy, an equivalent information source is defined and, as time passes, the individual information associated to the measured parameter is the seed to calculate instantaneous LMC and SDL measures. To show how the methodology works, an example with economic data is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneur, individual entrepreneur, sole proprietor, economic subject
Online: 17 March 2017 (21:53:12 CET)
An entrepreneur is a business-able physical person who performs activities to gain the profit and who is registered according to law. Starting from the national and theoretical and legal solutions and court practice from comparative law, the authors analyze the concept and the legal position of an individual entrepreneur noticing the problems and inconsistencies in legal regulations. The authors of the work make a few conclusions and suggestions: 1) terminology is not coordinated with legal terminology from comparative law. In our law, the legal term is “entrepreneur”, which is a too wide and unspecified term because in economic profession this term represents the genus term for individual and collective entrepreneurship; 2) analyze all forbidden activities for entrepreneurs, judge the reasons pro et contra and work on eliminating prohibitions and favouring legal entities; 3) set by law the bankruptcy of an individual entrepreneur i.e. the individual bankruptcy of a physical person; 4) work on passing a separate legislation in the field of the individual entrepreneurship, especially on passing and changing the laws which would regulate handicrafts (including old crafts and jobs of home industry), free professions as well as agricultural activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Floods; victims; perception and knowledge; individual characteristic
Online: 1 February 2017 (10:39:55 CET)
This study aims to unravel the paradox of perceptions and knowledge of the flood victims towards the causes of the disaster in both internal and external context. Internal context comprises of a comparison of perceptions and knowledge based on individual characteristics (age, gender, education and income). Whereas, the external context includes the factors of the awareness of the victims towards the amount of rainfall, the impact of land use changes as well as the negligence of the responsible parties. The main objective of this study is to determine the differences of perception and knowledge of December 2014 flood victims in Kelantan towards the factors that lead to the flood. This disaster had resulted in huge amount of money loss as well as traumatize the victims in which can be felt to this day. Since that incident, there were various points of view and different perceptions in finding the cause of the disaster occurred. Besides that, the study found that the level of perception and knowledge as to the cause of the disaster is different in the internal context (individual characteristics). This difference has a significant influence on the awareness of the causes of the floods that occurred in the external context. Significant relationships at the level of p <0.05 has existed between perception and knowledge of the causes of the disaster victims affected by environmental changes in the last 10 years. This indicates that although the victim is aware of the physical environment changes happening around them, but all that is seen as not a major contributing factor to the cause of the floods in Kelantan in 2014.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0407.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian nonlinear hierarchical model; Bayesian nonlinear mixed effects models; Inter-individual variation; Intra-individual variation; Markov chain Monte Carlo technique
Online: 27 January 2022 (04:55:25 CET)
Bayesian nonlinear mixed effects models for data in the form of continuous, repeated measurements from a population, also known as Bayesian hierarchical nonlinear models, are a popular platform for analysis when interest focuses on individual specific characteristics and relevant uncertainty quantification. Due to the limitation of computational power, this framework was relatively dormant until the late 1980s, but in recent years, the statistical research community saw vigorous development of new methodological and computational techniques for these models, the emergence of software, and wide application of the models in numerous industrial and academic fields. This article presents an overview of the formulation, interpretation, and implementation of Bayesian nonlinear mixed effects models and surveys recent advances and applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0163.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: individual therapy; metabolism of antibiotics; dosage choice; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:25:16 CET)
In the modern world, the problem of antibiotic therapy is acute. Despite the diversity of existing antibiotic drugs, their efficacy decreases as new, resistant forms of pathogenic microorganisms emerge. It is extremely difficult to control such processes and even more difficult to treat severe bacterial infections. In such situations, an individual approach to each patient is required and physicians need parameters to estimate the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. This review discusses the significance of monitoring the content of antibiotics in the blood for this purpose, in combination with the content of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. The basic principles of antibiotic therapy, and factors in the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, are examined. Approaches to assess the efficacy of antibiotic therapy, as well as methods to detect antibiotics and inflammatory markers in the blood of patients, and comparative assessment of their capabilities and limitations, are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0007.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: individual fruit tree (IFT); individual pomelo tree (IPT) detection; deep learning; transfer learning; YOLOv5; remote sensing; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); spatial distribution
Online: 4 April 2022 (13:35:43 CEST)
The location and number data of individual fruit trees are critical for planting area investigation, fruit yield prediction, and smart orchard management and planning. These data are conventionally obtained through manual investigation and statistics with time-consuming and laborious effort. Object detection models in deep learning used widely in computer vision could provide an opportunity for accurate detection of individual fruit trees, which is essential for rapidly obtaining the data and reducing human operations errors. This study proposes an approach to detecting individual fruit trees and mapping their spatial distribution by integrating deep learning with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing. UAV remote sensing collected high-resolution true-color images of fruit trees in the experimental pomelo tree orchards in Meizhou city, South China. An image dataset of deep learning samples of individual pomelo trees (IPTs) was constructed through visual interpretation and field investigation based on the fruit tree images captured by UAV remote sensing. Four different scales of YOLOv5 (YOLOv5s, YOLOv5m, YOLOv5l, and YOLOv5x) for object detection were selected to train, validate, and test on the image dataset of pomelo trees. The results show that the average precision (AP@0.5) of the four YOLOv5 models for validation reach 87.8%, 88.5%, 89.1%, and 90.7%, respectively. The larger the model scale, the higher the average accuracy of the detection result of validation. It suggests that YOLOv5x is a preferred high-accuracy model among the YOLOv5 family and is suitable to realize the detection of IPTs. The number of the IPTs in the study area was counted using YOLOv5x, and their spatial distribution map was made using the non-maximum suppression method and ArcGIS software. This study will provide primary data and technical support for smart orchard management in Meizhou city and other fruit-producing areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0368.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: mobile marketing; customer behavior; structural equations; decision making; individual knowledge
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:10:36 CET)
Nowadays, customers play a very important and vital role in the field of global economy. As a result, companies give special significance to the customers to survive and grow in the field of economic competition in the modern world and increase their relationship with the buyers of their products and services throughout their lifetime. Marketing growth through mobile phones has provided further motives for performing more researches in the field of customer behavior and attitude in mobile marketing. The goal of the current study is to analyze the effective factors on customer behavior in mobile marketing. The variables used in this study are perceived ease of use, individual knowledge, user’s mobile phone technology, customers’ negative attitudes, and customers’ positive attitudes. The current research is practical in terms of objective and is descriptive-analytic in terms of methodology. Data were gathered by distributing a questionnaire among 284 students of Tehran University. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling using Lisrel and Expert Choice software. Test results showed that ease of use, individual knowledge, mobile phone technology, positive attitude, and negative attitude variables have a meaningful effect on customer behavior in mobile marketing. The confirmation of all the assumptions of the research supports the importance of the customer behavior analysis in mobile phone services.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies: individual (m87); galaxies: jets; galaxies: active; radio continuum: galaxies
Online: 1 October 2019 (16:01:28 CEST)
M87 is the best available source for studying the AGN jet-launching region. To enrich our knowledge of this region, with quasi-simultaneous observations using VLBA at 22, 43 and 86~GHz, we capture the images of the radio jet in M87 on a scale within several thousand Rs. Based on the images, we analyze the transverse jet structure and obtain the spectral-index distribution in the jet. We find that the absorption is enhanced at the collimation regions and the interruption of the jet. The external medium, which may not be uniform, may have contributed a lot to the absorption in the jet-launching region. Additionally, the temporal morphology of the jet in its launching region may be largely affected by the local, short-lived kink instability growing in itself.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0038.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: bilingual advantage; bilingualism; cognitive control; individual differences; longitudinal studies; methodology
Online: 4 February 2019 (14:02:53 CET)
Recently, doubts were raised about the existence of the bilingual advantage in cognitive control. The aim of the present review was to investigate the bilingual advantage and its modulating factors. We searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and ERIC databases for all original data and reviewed studies on bilingualism and cognitive control, with a cut-off date of October 31, 2018, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. The results of the 46 original studies show that, indeed, the majority, 54.3%, reported beneficial effects of bilingualism on cognitive control tasks; however, 28.3% found mixed results, and 17.4% found evidence against its existence. Methodological differences seem to explain these mixed results: particularly, the varying selection of the bilingual participants, the use of non-standardized tests, and the fact that individual differences were often neglected, and that longitudinal designs were rare. Therefore, a serious risk for bias exists in both directions (i.e., in favor of and against the bilingual advantage). To conclude, we found some evidence for a bilingual advantage in cognitive control; however, if significant progress is to be made, better study designs, bigger data, and more longitudinal studies are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0494.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: reliability centered maintenance (RCM); individual sectioned forming machine; FMEA; risk analysis
Online: 26 September 2018 (04:04:27 CEST)
This study investigated the breakdown trend in an automated production with an aim to recommend the application of Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) for an improved productivity via a new preventive maintenance (PM) program. Individual Section-forming machine (ISM): a glass blowing machine for making glass bottles was used as the case study of an automated production system. The machine parts and the working mechanisms were analysed with a special focus on methods of processes and procedures that will enable the ISM maintenance department run more effective and achieve its essential goal of ensuring effective machine operation and reducing machine downtime. In this work, information is provided on the steps and procedures to identify critical components of the ISM using Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as a tool to develop an optimal maintenance program based on the reliability data of the equipment’s functional components. A relationship was established between the failure rate of the machine components and the maintenance costs such that using the recommended PM program, an evidence of improvement in the machine’s availability, safety and cost-effectiveness will result into an increase in the company’s profit margin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0044.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: BL-Lacertae objects: individual: S5 0716+714; Galaxies:active; gamma-rays: galaxies
Online: 18 July 2016 (06:02:42 CEST)
S5 0716+714 is a well known BL-Lac object, one of the brightest and most active blazars. The discovery in the Very High Energy band (VHE, E > 100 GeV) by MAGIC happened in 2008. In January 2015 the source went through the brightest optical state ever observed, triggering MAGIC follow-up and a VHE detection with ~ sigma significance (ATel #6999). Rich multi-wavelength coverage of the flare allowed us to construct the broad-band spectral energy distribution of S5 0716+714 during its brightest outburst. In this work we will present the preliminary analysis of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT data of the flaring activity in January and February 2015 for the HE and VHE band, together with radio (Metsahovi, OVRO, VLBA, Effelsberg), sub-millimeter (SMA), optical (Tuorla, Perkins, Steward, AZT-8+ST7, LX-200, Kanata), X-ray and UV (Swift-XRT and UVOT), in the same time-window and discuss the time variability of the MWL light curves during this impressive outburst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0051.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies: active; BL Lacertae objects: individual (OJ 287); super massive black holes
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:46:26 CEST)
We analyse the light curve in the R-band gathered during the 2015/16 observing season of OJ287. We did a search for QPOs using several methods in wide time domain. No statistically significant periods were found in the high frequency domain both in the ground data and also in K2 observations. In the longer periods domain the Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed several peaks above the 99\% significance level. The longest one, about 95-day, corresponds to the ISCO period of the more massive SMBH. The 43-day period could be an alias or can be attributed to accretion in the form of two armed spiral wave.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0790.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cognitive style; Spatial Cognition; Sense of Direction; Spatial Orientation; Mental Rotation; Individual Differences
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:23:16 CEST)
Background: Military pilots show high visuo-spatial skills. Previous studies demonstrate that they are better in mental rotating a target, in taking different perspectives, in estimating distances, in travel planning and in topographic memory. Here, we compared navigational cognitive styles between military pilots and people without flight experience. Pilots were expected to be more survey users than non-pilots, showing higher navigational strategies. Method: 106 jet military pilots of Italian Air Force and 92 non-pilots were enrolled in order to investigate group differences in navigational styles. Participants were asked to perform a reduced version of the Spatial Cognitive Style Test – SCST, consisting of six tasks that allow to distinguish individuals in landmark (people orient themselves by using a figurative memory for environmental objects), route (people use an egocentric representation of the space) and survey (people have a map-like representation of the space) users. Results: In line with our hypothesis, military pilots mainly adopt a survey style, whereas non-pilots mainly adopt the route style. In addition, pilots outperformed non pilots in both the 3D-Rotation task and Map Description Task. Conclusion: Military flight expertise influences some aspects of the spatial ability, leading to enhance human navigation. Although, it must be considered that they are a population whose navigational skills were already high at the time of selection at the academy before formal training began.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Informal employment; social security; state effectiveness; Maghreb countries; individual preferences; discrete choice model
Online: 16 April 2021 (22:29:59 CEST)
State legitimacy and effectiveness could be seen by the way to deliver welfare to citizens to mitigate social grievances, that could eventually lead to conflicts (Kivimäki, 2021). Social security systems in Maghreb countries are quite similar in their architecture and aims to provide social insurance to all the workers in the labor market. However, they suffer from the same main problem: the low rate of enrollment of workers. Many workers (employees and self-employed) work informally without any social security coverage. The issue of whether informal jobs are chosen voluntarily by workers or as a strategy of last resort is controversial. Many authors recognize that the informal sector is heterogeneous and it is made up of workers who voluntary choose it and others who are pushed inside because of entry barriers to the formal sector (Günther & Launov, 2012). Using the SAHWA survey and discrete choice models, this article confirms the heterogeneity of the informal labor market in three Maghreb countries: Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Furthermore, this article highlights the profiles of workers who voluntarily choose informality, which is missing from previous studies. Finally, this article proposes policy recommendations in order to extend social security to informal workers and to include them in the formal labour market.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Ribosomal DNA; ribosomal RNA; mammalian genome; intra- and inter-individual variations; development; diseases.
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:35:55 CET)
Repetitive nature of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene makes the sequencing of hundreds copies of mammalian 45S rDNA (about 45-kb per copy) extremely difficult and its assembly is often excluded. Increasing evidence shows that 45S rDNA variations (copy number or single nucleotide), structural ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript variants, and non-structural rRNA transcripts (sense and anti-sense long noncoding rRNAs that include promoter rRNAs, and rRNA-derived fragments) play essential roles in mammalian development and diseases. Complete pictures of the hundreds copies of 45S rDNA and their rRNA transcripts require further innovation in sequencing techniques that include bioinformatics. The advancements in mammalian rDNA and rRNA sequencings and the discoveries of novel functions of the rDNA variants and rRNA transcripts are discussed here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: individual travel cost method; zero truncated poisson regression model; endogenous stratification; consumer surplus
Online: 10 February 2017 (11:10:04 CET)
To estimate the recreational value provided by the Foy’s Lake annually using the most applicable model for on-site data is the main objective of this study. Adhere to the objective of this study; Individual Travel Cost Method (ITCM) has been applied and Zero Truncated Poisson Regression Model has been found plausible among other models to estimate consumer surplus. Based on the findings of the study, an estimate of the consumer surplus or recreational benefits per trip per visitor can be recommended as BDT 5,875 or US $ 73.44 and counting the consumer surplus per trip per visitor, the annual recreational value (total consumer surplus) provided by the lake is found to be BDT 321 million or US $ 40.2 million.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0485.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cell proliferation; epithelial glands; interactive biopsy guidance; malignancy score; risk stratification; individual treatment recommendations.
Online: 26 December 2022 (10:59:37 CET)
A key step in providing management/treatment options to men with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) is categorizing the risk for the presence of benign, low risk, intermediate risk, or high-risk disease. Our novel modality brings new evidence, based on the long-known hallmark characteristic of PCa – decreased Zinc (Zn), which is the most direct metabolic sign of malignancy and its aggressiveness. To date, this approach has not been adopted for clinical use for a number of reasons that are described in this article and which have been addressed by our approach: Zn has to be measured on fresh samples, prior to fixating in formalin, therefore samples have to be scanned during the biopsy session; as Zn depletion occurs in the glands, where the tumors develop, estimation of the glands’ levels in the scanned tissue along with their compactness, are essential for accurate diagnosis. Combined with the Zn depletion, this facilitates a reliable assessment of the disease aggressiveness. Data gathered in the clinical study described here indicate that in addition to improving the biopsy quality by real-time interactive guidance, a malignancy score can now be established for the entire prostate, allowing higher granularity personalized risk stratification and more decisive treatment decisions for all PCa patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: nanoform; nanoparticle; nanoparticles; silver; silver citrate; ageing; behavioral functions; cognitive functions; stress; individual content
Online: 6 December 2022 (01:33:04 CET)
Silver in different forms is used for medical purposes from ancient times. It is not yet well known, which form of silver is more biocompatible and less toxic. Here we considered silver nanoparticles and silver citrate. Also, the relationships of neurotoxicity of silver compaunds with ageing factor is not yet described. To assess the role of nanoform in neurotoxicity of silver and role of ageing a long-term experiment was conducted. We had four control groups of intact mice and four experimental groups which were exposed to silver nanoparticles and silver citrate for two months. Four groups of mice were introduced into the experiment since the age of five months to assess ageing factors. It was shown that the nanoform does play a certain role in neurotoxicity of silver. Silver citrate seems to be a more preferable silver compound. Ageing can be regarded as a positive factor that neutralizes toxic action of silver compounds. It may be due to the development of physiological/cognitive functions with the age as well as adaptation to unnatural content in the individual cages that is definitely stressful for mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0324.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: Action Cycle Theory; perception; mental imagery; vividness; VVIQ; affect; schemata; action; individual differences; neuroscience
Online: 17 November 2022 (03:36:09 CET)
The Action Control Theory (ACT) is an enactive theory of perception and mental imagery with six components: Schemata, Objects, Actions, Affect, Goals and Others’ Behavior. The evidence support-ing these six connected processes is reviewed in light of research on mental imagery vividness. The six processes and their interconnections receive empirical support from a wide range of studies. All six domains of perception and mental imagery are influenced by individual differences in vividness. Real-world applications of ACT show interesting potential to improve human well-being in both healthy people and patients. Mental imagery can be applied in creative ways to make new collective goals and actions for change that are necessary to maximize the future prospects of the planet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0019.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Clustering; Forecasting; Hierarchical Time-Series; Individual Electrical Consumers; Scalable; Short Term; Smart Meters; Wavelets
Online: 2 July 2018 (17:43:29 CEST)
Smart grids require flexible data driven forecasting methods. We propose clustering tools for bottom-up short-term load forecasting. We focus on individual consumption data analysis which plays a major role for energy management and electricity load forecasting. The two first sections are dedicated to the industrial context and a review of individual electrical data analysis. We are interested in hierarchical time-series for bottom-up forecasting. The idea is to disaggregate the signal in such a way that the sum of disaggregated forecasts improves the direct prediction. The 3-steps strategy defines numerous super-consumers by curve clustering, builds a hierarchy of partitions and selects the best one minimizing a forecast criterion. Using a nonparametric model to handle forecasting, and wavelets to define various notions of similarity between load curves, this disaggregation strategy applied to French individual consumers leads to a gain of 16\% in forecast accuracy. We then explore the upscaling capacity of this strategy facing massive data and implement proposals using R, the free software environment for statistical computing. The proposed solutions to make the algorithm scalable combines data storage, parallel computing and double clustering step to define the super-consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0196.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: framing; online discourse strategies; ethical behaviour; work-life blurred boundaries; effective teamwork; individual virtuousness; alignment
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:02:03 CET)
The present paper brings to the fore issues relating to the meaning and construction of ethics in online team communication by exploring the discursive strategies that contribute to the construction of a team’s sense of duty and individual virtuousness. The study relies on a complex toolkit which includes ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, discourse and conversation analysis. Data consist in a one-day interaction unit as part of a larger set of real communication exchanges (ca. 34,000) over a time period of six months, observation notes, as well as unstructured interviews. Our empirical analysis has revealed that individual virtuousness and sense of duty are actually interrelated. A virtuous team climate leads team members to share positive perceptions about the team, which in turn increases team commitment. Furthermore, we argue that the blurring of private and professional life not only allows for the enactment of ethic-driven discourse strategies that result in enhanced cooperation and improved team performance but also for high levels of interconnectivity and improved social interaction. The results of the analysis supplement organisational literature based on ethics-centred observations on the effectiveness of virtual work, and show how a discourse-driven approach can provide tools for further theorisations about the practices and the ecology of digital communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0276.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Diffusion, Random walks, Brownian motion, Levy walks, Stable laws, Individual movement, Trap counts, Pest monitoring.
Online: 30 March 2018 (16:19:52 CEST)
Many empirical and theoretical studies indicate that Brownian motion and diffusion models as its mean field counterpart provide appropriate modelling techniques for individual insect movement. However, this traditional approach has been challenged and conflicting evidence suggests that an alternative movement pattern such as Lévy walks can provide a better description. Lévy walks differ from Brownian motion since they allow for a higher frequency of large steps, resulting in a faster movement. Identification of the ‘correct’ movement model that would consistently provide the best fit for movement data is challenging and has become a highly controversial issue. In this paper, we show that this controversy may be superficial rather than real if the issue is considered in the context of trapping or, more generally, survival probabilities. In particular, we show that almost identical trap counts are reproduced for inherently different movement models (such as the Brownian motion and the Lévy walk) under certain conditions of equivalence. This apparently suggests that the whole ‘Levy or diffusion’ debate is rather senseless unless it is placed into a specific ecological context, e.g. pest monitoring programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: contextual risk factors; gender; individual risk factors; life-work interference; self-employed; wellbeing; work-life interference
Online: 3 July 2018 (05:56:36 CEST)
This study explores individual and contextual risk factors for the onset of work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and wellbeing among self-employed men and women and the effect of macro level risk factors. Data from the fifth round of European Working Conditions Survey was utilized and a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. Applying multilevel regressions, results show that though business characteristics are important for level of WIL, time demand is the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW. There is a relationship between wellbeing and WIL and LIW respectively, and time demands is the most important factor in this relationship. Gender equality on the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it mediate the relationship between interference and wellbeing. However, the main and most important risk factor for experiencing WIL and LIW and for how interference relate to wellbeing is gender relation processes in work and life, both on individual and contextual level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0025.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Gamma rays: galaxies; Gravitational lensing: strong; Galaxies: jets; Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal; Galaxies: individual: QSO B0218+357
Online: 13 July 2016 (05:36:15 CEST)
QSO B0218+357 is a blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. The source is gravitationally lensed by a spiral galaxy located at the redshift of 0.68. Strong gravitational lensing splits the signals emitted by the source into two components separated by 10-12 days, as observed in radio and gamma-ray bands. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The expected time delay between the components allowed us to plan broad band MWL observations before, during and after the trailing component of the emission. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma rays. It is both the farthest known VHE object and one of only a few Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars detected in this energy range. We report here the observed multiwavelength spectral and temporal properties of the emission during the 2014 flare.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0520.v3
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: plant-plant interactions; stress gradient hypothesis; functional trait ecology; inter-plant distance; individual-based models; consumer-resource models
Online: 17 February 2022 (19:37:10 CET)
Ecologists use the net biotic interactions among plants to predict fundamental ecosystem features. Following this approach, ecologists have built a giant body of theory founded on observational evidence. However, due to the limitations that a phenomenological approach raises both in empirical and theoretical studies, an increasing number of scientists claim the need for a mechanistic understanding of plant interaction outcomes, and a few studies have taken such a mechanistic approach. In this synthesis, we propose a modeling framework to study the plant interaction mechanistically. We first establish a conceptual ground to frame plant-plant interactions, and then, we propose to formalize this research line theoretically developing a family of individual-based, spatially-explicit models in which biotic interactions are an emergent property mediated by the interaction between plants’ functional traits and the environment. These models allow researchers to evaluate the strength and sign of biotic interactions under different environmental scenarios and thus constitute a powerful tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying facilitation, species coexistence, or the formation of vegetation spatial patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0058.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: synthetic biology; multi-agent modelling; individual-based modelling; agent-based modelling; systems biology; emergence; multi-scale; bioengineering; consortia; collectives
Online: 5 May 2020 (03:45:16 CEST)
Many complex behaviours in biological systems emerge from large populations of interacting molecules or cells, generating functions that go beyond the capabilities of the individual parts. Such collective phenomena are of great interest to bioengineers due to their robustness and scalability. However, engineering emergent collective functions is difficult because they arise as a consequence of complex multi-level feedback, which often spans multiple length-scales. Here, we present a perspective on how some of these challenges could be overcome by using multi-agent modelling as a design framework within synthetic biology. Using case studies covering the construction of synthetic ecologies to biological computation and synthetic cellularity, we show how multi-agent modelling can capture the core features of complex multi-scale systems and provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms which guide emergent functionalities across scales. The ability to unravel design rules underpinning these behaviours offers a means to take synthetic biology beyond single molecules or cells and towards the creation of systems with functions that can only emerge from collectives at multiple scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0667.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Model of Quantum Decision-Making and Learning (MQDM&L), AADD diamond model, organizational, individual, decision-making, learning, quadruple loop learning, Padkos
Online: 26 March 2021 (14:15:25 CET)
The new Post Accelerating Data and Knowledge Online Society, or ‘Padkos’ requires a new model of decision making. This introductory paper proposes a model where decision making and learning are a single symbiotic process, incorporating man and machine, as well as the AADD (ánthrōpos, apparatus, decider, doctrina) diamond model of individual and organizational decision-making and learning processes. The learning is incorporated by using a newly proposed quadruple loop learning model. This model allows for controlled changes of identity, the process of creating and the sense making of new mental models and assumption, and reflections. The model also incorporates the recently proposed model of quantum decision-making, where time collapse of the opted past and the anticipated future (explicitly including its time horizon) into the present play a key role in the process, leveraging decision-making and learning by human as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms. The paper closes with conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0283.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: supermassive black holes: non-thermal radiation; active galactic nuclei: BL lacertae objects: individual: J1043+2408; galaxies: jets; method: time series analysis
Online: 17 September 2018 (06:00:08 CEST)
Search for periodic signals from blazars has become widely discussed topic in recent years. This is because periodic signals bear imprints of the processes occurring near the innermost regions of blazars which are mostly inaccessible to our direct view. Such signals provide insights into various aspect of blazar studies including disk-jet connection, magnetic field configuration and, more importantly, strong gravity near the supermassive black holes and release of gravitational waves from the binary supermassvie black hole systems. In this work, we report detection of a periodic signal in the radio light curves of the blazar J1043+2408 spanning ~10.5 years. We performed multiple methods of time series analysis, namely, epoch folding, Lomb-Scargle periodogram, and discrete auto-correlation function. All three methods consistently reveal a repeating signal with a periodicity of ~563 days. To robustly account for the red-noise processes usually dominant in the blazar variability and other possible artifacts, a large number of Monte Carlo simulations were performed. This allowed us to estimate a high significance (99.9% local and 99.4% global) against possible spurious detection. As possible explanations, we discuss a number of scenarios including binary supermassive black hole system, Lense-Thirring precession, and jet swing and precession.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: nipple-sparing mastectomy; prophylactic implant-based breast reconstruction; SMI (silicone mammary implants); SMI surface topography; surface roughness; fibrosis; capsular contracture; aesthetic outcome; intra-individual comparison; titanised mesh implant pocket
Online: 2 December 2022 (07:40:06 CET)
The most common long-term complication of silicone breast implants (SMI) remains capsular fibrosis. The etiology of this exaggerated implant encapsulation is multifactorial but primarily induced by the host response towards the foreign material silicone. Identified risk factors included specific implant topographies. Of note, breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), has only been observed in response to textured surface implants. We hypothesize that reduction of SMI surface roughness causes less host response hence better cosmetic outcome with fewer complications for the patient. A total of 7 patients received the routinely used CPX®4 breast expander (~60 µM Ra) and the novel SmoothSilk® (~ 4 µM Ra), fixed prepectoral with a titanised mesh pocket and randomized to the left or right breast after bilateral prophylactic NSME (nipple-sparing mastectomy). We aimed to compare the postoperative outcome regarding capsule thickness, seroma formation, rippling, implant dislocation as well as comfortability and practicability. Our analysis shows that surface roughness is an influential parameter in controlling fibrotic implant encapsulation. First time intra-individually compared in patients, our data confirm an improved biocompatibility with minor capsule formation around SmoothSilk® implants with an average shell roughness of 4 µM and in addition an amplification of host response by titanised implant pockets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0248.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Trade-off of survival for reproduction; natural selection of aging; regulatory redundancy; aging’s individual benefit; regulatory molecular biology; Darwin’s dilemma; aging-reproduction trade-off; aging declines force of selection; master gene; holistic regulatory mechanism
Online: 18 October 2022 (04:36:09 CEST)
There is scientific consensus that organismal aging did not evolve by natural selection (NS) because it lacks individual benefit. Nonetheless it exists, leading to much speculation about its origins, and when the diminishing force of selection begins. Both concepts are based upon two misconceptions; that aging occurs in and of itself and is caused by the declining strength of NS during the reproductive lifespan. Although lacking individual benefit, aging evolved by NS as a tradeoff of survival for reproduction. Based upon regulatory dynamics that participate in this tradeoff, aging begins once reproductive success has been achieved through offspring nurturing. Thereafter, the strength of NS wanes to exponentially accelerate aging, leading to death. Assumptions of the theory are that: (1) a life-long, “holistic” regulatory mechanism whose genic expression is modified epigenetically, originates in ontogenesis; (2) the regulatory mechanism of the last developmental stage becomes redundantly expressed during “morphostasis”, a non-aging, life interval of peak vitality to ensure completion of reproduction through nurturing, and (3) thereafter, loss of regulatory redundancy causes aging which reduces the strength of natural selection and allows accumulation of randomly occurring somatic damage.